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Sample records for age groups women

  1. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  2. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  3. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  4. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  5. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  6. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  7. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  8. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  9. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  10. Perceived exercise barriers and their associations with regular exercise across three age groups of rural women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Juin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lee, Bih-O; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the differences in perceived exercise barriers across three age groups of Taiwanese rural women (30-50, 51-70, and >70 years old) and to examine the associations between perceived exercise barriers and regular exercise behavior. A total of 227 women completed the Self-Reported Exercise Behavior and the Perceived Exercise Barrier Scale. Women older than 70 reported higher physical and psychological barriers and lower administrative barriers than did the younger group. Women who did not exercise regularly tended to have a higher perception of exercise barriers.

  11. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  12. Women and population aging.

    PubMed

    Kunugi, T

    1989-06-01

    In 1985, there were approximately 427 million persons aged 60 and over in the world, accounting for about 9% of the world's population. By 2020, the elderly population will comprise 13% of the world's population and 70% of these people will live in developing countries. Governments and international agencies should increase their efforts and activities to improve care for the elderly within the family unit. The socioeconomic implications of aging are greater for females because of their higher life expectancy. In the year 2000, 11% of the world's female population will be aged 60 and over. By 2025, there will be 604 million elderly women in the world, 70% of whom will be living in developing countries, and among them, 70% in rural areas. An important issue requiring both research and policy attention is the interdependence among women's economic, health, and social concerns, which increase with age. The author calls for more specific policies that aim to eliminate discrimination against disabled persons, the elderly, and particularly elderly women. The author urges governmental and nongovernmental organizations to implement these recommendations: 1) promote research studies and the collection and analysis of information on the socioeconomic, health, legal, and demographic situation of elderly women; 2) promote awareness of elderly women's contribution to society; 3) eliminate discriminatory treatment of elderly women; 4) develop health promotion programs and services to meet elderly women's long-term care needs; 5) promote wider appreciation of continued participation of elderly women in social and cultural activities; 6) promote the development of elderly women's organizations and self-help groups; 7) promote and assure the participation of elderly women in the process of development; and 8) develop literacy programs and training programs for elderly women.

  13. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  14. Experiences and Status of Chinese Rural Women: Differences among Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai

    In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…

  15. Abortion index and mortality of offspring among women of different age, caste and population groups of north Indian Muslims.

    PubMed

    Ara, Gulshan; Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Beg, Tanveer; Afzal, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The Muslims of Aligarh city are predominantly Sunnis, although there are also a considerable number of Shias. Among the Sunnis, approximately a quarter belong to Syed, Sheikh, Moghal and Pathan groups, and three-quarters belong to various lower biradaris. In the present study, 304 women attending the Primary Health Centre of the J. N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, were surveyed and the following recorded among Muslim women of high-rank (Ashraf) and low-rank (Ajlaf) castes: incidence of marriage, age of the mother at the time of marriage, present age of the mother, abortions, still births, pre-reproductive mortality and overall mortality. The Ashraf are comprised of the Sheikh, Syed and Pathan, whereas the Ajlafs have Qureshi, Saifi and Ansari biradaris. Maternal age was scored as above and below 45 years in each biradari. Significant effects of maternal age were seen on mortality of offspring, whereas populations did not show consistent differences, except when Ashrafs and Ajlafs were considered separately. The results show higher mortality and abortions for various groups. This may be due to various biological and socio-cultural factors, including hidden inbreeding in the remote past.

  16. Women with epilepsy in reproductive age group: special issues and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shehanaaz; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) have several gender based problems pertaining to social and biological domains. The stigma of epilepsy and its consequences appear to be more for women than men. They have more difficulty in getting married and sustaining a married life. The cyclical variations in the reproductive hormones can adversely impact the seizure pattern in WWE. Epileptiform discharges in the brain can influence the hypothalamic functions and lead to sexual dysfunction. The Antiepileptic drugs (AED) may alter their metabolic and hormone profile and contribute to this disorder. Most WWE tend to have uneventful pregnancies and healthy babies. Nevertheless, the risk of fetal malformations appears to be increased when AEDs are used during pregnancy. This risk is higher for those who are on polytherapy, or using valproate. Recent studies have also demonstrated that antenatal exposure to AEDs could lead to neurocognitive and developmental impairment, low IQ or language problems in exposed infants. Clinicians need to consider these special issues while initiating AED therapy in adolescent girls. All WWE need to have a detailed pre conception evaluation wherein the need to continue AEDs, the ideal AED and dosage are reassessed. The AED therapy would have to be individualized according to the clinical situations, obstetric background and family concerns. Folic acid should be prescribed to all women who could potentially become pregnant. Detailed screening for fetal malformations by estimation of serum alpha fetoprotein and fetal ultrasonography need to be carried out between 14 - 18 weeks of pregnancy. The dosage of AEDs may have to be escalated in the second half of pregnancy in selected patients. The family should be provided detailed counseling and information on how to cope with the pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and contraception. PMID:24818330

  17. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  18. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  19. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  20. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  1. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  2. Assessment of Preference and Its Determinant Factors to Ward Modern Contraceptive Methods among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Shire Indaselassie Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Tsehaye, Weyzer T; Mengistu, Daniel; Birhanu, Emebet; Berhe, Kalayou K

    2013-01-01

    Background. Women's preferences for various contraceptive methods attribute vary according to the type of relations and other aspects of their life. The discrepancy between fertility preferences and contraceptive practice is regarded as an indicator of unmet demand for family planning. Objective. To assess modern contraceptive methods preference and its determinant factors among women of reproductive age group in Shire Indaselassie town, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed on 367 sampled women. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the study subjects. Then, data was collected using structured questionnaire. Result. In this study, the most commonly preferred modern contraceptive method was injectable contraceptive 202 (55%), the second 61 (16.6%) was oral contraceptives, and the third 47 (12.8%) was Norplant. Condom 31 (8.4%), IUD 14 (3.8%), female sterilization 7 (1.9%), and others were less commonly preferred methods. Some of the reasons for preference were effectiveness of the method, reversibility, fewer side effects, convenience, long duration of use, and no need to remember daily. Conclusion. This study clearly described that women preferences of modern contraceptive methods increased after they had higher number of children and less desire to limit family size.

  3. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Sodhi, Candy; Parmod, John; Dutta, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group) were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2) were assessed. Results: The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml) as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001). However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92) as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72) and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30). Conclusion: We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females. PMID:26177471

  4. Reproductive ageing in women.

    PubMed

    Djahanbakhch, O; Ezzati, M; Zosmer, A

    2007-01-01

    The traditional view in respect to female reproduction is that the number of oocytes at birth is fixed and continuously declines towards the point when no more oocytes are available after menopause. In this review we briefly discuss the embryonic development of female germ cells and ovarian follicles. The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is then discussed, with a focus on pubertal transition and normal ovulatory menstrual cycles during female adult life. Biochemical markers of menopausal transition are briefly examined. We also examine the effects of age on female fertility, the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities of the oocyte to the observed decline in female fertility with age and the possible biological basis for the occurrence of such abnormalities. Finally, we consider the effects of maternal age on obstetric complications and perinatal outcome. New data that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of mammalian oogenesis and follicular formation, and of the female reproductive ageing process, are also briefly considered.

  5. Work related injury among aging women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  6. Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

  7. Assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin status and dietary markers as predictors of the contrast threshold in 2 age groups of men and women.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin (L + Z) status is associated with the macular pigment (MP). The relationship between MP and visual function is controversial. We hypothesized that, within the framework of nutrition, visual function was related to MP and nutritional and/or/dietary factors influencing it. A cross-sectional study was performed in 108 volunteers divided into 2 age groups (20-35 years; 45-65 years), each 27 women and 27 men, to assess the relationship between MP optical density (MPOD) and contrast threshold (CT), considering the influence of L + Z and, fruit and vegetable (F + V) intake. MPOD, L + Z in serum and dietary intake were determined using heterochromatic flicker photometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and 3-day food records, respectively. CT was measured with the CGT-1000 Contrast Glaretester at 6 stimulus sizes, with and without glare. Spearman correlation coefficient and a generalized linear model were used for the statistical study. MPOD and CT were higher and lower, respectively in younger than in elder individuals (P < .000) and were correlated only in the older group. CT were higher under glare conditions, at the intermediate and smaller visual angles, with greater differences in the older (P < .003) than the younger group (P < .014). In the total sample, CT correlated inversely with MPOD (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.245 to -.152 and from .000 to .026, respectively) and directly with F + V intake (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.265 to -.176 and from .000 to .010, respectively). As predictors of CT in the total sample, MPOD, F + V (every 100 g/d) and sex were identified (β coefficients ranged from -0.01 to -1.86; from 0.01 to 0.08 and from 0.01 to 0.40, respectively). CT revealed age-specific nutritional predictors: MPOD and serum lutein in the 45- to 65-year group, and F + V intake in the 20- to 35-year group. PMID:27262538

  8. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  9. Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development sponsored by the UN, an expert group met in June 1992 in Botswana to consider issues related to population and women. Particular attention was devoted to gender equality, population, and development; reproductive health and the health of families; adolescent fertility, marriage, and reproductive health; family planning (FP) and FP programs; education of girls and women and the relationship of education to fertility, health, and welfare; women's economic activity and its relationship to demographic factors; and the relationship between women, population, and the environment. While both developed and developing countries were considered, the emphasis was on the latter. 32 recommendations for action were addressed primarily to governments and other social institutions and also to funding agencies. The recommendations call for a recognization that health and education are particularly critical for women. They ask for the development of gender-based analysis and assessment of development policies to discover their impact on women. Service delivery to women should be culturally appropriate, and women should be integrated into development initiatives and into management and policy-making levels of social institutions. Responsible parenthood should be promoted as should the assumption of familiar responsibilities by men. Women should have access to safe abortion services. Adolescents should receive the education necessary to protect their reproductive health, and a minimum marriage age should be adopted. FP programs should be appropriate to their clients and should provide safe methods of fertility regulation. Improved and safe contraceptives and pharmaceuticals which will protect against sexually transmitted diseases should be developed, with renewed emphasis placed on new contraceptives for men. Safe sex measures should be promoted. The health of girls and women should

  10. Cervical cancer screening in young and elderly women of the Xingu Indigenous Park: evaluation of the recommended screening age group in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Pinheiro, Juliana da Silva; Pereira, Erica Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Douglas; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the occurrence of atypia in the cytology/histology examinations of young women under the age of 25 years and of elderly women aged over 64 years, in the Xingu Indigenous Park and to evaluate, in a subjective manner, if the age range for screening established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is appropriate for this population. Methods The Xingu/UNIFESP Project, in partnership with the Center for Gynecological Disease Prevention, develops programs to prevent cervical cancer. The exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study of cytological and histopathological examinations of young (12-24 years) and elderly (aged 64 and over) women of the Xingu Indigenous Park, between 2005 and 2011. Results There was low occurrence of cytological atypia in the elderly female population, but there were occasional high-grade lesions in the indigenous youth. Conclusion Interrupting screening at the limit age of 64 years, as established by the Ministry of Health and the Instituto Nacional de Câncer is justified. However, screening of young women should begin at an earlier age. PMID:25993069

  11. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  12. Medicalization of women's third age.

    PubMed

    Kaufert, P A; Lock, M

    1997-06-01

    Medicalization usually refers to the process whereby the normal processes of pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation and menopause have been claimed and redefined by medicine. Rather than discussing medicalization and menopause in terms of the number of women taking hormones, or the percentage of physicians convinced they should prescribe them, this paper looks at the visual image of the menopausal woman as portrayed in the pharmaceutical literature and in the mass media. Unlike the depressed and sickly looking women shown in the pharmaceutical advertisements in the 1970s, this 1990s version of the menopausal woman is shown glowing with fitness, with well-maintained teeth, hair and skin, far too fit to break a hip, have a heart attack, or witness the slow destruction of their minds by Alzheimer's disease. This image is not to be confused with the reality of being a menopausal woman, yet the two are intimately intertwined, for the image determines how menopausal women see themselves and how they are seen in the wider society. The final section of the paper discusses how health is the new virtue for women as they age as each individual is held responsible for what happens to her body, particularly in terms of the decisions made at the time of menopause. PMID:9219103

  13. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years.

    PubMed

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20-29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications.

  14. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

  15. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-09-19

    Female hormone influences on auditory system aging are not completely understood. Because of widespread clinical use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is critical to understand HRT effects on sensory systems. The present study retrospectively analyzed and compared hearing abilities among 124 postmenopausal women taking HRT, treated with estrogen and progestin (E+P; n = 32), estrogen alone (E; n = 30), and a third [non-hormone replacement therapy (NHRT; n = 62)] control group. Subjects were 60-86 years old and were matched for age and health status. All had relatively healthy medical histories and no significant noise exposure, middle-ear problems, or major surgeries. Hearing tests included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), transient otoacoustic emissions, and the hearing-in-noise test (HINT). The HINT tests for speech perception in background noise, the major complaint of hearing-impaired persons. Pure-tone thresholds in both ears were elevated (poorer) for the E+P relative to the E and control groups. For DPOAEs, the E+P group presented with lower (worse) levels than the E and control groups, with significant differences for both ears. For the HINT results, the E+P group had poorer speech perception than the E and control groups across all background noise speaker locations and in quiet. These findings suggest that the presence of P as a component of HRT results in poorer hearing abilities in aged women taking HRT, affecting both the peripheral (ear) and central (brain) auditory systems, and it interferes with the perception of speech in background noise.

  16. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  17. Meaning of aging in women's lives.

    PubMed

    Covan, Eleanor Krassen

    2005-01-01

    As limited resources led me to combine teaching and research responsibilities, my students have been participating in an assignment that involves listening to aging women in order to discover how women explain the aging process. We have conducted 329 comprehensive interviews of women who were living in the decade of their sixties, seventies, eighties, or nineties. In this sample of predominantly southern women in the United States, meaning of age is explained in a process involving both looking back (reminiscence) and looking ahead (preminiscence) at one's life course with specific references to changes in one's body, family, home, and keeping the faith. PMID:16186092

  18. Determinants of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods utilization among married women of reproductive age groups in western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melka, Alemu Sufa; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia information on the level of utilization of the long term and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factorsis lacking. The aim of this study was to understand the determinant factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age in Western Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross- sectional study design was employed. Multi stage sampling was used to select 1003 study participants. Data was collected from April 10 to April 25,2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods at 95% CL. Results Use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 20%. Survey results showed a significant positive association between utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.02 - 3.05), women's occupation (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11 -3.58), number of live children (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.46- 4.02), joint fertility related decision (AOR = 6.11, 95% CI: 2.29- 16.30), having radio/TV (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.40 - 3.80), and discussion with health care provider about long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (AOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 8.37 - 22.47). Conclusion Efforts need to be aimed at women empowerment, health education, and encouraging open discussion of family planning by couples PMID:26523185

  19. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  20. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study.

  1. Global aging: implications for women and women's health.

    PubMed

    Tabloski, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    The world's older population has been growing for centuries; however, the pace of this growth is accelerating rapidly. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by 2030, more than 60 countries will have 2 million or more older people. Population aging represents a "success story," with increasing numbers of people worldwide enjoying additional years of life. However, the sustained increase in numbers of older people (usually defined as persons over the age of 65) poses many challenges to policy makers and health care providers around the world. As the world population ages, we are just beginning to understand the social, economic, and political implications of the "age wave." The majority of older people are women, thus the implications of population changes for women and women's health are astounding. Nurses can take a national and world leadership role to adequately address the health care needs of increasing numbers of older women. PMID:15495709

  2. Primary Care of Women Aging with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie A.; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Women are living longer with HIV infection, but their life expectancy is shorter than for women in the general population. How best to manage the multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy that are common in HIV infected individuals has not been studied. This paper explores areas where the primary care of women with HIV may differ from that of aging women in the general population. We also discuss aspects of care that may not commonly be considered in those under the age of 65, specifically multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Incorporating a gerontologic approach in the care of these women may optimize outcomes until research provides more definitive answers as to how best to collaborate with women with HIV to provide them with optimal care. PMID:25782848

  3. Study of the distribution by age group of serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and procollagen type I N-propeptide in healthy Japanese women to establish reference values.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Yoshizaki, Atsuo; Yoshikata, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Ritsuko; Sakakibara, Hideya; Chaki, Osamu; Fukunaga, Masao; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2013-11-01

    Osteoporosis prevention is an important public health goal. Bone turnover markers are clinically measured to assess bone strength. C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) is released when collagens degrade and serves as an indicator of bone resorption. Simple CTX immunoassays are now available. However, serum CTX (sCTX) reference ranges for Japanese women are lacking. Procollagen type I N-propeptide (intact P1NP) reflects osteoblast activity, serving as a marker of bone formation. Because sCTX and intact P1NP are clinically applied as bone turnover markers, we determined reference ranges for both sCTX and intact P1NP in healthy Japanese women. We collected 228 blood samples from healthy Japanese women aged 19-83 years, grouped by age and menopausal status. We measured sCTX and intact P1NP and examined their correlation. sCTX values differed significantly between the two consecutive decade groups encompassing 19-39 years of age, intact P1NP values between 20 and 30 s, between post-menopausal 50 and 60 s, and between pre-and post-menopausal women in their 50 s. The mean sCTX of 91 healthy pre-menopausal women was 0.255 (0.100-0.653) ng/mL, the intact P1NP in 90 women 33.2 (17.1-64.7) μg/L. Corresponding values for post-menopausal women were 0.345 (0.115-1.030) ng/mL and 41.6 (21.9-79.1) μg/L. sCTX correlated with intact P1NP. Bone resorption markers are measured to assess anti-resorption agents, bone formation markers to assess the effects of bone-forming agents. The sCTX and intact P1NP reference values determined herein, in healthy Japanese women, are expected to be useful for osteoporosis treatment, assessment of fracture risk, and other clinical applications.

  4. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... 64 have a heart attack. About half of women who have a heart attack before age 65 die within 8 years. Heart ... have another within 6 years. About half of women who have a heart attack will be disabled with heart failure within 6 ...

  5. Neuroendocrine aspects of aging in women.

    PubMed

    Hall, J E; Gill, S

    2001-09-01

    In women, the loss of ovarian function at menopause is associated with marked changes in hypothalamic and pituitary function. In addition, the steady decline in serum levels of LH, FSH, and FAS with age following menopause provides clear evidence for age-related neuroendocrine changes independent of the changes occurring owing to loss of ovarian feedback on the hypothalamic and pituitary components of the reproductive axis. An increase in the overall amount of GnRH secreted occurs despite a 30% decrease in GnRH pulse frequency with aging. This observation implies that the amount of GnRH secreted with each secretory bolus is greater in older postmenopausal women when compared with younger postmenopausal women. Thus, there may be a prominent pituitary component to the age-related decline in gonadotropin secretion. Recent studies indicate that the response to estrogen negative feedback at the hypothalamic level is preserved with aging, whereas the response to estrogen positive feedback may decrease with reproductive aging; however, the response to estrogen positive feedback in women has not been investigated with respect to aging, per se. It will be important to determine whether these age-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function contribute to reproductive senescence in normal women, as has been suggested for similar changes in animal models.

  6. Women, money, and psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Motherwell, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Developmental concerns and sociocultural expectations may keep female patients and therapists from addressing financial issues openly in group psychotherapy. Interpersonal theory provides a different view of nurturing that may help women leaders deal better with financial discussions in group. This paper includes a review of the literature on group psychotherapy and fees; feminist literature relevant to leadership; money management in group therapy; countertransference; and case examples.

  7. Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

  8. Changes in the body posture of women occurring with age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A current topic in the field of geriatrics still needing a great deal of study is the changes in body posture occurring with age. Symptoms of these changes can be observed starting between the ages of 40–50 years with a slow progression that increases after 60 years of age. The aims of this study were to evaluate parameters characterizing the posture of women over the age of 60 years compared with a control group and to determine the dynamics of body posture changes in the following decades. Methods The study included 260 randomly selected women. The study group consisted of 130 women between the ages of 60–90 years (Older Women). The control group (Younger Women) consisted of 130 women between the ages of 20–25 years (posture stabilization period). The photogrammetric method was used to evaluate body posture using the phenomenon of the projection chamber. The study was conducted according to generally accepted principles. Results In the analysis of parameters characterizing individual slope curves, results were varied among different age groups. The lumbar spine slope did not show significant differences between different age groups (p = 0.6952), while statistically significant differences (p = 0.0000) were found in the thoracic-lumbar spine slope (p = 0.0033) and upper thoracic spine slope. Body angle was shown to increase with age (p = 0.0000). Thoracic kyphosis depth significantly deepened with age (p = 0.0002), however, the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased with age (p = 0.0000). An increase in asymmetries was noticed, provided by a significantly higher angle of the shoulder line (p = 0.0199) and the difference in height of the lower shoulder blade angle (p = 0.0007) measurements in the group of older women. Conclusions Changes in the parameters describing body posture throughout consecutive decades were observed. Therapy for women over the age of 60 years should involve strengthening of the erector spinae

  9. Misconceptions and Miscommunication among Aging Women with Overactive Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ariana L.; Nissim, Helen A.; Le, Thuy X.; Khan, Aqsa; Maliski, Sally L.; Litwin, Mark S.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Raz, Shlomo; Rodríguez, Larissa V.; Anger, Jennifer T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives With the ultimate goal of improving the quality of care provided to aging women with overactive bladder, we sought to better understand aging women’s experience with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and the care they receive. Methods Women seen in outpatient female urology clinics were identified by ICD-9 codes for OAB and recruited. Patients with painful bladder syndrome, mixed stress and urge incontinence, prolapse, or recent pelvic surgery were excluded. Patient focus groups were conducted by trained non-clinician moderators incorporating topics related to patients’ perceptions of OAB physiology, symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, treatments, and outcomes. Qualitative data analysis was performed using grounded theory methodology. Results Five focus groups totaling 33 women with OAB were conducted. Average patient age was 67 years (range 39–91). Older women with OAB lacked knowledge about the physiology of their disease and had poor understanding regarding the rationale for many diagnostic tests, including urodynamics and cystoscopy. The results of diagnostic studies often were not understood by older patients. Many women were dissatisfied with the care they had received. This lack of knowledge and understanding was more apparent among the elderly women in the group. Conclusions Findings demonstrated a poor understanding of the physiology of overactive bladder and the rationale for various diagnostic modalities and treatments. This was associated with dissatisfaction with care. There is a need for better communication with older women experiencing OAB symptoms about the physiology of the condition. PMID:20970839

  10. Substance Use in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Jackie; Barrier, Breton; Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Using anonymous exit questionnaires in a university OB/GYN clinic, of 165 pregnant women reporting on drinking prior to pregnancy, 26% screened positive for hazardous or harmful drinking. Among 153 non-pregnant women age 50 or younger, 39% screened positive. Of those, 85% had no plans to change their alcohol consumption, as most believed their drinking levels were not risky; 80% had a significant risk of becoming pregnant, but 85% believed pregnancy was unlikely. PMID:27443042

  11. ESTIMATES OF WATER INGESTION FOR WOMEN IN PREGNANT, LACTATING AND NON-PREGNANT AND NON-LACTATING CHILD BEARING AGE GROUPS BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96, 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKE BY INDIVIDUALS (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the child bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of contaminated water because ingested contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mot...

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical

  13. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  14. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G Maria; Koenig, Sara S K; McCulle, Stacey L; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O; Brotman, Rebecca M; Davis, Catherine C; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J

    2011-03-15

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [χ(2)(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis.

  15. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  16. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  17. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  18. Women, aging, and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; Fischer-Elber, Kimberly; Al-Otaiba, Zayed

    2007-01-01

    The increase in prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in younger versus older cohorts of female drinkers is many times higher than the corresponding increase in prevalence rates for male drinkers. Thus, the number and impact of older female drinkers is expected to increase over the next 20 years as the disparity between men's and women's drinking rates decrease. Due to differences in metabolism of alcohol, women of all ages compared to men are at higher risk for negative physical, medical, social, and psychological consequences associated with at-risk and higher levels of alcohol consumption. Aging women face new sets of antecedents related to challenges in the middle and older adult phases of life, such as menopause, retirement, "empty nest," limited mobility, and illness. As women age, they are subject to an even greater physiological susceptibility to alcohol's effect, as well as to a risk of synergistic effects of alcohol in combination with prescription drugs. On the other hand, there is mixed research indicating that older women may benefit from the buffering effect of low levels of alcohol on hormonal declines associated with menopause, perhaps serving as a protective factor against Coronary Heart Disease and osteoporosis. However, with heavier drinking, these benefits are either reversed or eclipsed. In addition, any alcohol consumption increases the risk for breast cancer in older women. The possible beneficial effects of alcohol must be weighed with the fact that the research does not typically establish causality, that low-risk drinking equates to one standard drink per day, that there is a risk of progression towards alcohol dependence, and that there are alternate methods to gain the same benefits without the associated risks. Older women also experience unique barriers to detection of and treatment for alcohol problems. Current treatment options specifically for older women are limited, though researchers are beginning to address differential

  19. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  20. Screening for breast cancer and mortality reduction among women 40-49 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kopans, D B

    1994-07-01

    The recent withdrawal of screening support for women ages 40-49 years is not scientifically supported. The subgroup analyses that have been used severely compromise the statistical power of the trials. None of the trials has the statistical power to be able to provide clear proof of benefit for screening women ages 40-49 years because none of the trials involved sufficient numbers of women in these age groups. Despite having not been designed to evaluate women ages 40-49 years as a separate group, five of the eight randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated mortality reductions for these women that range from 22% to 49%. In addition, data from other nonrandomized trials show that there is no difference in survival for women ages 40-49 years than for women ages 50-59 years. The detection rate for small, early cancers, using modern mammography, is similar for women in both decades. There is no scientific reason to believe that there is a sudden change in detection or cure at age 50 years, or even at menopause. The available data suggest that women ages 40-49 years can benefit from screening, just as can women ages 50-59 years.

  1. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully.

  2. Executive Committee Working Group: Women in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, Francesca; Maddison, Sarah; Primas, Francesca; Aerts, Conny; Clayton, Geoffrey; Combes, Françoise; Elmegreen, Debra; Feretti, Luigina; Jog, Chanda; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Lazzaro, Daniela; Liang, Yanchun; Mandrini, Cristina; Mathews, Brenda; Rovira, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The gender† dimension of science and technology has become one of the most important and debated issues worldwide, impacting society at every level. A variety of international initiatives on the subject have been undertaken, including the continued monitoring of the status of women in science by Unesco Institute for Statistics (UIS) or the annual reports ``Education at a Glance'' by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as field-related working groups and networking in order to collect data in a consistent manner. The majority of the international organizations have made clear statements about their discrimination policies (independently of their main field(s) of action), including the International Council for Science whose regulations are followed by the IAU. Gender equality at large is one of the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which clearly calls for action related to science, technology and gender.

  3. Improvements in IVF in women of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-07-01

    Women above age 40 years in the US now represent the most rapidly growing age group having children. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are rapidly aging in parallel. Especially where egg donations are legal, donation cycles, therefore, multiply more rapidly than autologous IVF cycles. The donor oocytes, however, are hardly ever a preferred patient choice. Since with use of own eggs, live birth rates decline with advancing age but remain stable (and higher) with donor eggs, older patients always face the difficult and very personal choice between poorer chances with own and better chances with donor oocytes. Physician contribution to this decision should in our opinion be restricted to accurate outcome information for both options. Achievable pregnancy and live birth rates in older women are, however, frequently underestimated, thereby mistakenly biasing fertility providers, private insurance companies and even regulatory government agencies. Restriction on access to IVF for older women is then often the consequence. In this review, we summarize the limited published data on best treatments of 'older' ovaries, while also addressing treatment approaches that should be avoided in older women. This focused review, therefore, to a degree is subjective. Research addressing aging ovaries in IVF has been disappointingly sparse, and has in our opinion too heavily concentrated on methods of embryo selection (ES), which, especially in older women, not only fail to improve IVF outcomes, but actually, negatively affect live birth chances. We conclude that, aside from breakthroughs in gamete creation, only pharmacological interventions into early (small growing follicle stages) follicle maturation will offer new potential to positively impact oocyte and embryo quality and, therefore, IVF outcomes. Research, therefore, should be accordingly redirected.

