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Sample records for age hardening response

  1. Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, Brian Esmaeili, Shahrzad

    2015-03-15

    The effects of Ce additions on the precipitation hardening behaviour of Mg–Zn are examined for a series of alloys, with Ce additions at both alloying and microalloying levels. The alloys are artificially aged, and studied using hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction, as well as optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the age-hardening effect is driven by the formation of fine precipitates, the number density of which is related to the Zn content of the alloy. Conversely, the Ce content is found to slightly reduce hardening. When the alloy content of Ce is high, large secondary phase particles containing both Ce and Zn are present, and remain stable during solutionizing. These particles effectively reduce the amount of Zn available as solute for precipitation, and thereby reduce hardening. Combining hardness results with thermodynamic analysis of alloy solute levels also suggests that Ce can have a negative effect on hardening when present as solutes at the onset of ageing. This effect is confirmed by designing a pre-ageing heat treatment to preferentially remove Ce solutes, which is found to restore the hardening capability of an Mg–Zn–Ce alloy to the level of the Ce-free alloy. - Highlights: • The effects of Ce additions on precipitation in Mg–Zn alloys are examined. • Additions of Ce to Mg–Zn slightly reduce the age-hardening response. • Ce-rich secondary phase particles deplete the matrix of Zn solute. • Hardening is also decreased when Ce is present in solution. • Pre-ageing to preferentially precipitate out Ce restores hardening capabilities.

  2. Modifications of the Response of Materials to Shock Loading by Age Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millett, Jeremy C. F.

    2015-10-01

    The shock response of two age-hardened alloys, aluminum 6061 and copper-2 wt pct beryllium (CuBe), has been investigated in terms of their microstructual state; either solution treated or age hardened. While age hardening induces large increases in strength at quasi-static strain rates, age hardening does not produce the same magnitude of strength increase during shock loading. Examination of the shocked microstructures (of 6061) indicates that the presence of a fine distribution of precipitates throughout the microstructure hinders the motion and generation of dislocations and hence reduces the strain-rate sensitivity of the aged material, thus allowing the properties of the solution-treated state to approach those of the aged. It has also been observed that the shear strength of solution-treated CuBe is near identical to that of pure copper. It is suggested that this is the result of two competing processes; large lattice strains as beryllium substitutes onto the copper lattice inducing a high degree of solution strengthening acting against a reduction in shear strength caused by twinning in the alloy.

  3. Evaluation of Solute Clusters Associated with Bake-Hardening Response in Isothermal Aged Al-Mg-Si Alloys Using a Three-Dimensional Atom Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruga, Yasuhiro; Kozuka, Masaya; Takaki, Yasuo; Sato, Tatsuo

    2014-12-01

    Temporal changes in the number density, size distribution, and chemical composition of clusters formed during natural aging at room temperature and pre-aging at 363 K (90 °C) in an Al-0.62Mg-0.93Si (mass pct) alloy were evaluated using atom probe tomography. More than 10 million atoms were examined in the cluster analysis, in which about 1000 clusters were obtained for each material after various aging treatments. The statistically proven records show that both number density and the average radius of clusters in pre-aged materials are larger than in naturally aged materials. It was revealed that the fraction of clusters with a low Mg/Si ratio after natural aging for a short time is higher than with other aging treatments, regardless of cluster size. This indicates that Si-rich clusters form more easily after short-period natural aging, and that Mg atoms can diffuse into the clusters or possibly form another type of Mg-Si cluster after prolonged natural aging. The formation of large clusters with a uniform Mg/Si ratio is encouraged by pre-aging. It can be concluded that an increase of small clusters with various Mg/Si ratios does not promote the bake-hardening (BH) response, whereas large clusters with a uniform Mg/Si ratio play an important role in hardening during the BH treatment at 443 K (170 °C).

  4. Evaluation of Solute Clusters Associated with Bake-Hardening Response in Isothermal Aged Al-Mg-Si Alloys Using a Three-Dimensional Atom Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruga, Yasuhiro; Kozuka, Masaya; Takaki, Yasuo; Sato, Tatsuo

    2014-09-01

    Temporal changes in the number density, size distribution, and chemical composition of clusters formed during natural aging at room temperature and pre-aging at 363 K (90 °C) in an Al-0.62Mg-0.93Si (mass pct) alloy were evaluated using atom probe tomography. More than 10 million atoms were examined in the cluster analysis, in which about 1000 clusters were obtained for each material after various aging treatments. The statistically proven records show that both number density and the average radius of clusters in pre-aged materials are larger than in naturally aged materials. It was revealed that the fraction of clusters with a low Mg/Si ratio after natural aging for a short time is higher than with other aging treatments, regardless of cluster size. This indicates that Si-rich clusters form more easily after short-period natural aging, and that Mg atoms can diffuse into the clusters or possibly form another type of Mg-Si cluster after prolonged natural aging. The formation of large clusters with a uniform Mg/Si ratio is encouraged by pre-aging. It can be concluded that an increase of small clusters with various Mg/Si ratios does not promote the bake-hardening (BH) response, whereas large clusters with a uniform Mg/Si ratio play an important role in hardening during the BH treatment at 443 K (170 °C).

  5. Weldable, age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, J.A.; Krenzer, R.W.

    1975-07-22

    An age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel having superior weldability properties as well as resistance to degradation of properties in a hydrogen atmosphere is described. It has a composition of from about 24.0 to about 34.0 weight percent (w/o) nickel, from about 13.5 to about 16.0 w/o chromium, from about 1.9 to about 2.3 w/o titanium, from about 1.0 to about 1.5 w/ o molybdenum, from about 0.01 to about 0.05 w/o carbon, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o manganese, from about 0 to about 0.01 w/o phosphorous and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.010 w/o sulfur and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o silicon, from about 0.1 to about 0.35 w/o aluminum, from about 0.10 to about 0.50 w/o vanadium, from about 0 to about 0.0015 w/o boron, and the balance essentially iron. (auth)

  6. Continuous Hardening During Isothermal Aging at 723 K (450 °C) of a Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celada-Casero, Carola; Chao, Jesús; Urones-Garrote, Esteban; San Martin, David

    2016-11-01

    The isothermal aging behavior of a cold-rolled precipitation hardening stainless steel has been studied at 723 K (450 °C) for holding times up to 72 hours. The precipitation hardening has been investigated using microhardness Vickers (Hv), thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, and tensile testing. Microhardness compared to TEP measurements is more sensitive to detect the initial stages of aging. Two precipitation regimes have been observed: the first one related to the formation of Cu-clusters for aging times below 1 hour and a second one associated with formation of Ni-rich precipitates. The results show that the material exhibits an outstanding continuous age strengthening response over the aging time investigated, reaching a hardness of 710 ± 4 HV1 and an ultimate tensile strength ( σ UTS) of 2.65 ± 0.02 GPa after 72 hours. Engineering stress-plastic strain curves reveal that the strength increases and the ductility decreases as the aging time increases. However, after prolonged holding times (24-72 hours) and, although small, a rise in both the strength and the total elongation is observed. The precipitation kinetics can be well predicted over the entire range of aging times by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. Finally, a reliable linear hardness-yield strength correlation has been found, which enables a rapid evaluation of the strength from bulk hardness measurements.

  7. Continuous Hardening During Isothermal Aging at 723 K (450 °C) of a Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celada-Casero, Carola; Chao, Jesús; Urones-Garrote, Esteban; San Martin, David

    2016-06-01

    The isothermal aging behavior of a cold-rolled precipitation hardening stainless steel has been studied at 723 K (450 °C) for holding times up to 72 hours. The precipitation hardening has been investigated using microhardness Vickers (Hv), thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, and tensile testing. Microhardness compared to TEP measurements is more sensitive to detect the initial stages of aging. Two precipitation regimes have been observed: the first one related to the formation of Cu-clusters for aging times below 1 hour and a second one associated with formation of Ni-rich precipitates. The results show that the material exhibits an outstanding continuous age strengthening response over the aging time investigated, reaching a hardness of 710 ± 4 HV1 and an ultimate tensile strength (σ UTS) of 2.65 ± 0.02 GPa after 72 hours. Engineering stress-plastic strain curves reveal that the strength increases and the ductility decreases as the aging time increases. However, after prolonged holding times (24-72 hours) and, although small, a rise in both the strength and the total elongation is observed. The precipitation kinetics can be well predicted over the entire range of aging times by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. Finally, a reliable linear hardness-yield strength correlation has been found, which enables a rapid evaluation of the strength from bulk hardness measurements.

  8. Age hardening of 6061/alumina-silica fiber composite

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, P.R.; Shamsul, J.B.; Azmi, R.

    1994-12-31

    Continuous alumina-silica fiber (Altex of Sumitomo) which yields high performance composites with some aluminium alloys was tried for squeeze cast 6061 based composites with volume fractions of 0.5 and 0.32, and the matrix microhardness and resistivity changes during age hardening were studied. The matrix in the composites hardened much more than the unreinforced alloy. Microhardness increases of up to 70 VPN above the solution treated condition at various aging temperatures were observed. The resistivity variation indicated an appreciable state of internal stress which continued to persist even when hardness fell by overaging. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the regions close to the fibers had a higher silicon content than the matrix, and amorphous silica in the fiber may have a role in the formation of an enriched layer which may help the bonding and strength in the composite.

  9. The relationship between microstructure and age hardening response in the metastable beta titanium alloy Ti- 11.5 Mo-6 Zr-4.5 Sn (beta III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Yolton, C. F.; Capenos, J. M.; Wells, M. G. H.; Williams, J. C.

    1980-12-01

    The influence of heat treatment and oxygen content on the aging response and micro-structure of the metastable Β-phase titanium alloy Ti-11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn (Beta III) has been studied using light and electron metallography and hardness measurements. Increasing the oxygen from 0.17 to 0.28 wt pet was shown to suppress Ω-phase formation and accelerate a-phase formation. Changing the solution treatment from above to below the Β-transus was shown to significantly increase the rate of α-phase formation at residual dislocations and subboundaries present in the warm worked material. Direct aging has been shown to greatly retard the rate of Ω-phase formation by comparison to quenching and aging. Duplex aging first at a temperature in the Ω-phase formation range and then at a temperature in the a-phase formation range results in a very fine dispersion of α-phase particles and a very high hardness. It is suggested that this α-phase forms by an insitu Ω → α transformation. In quenched samples small amounts (10 pct) of cold work were shown to accelerate the formation of Ω-phase during subsequent aging as shown by both electron microscopy and by hardness measurements. Finally, some remarks are included to indicate the application of our observations to the commercial heat treatment of Β-III.

  10. Hydrogen effects on the age hardening behavior of 2024 aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, J. A.; Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Sisson, R. D., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the fatigue crack growth rate in aluminum alloys increases significantly in the presence of moisture. This phenomenon along with a moisture effect observed in another context has been attributed to 'embrittlement' of the aluminum by absorbed hydrogen generated by the reaction of moisture with freshly exposed aluminum. A description is given of a number of age hardening experiments involving 2024 aluminum. These experiments show that a mechanism related to the segregation of absorbed hydrogen to the coherent theta-double-prime interfaces may account for the observed reduction in fatigue life. It is pointed out that this segregation promotes a loss of coherency in the hydrogen rich region at a fatigue crack tip. Subsequently, the loss of coherency causes local softening and reduces fatigue life.

  11. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  12. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  13. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  14. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  15. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  16. Phase decomposition in an Fe-40 at.% Cr alloy after isothermal aging and its effect on hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Hirata, Victor M. Soriano-Vargas, Orlando; Rosales-Dorantes, Hector J.; Saucedo Munoz, Maribel L.

    2011-08-15

    The phase decomposition process of an Fe-40 at.% Cr alloy was studied after isothermal aging at 475 and 500 deg. C using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, as well as hardness measurements. High-resolution transmission electron microscope observations showed that the hardening behavior is associated with the formation of the nanometric coherent decomposed Cr-rich and Fe-rich phases with irregular shape and interconnected as expected for a spinodally-decomposed alloy. As the aging progressed, coherent rounded Cr-rich phase precipitates were observed in the Fe-rich phase matrix. The coarsening process of the Cr-rich phase was observed for aging times up to 750 h. Nevertheless, no decrease in hardness with time was observed because of the nanometric size of the Cr-rich phase, less than 10 nm. Aging hardening was higher at 500 deg. C because of the higher decomposition kinetics. - Research Highlights: {yields} Spinodally-decomposed phases showed an interconnected and irregular shape in aged Fe-Cr alloy. {yields} Further aging promoted the formation of nanometric coherent rounded Cr-rich precipitates. {yields} Nanometric Cr-rich phases are responsible for the age hardening. {yields} Coarsening process of these nanometric Cr-rich precipitates caused no decrease in hardness.

  17. Precipitation Reactions in Age-Hardenable Alloys During Laser Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägle, Eric A.; Sheng, Zhendong; Wu, Liang; Lu, Lin; Risse, Jeroen; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-03-01

    We describe and study the thermal profiles experienced by various age-hardenable alloys during laser additive manufacturing (LAM), employing two different manufacturing techniques: selective laser melting and laser metal deposition. Using scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we reveal at which stages during the manufacturing process desired and undesired precipitation reactions can occur in age-hardenable alloys. Using examples from a maraging steel, a nickel-base superalloy and a scandium-containing aluminium alloy, we demonstrate that precipitation can already occur during the production of the powders used as starting material, during the deposition of material (i.e. during solidification and subsequent cooling), during the intrinsic heat treatment effected by LAM (i.e. in the heat affected zones) and, naturally, during an ageing post-heat treatment. These examples demonstrate the importance of understanding and controlling the thermal profile during the entire additive manufacturing cycle of age-hardenable materials including powder synthesis.

  18. Quantification of age hardening in maraging steels and an Ni-base superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, W.

    2000-02-01

    Age hardening process in metallic alloys due to precipitation can be quantified using phase transformation theories. Two ageing stages are of particular interest, for both theory and practice. The early stage of precipitation hardening is under the description of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. Wilson has recently provided a detailed theoretical analysis for early stages of ageing. Wilson successfully used equations in the quantification of early and over-ageing stages of hardening in an Fe-12Ni-6Mn maraging-type alloy. In the present work, these were applied to further alloys. All the hardness data were taken from published literature. Original references should be consulted for details of materials, testing and characterization.

  19. Age Hardening Kinetics in 7xxx Type (Al-Mg-Zn) Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Vevecka-Priftaj, A.; Lamani, E.; Fjerdingen, J.; Langsrud, Y.; Gjoennes, J.; Hansen, V.

    2007-04-23

    Age hardening in industrial 7xxx alloys at the temperature 100 deg. and 150 deg. C up to 144 hrs, after solid solution treatments at 450 deg. and 550 deg. C, has been followed by measurements of Vickers hardness, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of silicon on phase and kinetic of age hardening zones and precipitates has been studied. High iron and silicon content increase the number of primary particle in the alloy. Size distribution of {eta}'-precipitates has been determined.

  20. Microstructural evolution and the variation of tensile behavior after aging heat treatment of precipitation hardened martensitic steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jong-Ho; Jeong, JaeSuk; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-15

    The effects of aging temperature on the microstructural evolution and the tensile behavior of precipitation hardened martensitic steel were investigated. Microscopic analysis using transmission electron microscope (TEM) was combined with the microstructural analysis using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural evolution with aging temperature. Peak hardness was obtained by precipitation of the Ni{sub 3}Al ordered phase. After aging at temperature range from 420 to 590 °C, spherical Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates and ellipsoidal M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides were observed within laths and at lath boundaries, respectively. Strain hardening behavior was analyzed with Ludwik equation. It is observed that the plastic strain regimes can be divided into two different stages by a rapid increase in strain hardening followed by a comparatively lower increase. At the first strain hardening stage, the aged specimen exhibited higher strain hardening exponent than the as-quenched specimen, and the exponent in the aged specimen was not changed considerably with increasing aging temperature. It is revealed that the strain hardening exponents at the first and the second stages were associated with the Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates and the domain size representing the coherent scattering area, respectively. - Highlights: • All of aged specimen exhibited higher strain hardening exponent than the as-quenched specimen at the first stage. • The value of strain hardening exponent in the aged specimen was nearly constant with aging temperature. • Ni{sub 3}Al precipitation dominantly influenced to the increase of strain hardening exponent at the first strain hardening stage. • Domain size was associated with strain hardening exponent at the second strain hardening stage.

  1. YIELD STRENGTH PREDICTION FOR RAPID AGE-HARDENING HEAT TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hebi; Sabau, Adrian S; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Skszek, Timothy; Niu, X

    2013-01-01

    A constitutive model has been developed to predict the yield strength aging curves for aluminum casting alloys during non-isothermal age-hardening processes. The model provides the specific relationship between the process variables and yield strength. Several aging heat treatment scenarios have been investigated using the proposed model, including two-step aging recipes. Two-step aging heat treatments involve a low temperature regime to promote nucleation of secondary phases and a second step at higher temperature for the growth of the secondary phases. The predicted results show that yield strength of approximately 300MPa might be obtained in shorter aging time, of approximately 30 minutes. Thus, better mechanical properties can be obtained by optimizing the time-temperature schedules for the precipitation hardening process of heat treatable aluminum alloys.

  2. Age hardening characteristics and mechanical behavior of Al-Cu-Li-Zr-In alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the age-hardening response and cryogenic mechanical properties of superplastic Al-Cu-Li-Zr-In alloys. Two alloys with compositions Al-2.65Cu-2.17Li-O.13Zr (baseline) and Al-2.60Cu-2.34Li-0.16Zr-0.17In were scaled-up from 30 lb permanent mold ingots to 350 lb DC (direct chill) ingots and thermomechanically processed to 3.2 mm thick sheet. The microstructure of material which contained the indium addition was partially recrystallized compared to the baseline suggesting that indium may influence recrystallization behavior. The indium-modified alloy exhibited superior hardness and strength compared to the baseline alloy when solution-heat-treated at 555 C and aged at 160 C or 190 C. For each alloy, strength increased and toughness was unchanged or decreased when tested at - 185 C compared to ambient temperature. By using optimized heat treatments, the indium-modified alloy exhibited strength levels approaching those of the baseline alloy without deformation prior to aging. The increase in strength of these alloys in the T6 condition make them particularly attractive for superplastic forming applications where post-SPF parts cannot be cold deformed to increase strength.

  3. Age hardening in beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.H.; McGeorge, A.C.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1996-11-01

    Three different alloys of beryllium-aluminum-silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight percent, Be-47.5Al-2.5Ag, Be-47Al-3Ag, and Be-46Al-4Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which separates from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatic pressing. Samples of hot isostatically pressed material were solution treated at 550 C for 1 h, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200, and 225 C for times ranging from half an hour to 65 h. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 h at 175 C and 12--16 h at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition.

  4. Aging processes in precipitation-hardening composite materials based on a D16 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, T. A.; Kobeleva, L. I.

    2010-09-01

    Aging of composite materials (CMs) based on an aluminum D16 alloy and reinforced by Al3Ti intermetallic inclusions (0-10 vol %) having formed upon an in situ reaction and by SiC particles (0-30 vol %) ≤3 or 28 μm in size is studied. Oxide ceramic nanoparticles (0.1 wt %) are used to modify the structure of the CMs. The structures of the CMs before and after aging are analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on a microscope equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. The hardness of the CMs is measured. The overall hardening of aged CMs is shown to result from a competition between the hardening effects induced by the formation of Guinier-Preston zones and the precipitation of the high-temperature θ and S phases. These effects are controlled by the dislocation density in the matrix.