  4. Profile of women who request reversal of tubal sterilization: comparison with a randomly selected control group.

    PubMed Central

    Marcil-Gratton, N; Duchesne, C; St-Germain-Roy, S; Tulandi, T

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of 96 women who requested reversal of tubal ligation at two fertility clinics in Montreal were compared with those of 403 randomly selected sterilized women in Quebec. The two groups were found to have a similar socioeconomic profile. In only two respects were the groups significantly different: the women who requested reversal generally had been sterilized at an earlier age and had more complex marital histories. PMID:3355950

  5. International women's movement comes of age at FWCW.

    PubMed

    O'haire, H

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on what the women's conference achieved for women. The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) recognized an international women's movement. Governments agreed that women were entitled to full human rights, reproductive rights, and equality in all aspects of life. Women were to become full and equal partners in the development process. Women are likely to demand action based on the paper declarations. The success of the conference is attributed to a powerful network of women's groups. A striking feature was the heading of most national delegations by women. It was recognized that women were full but neglected partners in families and societies. Governments acknowledged that women suffered discrimination within the family and society. Wording was rejected that would have given women the guaranteed right to determine the size and spacing of their families and the information and services to do so. The activity among women's groups in working together to restore this view strengthened the bonds between women's groups and created worldwide awareness and support for women's organizations. Networks that were established at Rio de Janeiro made their presence and position on reproductive health felt at the preparatory meetings to the UN Population Conference in Cairo. It was argued that a target-driven approach had the effect of treating women as reproduction machines. Women's groups also expressed strong positions on how women were to be treated in the formation of population policy and programs. 1) It was insisted that governments and population groups must stop dictating fertility regimes to women. 2) The concept of family planning must include reproductive health. 3) Women should have the freedom to exercise choice in planning their families. 4) Women should also have equal access to education and employment. Women came thus to Beijing with a clear vision of what they wanted. At Beijing domestic violence was for the first time condemned. Beijing

  6. Male Leadership in an Addicted Women's Group: An Empirical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NeSmith, Chad L.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen; Satcher, Jamie F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines premise that women's addiction groups should be facilitated by females. Study indicates that attitudes of participants towards men in groups facilitated by men were more positive than those of participants in groups facilitated by women. Results may provide information for revision of clinical practice, and for examination of options…

  7. Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

    A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

  8. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women. PMID:12347716

  9. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women.

  10. Effects of Three Bridging Exercises on Local and Global Muscles of Middle Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Lim, Hee Sung; Shin, Sung Rae; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Suk Min

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the muscle activity differences of three different lumbar stabilization exercises in a comparison of middle-aged and young women. [Subjects] Seventeen middle-aged women and fifteen young women were enrolled in this study. Patients with a history of any neurologic disorders, orthopedic disorders, or cardiopulmonary problems that would have affected their lumbar stabilization exercise performance were excluded. [Methods] All subjects performed 3 exercises while the surface electromographic activity was recorded of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, multifidus, and iliocostalis lumbolum. The mean electromyographic amplitudes obtained during the exercise were normalized to the amplitude of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) to produce an inter-individually comparable muscle activity index. [Results] The highest muscle activity of middle-aged women was observed in the ring bridging exercise. The middle-aged women had higher levels of all muscle activaties than the young women, particularly in the multifidus muscle and iliocostalis lumborum. No significant difference in muscle activity ratio was observed between the local muscles and global muscles in the three different exercises, though the muscle activity ratio was the highest in the ring bridging exercise. The young women group showed a higher ratio of the internal oblique/rectus abdominus than the middle aged women in the bridging exercise. [Conclusion] The ring bridging exercise should be used for stabilizing the lumbar area because the young women showed a higher ratio than the middle aged women. PMID:24259869

  11. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  12. Women, Work and Age: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet provides statistics on various aspects of the special concern of midlife and older women in the labor force. It looks at the number of such women in the work force, marital status, displaced homemakers, and occupational categories represented by these women. Other areas of consideration are the cost-effectiveness of hiring older…

  13. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  14. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  15. From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…

  16. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  17. Effect of submaximal repetitive exercise on knee coactivation in young and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Joanne N; Plashkes, Tova E; Franklin, Regan A; Hickey, Heather K; Maly, Monica R

    2014-04-01

    Coactivation of the knee extensors and flexors increases knee joint contact forces, which may lead to degradation of the articular surfaces. This study investigated the effect of neuromuscular fatigue induced by submaximal, repetitive, dynamic contractions on coactivation of knee musculature in young and middle-aged women. Data from 10 young women (24.6±1.8 years) and 8 middle-aged women (55.4±4.2 years) were analyzed. Measures included peak knee extension and flexion torques and the average amplitude of surface electromyography of rectus femoris and biceps femoris. Coactivation ratios were calculated from these activations. To induce fatigue, participants completed up to ten sets of 50 concentric knee extension and flexion contractions at 60°/s. A two-factor analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of age and fatigue. The young group showed higher peak torque compared with the middle-aged group (P<.001). During flexion, biceps femoris activity increased after fatigue when both groups were considered together (P=.018). During extension, biceps femoris activity was higher in the middle-aged than young group (P=.043). Middle-aged women exhibited a trend for greater coactivation during knee extension compared with young women (P=.066). This coactivation likely contributed to extension torque decrements in middle-aged women.

  18. Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…

  19. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk.

  20. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  1. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities). PMID:25456622

  2. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities).

  3. Sexual Enhancement Groups for Dysfunctional Women: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, Sandra R.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of women with sexual dysfunction were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment. Two groups did not involve partner participation, while the third group included partners on two occasions. Results for all groups were similar. The question of whether orgasm through coitus alone is a reasonable goal is raised and challenged. (Author)

  4. Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun Sook

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

  5. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence among Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    DANFORTH, Kim N.; TOWNSEND, Mary K.; LIFFORD, Karen; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Identify risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 83,355 Nurses' Health Study II participants. Since 1989, women have provided health information on mailed questionnaires; in 2001, at age 37-54 years, information on urinary incontinence was requested. We examined adjusted odds ratios of incontinence using logistic regression. Results: 43% of women reported incontinence. After adjustment, African-American (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.60) and Asian-American women (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.46-0.72) were at reduced odds of severe incontinence compared to Caucasians. Increased age, body mass index, and parity were all positively associated with incontinence, as were current smoking, type 2 diabetes, and hysterectomy. Women aged 50-54 years had 1.81 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to women <40 years (95% CI 1.66-1.97); women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 had 3.10 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to BMI 22-24 kg/m2 (95% CI 2.91-3.30). Conclusions: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent among these middle-aged women. Potential risk factors include age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking, diabetes, and hysterectomy. PMID:16458626

  6. Domestic group, status of women, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Patel, T

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made in this paper to explain the fertility behavior of Patels; a major peasant caste in village Mogra in Rajasthan, India. The Patels make up 162 of the 404 households in the village and nearly 50% of the village's population of 2610. The Patels claim to have migrated from Gujarat a few centuries ago. This paper is based on a study of 140 randomly selected Patel households comprising 168 couples by using the method of intensive fieldwork over a period of about 6 months. Every household in Mogra, with the possible exception of 1 household of a Bania trader, is involved in agriculture in 1 capacity or another. The Patels are the major landowning caste, and all but 2 of the households in the sample of 140 own land. The Patels marry early, and the practice of child marriage remains common today. Being a patrilineal people, Patels consider sons as heirs to family property and status. Of the 140 households in the sample, 65 are complex in composition while 75 are simple. All the simple households are consequences of the partition of complex households. The consummation of marriage marks an immediate loss of independence to the woman. The Patels of Mogra have sound economic reasons for having a large number of children. They prefer to use family labor to the maximum possible extent. When labor is the major input, the land can absorb whatever labor is available. A great demand exists for labor in the domestic sphere as well. Compared to the returns, the cost of bringing up children is negligible. The expenditure on their clothing and education is minimal. Economics alone do not explain high fertility. Sons are essential to continue the line and for old age security. The marriage of daughters brings in bride price and religious merit. 1 son may find the burden of carrying out the kinship obligations inherited from his parents too high. When there are several sons, they can share the burden among themselves. Religious values and the obligations of kinship and

  7. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  8. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  9. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  10. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  11. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  12. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  13. Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

  14. A Consciousness-Raising Group for Obese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Ruth; Grayer, Elinor D.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes three consciousness-raising groups for obese women which met to explore what it is like to be fat in a thin-oriented society, to enhance their self-esteem, and to help the women recognize that being fat is one of many choices a person may legitimately make for herself. (Author/EJT)

  15. Midlife Transition and Women's Spirituality Groups: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geertsma, Elisabeth J.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe midlife transition, spirituality, and healing of relationships for members of women's spirituality groups. Ten women completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (R. Paloutzian & C. Ellison, 1982) and a 45-minute interview about spirituality, religion, life transitions, relationships, and…

  16. [Chronic cystitis in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Moskovenko, N V

    2011-01-01

    The examination of 112 women suffering from chronic cystitis has detected frequent comorbidity of genital, gastrointestinal, locomotor and pelvic varicose diseases. Myofascial syndrome, hemodynamic disorders and venous congestion play a leading role in development of pain syndrome in women with comorbid diseases of the small pelvis organs. Clinicopsychological investigation of such women has revealed frequent vegetative and psychoemotional disorders with predominance of anxiodepressive conditions. Pain, dysuria and anxiodepressive disorders are among causes of imbalance of the autonomic nervous system which acvitaves regulatory systems and has an impact on quality of life. Women with chronic cystitis show significant deterioration of quality of life. Combined treatment including physical factors and therapeutic exercise reduced treatment duration, frequency of exacerbations, raised cost effectiveness.

  17. [Focus groups with women from quilombo communities in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Prates, Lisie Alende; Ceccon, Fernando Gomes; Alves, Camila Neumaier; Wilhelm, Laís Antunes; Demori, Carolina Carbonell; Silva, Silvana Cruz da; Ressel, Lúcia Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses an experience using the focus group technique with women from a quilombo, or community of descendants of African slaves in Brazil. This is a descriptive qualitative anthropological study of 13 women from a quilombo in rural Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The focus group technique allowed an approach, interaction, and exchange of knowledge, experiences, perceptions, and feelings, in addition to problematization and in-depth discussion concerning the meaning of women's health care in the quilombo. The focus group was a prime space for learning and understanding the life experiences of quilombola women and the meanings they assigned to the experiences. In order to use the focus group technique, researchers must display creativity, sensitivity, attention, respect, nonjudgmental attitudes, flexibility, prior preparation, and knowledge of the technique and specific study topic.

  18. [Focus groups with women from quilombo communities in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Prates, Lisie Alende; Ceccon, Fernando Gomes; Alves, Camila Neumaier; Wilhelm, Laís Antunes; Demori, Carolina Carbonell; Silva, Silvana Cruz da; Ressel, Lúcia Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses an experience using the focus group technique with women from a quilombo, or community of descendants of African slaves in Brazil. This is a descriptive qualitative anthropological study of 13 women from a quilombo in rural Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The focus group technique allowed an approach, interaction, and exchange of knowledge, experiences, perceptions, and feelings, in addition to problematization and in-depth discussion concerning the meaning of women's health care in the quilombo. The focus group was a prime space for learning and understanding the life experiences of quilombola women and the meanings they assigned to the experiences. In order to use the focus group technique, researchers must display creativity, sensitivity, attention, respect, nonjudgmental attitudes, flexibility, prior preparation, and knowledge of the technique and specific study topic. PMID:26872225

  19. [THE CONSTITUTIONAL ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WOMEN OF MATURE AGE].

    PubMed

    Nikitiuk, D B; Nikolenko, V N; Klochkova, S V; Minnibayev, T Sh; Timoshenko, K T

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive anthropometric and bioelectrical study of 651 women of mature age (relative norm) aged 22 to 55 years living in the Moscow region, was conducted. The somatotyping was performed according to I.B. Galant-V.P. Chtetzov-B.A. Ni kitiuk scheme. The quantitative distribution of women according to their somatotypological characteristics was obtained, the anthropometric peculiarities and the specific features of body composition in women belonging to different somatotypes were determined. It was found that among the women of mature age studied, mesoplastic (26.9%) and stenoplastici (16.7%) somatotypes were dominant. The least frequently encountered were the representatives of asthenic (1.7%) and athletic (5.2%) somatic types. Women of different somatotypes vary significantly in height and weight and other anthropometric parameters. PMID:27141592

  20. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages.

  1. Wife killing: risk to women as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, T K; Buss, D M; Peters, J

    2000-01-01

    Younger women, relative to older women, incur elevated risk of uxoricide-being murdered by their husbands. Some evolutionary theorists attribute this pattern to men's evolved sexual proprietariness, which inclines them to use violence to control women, especially those high in reproductive value. Other evolutionary theorists propose an evolved homicide module for wife killing. An alternative to both explanations is that young women experience elevated uxoricide risk as an incidental byproduct of marriage to younger men who commit the majority of acts of violence. We used a sample of 13,670 uxoricides to test these alternative explanations. Findings show that (a) reproductive-age women incur an elevated risk of uxoricide relative to older women; (b) younger men are overrepresented among uxoricide perpetrators; and (c) younger women, even when married to older men, still incur excess risk of uxoricide. Discussion examines competing explanations for uxoricide in light of these findings.

  2. Kin Group Affiliation and Marital Violence Against Women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women.

  3. Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

    1982-01-01

    Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)

  4. Knowledge on uterine prolapse among married women of reproductive age in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binjwala; Devkota, Bhimsen; Khadka, Badri Bahadur; Choulagai, Bishnu; Pahari, Durga Prasad; Onta, Sharad; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Uterine prolapse (UP), which affects about 10% of women of reproductive age in Nepal, is the most frequently reported cause of poor health in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Currently, women’s awareness of UP is unknown, and attempts to unravel the UP problem are inadequate. This study aims to assess UP knowledge among married reproductive women, and determine the association between UP knowledge and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods Our cross-sectional descriptive study investigated 25 districts representing all five administrative regions, three ecological zones, and urban and rural settings. We used structured questionnaires to interview 4,693 married women aged 15–49 years. We assessed UP knowledge by asking women whether they had ever heard about UP, followed by specific questions about symptoms and preventive measures. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population regarding socioeconomic status, assessed how many participants had ever heard about UP, and determined UP knowledge level among participants who had heard about the condition. Simple regression analysis identified a possible association between socioeconomic characteristics, ever heard about UP, and level of UP knowledge. Results Mean age of participants was 30 years (SD [standard deviation] 7.4), 67.5% were educated, 48% belonged to the advantaged Brahmin and Chhetri groups, and 22.2% were Janajati from the hill and terai zones. Fifty-three percent had never heard about UP. Among women who had heard about UP, 37.5% had satisfactory knowledge. Any knowledge about UP was associated with both urban and rural settings, age group, and education level. However, satisfactory knowledge about UP was associated with administrative region, ecological zones, caste/ethnic group, and age group of women. Conclusion Fifty-three percent of participants had never heard about UP, and UP knowledge level was satisfactory in 37.% of those who had ever heard about UP

  5. Independent beneficial effects of aged garlic extract intake with regular exercise on cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Baek, Yeong Ho; Kwak, Yi Sub; Ko, Tae Hee; Kim, Nari; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyoung Soo; Park, Byung Joo; Han, Jin

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of a 12 weeks aged garlic extract (AGE) regimen with regular exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women. A total of 30 postmenopausal women (54.4 ± 5.4 years) were randomly divided into the following four groups: Placebo (Placebo; n = 6), AGE intake (AGEI; n = 8), exercise and placebo (Ex + Placebo; n = 8), exercise and AGE (Ex + AGE; n = 8) groups. The AGE group consume 80 mg per day, and exercise groups performed moderate exercise (aerobic and resistance) three times per week. After 12 weeks of treatment, body composition, lipid profile, and CVD risk factors were analyzed. Body weight was significantly decreased in AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups compared to baseline. Body fat % was significantly decreased in the AGEI and Ex + Placebo groups. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups. Fat-free mass was significantly decreased in the AGEI group. Total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in the Ex + Placebo compared to the Placebo group. AGE supplementation or exercise effectively reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Triglyceride (TG) was significantly increased in the AGEI group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE compared to the placebo group. AGE supplementation reduced homocysteine levels regardless of whether the women also exercised. The present results suggest that AGE supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk factors independently of exercise in postmenopausal women. PMID:22808347

  6. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  7. Presence and Image of Women in the Information Media Aimed at Adolescents Aged 10 to 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Stephanie; Maranda, Jeanne

    An exploratory study identified the areas of information most commonly featured in the printed and electronic media designed specifically for adolescents aged 10-16 and also identified the presence and role of women in the information targeted to this age group. A content analysis was made of both French- and English-language television programs…

  8. Opioid Prescriptions Among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid - New York, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Brian K; Shin, Yejee; Roohan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to opioids during pregnancy can lead to adverse infant outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome (1) and birth defects (2). Ascertaining opioid prescriptions for women who become pregnant or have no indication of contraceptive use is important to determine the number of women who are at potential risk for adverse fetal outcomes. The New York State (NYS) Department of Health (DOH) analyzed data for women aged 15-44 years (i.e., reproductive-aged women) enrolled in Medicaid to examine opioid drug prescriptions during 2008-2013. On the basis of Medicaid drug claims for any drug with an opioid ingredient, prescriptions were identified for the enrolled population of reproductive-aged women and for three subgroups: women whose diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes indicated contraceptive use or infertility; women who were not using contraceptives and not infertile; and women who had had a live birth during the reporting year. During 2008-2013, among all women of reproductive age, 20.0% received a prescription for a drug with an opioid component; the proportion was highest (27.3%) among women with an indication of contraceptive use or infertility, intermediate (17.3%) among women who had no indication of contraceptive use, and lowest (9.5%) among women who had had a live birth. Although New York's proportion of opioid prescriptions among female Medicaid recipients who had a live birth is lower than a recent U.S. estimate (3), these results suggest nearly one in 10 women in this group may have been exposed to opioids in the prenatal period. PMID:27124815

  9. Never-married childless women in Australia: health and social circumstances in older age.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Gramotnev, Helen; Lee, Christina

    2006-04-01

    A growing proportion of women reach older age without having married or having children. Assumptions that these older women are lonely, impoverished, and high users of social and health services are based on little evidence. This paper uses data from the Older cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health to describe self-reported demographics, physical and emotional health, and use of services among 10,108 women aged 73-78, of whom 2.7% are never-married and childless. The most striking characteristic of this group is their high levels of education, which are associated with fewer reported financial difficulties and higher rates of private health insurance. There are few differences in self-reported physical or emotional health or use of health services between these and other groups of older women. Compared with older married women with children, they make higher use of formal services such as home maintenance and meal services, and are also more likely to provide volunteer services and belong to social groups. Overall, there is no evidence to suggest that these women are a "problem" group. Rather, it seems that their life experiences and opportunities prepare them for a successful and productive older age. PMID:16225976

  10. Age-Specific Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Infertile Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Raeissi, Alireza; Torki, Alireza; Moradi, Ali; Mousavipoor, Seyed Mehdi; Pirani, Masoud Doosti

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles during the primary to large antral follicle stages. Abnormal levels of AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) may indicate a woman’s diminished ability or inability to conceive. Our aim is to investigate the changes in serum AMH and FSH concentrations at different age groups and its correlation with ovarian reserves in infertile women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed serum AMH and FSH levels from 197 infertile women and 176 healthy controls, whose mean ages were 19-47 years. Sample collection was performed by random sampling and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. Results There were significantly lower mean serum AMH levels among infertile women compared to the control group. The mean AMH serum levels from different ages of infertile and control group (fertile women) decreased with increasing age. However, this reduction was greater in the infertile group. The mean FSH serum levels of infertile women were significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum FSH levels consistently increased with increasing age in infertile women; however mean luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were not consistent. Conclusion We have observed increased FSH levels and decreased AMH levels with increasing age in women from 19 to 47 years of age. Assessments of AMH and FSH levels in combination with female age can help in predicting ovarian reserve in infertile women. PMID:25918589

  11. Age-Associated Perceptions of Physical Activity Facilitators and Barriers Among Women in Rural Southernmost Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Leslie R.; Peacock, Nadine R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women living in rural areas in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of diseases such as obesity and heart disease and are less likely than women living in urban areas to meet daily physical activity (PA) recommendations. The purpose of our research was to understand age-specific perceptions of barriers and facilitators to rural women engaging in PA and to identify strategies to promote PA among these women. Methods As part of a community health assessment to learn about women’s health issues, 110 adult women participated in 14 focus groups. The women were divided into 4 age groups, and focus groups were held in various community settings. We used qualitative analysis methods to explore themes in the women’s narratives, including themes related to PA knowledge, PA behavior, and access to PA facilities. Results Participants described multiple and often conflicting individual, social, and environmental barriers and facilitators to PA. Several barriers and facilitators were shared across age groups (eg, competing priorities and inadequate knowledge about PA’s role in disease prevention and disease management). Other barriers (eg, illness and injury) and facilitators (eg, PA as a social opportunity) differed by age group. Conclusion Rural women in southernmost Illinois have often contradictory barriers and facilitators to PA, and those barriers and facilitators are different at different points in a woman’s life. Our findings suggest the need for multilevel, multisector approaches to promote PA. Additionally, this research supports the need for tailored PA promotion programs for rural women to address the barriers these women face across their lifespan. PMID:27685431

  12. Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  13. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  14. Psychosomatic group treatment helps women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Albert, H

    1999-12-01

    This study evaluates group treatment for women suffering from chronic pelvic pain. The concept of group treatment was based on psychosomatic and physio-therapeutical principles and on cognitive and operant behavioral therapy. Each group was composed of up to six women suffering from chronic pelvic pain, and two physiotherapists. Each group treatment session lasted 2.5 h per week for a period of 10 weeks. The women completed questionnaires and pain drawings four times during the treatment period from the beginning of the period till 15 months later. During 13 group treatment periods 53 women accomplished the treatment. Before the treatment the women had experienced pain for an average period of 5 years and 9 months (ranging from 6 months to 22 years). The women's descriptions of the changes derived from group treatment were analyzed according to the Grounded Theory Method. A methodical triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data as well as analyzes of the drawings were applied. One year after the end of the treatment, 39% of the women were pain-free. The average level of pain measured according to the Visual Analog Scale was reduced from 2.8 to 0.9 (p < 0.01). The intake rate of analgesics was reduced from an average of 8.5 units to 0.9 units per week (p < 0.01). Furthermore a reduction in the use of the National Health Service and increases in gainful employment were registered. By means of the Grounded Theory Analysis a model of the development process was elaborated. The process begins with the development of self-knowledge, followed by the woman assuming self responsibility for her own life and performing self-activeness. During the process the woman increases her feeling of self-control and personal mastery of her emotions. The women's pain drawings improved, resulting in more detailed drawings, the color intensity abating, the extent of pains declining, and the outlines blurring. In conclusion this kind of group treatment brings the women relief from

  15. Peer support groups, mobile phones and refugee women in Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Koh, Lee; Wollersheim, Dennis; Walker, Rae

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we discuss qualitative findings basing on the experiences of refugee women living in Melbourne, Australia, who participated in a peer support training programme and received a free mobile phone. We pay attention to social support as a health enhancing strategy and empowerment that occurred among the participants. Participation in peer support groups and access to a mobile phone were beneficial for the women. Peer support functioned as social support among group members. The programme allowed the women to be connected to their families and the wider communities and assisted them to access health care and other settlement aspects with greater ease. It also increased personal empowerment among the women. Our programme shows that by tapping on community resources to ameliorate personal or resettlement issues, the burden on service providers can be reduced. Our findings also offer a model for future research and programmes regarding refugee people elsewhere.

  16. [A support group intended for women victimized by conjugal violence].

    PubMed

    Rainville, T; Kérouac, S; Boucher, D

    1991-01-01

    For battered women, leaving the home and spending time in a shelter is only the first step of a long process of change that usually involves periodic crises. A support group has been set up to help these women establish new ways to relate with the outside world, ways that are meant to assist them in successfully going through this difficult phase of their lives. Based on Lifton's principles of affinity, presence and consolidation (1976), the authors highlight the value of reciprocity in the therapeutical relationship. In addition, the authors discuss issues relating to the main points affecting interventions with battered women who have spent time in a shelter.

  17. Women's Liberation Scale (WLS): A Measure of Attitudes Toward Positions Advocated by Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Carlos

    The Women's Liberation Scale (WLS) is a 14-item, Likert-type scale designed to measure attitudes toward positions advocated by women's groups. The WLS and its four-alternative response schema is presented, along with descriptive statistics of scores based on male and female college samples. Reliability and validity measures are reported, and the…

  18. Experiences of women with bulimia nervosa in a mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The experience of 6 college-age women with bulimia nervosa was examined after they participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. This phenomenological study used individual interview and pre- and post-treatment self-portraits. Participants described their experience of transformation from emotional and behavioral extremes, disembodiment, and self-loathing to the cultivation of an inner connection with themselves resulting in greater self-awareness, acceptance, and compassion. They reported less emotional distress and improved abilities to manage stress. This treatment may help the 40% of women who do not improve with current therapies and might be useful to prevent symptoms in younger women.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted. PMID:27672303

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Childbearing Age Women in India: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jamie M.; Tang, Gong; Haggerty, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to reproductive sequelae. Information on the general population of childbearing age women in India is sparse. We reviewed the literature on CT prevalence within the general population of reproductive aged women in order to improve the efforts of public health screening programs and interventions. Objective. To conduct a literature review to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among childbearing age women in India. Search Strategy. Ovid Medline and PubMed databases were searched for articles from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2014. Search terms included “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “CT”, “prevalence”, “India”, and “sexually transmitted infections”. Selection Criteria. Studies on prevalence data for CT among women of childbearing age (15–45) living in India were included. Data Collection and Analysis. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were extracted by two readers and discrepancies solved through discussion. Results. Reported prevalence of active CT infection among lower risk groups ranged from 0.1% to 1.1% and in higher risk group from 2.7% to 28.5%. Conclusion. CT prevalence among women in India is comparable to other countries. Screening programs to prevent adverse outcomes among Indian women of childbearing age and their offspring are warranted.

  1. Anthropometrical data of middle-aged Japanese women for industrial design applications.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, K; Okada, A; Kouchi, M; Horino, S; Kikuchi, Y

    1994-06-01

    Despite the growing importance of human interface design, and despite the growing number of working women, no considerations have been given to women's working spaces and tools. Their designs are based on men's anthropometrical data, and this does not assure safety and amenity of women's working environments. Moreover, few data on women's body measurements are available. The Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life is carrying out an ergonomic anthropometrical study on a large number of Japanese people to create a database for industrial use. The fee for the use of these data is, however, making it very difficult to profit from their acquisition. Therefore, we conducted an anthropometrical study for industrial design use on middle-aged female subjects, who are in the most difficult age group to access. This report should be useful in designing working spaces and tools for women as laborers as well as users.

  2. Serum lipid values and age in healthy women: a preliminary report on cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Williams, G Z

    1993-04-01

    In a 20-year prospective study of the influence of lifestyle and age on health parameters in men's and women's serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density and low density lipoproteins were measured periodically to determine each person's longitudinal profile. The accumulated data for 1008 women of 20 to 70 years is averaged by five-year age brackets. Scatter plots and simple regression of these five-year group means for ages 20 to 45 years, reveals a gradual increase in serum cholesterol, increasing from 176 mg/dl to 196 with a slope of 0.61 mg/dl per year. Between ages 45 and 70, the slope increases substantially to 1.91 mg/dl per year, and the five-year group means rise from 196 at age 45 to 239 at age 70 in rather uniform increments. The data have been analyzed for the other lipids and the relationship to estrogen replacement, nutritional, and exercise habits.

  3. Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?

    PubMed

    Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A(2) release. The thromboxane A(2) pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The "Timing Hypothesis," which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

  4. Vascular Aging in Women: is Estrogen the Fountain of Youth?

    PubMed Central

    Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release. The thromboxane A2 pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The “Timing Hypothesis,” which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434

  5. Not Far Enough: Women vs. Smoking. A Workshop for Women's Group and Women's Health Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Highlights from a series of papers on the role of smoking in women's disease and death, women's smoking behavior, and the role of the tobacco industry are included in this document. Conference participants included public health and women's organizations. Brief summaries of the papers introduce the document. An outline of network strategies…

  6. Vascular Aging across the Menopause Transition in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kerrie L.; Hildreth, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging, featuring endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening, is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In women, vascular aging appears to be accelerated during the menopause transition, particularly around the late perimenopausal period, presumably related to declines in ovarian function and estrogen levels. The mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening with the menopause transition are not completely understood. Oxidative stress and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α contribute to endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Habitual endurance exercise attenuates the age-related increase in large artery stiffness in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women and can reverse arterial stiffening to premenopausal levels in estrogen-replete postmenopausal women. In contrast, estrogen status appears to play a key permissive role in the adaptive response of the endothelium to habitual endurance exercise in that endothelial improvements are absent in estrogen-deficient women but present in estrogen-replete women. We review here the current state of knowledge on the biological defects underlying vascular aging across the menopause transition, with particular focus on potential mechanisms, the role of habitual exercise in preserving vascular health, and key areas for future research. PMID:25984561

  7. Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

  8. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Results: Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p < 0.01). The YFAS symptom count score significantly differed by race/ethnicity (p < 0.01) with black women having higher scores than Hispanic women. Racial differences were also observed among some of the YFAS symptoms. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated a low prevalence of food addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction. PMID:26284304

  9. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  10. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  11. A Group-Based Yoga Therapy Intervention for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alison J.; Jenny, Hillary E.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Schembri, Michael; Subak, Leslee L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention for middle-aged and older women with urinary incontinence. Methods We conducted a pilot randomized trial of ambulatory women aged 40 years and older with stress, urgency, or mixed-type incontinence. Women were randomized to a 6-week yoga therapy program (N=10) consisting of twice weekly group classes and once weekly home practice or a waitlist control group (N=9). All participants also received written pamphlets about standard behavioral self-management strategies for incontinence. Changes in incontinence were assessed by 7-day voiding diaries. Results Mean (±SD) age was 61.4 (±8.2) years, and mean baseline frequency of incontinence was 2.5 (±1.3) episodes/day. After 6 weeks, total incontinence frequency decreased by 66% (1.8 [±0.9] fewer episodes/day) in the yoga therapy versus 13% (0.3 [±1.7] fewer episodes/day) in the control group (P=0.049). Participants in the yoga therapy group also reported an average 85% decrease in stress incontinence frequency (0.7 [±0.8] fewer episodes/day) compared to a 25% increase in controls (0.2 [± 1.1] more episodes/day) (P=0.039). No significant differences in reduction in urgency incontinence were detected between the yoga therapy versus control groups (1.0 [±1.0] versus 0.5 [±0.5] fewer episodes/day, P=0.20). All women starting the yoga therapy program completed at least 90% of group classes and practice sessions. Two participants in each group reported adverse events unrelated to the intervention. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention to improve urinary incontinence in women. PMID:24763156

  12. Women's experiences of participation in a feminist group for women with complex mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Clements Eaton, Emma Catherine; Cox, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    A sample of women (n = 5) participated in a qualitative service evaluation concerning an open-ended, therapeutic group for women only. Data analysis followed suggestions by Halcomb and Davidson (2006). Main themes derived from the evaluation included: 'Groups are different from individual work', 'Belonging/ not being alone', 'Performance in the group', 'The group as a safety net', 'Life improvements and hope for the future' and 'The extent of emotional despair felt'. In this paper, several sub-themes within the main themes and relevant theories and implications for theory and service provision are discussed.