  5. Effect of Hf on structure and age hardening of Ti–Al-N thin films

    PubMed Central

    Rachbauer, R.; Blutmager, A.; Holec, D.; Mayrhofer, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Protective coatings for high temperature applications, as present e.g. during cutting and milling operations, require excellent mechanical and thermal properties during work load. The Ti1 − xAlxN system is industrially well acknowledged as it covers some of these requirements, and even exhibits increasing hardness with increasing temperature in its cubic modification, known as age hardening. The thermally activated diffusion at high temperatures however enables for the formation of wurtzite AlN, which causes a rapid reduction of mechanical properties in Ti1 − xAlxN coatings. The present work investigates the possibility to increase the formation temperature of w-AlN due to Hf alloying up to 10 at.% at the metal sublattice of Ti1 − xAlxN films. Ab initio predictions on the phase stability and decomposition products of quaternary Ti1 − x − yAlxHfyN alloys, as well as the ternary Ti1 − xAlxN, Hf1 − xAlxN and Ti1 − zHfzN systems, facilitate the interpretation of the experimental findings. Vacuum annealing treatments from 600 to 1100 °C indicate that the isostructural decomposition, which is responsible for age hardening, of the Ti1 − x − yAlxHfyN films starts at lower temperatures than the ternary Ti1 − xAlxN coating. However, the formation of a dual phase structure of c-Ti1 − zHfzN (with z = y/(1 − x)) and w-AlN is shifted to ~ 200 °C higher temperatures, thus retaining a film hardness of ~ 40 GPa up to ~ 1100 °C, while the Hf free films reach the respective hardness maximum of ~ 38 GPa already at ~ 900 °C. Additional annealing experiments at 850 and 950 °C for 20 h indicate a substantial improvement of the oxidation resistance with increasing amount of Hf in Ti1 − x − yAlxHfyN. PMID:22319223

  6. Identification of potential oviductal factors responsible for zona pellucida hardening and monospermy during fertilization in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar, Irene; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Avilés, Manuel; Coy, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Oviduct fluid increases the time required for digestion of the zona pellucida (ZP) by proteolytic enzymes (ZP hardening). This effect has been associated with levels of monospermy after in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the pig and cow, but the possible existence of a directly proportional relationship between hardening and monospermy remains unknown. To investigate whether variations in hardening of different oviductal fluids (OFs) are correlated with variations in levels of monospermy after IVF, porcine oocytes were incubated with three batches of OFs known to produce different ZP hardening effects (3, 7, and 25 min); after IVF, monospermy levels were 0%, 14.58% ± 5.14%, and 35.14% ± 7.95%, respectively. These results could partially explain the lack of polyspermy found during in vivo fertilization in pigs (with a hardened oviductal ZP) compared with levels found during IVF (with no hardened ZP). Using the bovine model, OF was fractionated by heparin affinity chromatography, and the hardening effect on the ZP was tested for each fraction obtained from a linear gradient of sodium chloride concentration. The highest effect was obtained with the fraction eluted with 0.4 M sodium chloride. Fractions with high-level or low-level effects were processed by on-chip electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A list of potential proteins responsible for this effect includes OVGP1 and members of the HSP and PDI families.

  7. Effects of alloying on aging and hardening processes of steel with 20% nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogachev, I. N.; Zvigintsev, N. V.; Maslakova, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of hardness, thermal emf, and electrical resistance were used to study the effects of Co, Mo, Ti and Al contents on aging and hardening processes in Fe 20%Ni steel. It is shown that the effects of these alloying elements differ substantially. Anomalies which arise in the temperature dependence of physical properties due to the presence of cobalt and molybdenum are reduced by the inclusion of titanium and aluminum (and vice versa).

  8. Mechanisms of formation of hardening precipitates and hardening in aging of Al-Li-Cu-Mg model alloys with silver additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Zhuravleva, P. L.; Onuchina, M. R.; Klochkova, Yu. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of the influence of silver additions on the phase transformations that occur in aging are revealed. The contribution of Ω'-phase particles to the deformation stress in Al alloys is estimated. The mechanisms of the effect of low (up to 0.5 wt %) silver additions and the copper content on the structure of the Ω'-phase precipitates in Al alloys are found. According to the proposed model, silver atoms remain immobile during the decomposition of a solid solution and nucleation centers of the Ω' phase form near them in low-temperature aging. Upon hardening aging, fragmented Ω'-phase particles intersect with each other, and the contribution of the intersection regions to the hardening of alloys by Ω'-phase particles is principal.

  9. Mechanical properties evaluations of an age hardenable martensitic steel deformed by equal channel angular pressing.

    PubMed

    Nili-Ahmadabadi, M; Shirazi, H; Iranpour Mobarake, M; Poorganji, B; Hossein Nedjad, S; Furuhara, T

    2010-09-01

    Effect of severe plastic deformation by equal channel angular pressing on the mechanical properties of an age hardenable low carbon martensitic steel was investigated. Equal Channel angular pressing was carried out on the solution-annealed steel up to four passes at room temperature through the route Bc. Aging was carried out at 753 K for 2.4 ks. It was found that after four passes deformation, the microstructure is consist of fine grained high angle grain boundaries and lamellar dislocation cell block. The strength of steel is increased considerably while a increasing in elongation is revealed. PMID:21133170

  10. Developing Processing Routes for the Equal-Channel Angular Pressing of Age-Hardenable Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhi Chao; Chinh, Nguyen Q.; Xu, Cheng; Langdon, Terence G.

    2010-04-01

    The processing of age-hardenable aluminum alloys by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated using three different Al-Zn-Mg alloys. The results show that it is relatively easy to conduct the ECAP at an elevated temperature of 473 K, but this leads to a weakening of the alloy rather than a strengthening. The processing by ECAP may be performed successfully at room temperature provided it is conducted fairly quickly (within ~10 minutes) after quenching from the solution treatment. It is necessary also to optimize the solution treatment conditions for each alloy composition. Under optimum conditions, good strengthening is achieved even after a single pass in ECAP.

  11. Dry and clean age hardening of aluminum alloys by high-pressure gas quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irretier, A.; Kessler, O.; Hoffmann, F.; Mayr, P.

    2004-10-01

    When precipitation-hardenable aluminum parts are water quenched, distortion occurs due to thermal stresses. Thereby, a costly reworking is necessary, and for this reason polymer quenchants are often used to reduce distortion, with the disadvantage that the quenched parts have to be cleaned after quenching. In opposition to liquid quenchants, gas quenching may decrease distortion due to the better temperature uniformity during quenching. Furthermore, cleaning of the quenched parts can be avoided because it is a dry process. For this purpose, a heat-treating process was evaluated that included a high-pressure gasquenching step. Gas quenching was applied to different aluminum alloys (i.e., 2024, 6013, 7075, and A357.0), and tensile tests have been carried out to determine the mechanical properties after solution annealing, gas quenching, and aging. Besides high-pressure gas quenching, alloy 2024 was quenched at ambient pressure in a gas nozzle field. The high velocity at the gas outlet leads to an accelerated cooling of the aluminum alloy in this case. Aluminum castings and forgings can be classified as an interesting field of application of these quenching methods due to their near-net shape before the heat treatment. Cost savings would be possible due to the reduced distortion, and therefore, less reworking after the precipitation hardening.

  12. Precipitation hardening and microstructure evolution of the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy during aging.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ruowei; Liu, Huiqun; Yi, Danqing; Wan, Weifeng; Wang, Bin; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dingchun; Gao, Qi; Xu, Yanfei; Tang, Qian

    2016-06-01

    A biomedical β titanium alloy (Ti-7Nb-10Mo) was designed and prepared by vacuum arc self-consumable melting. The ingot was forged and rolled to plates, followed by quenching and aging. Age-hardening behavior, microstructure evolution and its influence on mechanical properties of the alloy during aging were investigated, using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, tensile and hardness measurements. The electrochemical behavior of the alloy was investigated in Ringer's solution. The microstructure of solution-treated (ST) alloy consists of the supersaturated solid solution β phase and the ωath formed during athermal process. The ST alloy exhibits Young's modulus of 80 GPa, tensile strength of 774 MPa and elongation of 20%. The precipitation sequences during isothermal aging at different temperatures were determined as β+ωath→β+ωiso (144 h) at Taging=350-400 °C, β+ωath→β+ωiso+α→β+α at Taging=500°C, and β+ωath→β+α at Taging=600-650 °C, where ωiso forms during isothermal process. The mechanical properties of the alloy can be tailored easily through controlling the phase transition during aging. Comparing with the conventional Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy is more resistant to corrosion in Ringer's solution. Results show that the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy is promising for biomedical applications. PMID:27040253

  13. Precipitation hardening and microstructure evolution of the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy during aging.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ruowei; Liu, Huiqun; Yi, Danqing; Wan, Weifeng; Wang, Bin; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dingchun; Gao, Qi; Xu, Yanfei; Tang, Qian

    2016-06-01

    A biomedical β titanium alloy (Ti-7Nb-10Mo) was designed and prepared by vacuum arc self-consumable melting. The ingot was forged and rolled to plates, followed by quenching and aging. Age-hardening behavior, microstructure evolution and its influence on mechanical properties of the alloy during aging were investigated, using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, tensile and hardness measurements. The electrochemical behavior of the alloy was investigated in Ringer's solution. The microstructure of solution-treated (ST) alloy consists of the supersaturated solid solution β phase and the ωath formed during athermal process. The ST alloy exhibits Young's modulus of 80 GPa, tensile strength of 774 MPa and elongation of 20%. The precipitation sequences during isothermal aging at different temperatures were determined as β+ωath→β+ωiso (144 h) at Taging=350-400 °C, β+ωath→β+ωiso+α→β+α at Taging=500°C, and β+ωath→β+α at Taging=600-650 °C, where ωiso forms during isothermal process. The mechanical properties of the alloy can be tailored easily through controlling the phase transition during aging. Comparing with the conventional Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy is more resistant to corrosion in Ringer's solution. Results show that the Ti-7Nb-10Mo alloy is promising for biomedical applications.

  14. Hardening mechanisms in a dynamic strain aging alloy, Hastelloy X, during isothermal and thermomechanical cyclic deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V.; Castelli, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    The relative contributions of the hardening mechanisms in Hastelloy X during cyclic deformation were investigated by conducting isothermal cyclic deformation tests within a total strain range of +/-0.3 pct and at several temperatures and strain rates, and thermomechanical tests within several different temperature limits. The results of the TEM examinations and special constant structure tests showed that the precipitation on dislocations of Cr23C6 contributed to hardening, but only after sufficient time above 500 C. Solute drag alone produced very considerable cyclic hardening. Heat dislocation densities, peaking around 10 exp 11 per sq cm, were found to develop at temperatures producing the greatest cyclic hardening.

  15. The Aging Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Haigis, Marcia C.; Yankner, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is the outcome of a balance between damage and repair. The rate of aging and the appearance of age-related pathology are modulated by stress response and repair pathways that gradually decline, including the proteostasis and DNA damage repair networks and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism. Highly conserved insulin/IGF-1, TOR, and sirtuin signaling pathways in turn, control these critical cellular responses. The coordinated action of these signaling pathways maintains cellular and organismal homeostasis in the face of external perturbations, such as changes in nutrient availability, temperature and oxygen level, as well as internal perturbations, such as protein misfolding and DNA damage. Studies in model organisms suggest that changes in signaling can augment these critical stress response systems, increasing lifespan and reducing age-related pathology. The systems biology of stress response signaling thus provides a new approach to the understanding and potential treatment of age-related diseases. PMID:20965426

  16. Elastic limit and microplastic response of hardened steels

    SciTech Connect

    Zaccone, M.A. ); Krauss, G. . Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    Tempered martensite-retained austenite microstructures were produced by direct quenching a series of 41XX medium carbon steels, direct quenching and reheating a series of five 0.8C-Cr-Ni-Mo steels and intercritically austenitizing at various temperatures, and quenching a SAE 52100 steel. All specimens were tempered either at 150 C or at 200 C. Specimens were subjected to compression and tension testing in the microstrain regime to determine the elastic limits and microplastic response of the microstructures. The retained austenite and matrix carbon content of the intercritically austenized specimens were measured by X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The elastic limit of the microstructures decreases with increasing amounts of retained austenite. Refining of the austenite distribution increases the elastic limit. Low elastic limits are mainly due to low flow stresses in the austenite and not internal stresses. The elastic limit correlates with the largest austenite free-mean path by a Hall-Petch type equation. The elastic limit increases with decreasing intercritical austenitizing temperature in the SAE 52100 due to a lower carbon content in the matrix reducing the retained austenite levels and retained carbides that refine grain size and, therefore, the austenite distribution in quenched specimens. In the microplastic region, the strain is accommodated by successively smaller austenite regions until the flow strength matches that of the martensite. Reheating and quenching refines the microstructure and renders the austenite unstable in the microplastic regime, causing transformation of the austenite to martensite by a strain-induced mechanism. The transformation of austenite to martensite occurs by a stress-assisted mechanism in medium carbon steels. The low elastic limits in medium carbon steels were due to the inability of the strain from the stress-assisted transformation to balance the plastic strain accumulated in the austenite.

  17. A detailed investigation of the strain hardening response of aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadinc, Demircan

    The unusual strain hardening response exhibited by Hadfield steel single and polycrystals under tensile loading was investigated. Hadfield steel, which deforms plastically through the competing mechanisms slip and twinning, was alloyed with aluminum in order to suppress twinning and study the role of slip only. To avoid complications due to a grained structure, only single crystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel were considered at the initial stage of the current study. As a result of alloying with aluminum, twinning was suppressed; however a significant increase in the strain hardening response was also present. A detailed microstructural analysis showed the presence of high-density dislocation walls that evolve in volume fraction due to plastic deformation and interaction with slip systems. The very high strain hardening rates exhibited by the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel single crystals was attributed to the blockage of glide dislocations by the high-density dislocation walls. A crystal plasticity model was proposed, that accounts for the volume fraction evolution and rotation of the dense dislocation walls, as well as their interaction with the active slip systems. The novelty of the model lies in the simplicity of the constitutive equations that define the strain hardening, and the fact that it is based on experimental data regarding the microstructure. The success of the model was tested by its application to different crystallographic orientations, and finally the polycrystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel. Meanwhile, the capability of the model to predict texture was also observed through the rotation of the loading axis in single crystals. The ability of the model to capture the polycrystalline deformation response provides a venue for its utilization in other alloys that exhibit dislocation sheet structures.

  18. Age hardening and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy modified by praseodymium

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Zhihao; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yingying; Jiang, Qichuan

    2013-12-15

    The effects of praseodymium on age hardening behavior and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy were investigated. The results indicated that praseodymium facilitated the formation of the θ′ precipitates during the age process and improved the hardness of the Al–Cu alloy. Besides, praseodymium resulted in the formation of the Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase in the grain boundaries and among the dendrites of the modified alloy. Because of the good thermal stability of Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase, it inhibits grain boundary migration and dislocation movement during the creep process, which contributes to the improvement in the creep resistance of the modified alloy at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: • Pr addition enhances the hardness and creep resistance of the Al–Cu alloy. • Pr addition facilitates the formation of the θ′ precipitates. • Pr addition results in the formation of the Al11Pr3 phase in the Al–Cu alloy.

  19. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Radiation response of pseudo-MOS transistors fabricated in hardened fully-depleted SIMOX SOI wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zheng-Xuan; Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Ming; Yu, Wen-Jie; Wang, Ru; Tian, Hao; Liu, Zhang-Li

    2009-10-01

    The total dose radiation response of pseudo-MOS transistors fabricated in hardened and unhardened FD (fully-depleted) SIMOX (Separation by Implanted Oxygen) SOI (Silicon-on-insulator) wafers is presented. At 1 Mrad(Si) radiation dose, the threshold voltage shift of the pseudo-MOS transistor is reduced from -115.5 to -1.9 V by the hardening procedure. The centroid location of the net positive charge trapped in BOX, the hole-trap density and the hole capture fraction of BOX are also shown. The results suggest that hardened FD SIMOX SOI wafers can perform well in a radiation environment.

  20. Influence of cold rolling degree and ageing treatments on the precipitation hardening of 2024 and 7075 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimi, A.; Yousfi, H.; Trari, M.

    2013-08-01

    In the present work, the precipitation hardening of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys is investigated as a function of cold rolling degree, ageing time and temperature using Vickers microhardness measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is found that a variation in such parameters can improve the hardness and plays an important role in the precipitation hardening process. At specific ageing temperature, the large cold rolled 7075 alloy exhibits two peaks of hardness. Moreover, for both alloys, the increment of hardness during ageing decreases with increasing the cold rolling degree. While in some cases microhardness measurements give impression that the precipitation reaction is slowed down by deformation, DSC analysis indicates that the precipitation is much accelerated since only a slight deformation decreases strongly the temperatures of reactions. However, the degree of cold rolling does not play a crucial role.

  1. The effect of particulate oxidation on the age-hardening characteristics of SiC/6061 MMC produced by the preform infiltration route

    SciTech Connect

    Towle, D.J.; Friend, C.H. )

    1992-02-01

    The behavior of a metal matrix composite based on 6061 alloy was investigated with a view to identifying the relative contributions of the processing temperatures and the level of particulate oxidation to magnesium depletion as a result of a chemical reaction between SiO2 particulates and matrix magnesium. The speed and the extent of the reaction are found to depend on both the thermal conditions of infiltration and the net SiO2 content of the preform. Both factors should therefore be as low as possible to maximize the age-hardening response of the composite. 11 refs.

  2. Inhibition of environmental fatigue crack propagation in age-hardenable aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Jenifer S.

    Age-hardenable aluminum alloys, such as C47A-T86 (Al-Cu-Li) and 7075-T651 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu), used in aerospace structures are susceptible to environment assisted fatigue crack propagation (EFCP) by hydrogen environment embrittlement. This research demonstrates effective inhibition of EFCP in C47A-T86 and 7075-T651 under both full immersion in aqueous chloride solution and atmospheric exposure which more accurately describes aircraft service conditions. Inhibition is attributed to the presence of a crack tip passive film reducing H production and uptake, as explained by the film rupture-hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, and can be accomplished through both addition of a passivating ion (ion-assisted inhibition) and localized-alloy corrosion creating passivating conditions (self inhibition). Addition of molybdate to both bulk chloride solution and surface chloride droplets eliminates the effect of environment on fatigue crack propagation in C47A-T86 and 7075-1651 at sufficiently low loading frequencies and high stress ratio by yielding crack growth rates equivalent to those for fatigue in ultra high vacuum. The preeminent corrosion inhibitor, chromate, has not been reported to produce such complete inhibition. Inhibition is promoted by reduced loading frequency, increased crack tip molybdate concentration, and potential at or anodic to free corrosion; each of which favors passivity. The inhibiting effect of molybdate parallels chromate, establishing molybdate as a viable chromate replacement inhibitor. The ability of molybdate to inhibit EFCP is enhanced by atmospheric exposures producing surface electrolyte droplets; crack growth rates are reduced by an order of magnitude under loading frequencies as high as 30 Hz, a frequency at which inhibition was not possible under full immersion. Al-Cu-Mg/Li alloys, including 2024-T351, are capable of self inhibition of EFCP. This behavior is attributed to localized corrosion through dealloying of anodic Al2CuMg or Al2Cu

  3. Preservation of reproductive behaviors during modest cooling: rapid cold-hardening fine-tunes organismal response.

    PubMed

    Shreve, Scott M; Kelty, Jonathan D; Lee, Richard E

    2004-05-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether rapid cold-hardening (RCH) preserves reproductive behaviors during modest cooling, (2) whether increased mating success at a lower temperature comes at the cost of decreased performance at a higher temperature and (3) whether RCH is associated with an elevated metabolic rate. Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosphilidae) were rapidly cold-hardened by a 2-h exposure to 16 degrees C prior to experiments. A temperature decrease of only 7 degrees C (23 degrees C to 16 degrees C) prevented half (11/22) of the control pairs of D. melanogaster from engaging in any courtship activity. By contrast, most RCH pairs courted (17/20). Additionally, the 7 degrees C transfer prevented mating in every pair of control flies, whereas more than half (11/20) of the RCH pairs mated. There was no evidence of impaired courtship or mating performance when RCH pairs were tested at 23 degrees C. Finally, RCH is apparently not an energy-demanding process because no increase in the metabolic rate was detected during its induction. Overall, these data demonstrate that RCH serves to constantly fine-tune an insect's physiological state to match slight changes in environmental temperature. Furthermore, the RCH response is not restricted to cryoprotection and survival in the cold but also preserves more subtle behaviors, such as courtship, at moderate to high temperatures throughout the year. PMID:15107435

  4. An Extended Age-Hardening Model for Al-Mg-Si Alloys Incorporating the Room-Temperature Storage and Cold Deformation Process Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhr, Ole Runar; Grong, Øystein; Schäfer, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    In this article, a new age-hardening model for Al-Mg-Si alloys is presented (named NaMo-Version 2), which takes into account the combined effect of cold deformation and prolonged room-temperature storage on the subsequent response to artificial aging. As a starting point, the original physical framework of NaMo-Version 1 is revived and used as a basis for the extension. This is permissible, since a more in-depth analysis of the underlying particle-dislocation interactions confirms previous expectations that the simplifying assumption of spherical precipitates is not crucial for the final outcome of the calculations, provided that the yield strength model is calibrated against experimental data. At the same time, the implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner formalism means that the different microstructure models can be linked together in a manner that enforces solute partitioning and competition between the different hardening phases which form during aging ( e.g., clusters, β″ and β'). In a calibrated form, NaMo-Version 2 exhibits a high degree of predictive power, as documented by comparison with experiments, using both dedicated nanostructure and yield strength data as a basis for the validation. Hence, the model is deemed to be well-suited for simulation of thermomechanical processing of Al-Mg-Si alloys involving cold-working operations like sheet forming and stretch bending in combination with heat treatment and welding.