  13. Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N=310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD=9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD=7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs—attraction to the group’s task (SE=0.096, CI: −0.599 to −0.221) and group integration around the task (SE=0.060, CI: −0.092 to −0.328)—and social constructs—attraction to the group’s social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366)—significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color. PMID:21826476

  14. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  15. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  16. Is There a War on Women in Psychoanalysis? The Disappearance of a Group of Women Leaders.

    PubMed

    Notman, Malkah T

    2015-01-01

    Some older members of the Boston Psychoanalytic Society remarked that in the 1950s and 1960s there was a group of prominent women analytic leaders at BPSI. They were training analysts, writers, and teachers active in the society and in the community. They were succeeded primarily by men. The question arose Was that an expression of "the war on women"? This paper explores and discusses this question. Although there were some expressions of resentment at being "dominated" by women, the answer appears to be more complex. For various reasons there was not a group of younger women available to move into this role at that time. The reasons for this are described--including the need for a medical degree for psychoanalytic training, the cultural postwar pressures in the United States for women not to work, and the institutional structural problems making it difficult for women candidates, such as ambivalence about pregnancy and the delays in changes in theory to enter the curriculum. This made for discrepancies between theory and the experience of candidates. The earlier group of women were mostly trained in Europe and the implications of this are described. In the years when the leadership was primarily male, decisions subtly reflected this.

  17. Is There a War on Women in Psychoanalysis? The Disappearance of a Group of Women Leaders.

    PubMed

    Notman, Malkah T

    2015-01-01

    Some older members of the Boston Psychoanalytic Society remarked that in the 1950s and 1960s there was a group of prominent women analytic leaders at BPSI. They were training analysts, writers, and teachers active in the society and in the community. They were succeeded primarily by men. The question arose Was that an expression of "the war on women"? This paper explores and discusses this question. Although there were some expressions of resentment at being "dominated" by women, the answer appears to be more complex. For various reasons there was not a group of younger women available to move into this role at that time. The reasons for this are described--including the need for a medical degree for psychoanalytic training, the cultural postwar pressures in the United States for women not to work, and the institutional structural problems making it difficult for women candidates, such as ambivalence about pregnancy and the delays in changes in theory to enter the curriculum. This made for discrepancies between theory and the experience of candidates. The earlier group of women were mostly trained in Europe and the implications of this are described. In the years when the leadership was primarily male, decisions subtly reflected this. PMID:27337814

  18. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  19. Traditional Healing Methods with First Nations Women in Group Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, Carrie L.; Guttman, Mary Alice Julius

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes a traditional aboriginal healing ceremony, called the healing circle, in a counseling group comprised of First Nations and non-aboriginal women survivors of child sexual abuse. Examines ceremony and aboriginal beliefs for their impact on the counseling process. Results indicate that the ceremony and beliefs established a spiritual…

  20. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  1. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  2. Health of Indonesian women city-dwellers of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Samil, R S; Wishnuwardhani, S D

    1994-10-01

    In the last few years more women of climacteric age, living in urban areas, have been seeking medical care. In 1989, on the invitation of 6 women's organizations in Jakarta and other cities, the Indonesian Menopause Society gave talks and held discussions in cooperation with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Indonesia/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. These occasions were used to accumulate data from women participants of 40 years of age and older. The age of the respondents ranged between 40-59 years. Most were 42 years old (13.9%). Ninety-four percent were still married. Twenty-five percent had three living children. Sixty-three percent of the respondents were high school graduates who worked full time (33%), part time, or were unemployed. The average menarche age was 13 and menopausal age 50-51. Menopausal complaints were rare, hence medical consultations were rare. Tranquilizers were prescribed for those who did seek medical help. This data constitutes the basis of the formulation of a strategy to solve menopause related problems in Indonesia, where female life expectancy, and the contribution of women to society, is on the increase.

  3. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  4. Kin Group Affiliation and Marital Violence Against Women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women. PMID:27075121

  5. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  6. Women and Wasta: The Use of Focus Groups for Understanding Social Capital and Middle Eastern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Social capital is the use of informal networking to secure access to resources and opportunities. Often identified as an asset for offsetting deficiencies in societies, research on the phenomena is limited. This paper describes a qualitative study using focus groups with young adult Emeriti women representing three social-economic groups who were…

  7. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  8. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Barlow, Matthew A.; Gonzales, Joaquin U.; McGowan, Cheri L.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Proctor, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho‐inhibitory stimulus (−60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  9. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Barlow, Matthew A; Gonzales, Joaquin U; McGowan, Cheri L; Pawelczyk, James A; Proctor, David N

    2015-01-01

    While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho-inhibitory stimulus (-60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  10. [Melatonin secretion in women of advanced reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, K S; Rapoport, S I; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    The patient's age is a key factor determining success of in vitro fertilization. The ovarian reserve and oocyte quality are known to decrease with age. Much attention has been given recently to the role of epiphysis and its hormone, melatonin, in synchronization of daily and seasonal biorhythms in anti-stress protection and neuroregulation of reproductive processes. The aim of our work was to study melatonin levels in infertile women of reproductive age. We also measured sex hormones, anti-Mullerian hormone, FSH, and LH in blood and melatonin sulfate in urine at 8 points (RIA). Women of advanced reproductive age showed markedly reduced melatonin secretion due to functional disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Results of the study suggest the necessity of prescription of exogenous melatonin to the patients included in assisted reproduction programs for the improvement of their efficacy.

  11. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  12. Difference in Leukocyte Composition between Women before and after Menopausal Age, and Distinct Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Yang, Peixuan; Ye, Shu; Tan, Xuerui

    2016-01-01

    There are sex differences in many inflammatory and immune diseases, and the differences tend to diminish after menopause. The underlying reasons are unclear, but sex hormone levels are likely to be an important factor. Blood leukocyte count and composition provide an indicator of the inflammatory and immune status of an individual. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of blood leukocyte data from 46,879 individuals (26,212 men and 20,667 women, aged 18 to 93 years) who underwent a routine health checkup. In women aged around 50 years, neutrophil percentage (NE%) dropped whilst lymphocyte percentage (LY%) rose. Accordingly, women before age 50 had significantly higher NE%, lower LY%, and higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than women of 51–70 years of age (p = 1.35×10−82, p = 5.32×10−100, and p = 1.25×10−26, respectively). In age groups of <50 years, women had higher NE%, lower LY% and higher NLR than men (p = 1.82×10−206, p = 1.46×10−69, and p = 2.30×10−118, respectively), whereas in age groups of >51 years, it was the reverse (p = 1.92×10−15, p = 1.43×10−84, and p = 1.51×10−48, respectively). These results show that blood leukocyte composition differs between women before and after menopausal age, with distinct sexual dimorphism. PMID:27657912

  13. Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua.

    PubMed Central

    Ellsberg, M C; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study measured the prevalence, frequency, and severity of physical wife abuse and its risk factors in León, Nicaragua. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 488 women 15 to 49 years of age. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spousal violence was 52% among ever-married women (n = 360). Spousal violence was significantly positively associated with poverty, parity, urban residence, and history of violence in the husband's family. No significant associations were found between spousal violence and women's age, education, marital dependency, or occupation. CONCLUSIONS: Wife abuse constitutes a major public health problem in Nicaragua, requiring urgent measures for prevention and treatment for victims. PMID:9949757

  14. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  15. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  16. Women's knowledge about heart disease: Differences among ethnic and cultural groups in the Israeli Women's Health in Midlife Study.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to assess levels of knowledge about risk factors for heart disease among midlife Israeli women, and to evaluate the relationship of knowledge to personal risk factors and vulnerability to heart disease. Face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years were conducted during 2004-2006 within three population groups: long-term Jewish residents (LTR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and Arab women. The survey instrument included six knowledge statements relating to: the risk after menopause, family history, elevated cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, and warning signs of a heart attack. The findings showed wide disparities in knowledge by educational level and between immigrants and LTR, after taking into account personal risk factors and education. Personal risk factors were not significantly related to the knowledge items, except for personal history of cardiovascular disease, which was associated with knowledge about "warning signs of a heart attack" and "family history." Women who perceived themselves as more vulnerable to heart disease were more likely to identify several risk factors correctly. These findings stress the need to increase knowledge about heart disease, especially among less educated and minority women, and to emphasize the risk of patients' personal status by health providers.

  17. Survey findings on in-migrant women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    This study describes the female population of childbearing age in 1998 in Haidian District, Beijing, China. Data were obtained from a family planning survey, in 1998, among a sample of 2300 women. In-migrants came from every province with the exception of Tibet, Qinghai, Guangxi, Ningxia, and Hainan. Most in-migrants came from neighboring Hebei and centrally located Anhui and Henan. 90% of in-migrants came from rural areas. Economic reasons were the primary motivation for migration. 40% of women were engaged in business, 48.5% had odd jobs, and 11.5% were professionals. 1319 were married. 31.8% were aged 20-24 years. 1543 women held temporary residence permits and 1351 had family planning certificates. Of 840 women who should have had a pregnancy check-up, only 194 actually did so. 83.9% of women had given birth at least once. 34.5% had 2 children; 2.4% had over 2 children. 1066 (80.8%) used contraception; 218 (19.2%) did not. Most of the floating population were not well educated. Four suggestions were made for managing the floating population. PMID:12321924

  18. The effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle: Focusing on middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678

  19. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  20. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  1. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  2. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  3. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  4. Exploring Somali women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences: results from focus group discussions in Mogadishu.

    PubMed

    Gure, Faduma; Yusuf, Marian; Foster, Angel M

    2015-11-01

    With a total fertility ratio of 6.7 children per woman, a maternal mortality ratio over 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births, high rates of sexual and gender-based violence, and the lowest contraceptive prevalence rate in the world, women's reproductive health indices in Somalia prove alarming. The voices of women living in Somalia have long been neglected and we undertook this qualitative study to explore women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences. In 2014, we conducted four focus group discussions with 21 married and unmarried women of reproductive age living in Mogadishu, Somalia. Discussions took place in Somali and we used a constant comparative approach to analyse the discussions for content and themes. Our findings reveal that misinformation, restrictive policies, mistrust of clinicians, and prohibitively expensive services shape women's experiences and health-seeking behaviours. Women identified the need for culturally resonant reproductive health information and services as a significant priority. As Somalia begins to emerge from over two decades of civil war, it is imperative that comprehensive reproductive health issues are included on the national agenda and that women's perspectives are incorporated into future policies and interventions. PMID:26719005

  5. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  6. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women. PMID:25509968

  7. Poor sleep in middle-aged women is not associated with menopause per se.

    PubMed

    Tao, M F; Sun, D M; Shao, H F; Li, C B; Teng, Y C

    2016-01-01

    Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ≥40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Kupperman Index (KI), and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ≥7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2%) were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64%) women were postmenopausal and 88 (36%) were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001) compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems.

  8. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-07-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40-49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan.

  9. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  10. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population.

  11. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida) that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by NTDs. To assess awareness, knowledge, and behavior related to folic acid among women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), CDC analyzed the results of a national survey conducted annually by the Gallup Organization during the period 2003-2007. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among all women of childbearing age, those aged 18-24 years had the least awareness regarding folic acid consumption (61%), the least knowledge regarding when folic acid should be taken (6%), and the lowest reported daily use of supplements containing folic acid (30%). Because women in this age group account for nearly one third of all births in the United States, promotion of folic acid consumption should be targeted to this population. PMID:18185493

  12. Natural history of obesity in 6,946 women between 50 and 59 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, A J; Rimm, A A

    1980-01-01

    A health survey of 6946 50-to-59 year-old women of TOPS, an organization for weight reduction, was used to study the natural history of obesity. Weight history was compared for four groups of women divided on the basis of their per cent above ideal body weight (IBW) in their 50s (less than 20%, 20-49%, 50-99% and 100+%). In each of the four groups, the majority of women were not obese by age 20. Sixteen per cent of the women who were 100+% overweight in their 50s were not obese at anytime during their first 30 years of life. Thirty-six per cent of the women who were 50-99% about IBW were not overweight at anytime prior to their 30th birthday. The history of obesity prior to age 30 was not associated with weight gain between the ages of 30 and 50. These data suggest: 1) than there is no critical time for the development of obesity, and 2) that previous weight history is not a dominant factor in determining subsequent weight gain. PMID:7361956

  13. Appendicitis in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Samuel B.; Nazem, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 35 patients aged 2 to 20 years who were seen at the District of Columbia General Hospital and Howard University Hospital over a three-year period (1984 to 1986) was performed. All patients were operated on with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A normal appendix was found in 17 percent of patients, of which the majority was adolescent girls. Of those patients with acute appendicitis, 41 percent had perforated appendices, and one half of these were judged to be complicated. At diagnosis or at reoperation, one half of the patients were maintained on single-antibiotic therapy, the other half were maintained on triple-antibiotic therapy. The average hospital stay was 26.6 days, with no significant difference between those patients on single- or triple-antibiotic coverage. The average hospital stay for patients with uncomplicated appendicitis was six days. PMID:3385787

  14. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  15. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  16. Factors Associated with Abortion in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Paula Vidal Dos; Coelho, Edméia de Almeida Cardoso; Gusmão, Maria Enoy Neves; Silva, Diorlene Oliveira da; Marques, Patrícia Figueiredo; Almeida, Mariza Silva

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To verify sociodemographic factors associated with the occurrence of abortion in women of reproductive age, in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy (FHS), a program from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Methods A cross-sectional study using household surveys of 350 women aged 15 to 49. The report of abortion was a variable indicator, and sociodemographic aspects were covariables. Prevalence ratio (PR) and respective 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the magnitude of the associations. Results There were associations among age, civil status, race/color, and religion; an increase in the prevalence of lower levels of education, age less than 20, and student status were protective factors. Conclusion The association between sociodemographic characteristics and the report of abortion is attributed to the fact that there is a lack at the FHS in the availability of fundamental healthcare services for young women; these findings call for action to guarantee the access to information about contraceptives and guidance to decrease the risk of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. PMID:27399921

  17. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function.

  18. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  19. The menopausal age and climacteric complaints in Thai women in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Chompootweep, S; Tankeyoon, M; Yamarat, K; Poomsuwan, P; Dusitsin, N

    1993-07-01

    Age at menopause, associated factors and related clinical symptoms were recorded in a sample of Thai women living in the Bangkok area. Interviews by trained nurses were offered to a sample of 2375 women aged 45-59 years selected at random in 19 of the 54 Bangkok Metropolis Administration health centers. Full reports were obtained from 2354 women. Fifty-six percent of the study population were classified as postmenopausal, i.e. having no vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months, 12% were perimenopausal, i.e. having irregular vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months and 31% were premenopausal, i.e. having regular vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months. The average age at menopause was 49.5 +/- 3.6 years and was not related to body weight, height, age at menarche, level of education, smoking or use of oral contraceptives. However, high parity was significantly correlated to delayed menopause. Clinical symptoms of oestrogen deficiency were reported at a significantly higher rate in the perimenopause group, but the premenopause and postmenopause groups did not differ in their complaints about any symptom, including hot flushes. The most striking effect of menopause was a dramatic loss of sexual desire in 86.9% of postmenopausal women. However, the situation did not induce any specific complaint or any request for medical support.

  20. Prevalence of prescription medication use among non-pregnant women of childbearing age and pregnant women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy.

  1. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed.

  2. Ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination in women aged 40 years or more.

    PubMed

    Wiser, Amir; Shalom-Paz, Einat; Reinblatt, Shauna Leigh; Son, Weon-Young; Das, Mausumi; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2012-02-01

    Fertility decreases with advancing age. This study retrospectively reviewed the results of ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) in women 40 years old with diminished ovarian reserve or unexplained infertility who underwent treatment with ovarian stimulation/IUI with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophin and compared them with the results of IVF and in-vitro maturation (IVM) treatments. The main outcome measures were pregnancy and live-birth rates. The profiles of the patients in ovarian stimulation, IVM and IVF groups were comparable. There were no clinical pregnancies in the clomiphene citrate and IVM groups. The clinical-pregnancy rates in the gonadotrophin and IVF groups were 2.6% and 16.9% and the live-birth rates were 2.6% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared with ovarian stimulation, IVF is most effective for women aged 40 years or more. Attempting success with ovarian stimulation or IVM will delay conception unnecessarily. PMID:22197126

  3. [PROBLEM OF ENDOMETRIUM HYPERPLASTIC PROCESSES IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Bazyuta, L Z; Polyova, S P; Tsintar, S A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the risk factors of endometrium hyperplastic processes (EHP) in reproduc- tive age women. It is shown that EHP occur in response to hormonal homeostasis violations of the target tissues. It is established that the biologically active substances, which are closely related to immune mechanisms of the reproductive system functioning take place in regulatory mechanisms of cell growth and differentiation of endometrium. PMID:27491143

  4. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Levinson, Cheri A.; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Disordered eating behavior—dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating—is common in college-aged women (11–20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women’s Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one’s appearance to others’ on social media) and online “fat talk” (i.e., talking negatively about one’s body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. Methods In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. Results In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. Conclusions College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. PMID:26206436

  5. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  6. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    PubMed

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  7. Cardiac autonomic changes in middle-aged women: identification based on principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Trevizani, Gabriela A; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo R; Silva, Lilian P; Nadal, Jurandir

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the principal component analysis (PCA) technique on power spectral density function (PSD) of consecutive normal RR intervals (iRR) aiming at assessing its ability to discriminate healthy women according to age groups: young group (20-25 year-old) and middle-aged group (40-60 year-old). Thirty healthy and non-smoking female volunteers were investigated (13 young [mean ± SD (median): 22·8 ± 0·9 years (23·0)] and 17 Middle-aged [51·7 ± 5·3 years (50·0)]). The iRR sequence was collected during ten minutes, breathing spontaneously, in supine position and in the morning, using a heart rate monitor. After selecting an iRR segment (5 min) with the smallest variance, an auto regressive model was used to estimate the PSD. Five principal component coefficients, extracted from PSD signals, were retained for analysis according to the Mahalanobis distance classifier. A threshold established by logistic regression allowed the separation of the groups with 100% specificity, 83·2% sensitivity and 93·3% total accuracy. The PCA appropriately classified two groups of women in relation to age (young and Middle-aged) based on PSD analysis of consecutive normal RR intervals.

  8. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women…

  9. Self-concept in intensive care nurses and control group women.

    PubMed

    Mlinar, Suzana; Tusak, Matej; Karpljuk, Damir

    2009-05-01

    Our self-concept is how we see ourselves in our minds. The goal of this research was to discover any significant differences in the dimensions of self-concept between clinical nurses employed in an intensive care unit in Slovenia and Slovenian women from the general population, who represented the control group. The research included 603 women aged 20-40 years (mean 29.94; standard deviation +/-6.0) who had a high-school education. To determine the differences between the groups statistically we used one-way analysis of variance. The results revealed that clinical nurses had a more positive self-concept than members of the control group. Self-concept is very important in nursing because it is closely connected to the existing value system of individuals and their behaviour. Self-concept gives nurses a sense of how they use their abilities and how they perform in relation to patients.

  10. The Educational Needs of the 16-19 Age Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janne, Henri; Geminard, Lucien

    Reports for the Council of Europe were the basis for this study of the educational needs of the 16-19 age group. The first of four sections, on sociological aspects, contains five chapters: socio-cultural characteristics of the 16-19 age group; quantitative aspects of education; equality of educational opportunity; and an overview of the…

  11. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  12. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    PubMed

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  13. Opioid prescription claims among women of reproductive age--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Dawson, April L; Lind, Jennifer N; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Frey, Meghan T; Broussard, Cheryl S; Honein, Margaret A

    2015-01-23

    Prescription opioid use in the United States has become widespread, and studies of opioid exposure in pregnancy suggest increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome and birth defects (e.g., neural tube defects, gastroschisis, and congenital heart defects). The development of birth defects often results from exposures during the first few weeks of pregnancy, which is a critical period for organ formation. Given that many pregnancies are not recognized until well after the first few weeks and half of all U.S. pregnancies are unplanned, all women who might become pregnant are at risk. Therefore, it is important to assess opioid medication use among all women of reproductive age. CDC used Truven Health's MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicaid data to estimate the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed by outpatient pharmacies to women aged 15-44 years. During 2008-2012, opioid prescription claims were consistently higher among Medicaid-enrolled women when compared with privately insured women (39.4% compared with 27.7%, p<0.001). The most frequently prescribed opioids among women in both groups were hydrocodone, codeine, and oxycodone. Efforts are needed to promote interventions to reduce opioid prescriptions among this population when safer alternative treatments are available. PMID:25611168

  14. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  15. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  16. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  17. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped.

  18. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped. PMID:27134373

  19. The role of focus groups in health education for cervical cancer among minority women.

    PubMed

    Dignan, M; Michielutte, R; Sharp, P; Bahnson, J; Young, L; Beal, P

    1990-12-01

    Focus groups were used in the development of community-based public health education designed to reduce mortality from cervical cancer among black women in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The educational goals of this National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded project were to increase the proportion of black women, age 18 and older, who obtain Pap smears on a regular basis and return for followup care when necessary. A series of four focus groups were conducted to help develop the conceptual basis for designing educational messages and materials. The groups were led by a black, female professional focus group moderator, and explored a variety of health-related topics ranging from general, ordinary concerns of daily living to knowledge and attitudes about cancer screening. The group discussions suggested that health is regarded as very important to the target population, particularly when related to family functioning. Regarding the Pap smear, most women knew about the test, but had little awareness of its role in the early detection of cervical cancer. Fear and fatalism were clearly the dominant, top-of-mind reactions to cancer, and there was little differentiation among sites or types of cancer. Despite the overall pessimism, the groups agreed that early diagnosis and treatment provide the best hope for good outcomes with cancer.

  20. Clinical Usefulness of Shoulder Stability Exercises for Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seok-Hwa; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of shoulder stability exercises and the effect of stability exercise on the shoulder pain of middle-aged women. [Subjects] Twenty-two middle-aged female subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a shoulder stability exercise group (Experimental group, n=11) and a control group (n=11). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group performed a shoulder stability exercise, which was designed to correct abnormal location of the scapula, for 40 minutes per day, three times per week, over a period of four weeks. Range of motion, muscle strength, and grasping power were measured to determine the effect of the shoulder stability exercise. The measured parameters were evaluated before and after four weeks of exercise. [Results] Following intervention, range of motion, muscle strength, and grasping power showed greater improvements in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that shoulder stability exercise can improve the shoulder function of middle-aged women, and prevent damage to the shoulder joint. We consider this exercise would be useful in clinical rehabilitation. PMID:24259767

  1. Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.

    PubMed Central

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

  2. Smoking prevalence among women of reproductive age--United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    2008-08-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Women of reproductive age (18-44 years) who smoke risk adverse pregnancy outcomes and adverse health consequences for themselves. They also are exposing their children to secondhand smoke and modeling behavior that will increase the likelihood that their children will become smokers. CDC analyzed state-specific prevalence of smoking and attempts to quit among women of reproductive age, using 2006 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The data indicated a six-fold difference between the state and territory with the highest and lowest prevalence (range: 5.8% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)]-34.7% [Kentucky]). Among women of reproductive age, those aged 18-24 years were most likely to have attempted to quit (68.4%), but least likely to have quit smoking (26.3%). Successful prevention and cessation interventions for this group of women can protect their own and their children's health.

  3. Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute for stage I–III breast cancer while aged 18–42 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

  4. A comparison between the lifestyles of men and women--parents of school age children.

    PubMed

    Fiala, J; Brázdová, Z

    2000-05-01

    Women live longer than men and experience lower overall and specific mortality resulting from various diseases, even when younger. The reasons for this have yet to be satisfactorily explained. However, biological differences on one hand and differing lifestyles on the other might be responsible. The purpose of the study was to examine to what extent the lifestyle of men and women differs within a relatively homogeneous population group. The lifestyles of 4,353 parents of school age children (58% women and 42% men) were examined using questionnaires. The results show considerable differences between the genders. Men had worse dietary habits--consuming significantly less vegetables, fruit and milk, but too much meat; they consumed more processed meat and fat-containing items within the food sub-categories; they preferred less low-fat milk products and consumed less wholemeal products. Men more often consumed alcohol, drank more of it and often crossed the limits hazardous for health. There were more smokers among the men, they smoked more cigarettes and the non-smokers more often indicated passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Overweight and obesity occurred more often among men. Relatively minor differences, rather to the benefit of men, occurred in the field of leisure-time physical sporting activities, where slightly more men pursued regular sporting activities but in significantly higher amounts than the women, whereas the men did less regular daily walking. Women, as opposed to men, displayed more interest in comprehensive primary preventive medical examinations. The results obtained suggest that women lived a generally more healthy lifestyle than men within the examined homogeneous group of parents of school age children, consisting mostly of pairs of partners. They support the assumption that the healthier lifestyle of women very significantly contributes to their lower mortality.

  5. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  6. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  7. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  8. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  9. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  10. Ageing in a foreign country: voices of Iranian women ageing in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shemirani, Farimah Shakeri; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2006-01-01

    Older Iranian women, who immigrated to Canada in later adulthood, experience unique issues as they age. In order to better understand this experience, in-depth, personal and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five immigrant/refugee Iranian women who immigrated to Canada in their later life. Analysis revealed that although each woman's story conveyed individual differences and idiosyncrasies, all the stories highlighted the critical interweaving of the aging experience and the immigration experience: neither experience could be understood in isolation of the other; each aspect gave meaning to the other experience. Two interrelated messages dominated the women's stories: first was the importance of each woman's immigration story for grounding her experience of the aging process in Canada. Second, each woman's personal story suggested that the immigration experiences were accorded priority for accounting for her experiences in Canada. Specifically, cultural identity (i.e., social class, education, religious affiliation and immigration status) offered a valuable cloak for overshadowing the force of the aging process and the aging process emerged as an elusive force that lurked in the background without ever being fully acknowledged or given power in their lives. The implications of these findings in relation to theory development on intersectionality and professional practice are discussed. PMID:16782661

  11. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  12. Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives. II. Preferred characteristics according to women's age and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; de Pádua, K S; Jiménez, A L; Zaneveld, L J

    1998-10-01

    A study was carried out to identify characteristics that women would want for an idealized vaginal contraceptive, and the possible association of these characteristics with age and socioeconomic status. The study was done in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected by age and socioeconomic status, using the "social network" technique. Almost half were adolescents (15-19 years old) and the rest were adults (20-45 years old). Half were of low socioeconomic status and the rest of medium-high status. The data were analyzed with SPSS-PC and EPI-INFO 6.0. Logistic regression and chi 2 were used for the analysis. Despite some differences found between age and socioeconomic status in regard to the characteristics desired for the idealized method, most of the participants expressed the same preferences. The results indicate that women would like the idealized method to be a cream, rather than a suppository, with no odor or flavor, to be colorless, to be placed in the vagina with an applicator well before coitus, and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. PMID:9866006

  13. Age at marriage is rising for Asian women and men, according to new data.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A

    1992-09-01

    The social transformations in Asia are described: delayed age at marriage and the proportions marrying. Policy implications are ascertained. The norm for female age at marriage has risen from 15 years to 17-18 years in south Asia, and from 18 years to 24 years and older in east Asia. Men's marriage age has also risen but not as much. Concurrent changes have occurred with fertility declines and small family sizes and lower population growth, with changing roles for women, and with emergent youth subcultures and increased prevalence of premarital sexual behavior. The number of singles is rising and expected to continue to rise. Examples are given of marriage age changes for Nepal and Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Korea, and regional totals. Southeast Asian countries experienced less dramatic changes, and changes primarily in the 20-24 year old group (from 30% to 74% of single women). Change for men has been less regular and with less magnitude. In Southeast Asia, the rise in marriage age for men has risen only 1-2 years compared with women. East Asia patterns vary by country, i.e., South Korean increases of 6 years, Taiwanese increases of 4 years, and 2 years in Japan. Single males have been common in South and Southeast Asia, while in East Asia married male teens 25 years are rare. Marriage timing for men is not as closely associated as for women with social and cultural change. Downturns for men follow momentous, temporary disruptions such as happen during wars and periods of migration, while women's patterns are more reflective of structural change. The trend for never marrying is on the increase, particularly for men in Japan (1.1% in the 1920s to 18% in the early 1980s for men 50 years). Women not ever marrying are increasing in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hong Kong. Never marrying is common in urban or educated populations, i.e., Singapore, Thailand, and Philippines. The implications are a longer gap between successive generations and a shorter period of

  14. Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes results of a survey of licensed Midwestern school-based speech-language pathologists (N=326) regarding methods used to assess the language of children ages 3 to 5 years, 6 to 11 years, and 12 to 18 years. Striking similarities were found in methods used for each age group. The relationship of these methods to recommended…

  15. Risk factors for urinary incontinence in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shao-Tung; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2007-11-01

    To determine risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) in Taiwanese women aged 60 or over, face-to-face interviews with 1,517 women, selected by a multistage random method, were completed. The prevalence of UI in this age group was 29.8%. Factors and their prevalence associated with UI were age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04 per year], diabetes mellitus (39.8%, p = 0.002), hypertension (39.5%, p = 0.001), abdominal gynecological surgery (41.4%, p = 0.001), hysterectomy (42.4%, p = 0.003), history of drug allergy (41.3%, p = 0.001), smoking (45.5%, p = 0.010), hormone replacement therapy (41.5%, p = 0.026), and high body mass index (OR = 1.05 per unit). Alcohol consumption and marriage did not increase the risk of UI. UI is a common and costly problem in elderly women. It diminishes the quality of life of the affected women. Of the associated factors that are preventable, modifiable, or controllable, smoking, prior hysterectomy, and obesity may have the greatest impact on the prevalence of UI.