  5. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mgmore » stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.« less

  6. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mg stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.

  7. Effects of age hardening on magnetic and transport properties of Mg-1.3 wt% Ce alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, T.; Cavallaro, P.; Kelly, P.M.; Hisa, M.

    1998-05-22

    Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. It has advantages over many other materials in terms of specific strength, machinability and shock absorption. Improvements in magnesium alloy design and more stringent requirements to reduce fuel consumption and air pollution, have recently focused attention on the use of magnesium alloys for automotive components. Here, a Mg-1.3 wt% Ce alloy has been isothermally heat treated at 423 K and the transport and magnetic properties are investigated. This alloy is known to have distinct age hardening behavior and its age hardened microstructure has been studied in detail. The transport properties depend on the early stage of precipitation which is difficult to define by transmission electron microscopy. The scattering sites of electrons are not identical to precipitates, but consist of strain fields induced by the precipitates, solute atoms, dislocations and vacancies. The resistivity was found to increase initially with aging time and then decrease. The highest resistivity was obtained from a specimen aged for 3.6 ks. This aging time is far less than that of 1,800 ks which gives the maximum hardness. On the other hand, magnetic properties correlate with the later stages of the precipitation. In particular, the imaginary part of the magnetic susceptibility is related to macroscopic formation of precipitates. The imaginary part of the magnetic susceptibility of the alloys seems to be generated by eddy current loss. The imaginary part of the magnetic susceptibility increases monotonically with aging time but it may decrease for extensive aging treatments beyond 3,600 ks.

  8. Influence of Thermal Aging on the Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Dual Phase Precipitation Hardened Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demand for high strength powder metallurgy (PM) steels has resulted in the development of dual phase PM steels. In this work, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of dual phase precipitation hardened powder metallurgy (PM) stainless steels of varying ferrite-martensite content were examined. Quantitative analyses of the inherent porosity and phase fractions were conducted on the steels and no significant differences were noted with respect to aging temperature. Tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to fracture all increased with increasing aging temperature reaching maxima at 538°C in most cases. Increased strength and decreased ductility were observed in steels of higher martensite content. Nanoindentation of the individual microconstituents was employed to obtain a fundamental understanding of the strengthening contributions. Both the ferrite and martensite hardness values increased with aging temperature and exhibited similar maxima to the bulk tensile properties. Due to the complex non-uniform stresses and strains associated with conventional nanoindentation, micropillar compression has become an attractive method to probe local mechanical behavior while limiting strain gradients and contributions from surrounding features. In this study, micropillars of ferrite and martensite were fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) milling of dual phase precipitation hardened powder metallurgy (PM) stainless steels. Compression testing was conducted using a nanoindenter equipped with a flat punch indenter. The stress-strain curves of the individual microconstituents were calculated from the load-displacement curves less the extraneous displacements of the system. Using a rule of mixtures approach in conjunction with porosity corrections, the mechanical properties of ferrite and martensite were combined for comparison to tensile tests of the bulk material, and reasonable agreement was found for the ultimate tensile

  9. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, ... narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  10. Interrelation of Steel Composition, Hardening Route, and Tempering Response of Medium Carbon Low-Alloy Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Abdel-Hamid A.; Abdu, Mahmoud T.; El-Banna, El-Sayed M.; Soliman, Saied E.; Tash, Mahmoud M.

    2016-04-01

    Four medium carbon and low-alloy steels were hardened through oil and forced air cooling. Tempering was then performed in the temperature range 250-600 °C. The martensite content increased with an increased hardenability and/or the rate of cooling. Tempering at T > M s caused a gradual decline in both hardness and strength and an improvement in the Charpy V-notch impact toughness. The low-alloy steels underwent tempered martensite embrittlement (as a result of the formation of carbides at the martensite interlaths and prior austenite grain boundaries) and enhancement of phosphorus segregation (particularly in the presence of Ni). Higher hardenability steels were found to be better hardened via the more recent forced air quenching rather than the conventional oil quenching. In this work, a modest, novel attempt is presented to empirically correlate the impact toughness with the hardness measurements to enable future prediction of impact toughness from hardness measurements.

  11. Thermal plasticity is related to the hardening response of heat shock protein expression in two Bactrocera fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun-tao; Chen, Bing; Li, Zhi-hong

    2014-08-01

    It is generally believed that widely distributed species differ in their thermal plasticity from narrowly distributed species, but how differences in thermal plasticity are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted a comparative study of two closely related invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera correcta and Bactroceradorsalis, in China. The two species had overlapping distributions, but B. dorsalis had a much wider range throughout the country and a longer invasive history than B. correcta. We first examined the effects of thermal acclimation on the ability of the two fruit flies to survive heat stress. The heat shock tolerance of B. dorsalis was significantly enhanced by heat hardening at 35, 37, 39 and 41°C, but that of B. correcta was only enhanced by heat hardening at 39°C and 41°C. Thus, the more widespread species has a higher thermal plasticity than the narrowly distributed species. We then determined the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 during different developmental stages and their responses to thermal hardening. The expression of both Hsp70 and Hsp90 in larvae was upregulated in response to heat hardening, starting at 35°C for B. dorsalis and at 39°C for B. correcta. The two species exhibited a highly consistent pattern of thermal response in terms of their heat shock survival rates and levels of Hsp gene expression. The results suggest that the difference in thermal plasticity may be responsible for the different distributions of the two species and that Hsp expression may be involved in the regulation of thermal plasticity. Our findings have important implications for the prediction of the thermal limits and ecological responses of related species in nature.

  12. The effects of solution treatment on the mechanical properties of age-hardened A-286 bar stock at elevated and cryogenic temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical properties are presented of solution treated and age hardened A-286 corrosion resistant steel bar stock. Material solution treated at 899 C or 982 C, each followed by an age hardening treatment of 718 C, was evaluated. Test specimens manufactured from 1.50 inch (3.81 cm) diameter bar stock were tested at temperatures from +649 C to -253 C. The test data indicated excellent tensile, yield, elongation and reduction-in-area properties at all testing temperatures for both solution treated and aged materials. Cryogenic temperature notched tensile, impact, and shear tests indicated excellent notch strength, ductility, and shear values. There was very little difference in the mechanical properties of the two solution treated and aged materials. The only exception was that the 962 C solution treated and aged material had superior stress rupture properties at 649 C.

  13. Precipitation of β' phase and hardening in dental-casting Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys subjected to aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghwan; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hieda, Junko; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Fukui, Hisao

    2014-03-01

    The age-hardening behavior of the dental-casting Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloy subjected to aging treatment at around 673K is well known, and this hardening has been widely employed in various applications. To date, the age-hardening of this alloy has been explained to attribute to the precipitation of a β phase, which is a B2-type ordered CuPd phase or PdCuxZn1-x phase. In this study, results obtained from microstructural observations using a transmission electron microscopy and a scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that a fine L10-type ordered β' phase precipitated in the matrix and a coarse-structure region (consisting of Ag- and Cu-rich regions) appeared after aging treatment at 673K and contributed to increase in hardness. The microstructure of the coarse β phase, which existed before aging treatment, did not change by aging treatment. Thus, it is concluded that the fine β' phase precipitated by aging treatment contributed more to increase in hardness than the coarse-structure region and coarse β phase.

  14. Precipitation hardening of a beta-titanium alloy by the alpha-two phase. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Quattrocchi, L.S.; Koss, D.A.; Scarr, G.

    1991-09-25

    The age hardening of beta titanium alloys by the formation of ordered alpha two precipitates based on Ti3Al has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and hardness observations. Results of tests based on the alloy Ti 23Nb 11 Al (at. %) show a large precipitation hardening response at temperatures considerably higher than is possible in current beta titanium alloys. TEM identifies the hardening to be caused by the formation of ordered, alpha two precipitates.

  15. [Responses of Arma chinensis cold tolerance to rapid cold hardening and underlying physiological mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Peng; Song, Li-Wen; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Chen, Yue-Qu; Zuo, Tong-Tong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Rapid cold hardening can enhance the cold tolerance of some insects. To explore the effects of different cold hardening induction temperature on the cold tolerance of Arma chinensis and related physiological mechanisms, the 3rd generation A. chinensis adults reared indoor were treated with cooling at 15, 10, and 4 degrees C for 4 h, respectively, or with gradual cooling from 15 degrees C for 4 h to 10 degrees C for 4 h, and finally to 4 degrees C for 4 h. The super-cooling point, water content, and the contents of low molecular carbohydrates, glycerol, and amino acids of the adults after cooling and the adults cold tolerance at 0, -5, and -10 degrees C were measured by thermocouple, high performance liquid chromatography, and other analytical techniques. When exposed at -10 degrees C after cooling, the survival rate of the adults treated with gradual cooling or treated with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was averagely 58.3%, while that of the adults reared at room temperature (25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C) or treated with cooling at 15 degrees C or 10 degrees C for 4 h decreased significantly, with an average of 8.9%. The super-cooling point of the adults treated with gradual cooling or with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was -15.6 degrees C, which was averagely 1.3 degrees C lower than that of the other treatments. The water content of the adults had no significant difference among all treatments, with an average of 61.8%, but the glucose, sorbitolum, glycerol, Ala, and Glu contents in treatments gradual cooling and cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h increased by 2.82-fold, 2.65-fold, 3.49-fold, 51.3%, and 80.2%, while the fucose, mannose, and Pro contents decreased by 68.4%, 52.2%, and 30.2%, respectively, as compared with the other treatments. The fructose content showed no significant difference among all treatments. It was suggested that rapid cool hardening had a critical temperature to induce the physiological metabolism process of adult A. chinensis, and