  16. The effect of age on the competitive C- and N-oxidative pathways of methaqualone in women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K; Oram, M; Burnett, D

    1984-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the N-oxide and the glucuronides of five C-monohydroxy metabolizes of methaqualone has been studied in a group of young women aged 24-34 years and in a group of elderly women aged 85-87 years. The rate of appearance of the metabolites in the urine was slower in the elderly group but the relative importance of the six metabolites was the same in the two groups. There were differences in some metabolite ratios between the two groups, but only one difference approached statistical significance. The metabolite excretion in a 80 year old woman who had received methaqualone daily for over ten years was consistent with that of the elderly group. The results indicate that the ageing process per se and chronic weak hepatic enzyme induction in the elderly are not accompanied by changes in the relative importance of competitive metabolic pathways.

  17. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  18. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  19. Environmental and Genetic Factors Influence Age at Menarche in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jessica; Saxena, Richa; Welt, Corrine K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that BMI and DNA variants would predict age at menarche in PCOS. Subjects: Subjects with PCOS defined by the NIH criteria (n=522) and controls with regular menstrual cycles and no hyperandrogenism (n=472); aged 18 to 45 years were studied. Methods Age at menarche was compared between PCOS cases and controls, and examined as a function of multiple parameters. Results There was a strong inverse relationship between BMI and age at menarche in PCOS (r=−0.32; p=5×10−11). The chromosome 6 rs7759938-T variant was associated with earlier age at menarche in women with PCOS (12.60±0.09 vs. 13.41±0.23 years; genotype TT vs. CC; p=0.006). Age at menarche was predicted by PCOS status (β=0.512; p<0.001), reported weight group at 10 to 14 years (β= −0.432; p<0.001), current BMI (β= −0.0202; p=0.01) and genotype (β=0.169; p=0.02). Conclusions Age at menarche in women with PCOS is influenced by BMI and genetic variants near LIN28B. Trial Registration NCT00166569 PMID:22876539

  20. Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence

  1. ALTERATION OF OXIDATIVE METABOLISM AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF UVA RADIATION IN WOMEN OF DIFFERENT AGES.

    PubMed

    Berianidze, K; Katsitadze, A; Sanikidze, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of study was to investigate the alteration of oxidative and immunological metabolism in blood of reproductive and menopausal age women after UVA irradiation. Women of two groups (1 - menopausal, 2 - reproductive age) were exposed to radiation with wave length 320-400 nm for 5-10 minutes per session in the solarium for the period of 3 months (6 days per month).. Parameters of oxidative metabolism - activity of red blood cells (RBC), antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxiddismutase (SOD) were studied by spectrophotometric method; reactive oxygen (O2-) and lipid (LOO/) free radicals content in whole blood were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) methods with use of specific spin-traps - 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline-N-Oxide (DMPO) and α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) (SIGMA). Parameters of immunological metabolism - IFN-α, IL-2, IL-10 cytokines content in blood were studied by immunoenzymatic assay ELISA. The study protocol has been approved by the Ethical Committee of the Tbilisi State Medical University. After the course of UVA irradiation in menopausal women CAT activity increased by 20%, SOD - by 24%, and EPR signal of spin trapped lipoperoxide radicals was detected. No alterations in blood redox-balance were detected in women of reproductive age. Values of blood immunological parameters in menopausal women were not changed under the influence of UV radiation; in women of reproductive age IL-10 content increase by 93% (within a normal value range) was revealed. Research results have shown that UVA rays cause a particularly significant influence on the oxidative metabolism in the women of menopausal age. Increase of IL-10 blood levels in women of reproductive age (considering its imunosupressing activity) represents an additional risk of cancerogenesis. Based on the study results, we recommend avoiding UV (including UVA) radiation procedures to women of both reproductive and menopausal ages. PMID:26870984

  2. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  3. Blood Cadmium Levels in Women of Childbearing Age Vary by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Mijal, Renée S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long -lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half -life of the metal, reproductive age-exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20–44 who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n =1734–3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06–2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96–4.47) times those of non -Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non -Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

  4. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  5. Breast cancer screening outcomes in women ages 40-49: clinical experience with service screening using modern mammography.

    PubMed

    Sickles, E A

    1997-01-01

    The several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of breast cancer screening among women of ages 40 to 49 now collectively show a statistically significant reduction in breast cancer mortality. However, there have been numerous recent advances in mammography, such that it now is demonstrably better than when the RCTs were conducted. The use of surrogate measures of screening efficacy (tumor size, lymph node status, cancer stage), readily derived from modern service screening programs, demonstrates how the improved mammography of the 1990s should produce a greater degree of mortality reduction among women ages 40-49 than that already demonstrated in the RCTs. Indeed, these surrogate measures of mortality reduction are as favorable for women of ages 40-49 and 65+ as they are for women of ages 50-64, strongly suggesting that, since modern service screening is accepted as effectively reducing mortality among women of ages 50-64, it should also effectively reduce mortality among women in the 40-49 and 65+ age groups.

  6. Ageing influence in the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with physical disabilities in daily activities. Moreover, patients with fibromyalgia present similar levels of functional capacity and physical condition than elderly people. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia along ageing. A total sample of 492 fibromyalgia patients and 279 healthy control women were included in the study. Participants in each group were further divided into four age subgroups: subgroup 1: 30-39 years old, subgroup 2: 40-49 years old, subgroup 3: 50-59 years old and subgroup 4: 60-69 years old. Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand, handgrip strength and arm curl tests). Fibromyalgia patients did not show impairment on muscle mass along ageing, without values of skeletal muscle mass index below 6.76 kg/m(2) in any group. However, in all variables of muscle strength, the fibromyalgia group showed less strength than the healthy group (p < 0.05) for all age groups. As expected, handgrip strength test showed differences along ageing only in the fibromyalgia group (p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = -0.155, p < 0.01) and handgrip strength (r = -0.230, p < 0.001) in the FM group. Women with fibromyalgia showed a reduction in muscle strength along ageing process, with significantly lower scores than healthy women for each age group, representing a risk of dynapenia.

  7. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  8. Lifestyle and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly women: Chiba bone survey.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Terano, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Suzuki, Kiminori; Kubota, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Jyunichi; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Tanaka, Tomaki; Shozu, Makio

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis causes an enormous health and economic impact in Japan. We investigated the relation between lifestyle and bone fracture in middle-aged and elderly women. This was a population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chiba City, Japan (Chiba bone survey). This survey included 64,809 Japanese women aged > 40 years. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements including bone mineral density (BMD) and completed a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administered questionnaire also including patient lifestyle. Bone fracture during the recent 5 years was observed in 5.3%, and the fracture group had significantly higher age, BMI, and prevalence of delivery, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, kidney disease, exercise, fall, and osteoporosis, and had significantly lower BMD and proportion of menstruating participants. Logistic regression analysis revealed that bone fracture was closely associated with not only low bone mass but also age, fall, family histories of kyphosis and hip fracture, DM, kidney disease, menopause, and lifestyle factors of dieting, exercise, and alcohol. Women's health care focusing on lifestyle-related fracture risks such as dieting, exercise, and alcohol appears necessary to prevent bone fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 ± 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 ± 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 ± 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 ± 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 ± 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 ± 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 ± 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 ± 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (μIU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 ± 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 ± 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 ± 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 ± 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  10. Prevalence of Anemia among Tribal Women of Reproductive Age in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Majeed, Jazeel Abdul; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Pattanshetty, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Many studies have emphasized on prevalence of anaemia among general population. This study has focussed to address the prevalence of anaemia among the tribal population in Udupi taluk. Anaemia among women in the reproductive age group is one of the causes for maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among tribal women (aged 15 to 49 years). Settings and Design: A Community based cross sectional study was conducted among tribal women aged 14-49 years in Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study during July 2012 to August 2012 was conducted. A sample size of 170 was calculated taking into consideration a relative error of 15% and the prevalence of anemia in Karnataka as 51% (as per the NFHS-3). Statistical analysis used: Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data using SPSS 15. Results: The study sample had a mean hemoglobin value of 11.3 g/dL with 95% CI of (11 – 11.6), with a standard deviation of 2g/dL. The study reveals that in the sample of tribal women in the age group of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia was 55.9%. Among the subjects, 6 (3.5%) were severely anemic, 33 (19.4%) were moderately anemic and 56 (32.9%) were mildly anemic. Conclusions: This study calls for an appropriate action and intervention in this tribal population to treat and prevent anaemia. PMID:26664839

  11. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521

  12. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  13. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  14. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.

  15. Disparities exist between National food group recommendations and the dietary intakes of women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Preconception and pregnancy dietary intakes can influence the health of future generations. In this study we compared the food intakes of reproductive-aged women by pregnancy status, to current Australian recommendations. Methods Data are from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, younger cohort aged 25-30 years in 2003, with self-reported status as pregnant (n = 606), trying to conceive (n = 454), given birth in the last 12 months (n = 829) or other (n = 5597). Diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire. Food group servings and nutrient intakes were compared to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) and Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs). Results No women met all AGHE food group recommendations. Highest adherence rates [mean (95% CI) servings/day] were for meat [85%, 1.9(1.8-1.9)], fruit [44%, 2.1(2.1-2.2)] and dairy [35%, 1.8(1.8-1.9)], with < 14% meeting remaining recommendations. Women who achieved NRVs (folate, iron, calcium, zinc, fibre) for pregnancy, breastfeeding and adult life stages were 1.5%, 3.3% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared to AGHE, women consumed more servings of fruit (4.9 vs 4.0;P = 0.034) and dairy (3.4 vs 2.0;P = 0.006) to achieve pregnancy NRVs; more dairy (2.9 vs 2.0;P = 0.001), less fruit (3.9 vs 5.0;P < .001) and vegetables (3.4 vs 7.0;P < .001) to achieve breastfeeding NRVs; more fruit (3.6 vs 3.0;P < .001), dairy (2.5 vs 2.0;P < .001), meat (1.8 vs 1.5;P = 0.015), less vegetables (3.6 vs 5.0;P < .001) to achieve adult NRVs. Conclusions The AGHE does not align with contemporary diets of Australian women or enable them to meet all NRVs. Current tools to guide food consumption by women during pregnancy require revision. PMID:21819627

  16. Association between ABO blood group and osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2014-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine possible associations between ABO blood groups and the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India. This cross-sectional study involved 250 postmenopausal women from North India, ranging in age from 45 to 80 years. Four anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), blood sample (ABO status and haemoglobin concentration) and grip strength (dominant as well as non-dominant hand) of all the participants were taken. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur. Analysis of data revealed that at lumbar spine (L1-L4) osteoporosis was more prevalent among individuals with blood group A (31.58%), followed by those with blood group B (29.67%), AB (28.57%) and then blood group O (15%), whereas for proximal femur individuals with blood group AB (21.43%) showed the highest prevalence of osteoporosis followed by a decreasing trend from blood group A (17.54%) to B (12.08%) and then O (5%). Total prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4% in lumbar spine and 13.2% in proximal femur, indicating that lumbar spine had an elevated risk for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. All the anthropometric variables, haemoglobin concentration as well as grip strength of individuals with blood group O demonstrated non-significant differences with non-O blood group except for weight and body mass index, where differences were statistically significant. Women with blood group O exhibited significantly higher bone mineral density for lumbar spine (0.90 g/cm(2) vs. 0.85 g/cm(2), p<0.05) and proximal femur (0.87 g/cm(2) vs. 0.79 g/cm(2), p<0.05) as compared to those with non-O blood group, thereby suggesting an increasing risk of osteoporosis among individuals with non-O blood group.

  17. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions.

  18. Personalizing pelvic floor reconstructive surgery in aging women.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Paolo; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Naldini, Gabriele; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a growingly frequent condition in aging individuals. Urinary or rectal incontinence, constipation, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic pain or sexual dysfunction are common problems in this age range. Such conditions carry a severe impact on quality of life, but also limit individual independence in daily activities, favor social isolation and carry health risks. Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in aging women is tricky, since multiple interfering conditions affecting muscle tone and nerve function are common in these individuals. Diabetes mellitus, sarcopenia, use of drugs that affect cognition or impact bowel or urinary function are just a few examples. These conditions need to be thoroughly taken into account during pre-operative work up for their potential impact on the success of surgery and vice versa. Functional reconstruction aimed at treating symptoms rather than anatomic defects is key to success. The recent advancements in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse allow for more options to achieve the best surgery in each patient. PMID:26142653

  19. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social

  20. Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Majid; Lesanpezeshki, Mohammad; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis. Results The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35) and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31) were associated with higher prevalence of anemia. Conclusion Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women) groups. PMID:24971116

  1. [Psychopathological profile of battered women according to age].

    PubMed

    Sarasua, Belén; Zubizarreta, Irene; Echeburúa, Enrique; Del Corral, Paz

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, differential psychopathological consequences in battered women according to age were analysed in a sample of 148 victims seeking psychological treatment in a Family Violence Centre. The younger victims exposed to intimate partner violence suffered more often from physical violence and were at higher risk for their lives than the older ones. The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was higher (42%) in the younger victims than in the older ones (27%). Likewise, younger victims were affected by more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem than the older ones. The severity of PTSD in the younger victims was related to the presence of forced sexual relationship but in the older ones, it was related to the perceived threat to their lives. Implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented upon.

  2. [Efficacy of general magnetotherapy in conservative therapy of uterine myoma in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Kulishova, T V; Tabashnikova, N A; Akker, L V

    2005-01-01

    Sixty women of the reproductive age with uterine myoma were divided into two groups. Thirty patients of the study group received combined therapy plus general magnetotherapy (GMT). Patients of the control group received only combined treatment. Ultrasound investigation registered a reduction in the size of myoma nodes by 16.7% in the study group, while in the controls myoma size did not change (p < 0.05). 1-year follow-up data for the study group demonstrated no cases of the myoma growth while 16.6% of the controls showed growth of myoma nodes, in 6.6% of them supravaginal myoma amputation was made for rapidly growing myoma. PMID:15759473

  3. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  4. Effect of daily supplementation with iron and zinc on iron status of childbearing age women.

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation with 30 mg of iron (Fe) plus 30 mg of zinc (Zn) for 3 months on Fe status of women of childbearing age. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-one women (18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either a daily single dose of 30 mg of Fe (group 1; n = 28) and 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn (group 2; n = 26) or placebo (n = 27) for 3 months. Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, serum Fe, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte Zn protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), total body Fe, serum Zn, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. At baseline, 3.7, 28.4, and 3.7 % of women had iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), Fe deficiency without anemia, and depleted Fe stores, respectively. No significant differences on Fe status were found between groups before supplementation. After supplementation, group 2 showed a significant increase of Hb and total body Fe and a significant decrease of TfR compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Moreover, serum Zn increased significantly in group 2 compared with group 1 (p < 0.01) and placebo (p < 0.01). In conclusion, daily supplementation with 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn for 3 months improved significantly the Fe and Zn status of women, compared with those who received placebo. The positive effect of Fe supplementation on Fe status is enhanced by combined Zn supplementation.

  5. The effect of age on pressure flow parameters in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Basu, M; Postlethwaite, C; Cheema, K; Duckett, J

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in voiding with age in women with different urodynamic diagnoses. Correlation was used to analyse the association between age and voiding parameters (maximum flow rate, voided volume, flow rate centile and maximum detrusor pressure - PdetMax) in 896 datasets. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data further by age group and diagnosis - urodynamic stress incontinence (USI); detrusor overactivity (DO); mixed USI and DO; no urodynamic abnormality. Results showed that diagnosis accounts for a significant amount of variation in all four of the dependent variables Age group shows a significant effect on voiding volume but does not show significant effects on any other variable studied. There is no significant interaction term in any of the analyses, meaning that age and diagnosis do not appear to function together, e.g. age does not relate to flow rate centile, maximum flow rate or PdetQMax. It was concluded that the data suggest that there is no significant change in voiding function related to age. In the elderly, the main alteration in voiding is due to a higher prevalence of DO. PMID:24219733

  6. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  7. FRAILTY AND CONSTELLATIONS OF FACTORS IN AGING HIV-INFECTED AND UNINFECTED WOMEN - THE WOMEN'S INTERAGENCY HIV STUDY

    PubMed Central

    GUSTAFSON, D.R.; SHI, Q.; THURN, M.; HOLMAN, S.A.; MINKOFF, H.; COHEN, M.; PLANKEY, M.W.; HAVLIK, R.; SHARMA, A.; GANGE, S.; GANDHI, M.; MILAM, J.; HOOVER, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Biological similarities are noted between aging and HIV infection. Middle-aged adults with HIV infection may present as elderly due to accelerated aging or having more severe aging phenotypes occurring at younger ages. Objectives We explored age-adjusted prevalence of frailty, a geriatric condition, among HIV+ and at risk HIV− women. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants 2028 middle-aged (average age 39 years) female participants (1449 HIV+; 579 HIV−). Measurements The Fried Frailty Index (FFI), HIV status variables, and constellations of variables representing Demographic/health behaviors and Aging-related chronic diseases. Associations between the FFI and other variables were estimated, followed by stepwise regression models. Results Overall frailty prevalence was 15.2% (HIV+, 17%; HIV−, 10%). A multivariable model suggested that HIV infection with CD4 count<200; age>40 years; current or former smoking; income ≤$12,000; moderate vs low fibrinogen-4 (FIB-4) levels; and moderate vs high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were positively associated with frailty. Low or moderate drinking was protective. Conclusions Frailty is a multidimensional aging phenotype observed in mid-life among women with HIV infection. Prevalence of frailty in this sample of HIV-infected women exceeds that for usual elderly populations. This highlights the need for geriatricians and gerontologists to interact with younger `at risk' populations, and assists in the formulation of best recommendations for frailty interventions to prevent early aging, excess morbidities and early death. PMID:26980368

  8. Women On-Line: Cultural and Relational Aspects of Women's Communication in On-line Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    1996-01-01

    Women's online communication often mirrors that of face-to-face communication, linguistically and relationally. Women-only online communities, however, provide an opportunity to develop a distinct relational and cultural style. Discusses gender differences in face-to-face language use, and in mixed gender online discussion groups. Describes…

  9. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  10. A survey of China's birth control among women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Qiu, S

    1983-12-01

    To further implement China's family planning policy of "prevention first, birth control first," a study of the current family planning situation was conducted. A survey of the birth control methods employed by women of childbearing age and by men was based on a nationwide randomized sampling of 1/1000. In the different age groups, ranging from 15-49 years old, IUD users accounted for over 50%, tubal sterilization 25%, and vasectomy 10%. The main IUD users were women in the 20-24 age group. Tubal sterilization was more prevalent among the women in the 35-39 age group. The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) was more common among younger women but accounted for less than 10% of the total. The survey was based on the replies to questionnaires from 172,788 married women of childbearing age; 120,022 of them practiced contraceptive methods for a birth control rate of 69.46%. The breakdown was as follows: IUD, 34.84%; tubal sterilization, 17.63%; vasectomy, 6.94%; OCs, 5.86%; condom users, 1.39%; and other methods (including chemical suppositories, rhythm, or safe period method and withdrawal before ejaculation), 2.78%. There was a higher percentage of OC users in urban areas, and a marked preference for IUDs in the rural communities. The rural birth control rate was 68.58%; the urban rate was 74.17%. The use of the IUD has priority in all the areas; its percentage approaches the national average level. The use of vasectomy as a birth control method varies considerably according to area as does the use of OCs, condom, and tubal sterilization. Rural minority groups prefer the IUD and OCs; tubal sterilization, the condom, and vasectomy are preferred by the Han nationality. The birth control rate differed according to the different occoupation groups: 77.85%, workers; 76.01%, farmers; 85.15%, cadres; 59.52%, housewives; and 66.67%, others. The birth control rate was higher among those who received a college education than the illiterates, but statistics did not show a

  11. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  12. Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak swim performance has been investigated for freestyle swimmers for distances ranging from 50 m to 1500 m among swimmers aged 19 to 99 years. However, studies have yet to investigate the 10 to 19 year-old age group. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the age range of peak freestyle swim speed, and (2) to find differences in age range and peak freestyle swim speed between male and female freestyle swimmers from 50 m to 1500 m at a national level. Methods The changes in age range and peak freestyle swim speed among Swiss elite freestyle swimmers aged 0–9 years and 70–79 years who were ranked on the Swiss high score list between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. Results Men were fastest at ages 22–23 years for 100 m and 200 m; at ages 24–25 years for 400 m and 800 m; and at 26–27 years for 50 m and 1500 m. Women achieved peak freestyle swim speed at ages 20–21 years for all distances with the exception of 800 m. In the 800 m, women were fastest at ages 26–27 years. The difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m (ie, 13.1% ± 1.3% in 50 m; 13.2% ± 0.9% in 100 m; 10.8% ± 0.9% in 200 m; 7.9% ± 1.3% in 400 m; and 4.2% ± 2.0% in 800 m). For 1500 m, however, the gender difference increased to 6.4% ± 2.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that peak freestyle swim speed is achieved at lower age ranges in women when compared to men at 50 m to 1500 m, but not at 800 m. The gender difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m, but not for 1500 m. These data should be confirmed with swimmers at an international level. PMID:24198602

  13. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  14. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  15. Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…

  16. [The relation between dysmenorrhea and hot flash in a group of women in climacteric].

    PubMed

    Andreassi, S; Tesseri, E

    1992-01-01

    Hot flushes in climacteric age can cause noticeable discomfort to those who have them. This functional disturbance confirms the strong relationship between the gonadic steroids and the central neurotransmitters. These complex mechanisms which control reproductive functions limit our knowledge of the pathogenesis of hot flushes. The possible intervention of prostaglandins in the rising of this disturbance and their participation in dismenorrhea have raised the hypothesis that the prostaglandins may be the common denominator in the development of dysmenorrhea in fertile age women and of hot flushes in climacteric age women. Under this context, we examined a number of women in menopause to determine if they suffered with dysmenorrhea in fertile age.

  17. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards antenatal vaccines, group B Streptococcus and clinical trial participation in pregnancy: an online survey

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Fiona; Stevens, Zoe; Plumb, Jane; Hughes, Rhona; Voysey, Merryn; Heath, Paul T; Snape, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors influencing the likelihood of antenatal vaccine acceptance of both routine UK antenatal vaccines (influenza and pertussis) and a hypothetical group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in order to improve understanding of how to optimise antenatal immunisation acceptance, both in routine use and clinical trials. Setting An online survey distributed to women of childbearing age in the UK. Participants 1013 women aged 18–44 years in England, Scotland and Wales. Methods Data from an online survey conducted to gauge the attitudes of 1013 women of childbearing age in England, Scotland and Wales to antenatal vaccination against GBS were further analysed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status, parity and age on attitudes to GBS immunisation, using attitudes to influenza and pertussis vaccines as reference immunisations. Factors influencing likelihood of participation in a hypothetical GBS vaccine trial were also assessed. Results Women with children were more likely to know about each of the 3 conditions surveyed (GBS: 45% vs 26%, pertussis: 79% vs 63%, influenza: 66% vs 54%), to accept vaccination (GBS: 77% vs 65%, pertussis: 79% vs 70%, influenza: 78% vs 68%) and to consider taking part in vaccine trials (37% vs 27% for a hypothetical GBS vaccine tested in 500 pregnant women). For GBS, giving information about the condition significantly increased the number of respondents who reported that they would be likely to receive the vaccine. Health professionals were the most important reported source of information. Conclusions Increasing awareness about GBS, along with other key strategies, would be required to optimise the uptake of a routine vaccine, with a specific focus on informing women without previous children. More research specifically focusing on acceptability in pregnant women is required and, given the value attached to input from healthcare professionals, this group should be included in future studies. PMID:27098824

  18. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  19. Leadership in Groups of School-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cynthia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined correlates and predictors of leadership in school-age female groups. Subjects were fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade girls enrolled in 16 Girl Scout troops. Leadership and personal characteristics were measured. Found a consistent relationship between leadership status and a managerial leadership style. Long-term informal leadership was…

  20. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  1. Forearm bone mineral density by age in 7,620 men and women: the Tromsø study, a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, G K; Fønnebø, V; Tollan, A; Søgaard, A J; Magnus, J H

    2001-03-01

    Population-based studies of adult forearm bone mineral density (BMD) by age are scarce, and standardized reference values are lacking. In this cross-sectional study, men aged 55-74 years, women aged 50-74 years, and representative 5-10% samples of remaining age groups between 25 and 84 years living in Tromsø, Norway, were invited for forearm BMD measurement in 1994-1995. The authors measured 3,062 men and 4,558 women (response rate, 78%) by single x-ray absoptiometry at distal and ultradistal forearm sites. Up to age 50, the mean BMD difference was -0.1% per 1-year age group in both sexes. After age 50, the mean BMD difference per 1-year age group was -0.6% in men and -1.3% (distal) and -1.5% (ultradistal) in women. The BMD by age curve was linear for men throughout senescence, but women had a slope change to -0.7% (distal) and -0.8% (ultradistal) per 1-year age group from the 65- to 69-year age group. BMD levels and BMD by age association in the general population (n = 7,620) and in the population without bone-threatening diseases or medication (n = 5,179) were similar. Only longitudinal studies can clarify whether cohort effects or longitudinal BMD development patterns explain these cross-sectional results.

  2. Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week⁻¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and β-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial compliance were also significantly increased (p < 0.05), while β-stiffness was markedly decreased (p < 0.01) after the intervention. On the other hand, there was no change in the parameters tested in the control group. This study demonstrates that regular aerobic exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women.

  3. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID

  4. Women's perceptions of the relationship between recent life events, transitions, and diet in midlife: findings from a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Natasha A; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that history and early life events and trajectories influence women's dietary behaviors. Yet the social context in which recent life changes occur requires greater understanding, particularly regarding changes that embody the interconnectedness of women and their families, and how those changes affect women's dietary decisions and behaviors. The data presented here were the product of eight focus groups conducted in one Maryland county in the fall of 2009. The participants were 43 women with limited financial resources aged 40-64 years. In this analysis, the researchers focus on women's perceptions of the relation of recent life transitions and events to the dietary decisions they made for themselves and their families. The findings suggested that transitions and events related to household structure, health status, phases of motherhood, and shifts in financial and employment status all had the potential to have profound and immediate effects on women's dietary decisions and resulting dietary behaviors. The focus group data was used to consider implications for developing intervention strategies designed to improve self-efficacy and negotiation skills around dietary issues as a means of promoting healthy decision making among women in midlife, particularly in times of familial upheaval and in circumstances where financial resources are limited.

  5. Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the effects of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. The subjects of this study are a total of 24 middle-aged women in the swimming group and the control group, with 12 women for each group. The swimming group performed swimming exercise for 60 min every time for 3 times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. For data processing, SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. For the difference verification on the change in mean for each group and between the groups, paired and independent t-tests were respectively used. As a result, for physical composition, the body fat rate decreased in the swimming group. Moreover, the difference verification result showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. For physical strength, the difference verification result for each group showed that the swimming group had a statistically significant difference in flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. Moreover, the difference verification result between the groups showed a statistically significant difference only for flexibility. For blood lipids, as a result of the difference verification for each group, T-C and TG showed a significant decrease, and HDL-C, a significant increase. However, in the difference verification result between the groups, only T-C and TG showed a statistically significant difference. With these results, it is considered that regular swimming exercise is effective for improving the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. PMID:26535217

  6. Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ligouri, Gianna C.; Shoepe, Todd C.; Almstedt, Hawley C.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18–22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. −0.015 g/cm2). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women. PMID:23487489

  7. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted.

  8. Therapeutic Affordances of Online Support Group Use in Women With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet has provided women living with endometriosis new opportunities to seek support online. Online support groups may provide a range of therapeutic affordances that may benefit these women. Objective To examine the presence of therapeutic affordances as perceived by women who use endometriosis online support groups. Methods Sixty-nine women (aged 19-50 years, mean 34.2 years; 65.2% (45/69) United Kingdom, 21.7% (15/69) United States) participated in a Web-based interview exploring online support group use. Participants had been using online support groups for an average of 2 years and 4 months (range = 1 month to 14 years, 9 months). Responses were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results The analysis revealed 4 therapeutic affordances related to online support group use: (1) “connection,” that is, the ability to connect in order to support each other, exchange advice, and to try to overcome feelings of loneliness; (2) “exploration,” that is, the ability to look for information, learn, and bolster their knowledge; (3) “narration,” that is, the ability to share their experiences, as well as read about the experiences of others; and (4) “self-presentation,” that is, the ability to manage how they present themselves online. The associated outcomes of use were predominantly positive, such as reassurance and improved coping. However, a number of negative aspects were revealed including the following: concerns about the accuracy of information, arguments between members, overreliance on the group, becoming upset by negative experiences or good news items, and confidentiality of personal information. Conclusions Our findings support the previously proposed SCENA (Self-presentation, Connection, Exploration, Narration, and Adaptation) model and reveal a range of positive aspects that may benefit members, particularly in relation to reassurance and coping. However, negative aspects need to be addressed to maximize the potential

  9. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA.

  10. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  11. The Relationship of Age and Marital Status to Women's Needs for Interdependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein; Woog, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Examined the prominence of intimacy concerns, i.e., connectedness and independent needs in a sample of women in the health professions, analyzing for age and marital status. Used the Life Priorities Q-Sort. Older and single women were found to be significantly more independent than younger and married women. (Author/KS)

  12. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. Participants were scored using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Risk of CVD was estimated using the 10-year Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Point Scale (10-year FRS). Early menarche (≤11 years) was reported in 5.2% (weighted n = 917,493) of subjects. The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome and ≥20% 10-year FRS were 23.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 22.7–24.6] and 7.7% (7.1–8.3), respectively. Women with early menarche reported a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, along with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than those with later menarche (≥13 years). Furthermore, the prevalence of women with a ≥10% or ≥20% 10-year FRS was higher in those with early menarche than in other groups after adjusting for age, smoking, education level, and menstruation. Logistic regression analyses controlling for these and other confounding factors revealed odds ratios of 2.29 (95% CI = 1.25–4.19) and 1.78 (0.96–3.30) for ≥10% and ≥20% 10-year FRS in women with early menarche, respectively, compared with those in the latest menarche group (≥17 years). Taken together, this nationwide study revealed that women with early menarche are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome and CVD. Early menarche may therefore represent an important marker for early preventive

  13. Urinary symptoms and incontinence in women: relationships between occurrence, age, and perceived impact.

    PubMed Central

    Swithinbank, L V; Donovan, J L; du Heaume, J C; Rogers, C A; James, M C; Yang, Q; Abrams, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of urinary symptoms that impact on quality-of-life will be important in determining resource allocation in primary care groups. AIM: To determine the prevalence of urinary symptoms and their perceived impact in a community population of women. METHOD: A postal survey using a validated self-completed questionnaire among all women aged over 18 years and registered with one general practice in a major British city. The prevalence rates and perceived impact of a wide range of urinary symptoms and their relationship with age was determined. Data were analysed using the chi-squared test and the chi-squared test for trend. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between symptom severity and perceived impact. RESULTS: The number of completed questionnaires returned was 2075, giving an 80% response rate. Of these, the number of women who reported some degree of incontinence in the previous month was 1414 (69%), although only 578 (30%) indicated that it had social or hygienic impact. Other lower urinary tract symptoms reported included nocturia (19%), poor stream (19%), urgency (61%), and dysuria (23%). The most troublesome symptoms were incontinence for no obvious reason, nocturnal incontinence, and nocturia, with 73%, 69%, and 63% of sufferers, respectively, finding these symptoms troublesome. CONCLUSIONS: Incontinence and other urinary symptoms are more common than previously thought. These symptoms are not always perceived as bothersome or as having a social or hygienic impact, and therefore many women who report urinary leakage do not require treatment. Nocturnal symptoms in women are commoner than might have been supposed and are extremely troublesome to sufferers. PMID:10818656

  14. Factors that characterize bone health with aging in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Shota; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kamimura, Mikio; Nonaka, Kiichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The exponential increase in the incidence of fragility fractures in older people is attributed to attenuation of both bone strength and neuromuscular function. Decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) does not entirely explain this increase. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age on various parameters related to bone health with aging, and to identify combinations of factors that collectively express the bone metabolic state in healthy postmenopausal women. Height, weight, and grip strength were measured in 135 healthy postmenopausal volunteer women. Hip BMD, biomechanical indices derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT), cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat of the proximal thigh, and various biochemical markers of bone metabolism were measured. A smaller group of factors explanatory for bone health was identified using factor analysis and each was newly named. As a result, the factors bone mass, bone turnover, bone structure, and muscle strength had the greatest explanatory power for assessing the bone health of healthy postmenopausal women. Whereas dual X-ray absorptiometry parameters only loaded on the factor bone mass, QCT parameters loaded on both the factors bone mass and bone structure. Most bone turnover markers loaded on the factor bone turnover, but deoxypyridinoline loaded on both bone turnover and muscle strength. Age was negatively correlated with bone mass (r = -0.49, p < 0.001) and muscle strength (r = -0.67, p < 0.001). We conclude that aging is associated as much with muscle weakening as with low BMD. More attention should be paid to the effects of muscle weakening during aging in assessments of bone health. PMID:25113438

  15. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  16. Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.

    PubMed

    Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

    2014-04-01

    Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group.

  17. Empowering women with chronic, physical disabilities:a pedagogical/experiential group model.

    PubMed

    Vail, Svetlana; Xenakis, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Past research on group work in the hospital setting has focused on traditional psycho-educational support group models. This article describes an effective group model developed in the Initiative for Women with Disabilities, a hospital-based outpatient program for women with chronic physical illnesses or conditions. The group model integrates concepts of humanistic and self-psychology with pedagogical methods and experiential learning. A Women's Writing group and Women's Assertiveness group each with 10 sessions were designed and conducted according to this model. The group leader presented as a pedagogue and self-object that created a group experience that affirms humanistic values and fosters self-growth, socialization, and interpersonal change. The results of a self-administered survey suggest that the participants responded favorably to the format, structure and content of the groups, skills learned, and the identification of past and present issues. PMID:18032157

  18. In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women.

    PubMed

    Hine, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think, feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed with viewing examples of sexualised images. Five strong thematic categories emerged: concern for the harmful impacts of sexualised images on the vulnerable, the media's portrayal of sexual content with a focus on physical appearance and youth, descriptions of the impact of viewing sexualised images, moderators of the impact of sexualised images on well-being, and marginalisation of women in the media. Findings from this research indicate that sexualised images in the media do have an impact on older women's self image and mental health in numerous ways and in a range of situations. Emotional impacts included sadness, anger, concern, envy, desensitisation, marginalisation, and discomfort that their appearance was being judged by others. A strong sense of self apart from appearance, feeling valued by family and community, ignoring or overlooking media content, and being aware that media images are not real and attainable helped buffer the link between sexualised images and well-being. Another important finding is that the impact is variable: women may experience different responses to similar sexualised content depending on a range of social, health and lifestyle factors affecting them at any given time.

  19. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  20. Perceived barriers to exercise and stage of exercise adoption in older women of different racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Heesch, K C; Brown, D R; Blanton, C J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether barriers to exercise differ among racial/ethnic groups at the same stage of exercise adoption and adjacent stages within racial/ethnic groups. Questions about stage of exercise adoption and perceived barriers to exercise were administered to a cross sectional sample of 745 African American, 660 Hispanic, 738 Native American/Native Alaskan, and 769 Caucasian U.S. women aged 40 years and older. Correlations between rankings of barriers among racial/ethnic groups within the same stage ranged from .43 to .89. For each racial/ethnic group, significant differences existed between adjacent stages in the percentage of women reporting barriers to interfere with exercise (p < .10). Barriers were not similar enough among racial/ethnic groups to recommend that the same barriers be addressed for all races/ethnicities.

  1. Rates of tetanus protection and transplacental tetanus antibody transfer in pregnant women from different socioeconomic groups in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Madico, G; Salazar, G; McDonald, J; Checkley, W; Calderón, M; Verastegui, M; Gilman, R H

    1996-01-01

    In developing countries, neonatal tetanus causes significant mortality. Using a new competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure anti-tetanus toxin antibody levels, we compared rates of protection, total antibody levels, and maternal-to-fetal antibody ratios between different socioeconomic groups in Peru. Upper-middle-class women 25 years and older had significantly lower rates of protection and mean anti-tetanus toxin antibody levels than did lower-class women of the same age. Nevertheless, the former had higher fetal-to-maternal antibody ratios, independent of maternal age, total antibody levels, or parity. We conclude that future vaccination programs in Latin America must target upper-middle-class as well as lower-class women. PMID:8914770

  2. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  3. Ages at Initiation of Cigarette Smoking and Quit Attempts among Women: A Generation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabia, Alfredo; Costanza, Michael C.; Bernstein, Martine S.; Rielle, Jean-Charles

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether age at initiation of regular smoking and likelihood of quitting smoking through age 35 years would differ among younger and older women. Data from annual population-based surveys of residents of Geneva, Switzerland, indicated that young female smokers had a higher propensity to quit than older women. There were no differences…

  4. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  5. Health Related Concerns and Psychological Well-Being of Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Grace K.

    A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…

  6. Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women in a rural area of north India. Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women.

  7. Diabetes prevention: Reproductive age women affected by insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Shadi; LoBue, Stephen; Henderson, Cassandra E

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, 29.1 million people are affected by diabetes, of which 95% have type 2 diabetes. There has been a fivefold increase in type 2 diabetes in the latter half of the 20th century, an increase strongly linked to the obesity epidemic in the United States. In addition, insulin resistance affects 86 million Americans, or more than one-third of the adult population, as manifested by impaired fasting glucose tolerance with random glucose values ranging from ⩾100 to <126 mg/dL. In all, 90% of those affected by impaired fasting glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes are unaware of their metabolic derangement. Although impaired fasting glucose tolerance increases one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes, once identified, application of lifestyle changes by affected individuals may avoid or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. For reproductive age women who are found to have impaired fasting glucose tolerance, lifestyle changes may be an effective tool to diminish the reproductive health consequences of insulin resistance related diseases. PMID:27638898

  8. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception

  9. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many age-related HSC changes and might pave the way for HSC malignant transformation and subsequent leukemia development, the incidence of which increases exponentially with age. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of HSC cellular fate decisions and are often found to be misregulated in human hematopoietic malignancies. In this review, we speculate that PcG proteins balance HSC aging against the risk of developing cancer, since a disturbance in PcG genes and proteins affects several important cellular processes such as cell fate decisions, senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair.

  10. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  11. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

  12. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Vallée, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 ± 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 ± 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE.

  13. Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness. PMID:23264164

  14. Differential therapeutic outcomes of community-based group interventions for women and children exposed to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Paula T

    2011-08-01

    Two community-based group therapies, emotion focused versus goal oriented, are compared among women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 46) and their children ( n = 48) aged between 6 and 12 years. A series of repeated measures analyses are employed to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention following random assignment. Main and treatment effects for women provide support for the relative effectiveness in increasing quality of social support in the emotion-focused intervention and in the reduction of both family conflict and alcohol use for the goal-oriented intervention. PMID:20889533

  15. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  16. The Expansion of the Pulmonary Rib Cage during Breath Stacking Is Influenced by Age in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Barcelar, Jacqueline de Melo; Aliverti, Andrea; Rattes, Catarina; Ximenes, Maria Eduarda; Campos, Shirley Lima; Brandão, Daniella Cunha; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze in obese women the acute effects of the breath stacking technique on thoraco-abdominal expansion. Design and Methods Nineteen obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were evaluated by anthropometry, spirometry and maximal respiratory muscle pressures and successively analyzed by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography and a Wright respirometer during quiet breathing and breath stacking maneuvers and compared with a group of 15 normal-weighted healthy women. The acute effects of the maneuvers were assessed in terms of total and compartmental chest wall volumes at baseline, end of the breath stacking maneuver and after the maneuver. Obese subjects were successively classified into two groups, accordingly to the response during the maneuver, group 1 = prevalent rib cage or group 2 = abdominal expansion. Results Age was significantly lower in group 1 than group 2. When considering the two obese groups, FEV1 was lower and minute ventilation was higher only in group 2 compared to controls group. During breath stacking, inspiratory capacity was significant differences in obese subjects with a smaller expansion of the pulmonary rib cage and a greater expansion of the abdomen compared to controls and also between groups 1 and 2. A significant inverse linear relationship was found between age and inspiratory capacity of the pulmonary rib cage but not of the abdomen. Conclusions In obese women the maximal expansion of the rib cage and abdomen is influenced by age and breath stacking maneuver could be a possible therapy for preventing respiratory complications. PMID:25372469

  17. Breast cancer risk in women who fulfill high-risk criteria: at what age should surveillance start?

    PubMed

    Brandt, Andreas; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2010-05-01

    Family history is a strong predictor of hereditary breast cancer, particularly when it includes cases of early onset or bilateral breast cancers and multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancers. This article provides relative risks and cumulative risks of breast cancer in women whose family history indicates high risk. Specifically, the aim was to determine how many years earlier the high-risk women reach the cumulative risk of women without family history at the age at which screening in average-risk women is initiated. The women of the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database were classified according to clinical criteria based on family history suggesting high risk for hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome. The relative risks of breast cancer were calculated as hazard ratio using Cox regression. Cumulative risks of breast cancer were estimated with a stratified Cox model based on Tsiatis' method. The hazard ratios of breast cancer for the considered criteria ranged from 1.50 to 5.99. The cumulative risks ranged from 1 to 10% by age 50 years. The age to reach the same cumulative risk as women lacking a family history at the age of 50 years ranged between 32.0 and 40.8 years. Relative and cumulative risks of women at high risk of breast cancer associated with different clinical criteria were diverse, which may be helpful in considering when current clinical criteria are revised. According to the present results, current recommendations of starting clinical interventions 10 years earlier in high-risk women, based on expert opinions, appear justified at least for the largest high-risk groups. PMID:19641988

  18. Women and substance abuse: gender, age, and cultural considerations.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sally J; Andrade, Rosi A C; Ruiz, Bridget S

    2009-01-01

    Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society, especially prior to the mid-1960s. Along with this, more recent data indicates that rates of substance use among women are increasing. Factors contributing to this increase in substance abuse have begun to receive considerable attention, and recent research suggests that many issues exist that are unique to substance use among women. The purpose of this article is to discuss gender specific considerations in women's substance abuse by examining the history of substance use among women; analyzing gender-specific factors, including physiological factors, trauma-related factors, mental health issues, and cultural considerations that impact on women's substance use; articulating treatment approaches for working with substance abusing women and girls; and providing recommendations for further research in this area.

  19. Women, Aging, and HIV: Clinical Issues and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie A.; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Women are living longer with HIV infection. How best to manage the multiple co-morbidities and polypharmacy that are a hallmark of HIV infected individuals has not been studied. We explore incorporating principles of gerontology, particularly multimorbidity and polypharmacy, to optimize the health of HIV infected women. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are important issues for HIV infected women. Incorporating a gerontologic approach may optimize outcomes until research provides more definitive answers as to how best to collaborate with HIV infected women to provide them with optimal care. A case study is used to guide the discussion. PMID:24932161

  20. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  1. Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

  2. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P < 0.001), indicating optimal iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P < 0.01). A higher frequency of seafood meals was a significant predictor of UI in both groups, but household use of iodized salt was not. These data suggest the median UI in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored.

  3. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  4. Science Support Groups and Women Science Educators: Advocates for Women's and Girls' Legitimate Participation in the Science Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathleen S.

    This paper contains descriptions of some of the specific kinds of capital that are needed, sought, and used within two academic science support groups for women and girls that aim to be gender-sensitive. The ways in which the capital (cultural, economic, symbolic, and social) is acquired, the ways in which the groups interacted with the larger…

  5. Age-associated differences in sensori-motor function and balance in community dwelling women.

    PubMed

    Lord, S R; Ward, J A

    1994-11-01

    Tests of visual, vestibular, sensori-motor and balance function were administered to 550 women, aged between 20 and 99 years at a Balance and Gait Laboratory. All of the sensory, motor and balance system measures showed significant age-associated differences. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the measures of lower limb sensation were the consistent sensori-motor factors contributing to balance under normal conditions (standing on a firm surface with eyes open or closed). Under more challenging conditions (standing on foam with eyes open) vision, strength and reaction time played significant roles, whilst when standing on foam with eyes closed, vestibular function also made a significant contribution. Analysis of percentage increases in sway under conditions where visual and peripheral sensation systems were removed or diminished, compared with sway under optimal conditions, indicated that up until age 65 there was an increased reliance on vision for balance control. Beyond this age, the contribution made by vision declined, so that in the oldest age-groups reduced vision was less able to supplement peripheral input, resulting in increased sway areas. Peripheral sensation however was the most important sensory system in the maintenance of static postural stability at all ages. PMID:9231937

  6. Understanding the mechanisms through which women's group community participatory intervention improved maternal health outcomes in rural Malawi: was the use of contraceptives the pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Zamawe, Collins O. F.; Mandiwa, Chrispin

    2016-01-01

    Background Women's group intervention is a community based initiative through which rural women form groups, meet regularly to discuss maternal health issues affecting them, and come up with locally available solutions. This intervention has been associated with reduced maternal and neonatal mortality in limited resource settings. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which women's groups influence maternal health outcomes are uncertain. Because contraception reduces the risk of maternal mortality and women's groups also tackled this issue, we speculated that contraceptive use might be the pathway. Consequently, this study investigated whether participation in women's groups was associated with contraceptive use in Malawi. Design We examined the use of contraceptives between women who participated in women's groups and those who did not through a community-based cross-sectional study in Mchinji, Malawi. The study involved 3,435 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) who were recruited using a multistage sampling approach. Members (treated) and non-members (control) of women's groups were matched on observed covariates using propensity scores and the counterfactual for the treated individuals was estimated. Results Crude analysis revealed that women's groups improved uptake of contraceptives by 26% (odds ratio (OR)=1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03–1.56; p=0.024). However, using the matched data, uptake of contraceptives was almost the same among members and non-members of women's groups. More precisely, the likelihood of using contraceptives was not significantly different between the members and non-members of women's groups (OR=1.00; 95% CI=0.81–1.24; p=0.991). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence of an association between participation in women's groups and contraceptive use among rural Malawian women. The implication is that contraception was not the mechanism through which women's groups contributed to reduced maternal mortality in Malawi

  7. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  8. A Pilot Study of a Group-Based HIV and STI Prevention Intervention for Lesbian, Bisexual, Queer, and Other Women Who Have Sex with Women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Weaver, James; Navia, Daniela; Este, David

    2015-06-01

    Limited research has evaluated interventions to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) vulnerability among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women, and other women who have sex with women. The Queer Women Conversations (QWC) study examined the effectiveness of a group-based psycho-educational HIV/STI intervention with LBQ women in Toronto and Calgary, Canada. We conducted a nonrandomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a pre-test, post-test, and 6-week follow-up. The primary outcome was sexual risk practices, while secondary objectives included intrapersonal (self-esteem, STI knowledge, resilient coping, depression), interpersonal (safer sex self-efficacy), community (community connectedness, social support), and structural (sexual stigma, access to healthcare) factors. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov. Forty-four women (mean age 28.7 years) participated in a weekend retreat consisting of six consecutive sessions tailored for LBQ women. Sessions covered a range of topics addressing behavioral and social-structural determinants of HIV/STI risk, including STI information, safer sex negotiation skills, and addressing sexual stigma. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, sexual risk practices (β2=-2.96, 95% CI -4.43, -1.50), barrier use self-efficacy (β2=1.52, 95% CI 0.51, 2.53), STI knowledge (β2=4.41, 95% CI 3.52, 5.30), and sexual stigma (β2=-2.62, 95% CI -3.48, -1.75) scores showed statistically significant changes 6 weeks post-intervention. Initial increases in safer sex self-efficacy, social support, and community connectedness were not sustained at 6-week follow up, highlighting the need for booster sessions or alternative approaches to address social factors. Study results may inform HIV/STI prevention interventions, sexual health care provision, and support services tailored for LBQ women.

  9. Susceptibility to cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and age-dependent differences in levels of rubella antibodies among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Barlinn, Regine; Vainio, Kirsti; Samdal, Helvi Holm; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Nøkleby, Hanne; Dudman, Susanne G

    2014-05-01

    Infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19), and rubella can lead to serious complications in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to CMV, B19, and rubella antibodies in pregnant women in Norway. Consecutive sera samples were collected from pregnant women in two different regions in Norway. Sera were collected from age groups; ≤19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years old. Of the 2,000 pregnant women tested, anti-CMV IgG was positive in 62.8% anti-parvovirus B19 IgG in 59.7% and anti-rubella IgG in 94.4%. CMV IgG susceptibility has decreased in pregnant women less than 30 years of age, from 60% in a study conducted in 1973-1974 to 37.2% in present study. There was a significant difference in CMV IgG seropositivity rate between the two regions (58.6% and 67.1%). Serum levels of rubella IgG was lowest in age group 25-29 years with a positivity rate of 91.0%. Women born before vaccination with two doses of MMR started, had both a higher positivity rate and significantly higher levels of rubella antibody titre, 96.1% and 82.2 IU/ml compared to those born after 92.9% and 41.7 IU/ml. Significantly lower anti-rubella IgG titre found in the youngest age groups highlights the need for continued antenatal screening. A considerable increase in anti-CMV-IgG seropositivity rate was observed and might be associated with higher rate of breastfeeding and a higher percentage attending day-care centres.

  10. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…

  11. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  12. Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

  13. Postprandial peptide YY is lower in young college-aged women with high dietary cognitive restraint.

    PubMed

    Scheid, J L; Birch, L L; Williams, N I; Rolls, B J; De Souza, M J

    2013-08-15

    Acylated ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY3-36) are involved in appetite-regulation and energy homeostasis. These gastrointestinal hormones provide peripheral signals to the central nervous system to regulate appetite and short term food intake, and interact with leptin and insulin to regulate energy balance. Dietary restraint is an eating behavior phenotype that manifests as a conscious cognitive control of food intake in order to achieve or sustain a desired body weight. The purpose of the current study was to determine if college-aged women (18 to 25 years) with different eating behavior phenotypes, i.e., high vs normal dietary restraint, differ with respect to circulating concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones during and following a test meal. We hypothesized that women with high dietary cognitive restraint [High CR (score ≥ 13, n=13)] would have elevated active ghrelin and PYY3-36 concentrations after a test meal compared to women with normal dietary cognitive restraint [Normal CR (score < 13, n=30)]. Gastrointestinal hormones were assessed before (-15 and 0 min) and after (10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) the consumption of a mixed composition meal (5.0 kcal per kg/body weight). In contrast to our hypothesis, mean PYY3-36 concentrations (p=0.042), peak PYY3-36 concentrations (p=0.047), and PYY3-36 area under the curve (p=0.035) were lower in the High CR group compared to the Normal CR group after controlling for body mass index. No group differences were observed with respect to acylated ghrelin before or after the meal. In conclusion, PYY3-36 concentrations were suppressed in the women with High CR compared to the women with Normal CR. While the current study is cross-sectional and cause/effect of high dietary restraint and suppressed PYY3-36 concentrations cannot be determined, we speculate that these women with high cognitive restraint may be prone to weight gain or weight re-gain related to the suppressed circulating PYY after a meal. Further

  14. Risky business: focus-group analysis of sexual behaviors, drug use and victimization among incarcerated women in St. Louis.

    PubMed

    Millay, Tamara A; Satyanarayana, Veena A; O'Leary, Catina C; Crecelius, Robert; Cottler, Linda B

    2009-09-01

    Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and September 2005 in preparation for an NIH/NINR HIV-prevention intervention study among female offenders in Drug Court. The focus group sample of 30 women was 70% African-American, with a mean age of 36 years. Results indicated that oral sex was the most common sex trade activity. Consistent with the literature, condom usage was described as irregular. In terms of drug use, participants reported that crack was most commonly used, with binges often lasting for several days. Regarding victimization, women frequently reported sexual abuse in childhood, and some described abusive relationships as adults. Participants also reported being beaten and raped by customers, which led to their concealing knives in purses and razors under the tongue. Consequently, perpetrated violence, including murder, was reported as protection against further violence. These findings confirm the vulnerability of this population of women who are at high risk for HIV. Effective HIV-prevention interventions are needed to assist these incarcerated women in making lifestyle changes during incarceration and sustaining them after release.

  15. Differences in skeletal and muscle mass with aging in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Aloia, J F; Vaswani, A; Feuerman, M; Mikhail, M; Ma, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies using delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting suggested that the relationship of total body calcium (TBCa) to total body potassium (TBK) (muscle mass, body cell mass) remained constant with age. This led to the hypothesis that the muscle mass and skeletal mass compartments are integrated in their response to aging. It had also been hypothesized that loss of skeletal and muscle mass was similar between races. In the current study, delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting were performed on 90 black and 143 white women 20-69 yr of age. Black women had higher TBCa and TBK values than white women, even when the data were adjusted for age, height, and weight. TBCa was correlated with height and TBK with weight. The estimated decline of skeletal mass (TBCa) from 20 to 70 yr was 18% in black women and 19% in white women. However, the lifetime decline of TBK was only 8% for black women, compared with 22% for white women. Black women may lose TBK more slowly than TBCa with aging, compared with white women. In particular, correlation of TBCa and age was similar for blacks and whites (r = -0.44 and r = -0.54, respectively). However, for TBK these correlations were r = -0.14 and r = -0.42. These data confirm a higher musculoskeletal mass in black women and suggest that the loss of muscle mass with age may be lower in black than in white women. These ethnic differences do not support the hypothesis of an integrated musculoskeletal system, so that these two components should be considered separately. A prospective study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:10827019

  16. Effects of stretching on menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yuko; Nagamatsu, Toshiya; Kitabatake, Yoshinori; Sensui, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Exercise may help alleviate menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women, but sufficient evidence does not currently exist to fully support this theory. Whereas frequent moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise may be associated with the risk of menopausal hot flashes, light-intensity exercise, such as stretching, is not likely to increase the occurrence of hot flashes. Little is, however, known about the effects of light-intensity exercise on menopausal and depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of a 3-week stretching program on the menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. Methods: Forty Japanese women, aged 40 to 61 years, were recruited (mean age, 51.1 ± 7.3 y). The participants were randomly assigned to either a stretching or a control group. The stretching group (n = 20) participated in a 3-week intervention program that involved 10 minutes of daily stretching, just before bedtime. The control group (n = 20) was assigned to a waiting list. Menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Simplified Menopausal Index, which measures vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: The compliance rate was 75.8% during the 3-week intervention program. The total Simplified Menopausal Index scores, including the vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale scores significantly decreased in the stretching group compared with that in the control group. No adverse events, including increased hot flashes, were reported by the participants during the study period. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 10 minutes of stretching before bedtime decreases menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. PMID:27300113

  17. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack. PMID:22946594

  18. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack.

  19. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  20. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

  1. Centering as a model for group visits among women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Chao, Maria T; Abercrombie, Priscilla D; Duncan, Larissa G

    2012-01-01

    Providing comprehensive care for chronic pelvic pain is impeded by time and resource constraints of the standard health care visit. To provide patient education, psychosocial support, and health care assessment, we developed group visits for women with chronic pelvic pain using an evidence-based, holistic nursing approach. In this article, we describe the structure of group visits, the process of conducting Centering group visits focused on empowerment, and the content of a holistic curriculum for women with chronic pelvic pain.

  2. Differences in menstrual bleeding characteristics, functional status, and attitudes toward menstruation in three groups of women.