  16. [Responses of Arma chinensis cold tolerance to rapid cold hardening and underlying physiological mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Peng; Song, Li-Wen; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Chen, Yue-Qu; Zuo, Tong-Tong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Rapid cold hardening can enhance the cold tolerance of some insects. To explore the effects of different cold hardening induction temperature on the cold tolerance of Arma chinensis and related physiological mechanisms, the 3rd generation A. chinensis adults reared indoor were treated with cooling at 15, 10, and 4 degrees C for 4 h, respectively, or with gradual cooling from 15 degrees C for 4 h to 10 degrees C for 4 h, and finally to 4 degrees C for 4 h. The super-cooling point, water content, and the contents of low molecular carbohydrates, glycerol, and amino acids of the adults after cooling and the adults cold tolerance at 0, -5, and -10 degrees C were measured by thermocouple, high performance liquid chromatography, and other analytical techniques. When exposed at -10 degrees C after cooling, the survival rate of the adults treated with gradual cooling or treated with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was averagely 58.3%, while that of the adults reared at room temperature (25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C) or treated with cooling at 15 degrees C or 10 degrees C for 4 h decreased significantly, with an average of 8.9%. The super-cooling point of the adults treated with gradual cooling or with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was -15.6 degrees C, which was averagely 1.3 degrees C lower than that of the other treatments. The water content of the adults had no significant difference among all treatments, with an average of 61.8%, but the glucose, sorbitolum, glycerol, Ala, and Glu contents in treatments gradual cooling and cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h increased by 2.82-fold, 2.65-fold, 3.49-fold, 51.3%, and 80.2%, while the fucose, mannose, and Pro contents decreased by 68.4%, 52.2%, and 30.2%, respectively, as compared with the other treatments. The fructose content showed no significant difference among all treatments. It was suggested that rapid cool hardening had a critical temperature to induce the physiological metabolism process of adult A. chinensis, and

  17. Age hardening in rapidly solidified and hot isostatically pressed beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.H.; McGeorge, A.C.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1995-07-01

    Three different alloys of beryllium, aluminum and silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight, 50% Be, 47.5% Al, 2.5% Ag, 50% Be, 47% Al, 3% Ag, and 50% Be, 46% Al, 4% Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which appeared to separate from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatically pressing at 550 C for one hour at 30,000 psi argon pressure. Samples of HIP material were solution treated at 550 C for one hour, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200 and 225 C for times ranging from one half hour to 65 hours. Hardness measurements were made using a diamond pyramid indenter with a load of 1 kg. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 hours at 175 C and 12--16 hours at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition.

  18. Distinct Hardening Behavior of Ultrafine-Grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kaka; Smith, Thale; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-10-01

    The age-hardening response for ultrafine-grained, powder-metallurgy-consolidated aluminum 7091 was investigated for the first time. Peak hardening occurred after aging at 353 K (80 °C) for only 4 hours; further aging for up to 26 hours resulted in only slight fluctuations in hardness values. After the 4-hour aging, the precipitate population consists of a high density of nanoscale GP zones (diameter ~3 nm) and nanoscale η' phase (<30 nm); η phase is not present.

  19. Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wenchao; Ji, Shouxun; Huang, Lanping; Sheng, Xiaofei; Li, Zhou; Wang, Mingpu

    2014-08-15

    The characterization of precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging had been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy for an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. It was proposed that the needle-shaped β″ precipitates with a three-dimension coherency strain-field and an increased number density in the Al matrix provided the maximum strengthening effect for the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. Simultaneously, it was also found that the formation and evolution of clusters in the early precipitation were associated with the vacancy binding energy, during which Si atoms played an important role in controlling the numbers density of Mg/Si co-clusters, and the excess Si atoms provided the increased number of nucleation sites for the subsequent precipitates to strengthen and improve the precipitation rate. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, the precipitation sequence during the early precipitation in the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy was proposed as: supersaturated solid solution → Si-vacancy pairs, Mg-vacancy pairs and Mg clusters → Si clusters, and dissolution of Mg clusters → Mg atoms diffusion into the existing Si clusters → Mg/Si co-clusters → GP zone. - Highlights: • β″ precipitates provide the maximum strengthening effect for the 6005A alloy. • Si atoms play an important role in controlling the numbers of Mg/Si co-clusters. • The early aging sequence is deduced based on the solute-vacancy binding energy.

  20. Proposed radiation hardened mobile vehicle for Chernobyl dismantlement and nuclear accident response

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, M.S.; Holliday, M.A.; Karpachov, J.A.; Ivanov, A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers are developing a radiation hardened, Telerobotic Dismantling System (TDS) to remediate the Chernobyl facility. To withstand the severe radiation fields, the robotic system, will rely on electrical motors, actuators, and relays proven in the Chernobyl power station. Due to its dust suppression characteristics and ability to cut arbitrary materials the authors propose using a water knife as the principle tool to slice up the large fuel containing masses. The front end of the robot will use a minimum number of moving parts by locating most of the susceptible and bulky components outside the work area. Hardened and shielded video cameras will be designed for remote control and viewing of the robotic functions. Operators will supervise and control robot movements based on feedback from a suite of sensory systems that would include vision systems, radiation detection and measurement systems and force reflection systems. A gripper will be instrumented with a variety of sensors (e.g. force, torque, or tactile), allowing varying debris surface properties to be grasped. The gripper will allow the operator to manipulate and segregate debris items without entering the radiologically and physically dangerous dismantlement operations area. The robots will initially size reduce the FCM`s to reduce the primary sources of the airborne radionuclides. The robot will then remove the high level waste for packaging or decontamination, and storage nearby.

  1. Ageing behaviour of an Fe-20Ni-1.8Mn-1.6Ti-0.59Al (wt%) maraging alloy: clustering, precipitation and hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Pereloma, E.V. . E-mail: elena.pereloma@spme.monash.edu.au; Shekhter, A.; Miller, M.K.; Ringer, S.P.

    2004-11-08

    Changes in the solute distribution as well as the evolution of precipitation, microstructure and mechanical properties have been studied in an experimental maraging Fe-20Ni-1.8Mn-1.5Ti-0.59Al (wt%) alloy during ageing at 550 deg C. An initial hardening reaction within 5 s is reported, which is remarkable in terms of extent and rapidity. This strengthening was caused by the formation of complex multi-component atomic co-clusters containing primarily Ni-Ti-Al as well as some Mn. This cluster strengthened condition produced the optimum toughness observed throughout the ageing sequence. After 60 s ageing, the appearance of discrete precipitation of needle-shaped {eta}-Ni{sub 3}Ti particles was associated with a second rise in hardness towards an eventual peak at 600 s. This precipitation hardening was accompanied by an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in ductility. A reverse transformation of martensite to austenite occurs progressively during ageing and this contributes to the initial and secondary softening.

  2. The Effect of Microstructural Evolution on Hardening Behavior of 2205 Stainless Steel in Long-Term Aging at 500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shukun; Ma, Guodong; Guo, Bo; Fang, Kuanjun; Wang, Jun

    2014-06-01

    The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of 2205 stainless steel in long-term aging at 500 °C was studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the hardness of ferrite phase in matrix steadily increased with the aging time at the first stage of 4 months, presented a peak of hardness at about 5 months, and showed a downward trend for the aging time from 6 to 8 months, while the hardness of the austenitic phase remained constant. Analysis showed that the iron-rich α phase and the Cr-rich α' phase generated by spinodal decomposition, Cr2N precipitations, and Fe2Mn (R-phase) were the main reasons for the generation of peak in hardness of ferrite phase. Further studies showed that some dislocation structure (changing with the aging time) in δ-ferrite of matrix is related to the microstructural evolution.

  3. Comparative study of structure formation and mechanical behavior of age-hardened Ti–Nb–Zr and Ti–Nb–Ta shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Inaekyan, K.; Brailovski, V.; Prokoshkin, S.; Pushin, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Sheremetyev, V.

    2015-05-15

    This work sets out to study the peculiar effects of aging treatment on the structure and mechanical behavior of cold-rolled and annealed biomedical Ti–21.8Nb–6.0Zr (TNZ) and Ti–19.7Nb–5.8Ta (TNT) (at.%) shape memory alloys by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, functional fatigue and thermomechanical testing techniques. Dissimilar effects of aging treatment on the mechanical behavior of Zr- and Ta-doped alloys are explained by the differences in the ω-phase formation rate, precipitate size, fraction and distribution, and by their effect on the alloys' critical stresses and transformation temperatures. Even short-time aging of the TNZ alloy leads to its drastic embrittlement caused by “overaging”. On the contrary, during aging of the TNT alloy, formation of finely dispersed ω-phase precipitates is gradual and controllable, which makes it possible to finely adjust the TNT alloy functional properties using precipitation hardening mechanisms. To create in this alloy nanosubgrained dislocation substructure containing highly-dispersed coherent nanosized ω-phase precipitates, the following optimum thermomechanical treatment is recommended: cold rolling (true strain 0.37), followed by post-deformation annealing (600 °C, 15–30 min) and age-hardening (300 °C, 30 min) thermal treatments. It is shown that in TNT alloy, pre-transition diffraction effects (diffuse reflections) can “mask” the β-phase substructure and morphology of secondary phases. - Highlights: • TNZ alloy is characterized by much higher ω-phase precipitation rate than TNT alloy. • Difference in precipitation rates is linked to the difference in Zr and Ta diffusion mobility. • Aging of nanosubgrained TNZ alloy worsens its properties irrespective of the aging time. • Aging time of nanosubgrained TNT alloy can be optimized to improve its properties.

  4. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  5. Use of intraspecific variation in thermal responses for estimating an elevational cline in the timing of cold hardening in a sub-boreal conifer.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, W; Ono, K; Hara, T; Goto, S

    2015-01-01

    To avoid winter frost damage, evergreen coniferous species develop cold hardiness with suitable phenology for the local climate regime. Along the elevational gradient, a genetic cline in autumn phenology is often recognised among coniferous populations, but further quantification of evolutionary adaptation related to the local environment and its responsible signals generating the phenological variation are poorly understood. We evaluated the timing of cold hardening among populations of Abies sachalinensis, based on time series freezing tests using trees derived from four seed source populations × three planting sites. Furthermore, we constructed a model to estimate the development of hardening from field temperatures and the intraspecific variations occurring during this process. An elevational cline was detected such that high-elevation populations developed cold hardiness earlier than low-elevation populations, representing significant genetic control. Because development occurred earlier at high-elevation planting sites, the genetic trend across elevation overlapped with the environmental trend. Based on the trade-off between later hardening to lengthen the active growth period and earlier hardening to avoid frost damage, this genetic cline would be adaptive to the local climate. Our modelling approach estimated intraspecific variation in two model components: the threshold temperature, which was the criterion for determining whether the trees accumulated the thermal value, and the chilling requirement for trees to achieve adequate cold hardiness. A higher threshold temperature and a lower chilling requirement could be responsible for the earlier phenology of the high-elevation population. These thermal responses may be one of the important factors driving the elevation-dependent adaptation of A. sachalinensis.