    PubMed

    Geller, S E; Harlow, S D; Bernstein, S J

    1999-05-01

    This report examines differences in bleeding characteristics, functional status, and attitudes toward menstruation among three groups of women: (1) women who complain of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), (2) women who have similar menstrual patterns as those complaining of AUB but who do not perceive themselves to have abnormal bleeding, and (3) women without evidence of prolonged or excessive bleeding. Women who complain of AUB and women with heavy bleeding but not complaining of AUB, although similar on two important menstrual symptoms (very heavy bleeding or episodes of unusually heavy bleeding) differ on a number of other menstrual characteristics, including the frequency of short cycles, the probability of having an abnormally long period, and reporting of unusually heavy bleeding lasting longer than 1 day. Whether women reported concerns with menstruation or not, the majority of women in this analysis had fairly negative attitudes toward menstruation. However, this negativity toward menstruation did not translate into women wanting a hysterectomy, even for those with heavy bleeding. The major difference among the three groups of women was the strong negative effect of AUB on functional status. A majority of women complaining of AUB reported that the bleeding interfered significantly with their daily routine, making them unable to function at work and at home. These results suggest that although the main complaint of women with AUB is very heavy bleeding, a number of other specific menstrual characteristics differentiate women with AUB from other women with very heavy bleeding who do not perceive the bleeding to be problematic. The complaint of AUB appears to be related to how significantly bleeding affects daily functioning. Therefore, an important factor to assess when considering treatment of AUB is the extent to which bleeding symptoms significantly affect functional status.

  3. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers.

  4. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers. PMID:27309721

  5. Impact of country of birth on hospital admission for women of childbearing age in Sweden: a five year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, E; Malmstrom, M; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: This study examines whether morbidity, defined as the first psychiatric hospital admission and the first somatic hospital admission, differs among subgroups of foreign born and second generation (that is, native born with at least one parent born abroad) women compared with Swedish born women (that is, with both parents native born) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Design Setting: In this follow up study the population consisted of 1 452 944 women, of whom 369 771 have an immigrant background (including second generation immigrants), aged 20–45 years. The population of 31 December 1993 was followed up to 31 December 1998. Differences in risk (hazard ratio) between different groups of immigrant women were estimated, adjusting for age, marital status, number of children, and disposable income. Main results: All four groups of foreign born women had higher age adjusted risks (HRs varied from 1.44 to 1.67) for a first psychiatric hospital admission than Swedish born women. The risk decreased only marginally when the sociodemographic factors were taken into consideration. Additionally, second generation women also had a higher age adjusted risk (HR = 1.42; CI = 1.37 to 1.48) than Swedish born women. The risk decreased only slightly in the main effect model. However, on analysing country of birth and first somatic hospital admissions, only non-European refugee women showed an increased age adjusted risk (HR = 1.26; CI = 1.24 to 1.29), which remained after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Conclusions: Foreign born and second generation women of childbearing age had a higher risk than Swedish born women for a first psychiatric hospital admission. However, only non-European refugees were at higher risk of somatic hospital admissions. PMID:14600113

  6. Anthropometric and health-related fitness characteristics in middle-aged obese women.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the possible relationships between anthropometrical and health-related fitness parameters in obese middle-aged women. Twenty one obese (BMI > 27 kg/m2) and 12 control (BMI < 27 kg/m2) middle-aged females (35-45 yrs) participated in this investigation. Three series of anthropometrical measurements on the right side of the body were taken according to the O-scale physique assessment system. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotyping method was used and the ratio of waist to hip circumferences was calculated. The body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance method (Bodystat-500, UK). The following health-related fitness tests used were: dynamic sit-up, hand grip, sit-and-reach, single leg balance and plate tapping. Physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using single ergometer test. Obese women possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values for skinfold, girth and breadth measurements. While the differences in somatotype indices were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) between obese and control groups, the transformation of somatotype characteristics to the effect sizes (ESs) revealed that these differences were large (ectomorphy: ES = 1.73; endomorphy: ES = 1.64; mesomorphy: ES = 1.71). Relative aerobic fitness (VO2max/kg, calculated from PWC) and dynamic sit-up were higher (p < 0.05) in control subjects, while obese women presented significantly higher values for hand grip strength. The thicker skinfold thicknesses increased the absolute value of PWC in obese group (r = 0.39-0.57; p < 0.05). In contrast, the thinner skinfold thicknesses in suprailiac and mid-thigh significantly increased the absolute value of PWC in control women. There were only a few significant correlations between girth and breadth measures, and health-related fitness parameters. In addition, somatotype characteristics seldom influenced the results of health-related fitness tests. Stepwise multiple regression

  7. Marital Age Disparity Among Orphaned Young Women and Their Husbands: A Mixed Methods Study in Rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Iritani, Bonita J; Luseno, Winnie; Hartman, Shane; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2016-10-01

    Our study reports the results from a mixed method study comparing age-similar (AS) marriages of orphaned young women to age disparate (AD) marriages, defined as spousal age difference of 5 or more years. Research in Zimbabwe and sub-Saharan Africa suggests that AD sexual relationships between older men and young women increase the risk for HIV but few studies have examined this association among married couples or explored why young women marry much older men. In this study, a total of 35 orphaned young women aged 17-26 years in rural Zimbabwe participated in semi-structured interviews during 2012-2013. Twenty-four were in AD marriages and 11 AS. All had participated in a 5-year HIV prevention trial, during which they had married and dropped out of school. We examined two research questions: were AD wives more likely than AS to cite economic considerations as a reason to marry, and were AD marriages associated with different health and economic outcomes compared to AS? Our results showed that the reasons the women married were essentially the same among the two groups; economic considerations for marriage were uncommon. Nevertheless, AD wives generally fared somewhat better than AS wives on economic and well-being measures. HIV prevalence was similar; however, the AD group accounted for all five cases of herpes simplex virus-2. Findings suggest the complexity of sexual and reproductive health in rural Africa, where AD marriages are common and accepted. The challenge for primary prevention is to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of sexually transmitted infections, as well as the potential abuse of young women, within the appropriate cultural context. PMID:27614653

  8. Lycopene intake by Canadian women is variable, similar among different ages, but greater than that reported for women in other countries.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, E S; Rao, A V; Rao, L G

    2009-08-01

    Lycopene is an antioxidant associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases common in women such as osteoporosis and cancer; however, no official recommendation for lycopene consumption exists, and intake data from Canadian women are limited. This study was designed to generate information about average lycopene intake in Canadian women of different ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. One hundred one women, between the ages of 25 and 70 years, who were not on any medications, were recruited to record their diet for 7 days. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the types of lycopene-containing foods consumed, associations between intake of lycopene and macro/micronutrients, and whether participant characteristics, such as body mass index, could predict lycopene intake. Average lycopene intake was 6.14 +/- 5.35 mg/day, which is higher than reported in other countries. Intake was similar among age groups but was highly variable. Raw tomatoes were the most frequently consumed source of lycopene, while participants with the highest lycopene intake consumed more cooked/processed tomato products than those with lower intake (P < .005). Participants 25-49 years old consumed more dried/powdered tomatoes (P < .05), pizza (P < .002), and ketchup (P < .10) than 50-70 year olds. Lycopene intake could not be predicted by any participant characteristics. In older participants, lycopene intake was positively correlated with intake of calcium, niacin, and vitamins A, D, and K (P < or = .05). These findings are significant to women's health and may contribute to the establishment of nutritional and health recommendations regarding consumption of lycopene by Canadian women to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:19735184

  9. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy.

    PubMed

    Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary

    2011-10-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.

  10. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans.

  11. Age and Sleep Disturbances Among American Men And Women: Data From the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jackson, Nicholas J.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Pien, Grace; Perlis, Michael L.; Xie, Dawei; Sha, Daohang; Weaver, Terri; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Explore the prevalence of sleep-related complaints across age groups, examining effects of sex, general health, and depressed mood. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: Complete-case analysis included 155,877 participants who responded to questions related to Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance (SLEEPDIST) and Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy (TIREDNESS). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Outcomes were self-reported complaints in response to survey questions assessing SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS, dichotomized as reporting a complaint < 6 versus ≥ 6 nights or days, respectively, in a 2-wk period. Predictors were age, general health, and depressed mood. All analyses were adjusted for race/ethnicity, income, education, and time since last medical checkup. Across all age groups, women reported more SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Poor general health, mild depressed mood, and moderate/severe depressed mood were associated with SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS. Both SLEEPDIST and TIREDNESS generally declined across the life span, with fewest endorsements in respondents older than 80 yr. For SLEEPDIST, odds ratios (ORs, reference = 80+) declined from age 18-54 yr, rose slightly, and then declined again after age 59 yr in men. The pattern was similar for women, except a more marked rise was noted from age 40-59 yr. The pattern was similar for TIREDNESS. Conclusions: Advancing age was not associated with increased Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance or Self-Reported Tiredness/Lack of Energy. These results suggest that the often-reported increase in sleep problems with age is a nonlinear phenomenon, mediated by factors other than physiologic aging. Citation: Grandner MA; Martin JL; Patel NP; Jackson NJ; Gehrman PR; Pien G; Perlis ML; Xie D; Sha D; Weaver T; Gooneratne NS. Age and sleep disturbances among American men and women: data from the U.S. behavioral

  12. Australian women and income security for old age: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, L S; Winocur, S

    1990-07-01

    Australian women constitute a majority of the aged population in Australia, and are more likely than men to be single in old age as well as dependent upon the means-tested Age Pension with no, or only limited, income supplementation from other sources such as occupational superannuation. Based upon research on a national sample of 1016 Australian women, aged across the adult life span, this paper reports age cohort patterns of work, family, and economic expectations for old age. While work and family patterns of Australian women are changing, the clear trend remains towards labour force withdrawal and part-time work for long periods while children are present in the home. The implications of these patterns for income security in old age are discussed. PMID:24390303

  13. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  14. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  15. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ⩽ 26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P > 0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure. PMID:26155831

  16. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  17. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  18. Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

    2010-01-01

    A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

  19. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  20. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    PubMed

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs.

  1. Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  2. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, η(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women.

  3. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  4. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  5. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  6. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11 g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7 years, P < 0.001), practiced birth control more (24.2 vs. 9.9 %, P < 0.001), and adhered to it more (81.1 vs. 61.9 %, P < 0.001). Bedouin women had more children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P < 0.001), and more Bedouin women were pregnant during the study period (49.3 vs. 35.0 %, P < 0.001). The most prevalent types of anemia were iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Two types of anemia were proportionally higher among Jewish women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7 %, P < 0.001) and folic acid deficiency (3.3 vs. 2.2 %, P > 0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8 g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.295, P < 0.001), use of birth control (OR = 0.419, P < 0.001), and pregnancy (OR = 0.447, P < 0.001). Being a Bedouin woman is a risk factor for severe anemia, and adherence to treatment for anemia is very low in both groups. These findings should be addressed in a national program to reduce health inequalities.

  7. The Women’s Recovery Group Study: A Stage I trial of women-focused group therapy for substance use disorders versus mixed-gender group drug counseling

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Trucco, Elisa M.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Lincoln, Melissa; Gallop, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Stage I Behavioral Development Trial was to develop a manual-based 12-session Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and to pilot test this new treatment in a randomized controlled trial against a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC), an effective manual-based treatment for substance use disorders. After initial manual development, two pre-pilot groups of WRG were conducted to determine feasibility and initial acceptability of the treatment among subjects and therapists. In the pilot stage, women were randomized to either WRG or GDC. No significant differences in substance use outcomes were found between WRG and GDC during the 12-week group treatment. However, during the 6-month post-treatment follow-up, WRG members demonstrated a pattern of continued reductions in substance use while GDC women did not. In addition, pilot WRG women with alcohol dependence had significantly greater reductions in average drinks/drinking day than GDC women 6 months post-treatment (p < .03, effect size = 0.81). While satisfaction with both groups was high, women were significantly more satisfied with WRG than GDC (p < .009, effect size = 1.11). In this study, the newly developed 12-session women-focused WRG was feasible with high satisfaction among participants. It was equally effective as mixed-gender GDC in reducing substance use during the 12-week in-treatment phase, but demonstrated significantly greater improvement in reductions in drug and alcohol use over the post-treatment follow-up phase compared with GDC. A women-focused single-gender group treatment may enhance longer-term clinical outcomes among women with substance use disorders. PMID:17446014

  8. Financing care for aging women in the U.S.: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    Neuman, P H; Rice, D P; Hussey, P S

    2000-04-01

    The aging of the U.S. population presents challenges in financing care and meeting the health and long-term care needs of older Americans. Women, who constitute a majority of the older adult population and a disproportionate share of those with low incomes, chronic conditions and long-term care needs, have much at stake in the future direction of health programs for aging Americans. This paper examines the status of older women in 12 industrialized nations to assess how the U.S. compares to other countries in terms of its aging female population. We find that women across the 12 industrialized countries have a longer life expectancy than men at ages 65 and 80, underscoring the universality of aging as a "women's issue". With respect to age composition, the U.S. lags behind many industrialized nations in the share of its elderly female population; by 2030, the proportion of women aged 65 and older, and 80 and older, will be lower in the U.S. than in any of the industrialized nations compared in this paper. Against this backdrop, the paper examines the characteristics of older adult women in the U.S., considers the role of Medicare in meeting the needs of aging women, and identifies gaps in coverage, primarily prescription drug and long-term care, that disproportionately affect older women. The paper concludes by considering how other nations provide and finance prescription drug and long-term care services for older adults, suggesting useful models for the U.S. to consider as it struggles to meet the demands of its aging population. PMID:10902056

  9. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  10. Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eric M; Kramer, Joel H; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine; Study Of Osteoporotic Fractures Sof Research Group

    2012-01-01

    Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997 ). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20-year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data.

  11. Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eric M; Kramer, Joel H; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine; Study Of Osteoporotic Fractures Sof Research Group

    2012-01-01

    Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997 ). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20-year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data. PMID:22224509

  12. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  13. Transformations and Self-Discovery: Mature-Age Women's Reflections on Returning to University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, S.; Stone, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research has highlighted the challenges that women face as mature-age students in higher education. The challenges are particularly acute when a woman is the first in her family to go to university. Many women begin their journey as students with considerable self-doubt and lack of confidence. They may also face an ongoing struggle to find a way…

  14. The critical value of focus group discussions in research with women living with HIV in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E

    2010-05-01

    This article is based on a critical ethnography about HIV and gender-based issues of power and violence conducted in Malawi in 2008. In all, 72 women living with HIV were recruited from four antiretroviral treatment clinics, three rural and one urban, to participate in 12 focus groups. Informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, we analyze the process and products of these focus groups to interrogate their capacity to facilitate collective engagement with the social and structural realities confronting women in a resource-limited, highly AIDS-affected country. We present exemplars to show how women together created collective narratives to mobilize individuals to action. Findings indicate that focus groups can be used innovatively to benefit both the research and the participants, not only as a critical method of inquiry with marginalized groups but also as a forum in which validating dialogue, mutual support, and exchange of strategic information can generate transformative change to improve women's lives.

  15. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  16. Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 18, 2012 Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over ... and Roberto Valverde, M.P.H., Division of Health Care Statistics Abstract Objective —This report presents national estimates ...

  17. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamás; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and SE(β) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23024859

  18. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was...

  19. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  20. Changes in sex and non-sex hormones and distribution of erythrocyte antigens in reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus in Adjara.

    PubMed

    Nakashidze, I; Kotrikadze, N; Diasamidze, A; Nagervadze, M; Ramishvili, L

    2013-04-01

    The aim the research was to study the hormonal state of reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus. The quantitative changes of sex steroid hormones: progesterone (P), estradiol (E), testosterone (T), gonadotropine -Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were investigated. Distribution of ABO blood group antigens and Rh-Hr systems genetic variants in the blood of women living in Adjara Region was also studied. For study was used reproductive age women's blood with benign (fibromioma) and malignant (endometrial cancer) tumors of body of uterus (the middle age was 20-45 years). The determination of hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA). For the research of blood groups, were used the immunoserologic methods. The study have revealed that in blood of reproductive age women with benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus, level of estradiol was increased while levels of progesterone and testosterone were sharply reduced. Amount of Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone were also increased. It's significant that, both hormones were sharply increased in case of cancer of body of uterus, in comparison with control group and benign tumor. According to distribution of ABO blood group phenotypes - O (I) phenotypic group of ABO system has its highest frequency in blood of women with cancer of body of uterus. Cancer of body of uterus is associated with O (I) phenotypic groups; benign tumor of body of uterus - with A(II) and AB(IV) phenotypic groups. Women with cc and EE genetic variants of Rh-Hr system have sensitivity to the development of benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus; women with ee genetic variant have lower sensitivity towards body of uterus cancer and sharply expressed sensitivity to uterus benign tumors. In women with malignant tumors of body of uterus the frequency of distribution of Rh-Hr system CC genetic variant was sharply reduced. PMID:23676481

  1. African-American women in an alcohol intervention group: addressing personal and political problems.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, C F

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study in which African-American women met in a small group to discuss alcohol and drug problems. The goal was to expand the range of services available by creating an alternative intervention which provided a simultaneous focus on both the personal and the sociopolitical needs of Black women. Results suggest that the dual focus on individual and social issues, and the opportunity to simultaneously address racism, sexism, and classism in an African-American women-only alcohol recovery group was helpful.

  2. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  3. The optimal value of BMI for the lowest risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women aged 40-88 years.

    PubMed

    Skrzek, A; Kozieł, S; Ignasiak, Z

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the optimal values of the body mass index (BMI) which would indicate the most favourable preservation of the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. The material consists of the data of 369 healthy women aged between 40 and 88 years (mean age 67.84, SD=6.70) inhabitants of Wrocław, which were followed up between 2001 and 2006. The absolute measure of bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), expressed in g/(100mm(2)) and was transformed to T-score values. According to the value of BMI, the women were divided into eight groups, the reference group with value between 18.0 and 21.9kg/m(2) and seven other groups beginning with the value 22.0 with a 2-point interval. Postmenopausal status was defined according to the occurrence of menstruation within the last 360 days. The women with osteopenia and osteoporosis were pooled together and comprised the risk group, whereas the other women comprised the normal group (T-score values above -1.0). The adjusted odds ratio showed the highest value for intervals between 24.0 and 25.9 units of BMI, and the lowest value for interval 26.0-27.9 units of BMI. The Youden index showed the lowest value in the 26.0-27.9BMI kg/m(2) interval. For our sample the optimal value of BMI, with the lowest risk of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was the value of 26.9kg/m(2). A further increase of BMI does not result in a favourable effect on the bones, it rather intensifies negative phenomena in the body resulting in the onset of many diseases.

  4. The Middle Ages: Change in Women's Personalities and Social Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…

  5. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether

  6. PAHA study: Psychological Active and Healthy Aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N = 300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013 PMID:24886107

  7. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Sleeth, Michelle L.; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid-hormone production of pregnancy, women who may become pregnant should ideally consume 150 μg iodine/day [US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)]. As few UK data exist in this population group, our aim was to assess iodine intake and status in women of childbearing age in a cross-sectional study at the University of Surrey. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24-h urine samples in 57 women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90% of ingested iodine was excreted. Average iodine intake was also estimated from 48-h food diaries that the women completed. The median urinary-iodine concentration (63.1 μg/L) classified the group as mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24-h iodine excretion (149.8 μg/24-h), suggested a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. Median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 μg/day, whereas it was lower, at 123 μg/day, when estimated from the 48-h food-diaries. Iodine intake from food diaries and 24-h iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. Our study highlights a need for revised cut-offs for iodine deficiency that are method- and age-group specific. PMID:25274294

  8. Dissimilarity of femur aging in men and women from a Nationwide Survey in Korea (KNHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Lim, Jung Soo; Kim, Kwang Joon; Choi, Han Seok; Rhee, Yumie; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Choi, Woong Hwan; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2013-03-01

    In light of the differences in hip fracture rates between men and women of different ages, age-related changes in bone structure that lead to bone fragility might differ depending on both age and gender. To investigate age-related bone loss and geometric deterioration of the femur, hip scans of 1,504 men and 2,076 women aged 19-92 years acquired during the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were analyzed with a structural analysis program. Cross-sectional area and cortical thickness with bone mineral density in men started to decline from the third decade and continued to decline at a constant rate. However, in women, these parameters remained nearly constant until the fifth decade and then declined at a more rapid rate than that seen in men. Consequently, changes in the buckling ratio, earlier onset, and continuation of increase over the lifetime were observed in men. A relatively later onset with a greater acceleration with aging was observed in women. Taken together, there were obvious gender and age differences in structural trends with age. Bone aging, i.e., bone loss and geometric deterioration, actually begins at a young age, especially in men, and osteoporosis prevention strategies should target not only the elderly but also younger individuals.

  9. Consumption of folic acid-fortified bread improves folate status in women of reproductive age in Chile.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, Eva; Cortés, Fanny; Erickson, J David; Cayazzo, Marisol; Freire, Wilma; Bailey, Lynn B; Howson, Christopher; Kauwell, Gail P A; Pfeiffer, Christine

    2003-10-01

    Since January 2000 the Chilean Ministry of Health has required the fortification of wheat flour with folic acid (FA) at a concentration of 2.2 mg FA/kg in order to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) in newborns. This policy was expected to result in a mean additional intake of approximately 400 microg FA/d. We assessed the effectiveness of the FA flour fortification program on bread folate content and on blood folate concentration in women of childbearing age in Santiago, Chile. The prefortification folate status of 751 healthy women of reproductive age was assessed. The folate content of 100 bread samples bought at retail bakeries was measured, average wheat flour consumption was estimated and postfortification FA dietary intake was calculated. The effect of flour fortification on blood folate concentration in this group of women (n = 605) was evaluated in a follow-up study. Blood folate concentrations of the 605 women in the follow-up group increased (P < 0.0001) following fortification. Before fortification the mean serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were 9.7 +/- 4.3 and 290 +/- 102 nmol/L, respectively, compared with 37.2 +/- 9.5 and 707 +/- 179 nmol/L postfortification, respectively. The mean FA content of bread was 2020 +/- 940 micro g/kg. The median FA intake of the group evaluated postfortification was 427 microg/d (95% CI 409-445) based on an estimated intake of 219 g/d (95% CI 201-229) of wheat flour, mainly as bread. Fortification of wheat flour substantially improved folate status in a population of women of reproductive age in Chile. The effect of the FA fortification program on the occurrence of NTD is currently being assessed.

  10. Group therapy and its barriers for women suffering from postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Ugarriza, Doris Noel

    2004-04-01

    Data were collected to pilot-test the feasibility and the effects of the "Gruen" Postpartum Depression Group Therapy as an intervention for depression for a small treatment and control group of postpartum depressed mothers. Treatment was a ten-week group therapy consisting of four interacting aspects: (1) education and information, (2) stress reduction techniques,(3) development of support systems, and (4) cognitive restructuring. Beck Depression Inventory II scores were significantly lower post treatment in the treatment group. Women stated psychoeducation was the greatest help to them. One of the problems associated with treating postpartum women was their inability to get to therapy because of childcare responsibilities.

  11. Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Rhine, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the African HIV epidemic, support groups are not simply spaces for discussions of social and health well-being; neither are they institutions functioning solely to cultivate self-responsible and economically empowered patients. HIV-positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity surrounding their HIV status. I further argue that the practice of support group matchmaking reveals the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings. PMID:23946544

  12. Factors associated with tobacco smoking practices among middle-aged and older women in Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Colwell, Brian; Ahn, Sangnam; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-01-01

    This study examines middle-aged and older women's smoking practices and identifies factors associated with tobacco use and cessation in this population. Data of 593 women were analyzed from a seven-county random household sample in Texas. Sequential multinomial logistic regression compared associations with having never smoked, having quit smoking, and currently smoking. Compared to smokers, never smokers and past smokers were significantly more likely to be older, more educated, of better general health, and report past-year physician visits and fewer depressive symptoms. Mental health and smoking are interrelated, indicating the need for addressing depression in smoking-cessation efforts for aging women.

  13. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. PMID:27372388

  14. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy.

  15. Baseline age and time to major fracture in younger postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Gourlay, Margaret L.; Overman, Robert A.; Fine, Jason P.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Gass, Margery L.; Robbins, John; Johnson, Karen C.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Womack, Catherine R.; Schousboe, John T.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of first hip or clinical vertebral fracture or major osteoporotic (hip, clinical vertebral, proximal humerus or wrist) fracture in postmenopausal women receiving their first bone mineral density (BMD) test before age 65. Methods We studied 4068 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 without hip or clinical vertebral fracture or antifracture treatment at baseline, participating in the Women's Health Initiative BMD cohort study. BMD tests were performed between October 1993 and April 2005, with fracture follow-up through 2012. The outcomes were the times for 1% of women to sustain a hip or clinical vertebral fracture, and for 3% to sustain a major osteoporotic fracture before initiating treatment, adjusting for clinical risk factors and accounting for competing risks. Women without and with osteoporosis on their first BMD test were analyzed separately. Results During a maximum 11.2 years of concurrent BMD and fracture follow-up, the adjusted estimated time for 1% of women to have a hip or clinical vertebral fracture was 12.8 years (95% CI, 8.0, 20.4) for aged 50 to 54 and 7.6 years (95% CI, 4.8 to 12.1) for aged 60 to 64 for those without baseline osteoporosis, and 3.0 years (95% CI, 1.3, 7.1) for all women aged 50 to 64 with baseline osteoporosis. Results were similar for major osteoporotic fracture. Conclusion Due to very low rates of major osteoporotic fracture, postmenopausal women age 50 and 64 without osteoporosis on a first BMD test are unlikely to benefit from frequent rescreening before age 65. PMID:25349960

  16. Contraceptive Attitudes and Behavior of Several Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskamp, Stuart; And Others

    This paper is a progress report on a large-scale five-year longitudinal predictive study of contraceptive success and failure, begun in November, 1973. Subjects were a randomly selected goup of 646 patients at a Planned Parenthood Clinic. An interview and several brief questionnaires were administered to each subject. A sub-group was selected…

  17. Family Group Decision Making: Protecting Children and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Joan; Burford, Gale

    2000-01-01

    Details implementation of the Family Group Decision Making Project in Canadian Newfoundland and Labrador among residents from Inuit and European backgrounds. Notes how the program offered solutions to problems of fostering cultural autonomy, measuring family violence, unifying families and protecting family members, and integrating child welfare…

  18. The assessment of combined first trimester screening in women of advanced maternal age in an Asian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sarah Weiling; Barrett, Angela Natalie; Gole, Leena; Tan, Wei Ching; Biswas, Arijit; Tan, Hak Koon; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION First trimester screening (FTS) is a validated screening tool that has been shown to achieve detection rates of 84%–90% for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. However, its effectiveness for different maternal ages has not been assessed. The present study aimed to assess the performance of FTS in an Asian population, and to compare its effectiveness in older (≥ 35 years) and younger (< 35 years) women. The potential use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) as a contingent screening test is also examined. METHODS Data on cases of FTS performed on singleton pregnancies over a six-year period was collated from two Singapore maternal centres, National University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital. Cases that had a 1:250 risk of trisomy were considered to be screen-positive. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from birth records or karyotype test results. RESULTS From 10,289 FTS cases, we obtained a sensitivity of 87.8%, a specificity of 97.6%, a false positive rate of 2.4% and a false negative rate of 0.06% for the detection of aneuploidy. The overall detection rate for trisomy 21 was 86.5%–85.7% for older women and 87.5% for younger women. The mean number of invasive tests required per case of trisomy 21 was 9.3 in younger women, 8.6 in older women and 13.5 in women with intermediate risk (1:250–1,000). CONCLUSION While the performance of FTS was similar in younger and older women, more invasive procedures were required to diagnose trisomy 21 in women with intermediate risk. It may be advantageous to offer contingent NIPT to this group of women to reduce the risk of iatrogenic fetal loss. PMID:25640099

  19. Coronary calcification and osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women are independent processes associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, B; Syed, I; Sevrukov, A; Barengolts, E

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether low bone mass is directly associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in men and postmenopausal women self-referred for evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. Low bone mass was evaluated by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using quantitative computerized tomography (QCT). Coronary atherosclerosis was evaluated by measurement of coronary calcium (CC) burden using electron beam computerized tomography (EBCT). Using a cross-sectional design, we tested the hypothesis that osteoporosis and coronary atherosclerosis are correlated, age-dependent processes. Study variables were BMD, CC scores, and other known risk factors for osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Qualifying for the study were 313 postmenopausal women and 167 men. Men had higher baseline CC scores and higher body mass indexes compared to women. In females, those patients with coronary calcification were older and had significantly lower BMD compared to those without calcification. In males, those patients with coronary calcification were older. By univariate correlation analysis, the degree of coronary calcification was inversely associated with BMD in postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001) but not in men. However, after controlling for age, this association was absent for both men and postmenopausal women. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis in women and men separately, age was the only significant predictor of positive CC status and low BMD. Our study suggests that in postmenopausal women and in men, after controlling for age, osteoporosis and coronary atherosclerosis are independent processes. PMID:16604285

  20. Depression, socioeconomic status, age, and marital status in black women: a national study.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Beech, Bettina M; Naumann, Wendy; Kovach, Kristen W; Pugh, Letha; Fapohunda, Bolaji

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between an array of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and depression among Black women; determined which SES indicator was most strongly associated with depression; and examined whether the relationship between SES and depression was the same across age and marital status. A sample of 1,407 Black women recruited through the National Black Women's Health Project completed a survey on psychological well-being. Independent variables included income, education, median income within zip codes, marital status, and age. The dependent variable was depression as measured by the CES-D. The average CES-D score among participants was 12.67 (SD = 10.54), and 31.9% screened positive for depression. An inverse relationship was found between income and education and depression. The higher the yearly household income and education level the lower the scores on the CES-D. Income was the SES indicator most strongly associated with depression. Younger women had higher scores on the CES-D. Never-married women exhibited significantly higher levels of depression compared to women who were married or living together with an intimate partner. There were no significant interactions between SES indicators, age, and marital status. These findings suggest that income, education level, marital status, and age may be important demographic variables to consider when designing interventions to address depression among Black women.