  6. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  7. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Paul C; Bale, Jeffrey S; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  8. Effect of Strain-Induced Age Hardening on Yield Strength Improvement in Ferrite-Austenite Duplex Lightweight Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyejin; Lee, Seok Gyu; Sohn, Seok Su; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-11-01

    Ferrite-austenite lightweight steels showing TRansformation-induced plasticity were developed by varying the aging temperature with or without prestraining, and their effects on tensile properties were investigated in relation with microstructural evolution of carbide formation. The aged steels contained austenite, pearlite, and martensite in the ferrite matrix, and the austenite volume fraction decreased with the increasing aging temperature because some austenite grains decomposed to pearlites. This austenite decomposition to pearlite was favorable for the improvement of yield strength, but negatively influenced overall tensile properties. The prestraining promoted the austenite decomposition by a diffusion-controlled phase transformation, and changed the morphology of the cementite from a long lamellar shape to a densely agglomerated particle shape. In order to obtain the large increase in yield strength as well as excellent combination of strength and ductility, the strain-induced aging treatment, i.e., prestraining followed by aging, is important like in the prestrained and 673 K (400 °C)-aged steel. This large increase in yield strength, in spite of a reduction of elongation (65 to 43 pct), was basically attributed to an appropriate amount of decomposition of austenite to pearlite ( e.g., 4 vol pct), while having sufficient austenite to martensite transformation ( e.g., 14.5 vol pct martensite).

  9. Phenomenological modeling of hardening and thermal recovery in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Modeling of hardening and thermal recovery in metals is considered within the context of unified elastic-viscoplastic theories. Specifically, the choices of internal variables and hardening measures, and the resulting hardening response obtained by incorporating saturation-type evolution equations into two general forms of the flow law are examined. Based on the analytical considerations, a procedure for delineating directional and isotropic hardening from uniaxial hardening data has been developed for the Bodner-Partom model and applied to a nickel-base superalloy, B1900 + Hf. Predictions based on the directional hardening properties deduced from the monotonic loading data are shown to be in good agreement with results of cyclic tests.

  10. Precipitation Hardening and Statistical Modeling of the Aging Parameters and Alloy Compositions in Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Obaisi, A. M.; El-Danaf, E. A.; Ragab, A. E.; Soliman, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The addition of Ag to Al-Cu-Mg systems has been proposed to replace the existing high-strength 2xxx and 7xxx Al alloys. The aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys exhibited promising properties, due to special type of precipitates named Ω, which cooperate with other precipitates to enhance the mechanical properties significantly. In the present investigation, the effect of changing percentages of alloying elements, aging time, and aging temperature on the hardness values was studied based on a factorial design. According to this design of experiments (DOE)—23 factorial design, eight alloys were cast and hot rolled, where (Cu, Mg, and Ag) were added to aluminum with two different levels for each alloying element. These alloys were aged at different temperatures (160, 190, and 220 °C) over a wide range of time intervals from 10 min. to 64 h. The resulting hardness data were used as an input for Minitab software to model and relate the process variables with hardness through a regression analysis. Modifying the alloying elements' weight percentages to the high level enhanced the hardness of the alloy with about 40% as compared to the alloy containing the low level of all alloying elements. Through analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was figured out that altering the fraction of Cu had the greatest effect on the hardness values with a contribution of about 49%. Also, second-level interaction terms had about 21% of impact on the hardness values. Aging time, quadratic terms, and third-level interaction terms had almost the same level of influence on hardness values (about 10% contribution). Furthermore, the results have shown that small addition of Mg and Ag was enough to improve the mechanical properties of the alloy significantly. The statistical model formulated interpreted about 80% of the variation in hardness values.

  11. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  12. Responses of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, to temperature extremes and dehydration: levels of tolerance, rapid cold hardening and expression of heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Benoit, J B; Lopez-Martinez, G; Teets, N M; Phillips, S A; Denlinger, D L

    2009-12-01

    This study of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, examines tolerance of adult females to extremes in temperature and loss of body water. Although the supercooling point (SCP) of the bed bugs was approximately -20 degrees C, all were killed by a direct 1 h exposure to -16 degrees C. Thus, this species cannot tolerate freezing and is killed at temperatures well above its SCP. Neither cold acclimation at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks nor dehydration (15% loss of water content) enhanced cold tolerance. However, bed bugs have the capacity for rapid cold hardening, i.e. a 1-h exposure to 0 degrees C improved their subsequent tolerance of -14 and -16 degrees C. In response to heat stress, fewer than 20% of the bugs survived a 1-h exposure to 46 degrees C, and nearly all were killed at 48 degrees C. Dehydration, heat acclimation at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks and rapid heat hardening at 37 degrees C for 1 h all failed to improve heat tolerance. Expression of the mRNAs encoding two heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, was elevated in response to heat stress, cold stress and during dehydration and rehydration. The response of Hsp90 was more pronounced than that of Hsp70 during dehydration and rehydration. Our results define the tolerance limits for bed bugs to these commonly encountered stresses of temperature and low humidity and indicate a role for Hsps in responding to these stresses. PMID:19941608

  13. Responses of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, to temperature extremes and dehydration: levels of tolerance, rapid cold hardening and expression of heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Benoit, J B; Lopez-Martinez, G; Teets, N M; Phillips, S A; Denlinger, D L

    2009-12-01

    This study of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, examines tolerance of adult females to extremes in temperature and loss of body water. Although the supercooling point (SCP) of the bed bugs was approximately -20 degrees C, all were killed by a direct 1 h exposure to -16 degrees C. Thus, this species cannot tolerate freezing and is killed at temperatures well above its SCP. Neither cold acclimation at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks nor dehydration (15% loss of water content) enhanced cold tolerance. However, bed bugs have the capacity for rapid cold hardening, i.e. a 1-h exposure to 0 degrees C improved their subsequent tolerance of -14 and -16 degrees C. In response to heat stress, fewer than 20% of the bugs survived a 1-h exposure to 46 degrees C, and nearly all were killed at 48 degrees C. Dehydration, heat acclimation at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks and rapid heat hardening at 37 degrees C for 1 h all failed to improve heat tolerance. Expression of the mRNAs encoding two heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, was elevated in response to heat stress, cold stress and during dehydration and rehydration. The response of Hsp90 was more pronounced than that of Hsp70 during dehydration and rehydration. Our results define the tolerance limits for bed bugs to these commonly encountered stresses of temperature and low humidity and indicate a role for Hsps in responding to these stresses.

  14. Age-specific transcriptional response to stroke.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Matthias W; Guenther, Madlen; Jaenisch, Nadine; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Kohl, Matthias; Witte, Otto W; Frahm, Christiane

    2014-07-01

    Increased age is a major risk factor for stroke incidence and post-ischemic mortality. To develop age-adjusted therapeutic interventions, a clear understanding of the complexity of age-related post-ischemic mechanisms is essential. Transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery--a model that closely resembles human stroke--was used to induce cerebral infarction in mice of 4 different ages (2, 9, 15, 24 months). By using Illumina cDNA microarrays and quantitative PCR we detected a distinct age-dependent response to stroke involving 350 differentially expressed genes. Our analyses also identified 327 differentially expressed genes that responded to stroke in an age-independent manner. These genes are involved in different aspects of the inflammatory and immune response, oxidative stress, cell cycle activation and/or DNA repair, apoptosis, cytoskeleton reorganization and/or astrogliosis, synaptic plasticity and/or neurotransmission, and depressive disorders and/or dopamine-, serotonin-, GABA-signaling. In agreement with our earlier work, aged brains displayed an attenuated inflammatory and immune response (Sieber et al., 2011) and a reduced impairment of post-stroke synaptic plasticity. Our data also revealed a distinct age-related susceptibility for post-ischemic depression, the most common neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke, which has a major influence on functional outcome.

  15. Solution hardening and strain hardening at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kocks, U.F.

    1982-10-01

    Solutes can significantly increase the rate of strain hardening; as a consequence, the saturation stress, at which strain hardening tends to cease for a given temperature and strain rate, is increased more than the yield stress: this is the major effect of solutes on strength at elevated temperatures, especially in the regime where dynamic strain-aging occurs. It is shown that local solute mobility can affect both the rate of dynamic recovery and the dislocation/dislocation interaction strength. The latter effect leads to multiplicative solution strengthening. It is explained by a new model based on repeated dislocation unlocking, in a high-temperature limit, which also rationalizes the stress dependence of static and dynamic strain-aging, and may help explain the plateau of the yield stress at elevated temperatures. 15 figures.

  16. Cyclic hardening mechanisms in Nimonic 80A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, B. A.; Gerold, V.

    1987-01-01

    A nickel base superalloy was fatigued under constant plastic strain range control. The hardening response was investigated as a function of plastic strain range and particle size of the gamma prime phase. Hardening was found to be a function of the slip band spacing. Numerous measurements of the slip band spacing and other statistical data on the slip band structures were obtained. Interactions between intersecting slip systems were shown to influence hardening. A Petch-Hall model was found to describe best this relationship between the response stress and the slip band spacing.

  17. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  18. Influence of bismuth on the age-hardening and corrosion behaviour of low-antimony lead alloys in lead/acid battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Huynh, T. D.; Haigh, N. P.; Douglas, J. D.; Rand, D. A. J.; Lakshmi, C. S.; Hollingsworth, P. A.; See, J. B.; Manders, J.; Rice, D. M.