  1. Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-07-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies.

  2. Opposition to redistributive employment policies for women: the role of policy experience and group interest.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Donna M; Desmarais, Serge; Branscombe, Nyla R; Gee, Stephanie S

    2005-12-01

    We examined whether group interest affected ideological beliefs and attitudes towards redistributive policies among men and women. We found that group interest influenced meritocratic and neo-sexist beliefs and support for gender-based affirmative action and comparable worth policies. Men and women differed in their ideological beliefs and support for the redistributive policies only when they had conscious experience with these policies. Those with policy experience expressed policy attitudes that corresponded with their gender group's interests, while those lacking such experience did not. We also noted group interest effects within each gender: men who had conscious experience with the policies expressed more opposition and greater neo-sexism and meritocratic beliefs than did men who were not consciously experienced with these policies. In contrast, consciously experienced women expressed more policy support than did their not consciously experienced counterparts. Overall, our findings indicate that group interest is an important determinant of policy attitudes and related ideological beliefs. PMID:16368021

  3. An Intervention for HPV Risk Reduction Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior: An Exploratory Study with College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Jocelyn Brineman; McAnulty, Richard D.; Reeve, Charlie; Cann, Arnie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a group intervention in reducing risks of contracting human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged women. Using a randomized design, the study examined the effectiveness of an HPV educational group intervention guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was provided in a…

  4. Thyroid function: comparison of women in late pregnancy with control women of reproductive age in regions of dietary iodine excess.

    PubMed

    Du, Quxiao; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Li

    2013-07-01

    Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Thus, both excessive iodine intake and pregnancy can influence the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions of women.

  5. Evaluation of serum anti-mullerian hormone as a biomarker of early ovarian aging in young women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycle

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pin-Yao; Huang, Fu-Jen; Kung, Fu-Tsai; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Lin, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chi; Lan, Kuo-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether or not the level of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is related to early ovarian aging in young women (< 35 years of age) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: An IVF laboratory in a university hospital in Taiwan. Patient (s): 70 young women (< 35 years of age) with low level of serum AMH (< 2 ng/ml) and 104 young women with level of serum AMH (≥ 2 ng/ml) who underwent IVF/ICSI cycles between January 2011 and November 2012 were enrolled. Intervention (s): None. Main outcome measure (s): Number of oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo quality, cycle cancellation rate, clinical pregnancy/abortion rate, and perinatal/infant outcomes. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer was favorable (low AMH group vs. normal AMH group [47.2% and 47.9%]) for women < 35 years of age, including women with a low serum AMH. Similarly, the live birth rate per transfer (low AMH group vs. normal AMH group [37.7% and 35.4%]) and perinatal outcomes were also comparable between the two groups. A significantly higher cycle cancellation was noted in the low AMH group than the normal AMH group (24.2% vs. 7.6%). Conclusion: Although early ovarian aging should be taken into consideration for young and infertile women with low AMH level than expected, our results suggest that low serum AMH level may suggest early ovarian aging in accelerated oocyte loss only, but may not fully represent “early ovarian aging” based on the favorable outcomes of pregnancy. PMID:25337276

  6. Fertility preservation in reproductive-age women facing gonadotoxic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Ronn, R.; Tallon, N.; Holzer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in the treatments for cancer and autoimmune and other hematologic conditions continue to improve survival and cure rates. Despite those changes, various gonadotoxic agents and other treatments can still compromise the future fertility of many women. Progress in medical and surgical reproductive technologies has helped to offset the reproductive consequences of the use of gonadotoxic therapies, and allows for future fertility and normal pregnancy. Methods A review of the literature was performed to outline the pathophysiology of gonadotoxicity from various treatments. The success of fertility preservation, fertility sparing, and cryopreservation options are reviewed. Barriers and facilitators to referral and oncofertility treatment in Canada are also outlined. Results According to the quality of the evidence, recommendations are made for fertility assessment, patient referral, cryopreservation, and other assisted reproductive technologies. Conclusions To ensure ongoing fertility in women undergoing gonadotoxic treatments, assisted reproductive technologies can be combined with a multidisciplinary approach to patient assessment and referral. PMID:26300680

  7. Mentoring college-age women: a relational approach.

    PubMed

    Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison J; Taylor, Catherine A; Williams, Linda M

    2002-04-01

    Despite the popularity of mentoring programs, the relational dimension of mentoring has not been elucidated. Traditional conceptions of mentoring may exclude factors that are particularly important for women and girls, thus limiting the efficacy of mentoring programs for female adolescents. We suggest that the presence of relational qualities in the mentoring relationship (e.g., empathy, engagement, authenticity, and empowerment) strongly influences the success of mentoring in the lives of young women. In this study, we use a promising new measure of mentoring, the Relational Health Index - Mentor, to explore the impact of relational aspects of mentoring in female college students. We found that mentoring relationships high in relational qualities were associated with higher self-esteem and less loneliness

  8. Attitudes About Sexual Activity Among Postmenopausal Women in Different Ethnic Groups: A Cross-sectional Study in Jahrom, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who referred to Honoree clinic, Jahrom in 2013. Among the study participants, 42.4% were Arab, 33.5% were Persian, and 24.1% were Lor. Data were collected about women's socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. The descriptive statistics were used for demographic variables. Moreover, ANOVA, post hoc (LSD) was used. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The participants' mean age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI <26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI >26.55). Sexual dysfunction was 75.3% in Arabs, 83.2% in Persians, and 86.1% in Lors. Besides, the most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that sexual dysfunction is considerable among postmenopausal women. The most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. PMID:26962483

  9. Survival analysis of timing of first marriage among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: regional differences.

    PubMed

    Adebowale, Stephen A; Fagbamigbe, Francis A; Okareh, Titus O; Lawal, Ganiyu O

    2012-12-01

    Early marriage is common among women in developing countries. Age at first marriage (AFM) has health implication on women and their under-five children. In Nigeria, few studies have explored AFM; the current study was designed to fill the gap. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 dataset on married women aged 15-49 (N = 24,986) was used. Chi-square, OLS regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. The mean AFM was 17.8 +/- 4.8 years and significant difference existed between the mean AFM of women in the North (16.0 +/- 3.6) and South (20.4 +/- 5.0) (p < 0.001). Region, education, religion, residence, nutritional status, age at first sexual intercourse and children ever born were significantly associated with timing of first marriage (p < 0.001). Majority of the women married between ages 15-19 years (43.1%), while very few married late (2.3%) and about 27.0% married too early (less than 15 years). Early marriage was more common in all the regions in the North than the South and the hazard was highest in the North West and North East. Women who reside in rural area (H.R = 1.15; C.I = 1.11-1.18) married early than their counterparts in the urban area. Age at first marriage was directly related to levels of education (p < 0.001). Muslim women married early (H.R = 1.34; C.I = 1.29-1.39) than Christians. Three models were generated from the data. Women married too early in Nigeria with Teenage marriage more common in the North than the South. Education has influence on AFM; therefore, women should have at least secondary education before marriage in Nigeria.

  10. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    PubMed

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  11. Determinant Factors of Anemia among Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yemane, Tilahun; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population; nonpregnant women were one of the groups for whom it is common, making it a global public health problem. Objective. To determine prevalence and risk factors of anemia among nonpregnant women of childbearing age in Jimma town southwest Ethiopia. Methodology. We conducted a community based cross-sectional study involving 441 nonpregnant women. Data was collected over two months of period. We collected sociodemographic and related data using structured questionnaire. We collected four milliliters of venous blood and five grams of stool samples from each study participant for hematological and parasitological analysis. We performed statistical analysis using SPSS-V 16 software. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.1% (n = 71) with mean hemoglobin 12.96 g/dL (±1.04), among which 97.2% (n = 69) were mildly anemic. Age group of 25–36 years old, lower economic level, illiteracy, multiparity, having intestinal parasitic infection, using more than two sanitary pads per day during menstruation period, and low body mass index were found to be risk factors of anemia among the group. Conclusion. Prevalence of anemia indicates mild public health importance which shows it was indeed public health problem. Identified risk factors should be considered for prevention and control of anemia among the group. PMID:27355074

  12. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  13. Income, health and nutrition activities: examples from women's groups in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    The accomplishments of 4 Kenyan women's groups, sponsored by seed grants of $2000-5000 from Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) since 1982, are summarized. CEDPA provides professional management training and coordinates alumni groups, as well as grants for community projects in family planning, health and community development. Forty women from Ngamani started a project to sell floormats, raised vegetables, received a grant to raise poultry, and opened a nutrition clinic. In Kibuyuni women use profits from chickens, goats and vegetables, and milling grain to build a primary school, a health dispensary and a general store. With CEDPA funds, they stocked the store and furnished the clinic. Proceeds pay a health worker's salary. They have sponsored another women's group, which is building a bakery and managing dairy cows. The Makiwo women's group, with money from their craft business, built a multi-purpose community center for health, family planning services and reading classes. A CEDPA grant funded a charcoal business and a profitable water system built by the women, providing a salaried health educator. A women's group in Chonyi began raising cattle. A CEDPA graduate helped them to set a goal to reduce infant mortality. They started a training class for young mothers in techniques of nutrition, home economics, family planning and hygiene, such as growing vegetables an building latrines. Evaluation has shown that successful projects are based on previous work, strong links with other organizations, and entail a long-term process. Women's organizations can deliver results with some training, supervision and technical assistance, but minimal cost.

  14. Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Four Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity and depression and the multiple contextual factors influencing these associations in four major ethnic-groups of midlife women in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 542 midlife women. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status; the Depression Index for Midlife Women; and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests, the ANOVA, twoway ANOVA, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The women's depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with active living and sports/exercise physical activities whereas they were positively correlated with occupational physical activities (p < .01). Family income was the strongest predictor of their depressive symptoms. Increasing physical activity may improve midlife women's depressive symptoms, but the types of physical activity and multiple contextual factors need to be considered in intervention development. PMID:24879749

  15. Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Lemke, Dorothea; Hense, Hans Werner

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts. PMID:26933878

  16. Sarcopenic/obesity and physical capacity in older men and women: data from the Nutrition as a Determinant of Successful Aging (NuAge)-the Quebec longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Danielle R; Dionne, Isabelle J; Brochu, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Sarcopenia and obesity have been independently associated with physical capacity impairments. However, few studies have investigated the impact of sarcopenic/obesity on physical capacity in older individuals using objective measures of physical capacity and body composition. This study included 904 older individuals aged between 68 and 82 years old. Body composition (fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), physical capacity (timed up and go, chair stands, walking speed at normal and fastest pace, and one leg stand), sum of reported chronic conditions and physical activity level were measured. A global physical capacity score was then calculated giving a maximal score of 20. Finally, four groups were created within genders based on sarcopenia and obesity ((i) nonsarcopenic/nonobese; (ii) sarcopenic/nonobese; (iii) nonsarcopenic/obese; (iv) sarcopenic/obese). The four groups were significantly different for the sit-to-stand test and the one leg stand test (P < 0.05) and only for the one leg stand test in women (P < 0.05). In both genders results for the global physical capacity score revealed that both obese groups (sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic) were similar (P = 0.14 in men and P = 0.19 in women) and had a lower global physical capacity score compared to nonsarcopenic/nonobese individuals (P < 0.05). In addition, sarcopenic women displayed a higher score than both obese nonsarcopenic and obese sarcopenic groups (P < 0.01). Sarcopenic/obese men and women do not display lower physical capacity compared to nonsarcopenic/obese individuals in this cohort of well-functioning older men and women. Obesity per se appears to contribute more to lower physical capacity than sarcopenia.

  17. Lifestyle and Socioeconomic Determinants of Multimorbidity Patterns among Mid-Aged Women: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Caroline A.; Dobson, Annette J.; Tooth, Leigh R.; Mishra, Gita D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about patterns of associative multimorbidity and their aetiology. We aimed to identify patterns of associative multimorbidity among mid-aged women and the lifestyle and socioeconomic factors associated with their development. Methods Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We included 4896 women born 1946–51, without multimorbidity in 1998. We identified multimorbidity patterns at survey 6 (2010) using factor analysis, and related these patterns to baseline lifestyle and socioeconomic factors using logistic regression. We dichotomised factor scores and determined odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between characteristics and odds of a high versus low factor score. Results We identified five multimorbidity patterns: psychosomatic; musculoskeletal; cardiometabolic; cancer; and respiratory. Overweight and obesity were respectively associated with increased odds of having a high score for the musculoskeletal (adjusted ORs 1.45 [95% CI 1.23, 1.70] and 2.14 [95% CI 1.75, 2.60]) and cardiometabolic (adjusted ORs 1.53 [95% CI 1.31, 1.79] and 2.46 [95% CI 2.02, 2.98]) patterns. Physical inactivity was associated with increased odds of a high score for the psychosomatic, musculoskeletal and cancer patterns (adjusted ORs 1.41 [95% CI 1.13, 1.76]; 1.39 [95% CI 1.11, 1.74]; and 1.35 [95% CI 1.08, 1.69]). Smoking was associated with increased odds of a high score for the respiratory pattern. Education and ability to manage on income were associated with increased odds of a high score for the psychosomatic pattern (adjusted ORs 1.34 [95% CI 1.03, 1.75] and 1.73 [95% CI 1.37, 1.28], respectively) and musculoskeletal pattern (adjusted ORs 1.43 [95% CI 1.10, 1.87] and 1.38 [1.09, 1.75], respectively). Conclusions Distinct multimorbidity patterns can be identified among mid-aged women. Social inequality, physical activity and BMI are risk factors common to multiple patterns and are

  18. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  19. Group B Streptococcus Colonization among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Tertiary Hospital in Rural Southwestern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Namugongo, Abdul; Bazira, Joel; Fajardot, Yarine; Joseph, Ngonzi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine the prevalence and factors associated with group B streptococcal anogenital colonization among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, a tertiary hospital. Methods. Cross-sectional study where 309 pregnant women ≥ thirty-five weeks of gestation attending antenatal clinic were consecutively recruited between January and March 2015. Anovaginal swabs were collected and tested qualitatively using rapid visual immunoassay GBS test kits for presence of GBS antigens. Data was analyzed using STATA version 12. In univariate analysis, GBS colonized mothers were presented as percentages and numbers, and in multivariate analysis logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associations of exposure variable and GBS colonization; a value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Mothers' median age was 25 years, 14.6% mothers being obese. GBS prevalence was 28.8%, 95% CI: 23.7–33.9. Obesity was the only significant factor associated with anogenital GBS colonization with odds ratio of 3.78, 95% CI: 1.78–8.35, a p value of 0.001. Maternal ages, educational level, residence, and gravidity were not associated with GBS anogenital colonization. Conclusion. Group B streptococcal anogenital colonization among pregnant women attending antenatal care at tertiary hospital, in Southwestern Uganda, is high. PMID:27313620

  20. Group B Streptococcus Colonization among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Tertiary Hospital in Rural Southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Namugongo, Abdul; Bazira, Joel; Fajardot, Yarine; Joseph, Ngonzi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine the prevalence and factors associated with group B streptococcal anogenital colonization among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, a tertiary hospital. Methods. Cross-sectional study where 309 pregnant women ≥ thirty-five weeks of gestation attending antenatal clinic were consecutively recruited between January and March 2015. Anovaginal swabs were collected and tested qualitatively using rapid visual immunoassay GBS test kits for presence of GBS antigens. Data was analyzed using STATA version 12. In univariate analysis, GBS colonized mothers were presented as percentages and numbers, and in multivariate analysis logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associations of exposure variable and GBS colonization; a value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Mothers' median age was 25 years, 14.6% mothers being obese. GBS prevalence was 28.8%, 95% CI: 23.7-33.9. Obesity was the only significant factor associated with anogenital GBS colonization with odds ratio of 3.78, 95% CI: 1.78-8.35, a p value of 0.001. Maternal ages, educational level, residence, and gravidity were not associated with GBS anogenital colonization. Conclusion. Group B streptococcal anogenital colonization among pregnant women attending antenatal care at tertiary hospital, in Southwestern Uganda, is high.

  1. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation: a new approach toward controlling anemia among women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Berger, Jacques; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2005-12-01

    Community-based social marketing and mobilization increased knowledge and participation in preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in Vietnam. Rates of buying and taking the weekly supplement containing 60 mg elemental iron and 3.5 mg folic acid among non-pregnant women of reproductive age was between 55% and 92%. Free distribution to pregnant women of the weekly supplement containing 120 mg iron and 3.5 mg folic acid covered almost all pregnant women during the project. In developing countries where community women's groups and health networks are strong, preventive supplementation can be successfully promoted to encourage active participation in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:16466084

  2. Psychosocial risk factors which may differentiate between women with Functional Voice Disorder, Organic Voice Disorder and a Control group.

    PubMed

    Baker, Janet; Ben-Tovim, David; Butcher, Andrew; Esterman, Adrian; McLaughlin, Kristin

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore psychosocial factors contributing to the development of functional voice disorders (FVD) and those differentiating between organic voice disorders (OVD) and a non-voice-disordered control group. A case-control study was undertaken of 194 women aged 18-80 years diagnosed with FVD (n = 73), OVD (n = 55), and controls (n = 66). FVD women were allocated into psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) (n = 37) and muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) (n = 36) for sub-group analysis. Dependent variables included biographical and voice assessment data, the number and severity of life events and difficulties and conflict over speaking out (COSO) situations derived from the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), and psychological traits including emotional expressiveness scales. Four psychosocial components differentiated between the FVD and control group accounting for 84.9% of the variance: severe events, moderate events, severe COSO, and mild COSO difficulties. Severe events, severe and mild COSO difficulties differentiated between FVD and OVD groups, accounting for 80.5% of the variance. Moderate events differentiated between PVD and MTVD sub-groups, accounting for 58.9% of the variance. Psychological traits did not differentiate between groups. Stressful life events and COSO situations best differentiated FVD from OVD and control groups. More refined aetiological studies are needed to differentiate between PVD and MTVD.

  3. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  4. Rubella and measles seroprevalence among women of childbearing age, Argentina, 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, G. H.; Panero, M. S.; Urquiza, A.; Molina, M.; Prieto, S.; Del Carmen Perego, M.; Scagliotti, G.; Galimberti, D.; Carroli, G.; Wolff, C.; Bi, D.; Bellini, W.; Icenogle, J.; Reef, S.

    2005-01-01

    To assess rubella and measles susceptibility among women of childbearing age we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in four cities and one rural area in Argentina. A convenience sample of women aged 15-49 years seeking care in public health-care institutions was selected (n=2804). Serum specimens were tested for rubella and measles IgG antibody titres. The overall susceptibility to rubella and measles was 8.8 and 12.5% respectively. Seroprevalence differences were found for both rubella (P<0.001) and measles (P=0.002) across sites. Rubella seroprevalence was higher in women aged >or=40 years than in younger women (P=0.04). Measles seroprevalence tended to increase with age (P<0.001). Approximately 15% of women aged 15-29 years were not immune to measles. No risk factors were associated with rubella seronegativity; however, age (P<0.001) and having less than four pregnancies (P<0.001) were factors associated with measles seronegativity. Our findings support the introduction of supplemental immunization activities targeting adolescents and young adults to prevent congenital rubella syndrome and measles outbreaks over time. PMID:16181506

  5. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  6. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  7. The Correlates of Childhood Father Absence in College-aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainline, Louise; Feig, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Personality and attitudinal correlates of father absence early (before age 5) or late (between 5 and 11) in childhood were studied in a sample of college- aged women. Father absence was due to either death or divorce. Results showed few differences between father-absent subjects and father-present controls. (Author/JMB)

  8. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and Σ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  9. Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

  10. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

  11. Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…

  12. Effects of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Navidian, Ali; Rigi, Shahindokht Navabi; Soltani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital relationships may fluctuate due to physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women. Methods This was a quasiexperimental intervention study. Among the pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015 for routine care during pregnancy, 100 individuals were chosen and randomly categorized into two groups: intervention (n=50) and control (n=50). Variables were the participant’s attitudes and beliefs on sexual activity during pregnancy. The data were collected during pregnancy using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed before and 6 weeks after five sessions of group sexual counseling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 20) with descriptive and analytical statistics. Results The mean of score changes for sexual attitudes and traditional perceptions in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.0001). Analysis of covariance also showed that the mean score of the participant’s traditional perceptions and sexual attitudes in both groups was significantly different after the group sexual counseling. Discussion Due to the positive effect of group sexual counseling on improving the attitudes of pregnant women about sexual issues and reframing the traditional perceptions over sexual activities during pregnancy, it is recommended that this educational intervention should be integrated into counseling and prenatal care for pregnant women. PMID:27366105

  13. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion. PMID:27621987

  14. Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

  15. Increased Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Detection in Women of Childbearing Age and Potential Risk for Vertical Transmission - United States and Kentucky, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Alaya; Nelson, Noele; Hariri, Susan; Canary, Lauren; Sanders, Kathy J; Maxwell, Justine F; Huang, Xiaohua; Leake, John A D; Ward, John W; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality (1). Transmission of HCV is primarily via parenteral blood exposure, and HCV can be transmitted vertically from mother to child. Vertical transmission occurs in 5.8% (95% confidence interval = 4.2%-7.8%) of infants born to women who are infected only with HCV and in up to twice as many infants born to women who are also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (2) or who have high HCV viral loads (3,4); there is currently no recommended intervention to prevent transmission of infection from mother to child (3). Increased reported incidence of HCV infection among persons aged ≤30 years (5,6) with similar increases among women and men in this age group (6), raises concern about increases in the number of pregnant women with HCV infection, and in the number of infants who could be exposed to HCV at birth. Data from one large commercial laboratory and birth certificate data were used to investigate trends in HCV detection among women of childbearing age,* HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years, and the proportions of infants born to HCV-infected women nationally and in Kentucky, the state with the highest incidence of acute HCV infection during 2011-2014 (6). During 2011-2014, commercial laboratory data indicated that national rates of HCV detection (antibody or RNA positivity(†)) among women of childbearing age increased 22%, and HCV testing (antibody or RNA) among children aged ≤2 years increased 14%; birth certificate data indicated that the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected mothers increased 68%, from 0.19% to 0.32%. During the same time in Kentucky, the HCV detection rate among women of childbearing age increased >200%, HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years increased 151%, and the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected women increased 124%, from 0.71% to 1.59%. Increases in the rate of HCV detection among women of childbearing age

  16. Attitudes toward AIDS among a low-risk group of women.

    PubMed

    Glenn, P S; Nance-Spronson, L E; McCartney, M; Yesalis, C E

    1991-01-01

    A descriptive study presents the results of a 31-item questionnaire surveying the attitudes, fears, and perceived risks regarding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of patients at a freestanding maternity center located in a Washington, DC, suburb. The nonprobability, convenience sample of 200 females consists primarily of a homogenous group of white, middle- to upper-middle-class, well-educated women. Results of the research indicate a need for an educational program on AIDS designed for this population of women.

  17. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  18. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (p<0.01). Thus, the age-related increase in arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  19. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  20. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.

  1. Ovarian follicular development and the follicular fluid hormones and growth factors in normal women of advanced reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N A; Battaglia, D E; Miller, P B; Branigan, E F; Giudice, L C; Soules, M R

    1996-05-01

    Reproductive aging in women (a physiological decline in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis) is an infrequently investigated and poorly understood biological phenomenon. Although menstrual irregularity and anovulation are known to precede the menopause, normal women in their fifth decade experience a profound decrease in fertility while still experiencing regular menstrual cycles. To further our understanding of the physiological changes associated with reproductive aging, this study examined the spontaneous development and function of ovarian follicles in normal women, aged 40-45 yr. The subjects were women (n = 21), aged 40-45 yr, who had regular 25- to 35-day ovulatory menstrual cycles, were not infertile, had no medical problems, and met specific criteria for weight, diet, and exercise. The controls were normal women (n = 20), age 20-25 yr, who met the same criteria. The subjects were monitored with daily hormone measurements [LH, FSH, estradiol (E), progesterone (P), and inhibin] and pelvic sonograms from day 1 of their study cycle until the dominant ovarian follicle reached a mean diameter of 15 mm and/or a serum E level of 550 pmol/L or higher was attained. At that time, 10,000 U hCG were given, and a transvaginal sonographic follicle aspiration was performed 32 h later. The follicular fluid (FF) was collected, stored frozen at -70 C, and later analyzed for E, P, testosterone (T), androstenedione, inhibin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-II. The number of cycle days to aspiration was lower (11.6 vs. 15.6 days; P < 0.001) and the early follicular phase mean FSH and mean E levels were higher (9.3 vs. 6.6 mIU/mL and 305 vs. 160 pmol/L; P < 0.01) in the older (O) group compared to the younger group. There was a strong trend toward higher FF mean E (2280 vs. 1931 nmol/L) and lower FF mean T (978 vs. 2361 pmol/L) levels in group O. The E/T ratio was significantly higher (5253 vs. 2408; P < 0.03) in group O. In group O, the mean FF

  2. Ovarian follicular development and the follicular fluid hormones and growth factors in normal women of advanced reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N A; Battaglia, D E; Miller, P B; Branigan, E F; Giudice, L C; Soules, M R

    1996-05-01

    Reproductive aging in women (a physiological decline in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis) is an infrequently investigated and poorly understood biological phenomenon. Although menstrual irregularity and anovulation are known to precede the menopause, normal women in their fifth decade experience a profound decrease in fertility while still experiencing regular menstrual cycles. To further our understanding of the physiological changes associated with reproductive aging, this study examined the spontaneous development and function of ovarian follicles in normal women, aged 40-45 yr. The subjects were women (n = 21), aged 40-45 yr, who had regular 25- to 35-day ovulatory menstrual cycles, were not infertile, had no medical problems, and met specific criteria for weight, diet, and exercise. The controls were normal women (n = 20), age 20-25 yr, who met the same criteria. The subjects were monitored with daily hormone measurements [LH, FSH, estradiol (E), progesterone (P), and inhibin] and pelvic sonograms from day 1 of their study cycle until the dominant ovarian follicle reached a mean diameter of 15 mm and/or a serum E level of 550 pmol/L or higher was attained. At that time, 10,000 U hCG were given, and a transvaginal sonographic follicle aspiration was performed 32 h later. The follicular fluid (FF) was collected, stored frozen at -70 C, and later analyzed for E, P, testosterone (T), androstenedione, inhibin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-II. The number of cycle days to aspiration was lower (11.6 vs. 15.6 days; P < 0.001) and the early follicular phase mean FSH and mean E levels were higher (9.3 vs. 6.6 mIU/mL and 305 vs. 160 pmol/L; P < 0.01) in the older (O) group compared to the younger group. There was a strong trend toward higher FF mean E (2280 vs. 1931 nmol/L) and lower FF mean T (978 vs. 2361 pmol/L) levels in group O. The E/T ratio was significantly higher (5253 vs. 2408; P < 0.03) in group O. In group O, the mean FF

  3. Applying the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate Integrative Medicine Group Visits Among Diverse Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain.

    PubMed

    Chao, Maria T; Abercrombie, Priscilla D; Santana, Trilce; Duncan, Larissa G

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate group medical visits using an integrative health approach for underserved women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). We implemented an integrative medicine program to improve quality of life among women with CPP using Centering, a group-based model that combines healthcare assessment, education, and social support. Patients were from university-affiliated and public hospital-affiliated clinics. We evaluated the program with qualitative and quantitative data to address components of the RE-AIM framework: Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance. Participants of the Centering CPP Program participants (n = 26) were demographically similar to a sample of women with CPP who sought care at Bay Area hospitals (n = 701). Participants were on average 40 years of age, a majority of whom were racial/ethnic minorities with low household income (76%). Women who attended four or more sessions (n = 16) had improved health-related quality of life, including decreases in average number of unhealthy days in the past month (from 24 to 18, p < .05), depressive symptoms (from 11.7 to 9.0, p < .05), and symptom severity (from 4.2 to 3.1, p < .01). Sexual health outcomes also improved (30.5 to 50.3, p = .02). No improvements were observed for pain catastrophizing. Our pilot program provides preliminary data that an integrative health approach using a group-based model can be adapted and implemented to reach diverse women with CPP to improve physical and psychological well-being. Given these promising findings, rigorous evaluation of implementation and effectiveness of this approach compared with usual care is warranted.

  4. Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna

    The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

  5. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  6. Evaluating the micronutrient status of women of child-bearing age living in the rural disaster areas one year after Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caixia; Ge, Pengfei; Ren, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xianfeng; Fan, Haoqiang; Yin, Shi-An; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    Populations with special physiological state, such as pregnant, nursing and women of child-bearing age, have been identified as nutritionally vulnerable during natural disaster. The objective of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia and micronutrient status of women of reproductive age in April 2009 one year after the Wenchuan Earthquake. The survey recruited 58 pregnant, 66 lactating and 242 women of child-bearing age from 19 to 45 years. The concentrations of haemoglobin in whole blood and ferritin and micronutrients in serum were assayed. Among the three groups (pregnant, nursing and child-bearing women), respectively, the prevalence of anaemia was 29.1%, 25.5% and 28.8%; that of iron deficiency was 45.4%, 49.0% and 52.9%; and that of zinc deficiency was 45.4%, 23.0% and 33.5%. The sum of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was more than 90% in each group, and the total vitamin B12 deficiency and marginal deficiency prevalence percentages were 47.3%, 17.7% and 35.7%, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency was 1.8% and 9.1% in pregnant women, 6.1% and 15.2% in nursing women and 8.6% and 21.3% in women of child-bearing age, respectively. Our findings indicated that the micronutrient status of women of reproductive age was poor in the disaster areas. Therefore, improving the micronutrient status of these women should be an urgent priority in these areas.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the KPAS in Diverse Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2011-01-01

    Although the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) was a potential instrument for cross cultural research of midlife women, little information is available on its reliability and validity among multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the KPAS in estimating physical activity among 341 diverse ethnic women. Internal consistency was adequate for all ethnic groups except N-H African Americans. The construct validity was identified through group comparisons and factor analysis. In group comparisons, physical activity differences among diverse ethnic groups were similar to results of previous studies using the KPAS. Eight factors were extracted among all ethnic groups except N-H Asian Americans. In the convergent validity test, N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans showed particular patterns. Overall, the KPAS was a reliable instrument and was reasonably accurate in assessing physical activities for any multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. However, cultural sensitivity among N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans need to be further examined. PMID:19745161

  8. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  9. Nutrition Knowledge and Milk and Milk Product Consumption in a Group of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Coull, Lisa; Sabry, Jean Henderson

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and milk/milk product consumption by women, data were collected from 457 female office employees. Statistically significant relationships were found between level of nutrition knowledge and age, education, and occupation. No statistically significant relationships between nutrition knowledge…

  10. Reduced neural specificity in middle-aged HIV+ women in the absence of behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenglong; Wang, Cuiwei; Leclair, Matthew; Young, Mary; Jiang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    In the post combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, the prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in individuals with HIV-infection remains high. There is a pressing need to find biomarkers that can aid clinical assessment of HAND, especially in those with mild or no neurocognitive symptoms. Here we hypothesized that a reduction in neural specificity, or the specificity of neuronal tuning, could serve as a potential biomarker of asymptomatic HAND. To directly test this hypothesis, we applied two advanced fMRI techniques to examine the difference in neural specificity between middle-aged HIV+ women and age-matched negative controls, with a focus on the fusiform face area (FFA), a critical region in face processing. Face discrimination performance was assessed outside of the scanner. While the behavioral performance of face discrimination was comparable between the two groups, a reduced neural specificity in the FFA of HIV-positive women was revealed by a novel fMRI analysis technique, local regional heterogeneity analysis, or Hcorr , as well as an established technique, fMRI-rapid adaptation. In contrast, conventional fMRI techniques were insensitive to these early changes. These results suggest that, prior to the onset of detectable behavioral deficits, significant neuronal dysfunctions are already present in HIV+ individuals, and these early neuronal dysfunctions can be detected and assessed via neural specificity, which, in combining with the novel Hcorr technique, has a strong potential to serve as a biomarker of asymptomatic HAND and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26288750

  11. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  12. The impact of age on local control in women with pT1 breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; van der Palen, J; Meerwaldt, J H

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of young age with regard to local control in a prospective cohort of 1085 women with pathological T1 tumours treated with breast conservative treatment (BCT). Patients were divided into two age groups: 40 years or younger, 7.8%, and older than 40 years, 92.2%. With a median follow-up of 71 months, the local recurrence rate was 10.6% in women < or =40 years, and 3.7% in older women. The local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was significantly different for the two age groups, respectively 89%, < or =40 years, and 97.6%, >40 years (P=0.0046). A separate analysis showed a significantly decreased LRFS for young women with a positive family history, 75.4% versus 98.4% 5-year LRFS for older women. A worse LRFS for young women with a negative lymph node status was also observed, respectively 84% versus 98% 5-year LRFS (both P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, taking into account the pre-treatment and treatment factors, age < or =40 years, was the only significant predictor of a decreased LRFS. Thus, young age is an important factor in relation to local control. In a subset analysis, this significant adverse effect of young age on outcome appears to be limited to the node-negative patients and those with a positive family history. To date, there is no evidence that young women with pT1 breast cancer, treated by mastectomy have an improved outcome when compared with those treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy. Taking into account results from a subset analysis suggests that giving systemic therapy to a subgroup of women who are < or =40 years, node-negative and/or have a positive family history might give a better local control. PMID:11576834

  13. The impact of age on local control in women with pT1 breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; van der Palen, J; Meerwaldt, J H

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of young age with regard to local control in a prospective cohort of 1085 women with pathological T1 tumours treated with breast conservative treatment (BCT). Patients were divided into two age groups: 40 years or younger, 7.8%, and older than 40 years, 92.2%. With a median follow-up of 71 months, the local recurrence rate was 10.6% in women < or =40 years, and 3.7% in older women. The local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was significantly different for the two age groups, respectively 89%, < or =40 years, and 97.6%, >40 years (P=0.0046). A separate analysis showed a significantly decreased LRFS for young women with a positive family history, 75.4% versus 98.4% 5-year LRFS for older women. A worse LRFS for young women with a negative lymph node status was also observed, respectively 84% versus 98% 5-year LRFS (both P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, taking into account the pre-treatment and treatment factors, age < or =40 years, was the only significant predictor of a decreased LRFS. Thus, young age is an important factor in relation to local control. In a subset analysis, this significant adverse effect of young age on outcome appears to be limited to the node-negative patients and those with a positive family history. To date, there is no evidence that young women with pT1 breast cancer, treated by mastectomy have an improved outcome when compared with those treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy. Taking into account results from a subset analysis suggests that giving systemic therapy to a subgroup of women who are < or =40 years, node-negative and/or have a positive family history might give a better local control.

  14. Efficacy of Group Logotherapy on Decreasing Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast cancer were randomly divided into two experimental group and control group. Then, all patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The experimental group received Logotherapy-based group counseling for eight sessions; however, the control group did not receive any specific training. In the end, both groups were tested again. After collecting the questionnaires, data was analyzed by the statistic software SPSS version 18 and using analysis of covariance. Results The research results showed that group Logotherapy was effective in reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer (p<0.005). In other words, this intervention could reduce anxiety in the experimental group. Conclusion The results suggest that in line with current medical treatment, psychosocial interventions can be used to reduce anxiety in the breast cancer patients. PMID:25250168

  15. Does the conservation of resources motivate middle-aged women to perform physical activity?

    PubMed

    Rotem, Mina; Epstein, Leon; Ehrenfeld, Mally

    2009-12-01

    This article aims to examine the factors that motivate middle-aged women to engage in leisure physical activity (LPA) and to explore the relationship between resources loss and gains and engaging in LPA. It is a cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire (n = 949), using variables of the conservation of resources theory and the theory of planned behavior. Results show that women who engage in physical activity experience lower resources loss than inactive women. The longer they engage in physical activity, the less they experience losses such as youth, attractiveness, optimism, health, and beauty. Conservation of resources, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, and normative beliefs predict 41% (p < .0001) of the variance in the engagement in leisure physical activity. Findings suggest that constructing effective strategies to promote LPA requires also addressing these factors, which are valued by middle-aged women.

  16. Childbearing, reproductive control, aging women, and health care: the projected ethical debates.

    PubMed

    Freda, M C

    1994-02-01

    Of the many social trends that will have an impact on the ethical debates surrounding women's health in the 21st century, three are discussed: the shifting demographics of age and race in the United States; the fundamental change in the health care system to a community-based, preventive model; and the equal voice of women in the government. Using these trends as a framework, this article hypothesizes the ethical debates that will occur in the 21st century concerning such issues as fetal viability, abortion, contraception, infertility, genetic engineering, aggressive versus nonaggressive treatment of aging women, scarce resources, menopause, organ transplants, sexism in biomedical research, fertility in postmenopausal women, birthing centers, fetal surgery, and fetal therapy.

  17. The use of PHC clinic-based women's groups for financial empowerment in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Uys, L R; Bhengu, B R; Majumdar, B

    2006-03-01

    The article is based on a four-year project during which Primary Health Care (PHC) nurses worked with women's groups in their areas. The aim of the study was to explore the involvement of PHC nurses in economic empowerment, both in terms of health promotion and in terms of the PHC approach. In particular the objectives were to establish whether nurses could lead economic empowerment groups, whether such groups could establish adequate external links and become financially viable. Eleven groups were used as case studies, and a cross-case analysis was done in terms of the three objectives. It was found that between the women and the nurses, adequate leadership existed for the groups to function well. Very limited external linkages were established, notwithstanding efforts in this regard. Nine out of 11 groups contributed to financial welfare of their members after 18 months, but a range of problems with regard to financial viability are identified.

  18. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  19. [Urocolpos: a cause of pseudo-incontinence in aged women].

    PubMed

    Arango Toro, O; Nohales Taurines, G; Carreras Collado, R; Bielsa Gali, O; Gelabert-Mas, A

    1996-01-01

    Presentation of our experience in three cases of urocolpos (acquired pudendal lip fusion), a series numerically equivalent to the total number of cases published until now. All patients in our series were older women and presented complete fusion of the small pudendal lips, with only a small pointed puncture in the lower part of the vulva. The main clinical signs and symptoms in our series were: urinary infection in 100%, false incontinence in 66% due to output of urine retained in the vagina, a symptom that has not been described earlier, and acute urine retention in 33%. All patients were successfully treated by means of surgical loosening of the fusioned lips and application of topical estrogens. An analysis is made of clinical and pathoanatomical features which differentiate this entity from the sclerotic and atrophic lichen. Finally, an etiopathogenic hypothesis is raised to explain the fusion acquired by the small pudendal lips in the urocolpos. PMID:8721004

  20. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  1. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women.

  2. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  3. Barriers and facilitators to uptake of the school-based HPV vaccination programme in an ethnically diverse group of young women

    PubMed Central

    Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L.; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Methods Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. Results The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. Conclusions The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. PMID:26054910

  4. Safety planning in focus groups of Malawian women living with HIV: helping each other deal with violence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne

    2013-11-01

    In this critical ethnography, 72 HIV-infected women in Southern Malawi participated in 12 focus groups discussing the impact of HIV and violence. Our analysis, informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, revealed women's capacity to collectively engage in safety planning. We present our findings about women's experiences based on narratives detailing how women collectively strategized safety planning efforts to mitigate the impact of violence. This study helps to fill a gap in the literature on the intersection between HIV and violence in women's lives. Strategies discussed by the women could form a basis for safety planning interventions for women in similar circumstances.

  5. Spectrum of Aortic Valve Abnormalities Associated with Aortic Dilation Across Age Groups in Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Laura J.; Baba, Ridhwan Y.; Arai, Andrew E.; Bandettini, W. Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R.; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with TS, and determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. Methods and Results The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 208 subjects with TS in an IRB-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve, and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) 64%(n=133), partially fused aortic valve (PF) 12%(n=25), bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) 23%(n=47), and unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) 1%(n=3). Age and body surface area (BSA) were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, towards larger BSA-indexed ascending aortic diameters (AADi) with increasing valve fusion. AADi were (mean +/− SD) 16.9 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, 18.3 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, and 19.8 +/− 3.9 mm/m2 (p<0.0001) for TAV, PF and BAV+UAV respectively. PF, BAV, and UAV were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Conclusions Aortic valve abnormalities in TS occur with a spectrum of severity, and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased AADi. PMID:24084490

  6. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%. PMID:24283176

  7. Prevalence of genital warts in reproductive-aged Turkish women presenting at gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason.

    PubMed

    Kose, M F; Akin, L; Yuce, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this multicenter descriptive study was to calculate the frequency of genital warts among Turkish women aged 15-49 years, who visited outpatient gynecology clinics for a variety of reasons. The study was conducted in February 2011 to collect data for a minimum of 154 patients at each center, and the total sample size reached 2,967 women (95.1% completion rate). Oral informed consents were obtained. A questionnaire including data on socio-demographic characteristics and reasons for admission was administered, and a pelvic examination was performed. The overall point prevalence was 35% (95% CI = 3.1%-4.0%), correcting for sampling design, with the highest rates observed in the 15 to 19-year-old group. The odds of having a genital wart was 1.82 times (95% CI = 0.99-3.33) higher among non-pregnant participants than in pregnant women (p = 0.051). The overall point prevalence of genital warts among reproductive-aged women attending gynecology outpatient clinics for any reason in Turkey was 35%.

  8. Understanding the Effect of Obesity on Fertility Among Reproductive-Age Women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Allison; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern, and obesity among women of childbearing age can have a negative impact on fertility. The mechanism of action between obesity and infertility is complex and includes hormonal factors, alterations in ovulation, and changes in the menstrual cycle. Maternal obesity has also been linked to spontaneous abortion and poorer maternal and fetal health outcomes. Many interventions exist to help childbearing women achieve a lower body mass index. These include lifestyle modifications (diet/physical activity) and surgical and pharmacologic interventions. This article reviews the pathophysiology of the relationship between obesity and infertility and discusses evidence-based interventions for improving fertility among obese childbearing women. PMID:27520601

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia are unknown. The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. Results The study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4% of the samples of which 78.4% were positive for only IgG and 3.06% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 %) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats’ feces cleaning (P ≤ 0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P =0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P = 0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P = 0.043) than women who didn’t consume. Conclusion The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia is high. Study

  10. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  11. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  12. HIV awareness in China among women of reproductive age (1997-2005): a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Olga; Brown, James J; Smith, Peter W F; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-03-01

    HIV prevalence in China is less than one per cent, but the absolute number of people living with HIV/AIDS is large and growing. Given the limited scope of any potential cure for HIV, prevention plays a crucial role in controlling the epidemic. This paper examines the evolution of HIV awareness among women in China between 1997 and 2005. A regression decomposition analysis technique was used to disentangle the two main components driving a change in HIV awareness. The results show that HIV awareness has increased over time in China. The gaps between groups are narrowing over time and lower HIV awareness groups are catching up with the higher awareness groups. In 2005 education remained one of the main factors associated with HIV awareness, the other main factors being ethnicity, exposure to TV and newspapers. The increases in HIV awareness observed between 1997 and 2001 are similar between groups of women with different demographic characteristics, whereas between 2003 and 2005 increases are more pronounced among specific groups of women such as women from rural areas, women from Western parts of the country, women who belong to ethnic minorities and those with no education or with only primary education. The results suggest that the main driver of the observed change in HIV awareness over time in China is change in the environment such as in political commitment, interventions and campaigns rather than change in population structure.

  13. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  14. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 1. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 40 to 49 years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A B; Baines, C J; To, T; Wall, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of annual screening with mammography, physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination in reducing the rate of death from breast cancer among women aged 40 to 49 years on entry. DESIGN: Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Women with no history of breast cancer and no mammography in the previous 12 months were randomly assigned to undergo either annual mammography and physical examination (MP group) or usual care after an initial physical examination (UC group). The 50,430 women enrolled from January 1980 through March 1985 were followed for a mean of 8.5 years. DATA COLLECTION: Derived from the participants by initial and annual self-administered questionnaires, from the screening examinations, from the patients' physicians, from the provincial cancer registries and by record linkage to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base. Expert panels evaluated histologic and death data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of referral from screening, rates of detection of breast cancer from screening and from community care, nodal status, tumour size, and rates of death from all causes and from breast cancer. RESULTS: Over 90% of the women in each group attended the screening sessions or returned the annual questionnaires, or both, over years 2 to 5. The characteristics of the women in the two groups were similar. Compared with the Canadian population, the participants were more likely to be married, have fewer children, have more education, be in a professional occupation, smoke less and have been born in North America. The rate of screen-detected breast cancer on first examination was 3.89 per 1000 in the MP group and 2.46 per 1000 in the UC group; more node-positive tumours were found in the MP group than in the UC group. During years 2 through 5 the ratios of observed

  15. Older women's fears of violence: the need for interventions that enable active ageing.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Karen; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Smith, Dianne; Heffernan, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out on two dependent variables: wanting and needing to learn to discourage violence. Analyses found that as women's age increased, those on lower incomes were more likely than others to say they needed to learn how to discourage violence against them. This paper investigates the variables associated with the findings-transport, finances, news media, home safety, and reduced social interactions. Results highlight the importance of understanding women's fear in the context of personal and social issues, and the need to provide learning opportunities to improve safety and social engagement.

  16. Women and retirement planning: towards the "feminization of poverty" in an aging Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, William Keng Mun

    2003-01-01

    Hong Kong's population is aging but retirement research is largely missing from the research agenda in Hong Kong. This study, based on a telephone survey of 1,078 respondents, examines middle-aged adult's retirement planning activities in Hong Kong. The findings show men are more likely to be involved in financial planning, while women are more likely to take part in some forms of health, living arrangement and psychological planning for retirement. Further, there are age, education and income differences in the various forms of retirement planning activities within genders. Women are living longer; because of their lack of financial retirement planning, they are prime candidates for poverty. The discussion concludes with policy implications related to assisting midlife individuals, in particular women, in planning for retirement.

  17. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals.

  18. Actions of the Burkina Faso women in physics working group at the University of Ouagadougou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa

    2013-03-01

    At the University of Ouagadougou, the largest university in Burkina Faso, the percentage of female student enrollment in the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit was 5.1% (for all the levels) from 2006 to 2009-this rate was 2.3% for physics. For the same period, 22 women out of 455 students (4.8%) were enrolled in PhD (all the fields of the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit) and three women out of 180 students (1.7%) registered in physics PhD. During the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008, the Burkina Faso Working Group proposed some strategies to attract more women to physics and all the sciences. Some actions were initiated at the University of Ouagadougou as well as in secondary schools. These actions and the feedback of female students are presented.

  19. Behavioral Group Work in a Home for the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Elderly people in institutions frequently become isolated and noncommunicative. By using behavioral measurements of group workers and group members, the authors have formulated ways of treatment that encourage members to participate more actively. (Author)

  20. The young and the restless? Age as a moderator of the association between sexual desire and sexual distress in women.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kyle Richard; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-01-01

    The authors aimed to assess the degree to which age moderates the association between sexual desire and sexual distress in women. The authors combined 4 independent data sets that yielded a total sample of 771 women (M age = 27.76, SD age = 9.64) who had completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women and the Female Sexual Function Index. Desire interacted with age quadratically in predicting personal and relational sexual distress such that desire was more strongly associated with distress for younger women as compared with middle-aged and older women. Age is an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women.

  2. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC). Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years). After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR) of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC < 80 cm, was 9.5 (95% CI 5.6-16.1). The optimal cutoff value for WC predicting IR was 88.5 cm; with a sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 64%, respectively. Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women. PMID:21831271

  3. Mitochondrial common deletion mutation and extrinsic skin ageing in German and Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Natsumi; Vierkoetter, Andrea; Kraemer, Ursula; Sugiri, Dorothee; Matsui, Mary; Yamamoto, Ai; Krutmann, Jean; Morita, Akimichi

    2012-07-01

    The mitochondrial common deletion (CD) mutation is induced by oxidative stress. One main source of oxidative stress is the error-prone process of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondria. Another important source is the exposure to environmental factors, which further induces oxidative stress in the cells. For human skin, the primary damaging environmental factor is ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is able to induce CD mutations and the characteristic extrinsic skin ageing signs. Traditionally, levels of UV exposure differ between German and Japanese populations, as tanned skin represents beauty and health in Western cultures, whereas photo-protected skin is considered ideal in Asia. We hypothesize that (i) this cultural-related UV exposure pattern might be reflected by CD concentrations in environmentally exposed skin and (ii) CD concentrations in environmentally exposed areas might be associated with the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing. In this study, we determined the concentration of CD in skin from the neck (environmentally exposed area) and the buttock (environmentally protected area) of 22 German and 46 Japanese women between 30 and 70 years of age. We evaluated skin ageing signs by a validated clinical score, and exposure to environmental factors, such as UV exposure and smoking, was assessed using a questionnaire-based interview. Higher levels of CD were detected in neck skin than in buttock skin in both German and Japanese women. CD also increased with age in the neck skin. German women had higher CD concentrations in the neck skin than Japanese women. The CD concentrations in the buttock skin samples were similar in both populations. These findings suggest higher environmental UV exposure resulted in higher levels of CD in the skin of German women compared with Japanese women. However, only in Japanese women were the signs of extrinsic skin ageing associated with higher CD concentrations in the neck skin, in agreement with the hypothesis

  4. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  5. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  6. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  7. Correlates of age at first sexual intercourse in a national sample of young women.

    PubMed

    Bingham, C R; Miller, B C; Adams, G R

    1990-01-01

    A subsample of 814 sexually experienced adolescent females from the 1979 U.S. National Survey of Young Women was analyzed to assess the correlates of age at 1st sexual intercourse. Multiple regression procedures were used to examine sets of variables sequentially. In the hierarchical regression model, the control variables (respondent's age, race, religion, and age at menarche), along with 3 independent variables (household income, ideal age at 1st marriage, and ideal age for 1st birth), predicted age at 1st intercourse. The control variables accounted for a major portion of the variance in the model. Of the controls, chronological age and age at menarche were highly significant across all models tested. PMID:12343095

  8. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  9. Cortisol and GH secretory dynamics, and their interrelationships, in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Gusenoff, J A; Harman, S M; Veldhuis, J D; Jayme, J J; St Clair, C; Münzer, T; Christmas, C; O'Connor, K G; Stevens, T E; Bellantoni, M F; Pabst, K; Blackman, M R

    2001-04-01

    We studied 130 healthy aged women (n = 57) and men (n = 73), age 65-88 yr, with age-related reductions in insulin-like growth factor I and gonadal steroid levels to assess the interrelationships between cortisol and growth hormone (GH) secretion and whether these relationships differ by sex. Blood was sampled every 20 min from 8:00 PM to 8:00 AM; cortisol was measured by RIA and GH by immunoradiometric assay, followed by deconvolution analyses of hormone secretory parameters and assessment of approximate entropy (ApEn) and cross-ApEn. Cortisol mass/burst, cortisol production rate, and mean and integrated serum cortisol concentrations (P < 0.0005), and overnight basal GH secretion (P < 0.05), were elevated in women vs. men. Integrated cortisol concentrations were directly related to most measures of GH secretion in women (P < 0.01) and with mean and integrated GH concentrations in men (P < 0.05). Integrated GH concentrations were directly related to mean and integrated cortisol levels in women (P < 0.005) and men (P < 0.05), with no sex differences. There were no sex differences in cortisol or GH ApEn values; however, the cross-ApEn score was greater in women (P < 0.05), indicating reduced GH-cortisol pattern synchrony in aged women vs. men. There were no significant relationships of integrated cortisol secretion with GH ApEn, or vice versa, in either sex. Thus postmenopausal women appear to maintain elevated cortisol production in patterns that are relatively uncoupled from those of GH, whereas mean hormone outputs remain correlated.

  10. Canadian National Breast Screening Study: 2. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50 to 59 years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A B; Baines, C J; To, T; Wall, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of annual mammography over and above annual physical examination of the breasts and the teaching of breast self-examination among women aged 50 to 59 on entry. DESIGN: Individually randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen urban centres in Canada with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Women with no history of breast cancer and no mammography in the previous 12 months were randomly assigned to undergo either annual mammography and physical examination (MP group) or annual physical examination only (PO group). The 39,405 women enrolled from January 1980 through March 1985 were followed for a mean of 8.3 years. DATA COLLECTION: Derived from the participants by initial and annual self-administered questionnaires, from the screening examinations, from the patients' physicians, from the provincial cancer registries and by record linkage to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base. Expert panels evaluated histologic and death data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of referral from screening, rates of detection of breast cancer from screening and from community care, nodal status, tumour size and rates of death from all causes and from breast cancer. RESULTS: Over 85% of the women in each group attended the screening sessions after screen 1. The characteristics of the women in the two groups were similar. Compared with the Canadian population the participants were more likely to be married, have fewer children, have more education, be in a professional occupation, smoke less and have been born in North America. The rate of screen-detected breast cancer on first examination was 7.20 per 1000 in the MP group and 3.45 per 1000 in the PO group, more node-positive tumours were found in the MP group than in the PO group. At subsequent screens the detection rates were a little less than half the rates at screen 1. During years 2 through 5 the ratios of observed to expected cases of invasive breast cancer

  11. Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota among Sexual Risk Behavior Groups of Women with Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Muzny, Christina A.; Sunesara, Imran R.; Kumar, Ranjit; Mena, Leandro A.; Griswold, Michael E.; Martin, David H.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM), and women who have sex with men (WSM) with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV. Methods Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon’s Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively. Results 33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR)=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54) and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93) were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86), and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88) was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Conclusion The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of

  12. A systematic review of the nutritional status of women of a childbearing age with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McColl, Helen; Dhillon, Manpreet; Howard, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of pregnant women with severe mental illness. We therefore carried out a systematic review to investigate whether pregnant women and childbearing aged women with severe mental illness have significantly greater nutritional deficiencies compared with pregnant women and childbearing aged women with no mental illness. We carried out a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from January 1980 to January 2011 for studies on nutritional status of childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Identification of papers and quality rating of papers (using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) was carried out by two reviewers independently. We identified and screened 4,130 potentially relevant studies from the electronic databases. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 587 women). There were no studies of pregnant women. There was some evidence of low serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels and elevated homocysteine levels in childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Further research into the nutritional status of childbearing aged women with severe mental illness is needed. Maternal nutrition has a profound impact on foetal outcome, is a modifiable risk factor and therefore needs prioritising in the care of all childbearing aged women with severe mental illness.

  13. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age.

  14. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. PMID:26880600

  15. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  16. Group Interventions with Low-Income African American Women Recovering from Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents finding from an investigation of two group therapy modalities involving 93 women with dependent children and limited education and income levels. An overview of intervention activities that participants found beneficial is presented. Programs were found to help participants develop a sense of community, reduce stress, improve…

  17. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  18. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  19. Incivility among Group Mates in English Classes at a Japanese Women's University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Kimura, Harumi; Greliche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Incivilities are words and actions that may be perceived as impolite. This article reports a study of perceptions of and experiences with incivilities during group activities in English class. Participants were 119 students at a women's university in Japan. They completed the Pair/Groupwork Incivility Scale, a Japanese-language instrument, which…

  20. A Creative Model for a Post-Treatment Group for Women with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slakov, June; Leslie, Mary

    2003-01-01

    A four-week experiential group for women at the British Columbia Cancer Agency offers the creative tools of art, meditation, and journal writing to help focus the inner work of healing in the presence of others. Using comments from the participants, a brief history, framework, and overview are outlined. (Contains 24 references.) (GCP)

  1. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  2. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-02-12

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

  3. Group Therapy for Women Sexually Abused as Children: Mental Health before and after Group Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Gunilla; Svedin, Carl Goran; Hansson, Kjell; Broman, Inger

    2006-01-01

    Forty-five female outpatients sexually abused in childhood were offered a 2-year phase-divided group therapy. Before and after treatment and at 12 months follow-up, they answered questionnaires designed to elicit responses concerning psychological symptoms (Symptom Checklist; SCL-90) and sense of coherence (SOC). Symptoms for posttraumatic stress…

  4. Knowledge and use of folic acid in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Kelly R S; Fehr, Kelsey D H; Protudjer, Jennifer Lisa Penner

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. As approximately 50% of pregnancies are unintended, women of reproductive age should be aware of the importance of folic acid. We reviewed the existing literature on these women's knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects. Databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, and Health Reference Center Academic. We used terms such as "folic acid knowledge" and "folic acid awareness" to search articles published from 1998 to 2010. Awareness of the benefits of folic acid before conception and during pregnancy was low, although knowledge levels were associated with education and household income. Women who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals, magazines and newspapers, and radio and television as common sources of information. Effective knowledge translation is needed to ensure that women are informed about the benefits of folic acid during the reproductive years. This knowledge will allow them to make informed decisions about folic acid consumption. Health care professionals play an influential role in promoting folic acid knowledge among women of childbearing age. Lower levels of knowledge among women with lower levels of education and/or household income must be addressed.

  5. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331