    The effects of bismuth additions in the range 0.006-0.086 wt.% on the metallurgical and electrochemical properties of Pb-1.5 wt.% Sb alloy are investigated. The self-discharge behaviour of batteries produced with grids of the doped alloys is also evaluated. Addition of bismuth is found to exert no significant effects on the age-hardening behaviour, general microstructure or grain size of the alloy. It does, however, influence the morphology of the eutectic in the inter-dendritic regions. The latter changes from a mainly lamellar to an irregular type with increasing bismuth content. The corrosion rate of the grid decreases with increase of the bismuth content. Attack occurs preferentially in the inter-dendritic regions where there is an enrichment of both antimony and bismuth. Electron-probe microanalysis shows that the corrosion zone consists of a tri-layered structure, namely: a dense, continuous, inner layer (PbO 1.1); a central layer (PbO 1.8·PbSO 4); a porous outer layer n(PbO 1.8)·PbSO 4, with n=2-8. In the latter, the value of n increases in the direction of corrosive penetration into the grid. Data from atomic absorption spectrometric analysis reveal that bismuth, after oxidative leaching from the grid substrate, is retained mainly in the corrosion layer. A key observation is that bismuth (i.e., up to ˜0.09 wt.%) does not affect the self-discharge behaviour of batteries.

  19. The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

    2013-10-01

    Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root

  20. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Mostaed, A.; Saghafian, H.; Mostaed, E.; Shokuhfar, A.; Rezaie, H.R.

    2013-02-15

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ► HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ► TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ► SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM.

  1. Cold Hardening in Citrus Stems

    PubMed Central

    Yelenosky, George

    1975-01-01

    Stem cold hardening developed to different levels in citrus types tested in controlled environments. Exotherms indicated ice spread was more uniform and rapid in unhardened than in cold-hardened stems. All attempts to inhibit the functioning of citrus leaves resulted in less cold hardening in the stems. Citrus leaves contribute a major portion of cold hardening in the wood. PMID:16659340

  2. Influence of slip system hardening assumptions on modeling stress dependence of work hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew; Dawson, Paul

    1997-11-01

    Due to the discrete directional nature of processes such as crystallographic slip, the orientation of slip planes relative to a fixed set of loading axes has a direct effect on the magnitude of the external load necessary to induce dislocation motion (yielding). The effect such geometric or textural hardening has on the macroscopic flow stress can be quantified in a polycrystal by the average Taylor factor M¯. Sources of resistance to dislocation motion such as interaction with dislocation structures, precipitates, and grain boundaries, contribute to the elevation of the critically resolved shear strength τcrss. In continuum slip polycrystal formulations, material hardening phenomena are reflected in the slip system hardness equations. Depending on the model, the hardening equations and the mean field assumption can both affect geometric hardening through texture evolution. In this paper, we examine continuum slip models and focus on how the slip system hardening model and the mean field assumption affect the stress-strain response. Texture results are also presented within the context of how the texture affects geometric hardening. We explore the effect of employing slip system hardnesses averaged over different size scales. We first compare a polycrystal simulation employing a single hardness per crystal to one using a latent hardening formulation producing distinct slip system hardnesses. We find little difference between the amplitude of the single hardness and a crystal-average of the latent hardening values. The geometric hardening is different due to the differences in the textures predicted by each model. We also find that due to the high degree of symmetry in an fcc crystal, macroscopic stress-strain predictions using simulations employing crystal- and aggregateaveraged hardnesses are nearly identical. We find this to be true for several different mean field assumptions. An aggregate-averaged hardness may be preferred in light of the difficulty

  3. 42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN AND TEMPER THE NAILS; WEST TUBES IN FOREGRPUND AND DRAWBACK TUBE IN THE CENTER - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  4. Aging augments IL-17 T-cell alloimmune responses.

    PubMed

    Tesar, B M; Du, W; Shirali, A C; Walker, W E; Shen, H; Goldstein, D R

    2009-01-01

    As increasing numbers of elderly patients require solid organ transplantation, the need to better understand how aging modifies alloimmune responses increases. Here, we examined whether aged mice exhibit augmented, donor-specific memory responses prior to transplantation. We found that elevated donor-specific IL-17, but not IFN-gamma, responses were observed in aged mice compared to young mice prior to transplantation. Further characterization of the heightened IL-17 alloimmune response with aging demonstrated that memory CD4(+) T cells were required. Reduced IL-2 alloimmune responses with age contributed to the elevated IL-17 phenotype in vitro, and treatment with an anti-IL-17 antibody delayed the onset of acute allograft rejection. In conclusion, aging leads to augmented, donor-specific IL-17 immune responses that are important for the timing of acute allograft rejection in aged recipients. IL-17 targeting therapies may be useful for averting transplant rejection responses in older transplant recipients.

  5. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  6. Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Frazier, Donald O.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Environmental Modeling is crucial to proper predictive modeling and electronic response to the radiation environment. When compared to on-orbit data, CREME96 has been shown to be inaccurate in predicting the radiation environment. The NEDD bases much of its radiation environment data on CREME96 output. Close coordination and partnership with DoD radiation-hardened efforts will result in leveraged - not duplicated or independently developed - technology capabilities of: a) Radiation-hardened, reconfigurable FPGA-based electronics; and b) High Performance Processors (NOT duplication or independent development).

  7. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  8. Nuclear effects hardened shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindke, Paul

    1990-11-01

    The Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8' x 8' x 22' nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Corrpartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters. The specific levels of hardening to which the shelters were designed are classified and will not be mentioned during this presentation.

  9. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  10. Grain boundary hardening and triple junction hardening in polycrystalline molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Shigeaki . E-mail: skoba@ashitech.ac.jp; Tsurekawa, Sadahiro; Watanabe, Tadao

    2005-02-01

    The grain boundary and triple junction hardenings in molybdenum with different carbon content were studied in connection with the character and the connectivity of grain boundaries at triple junctions by the micro-indentation test. The triple junction hardening is smaller at the junctions composed of low-angle and {sigma} boundaries than at the junctions composed of random boundaries. This difference in the hardening depending on the grain boundary connectivity becomes more significant with a decrease in carbon content in molybdenum.

  11. Practical aspects of systems hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of hardening technology in a practical system require a balance between the factors governing affordability, producibility, and survivability of the finished design. Without careful consideration of the top-level system operating constraints, a design engineer may find himself with a survivable but overweight, unproductive, expensive design. This paper explores some lessons learned in applying hardening techniques to several laser communications programs and is intended as an introductory guide to novice designers faced with the task of hardening a space system.

  12. The responsible subject in the global age.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, Elena

    2010-09-01

    The first thesis of this article is that the concept of responsibility takes on an unprecedented meaning in the twentieth century resulting from the emergence of a new dimension of the other: to be responsible comes to mean not just to account for oneself in relation to the other, but also to take the other into account, to take care of the other-what I call responsibility towards (the other). The main reason for this change consists in the emergence of global risks and the necessity, as underlined by Hans Jonas, to be responsible for the destiny of the world and future generations. The problem, as explored in the article's second thesis, is that this implies the existence of a subject who is capable of responsibility. Jonas's insights on this point are insufficient, since he only recognizes duty as the fundament for his ethics of responsibility and thus neglects the problem of motivation. This is a particularly crucial problem today as we are witnessing the presence of a pathological subject, characterized by a split in his faculties (between doing and imagining, knowing and feeling). To underline this fact, this article makes use of Günther Anders's reflections, which provide a psycho-anthropological analysis of the subject, showing his pathologies and the necessity, from a moral perspective, to overcome his scission. Finally, this author suggests, as the article's third thesis, that this overcoming is the necessary fundament for the perception of risk, which in turn reinstates the subject's perception of his own vulnerability. Responsibility thus finds a motivation, which is neither altruistic nor duty-centred, in the awareness of our own vulnerability and the bond with the destiny of humankind as a whole.

  13. Induction Hardening vs Conventional Hardening of a Heat Treatable Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackl, Stephanie; Leitner, Harald; Zuber, Michael; Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the comparison of mechanical and microstructural properties of induction and conventionally heat-treated steels in the as-quenched state. The investigated steel is a heat treatable 42CrMo4 steel. In order to characterize the mechanical properties, tensile tests and Vickers hardness tests are performed. The yield strength and hardness of the induction hardened condition turn out to be slightly lower compared to the conventionally hardened one. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy show no differences in the martensitic structure of the induction and conventionally hardened condition. However, electron back scatter diffraction investigations reveal a smaller block size within the conventionally hardened specimen. Carbon mappings by electron probe micro analysis show a homogenous carbon concentration in the conventionally hardened and a non-uniform distribution in the induction-hardened case. The segregation of the carbon exhibits line-type features in the induction hardened condition, lowering the total amount of carbon in the matrix. Therefore, the carbon content in the matrix of the conventionally hardened condition is slightly higher, which causes a smaller block size. The smaller block size is believed to be the reason for the higher hardness and yield strength.

  14. The Status of Rapid Response Learning in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for an age-related impairment in associative processing under intentional encoding and retrieval conditions, but the status of incidental associative processing has been less clear. Two experiments examined the effects of age on rapid response learning – the incidentally learned stimulus-response association that results in a reduction in priming when a learned response becomes inappropriate for a new task. Specifically, we tested whether priming was equivalently sensitive in both age groups to reversing the task-specific decision cue. Experiment 1 showed that cue inversion reduced priming in both age groups using a speeded inside/outside classification task, and in Experiment 2 cue inversion eliminated priming on an associative version of this task. Thus, the ability to encode an association between a stimulus and its initial task-specific response appears to be preserved in aging. These findings provide an important example of a form of associative processing that is unimpaired in older adults. PMID:20853961

  15. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Jr., Holt; Harris, Ian D.; Ratka, John O.; Spiegelberg, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.

  16. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOEpatents

    Murray, H. Jr.; Harris, I.D.; Ratka, J.O.; Spiegelberg, W.D.

    1994-06-28

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined. 5 figures.

  17. Aging, Tolerance to High Altitude, and Cardiorespiratory Response to Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richalet, Jean-Paul; Lhuissier, François J

    2015-06-01

    Richalet, Jean-Paul, and François J. Lhuissier. Aging, tolerance to high altitude, and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 16:117-124, 2015.--It is generally accepted that aging is rather protective, at least at moderate altitude. Some anecdotal reports even mention successful ascent of peaks over 8000 m and even Everest by elderly people. However, very few studies have explored the influence of aging on tolerance to high altitude and prevalence of acute high altitude related diseases, taking into account all confounding factors such as speed of ascent, altitude reached, sex, training status, and chemo-responsiveness. Changes in physiological responses to hypoxia with aging were assessed through a cross-sectional 20-year study including 4675 subjects (2789 men, 1886 women; 14-85 yrs old) and a longitudinal study including 30 subjects explored at a mean 10.4-year interval. In men, ventilatory response to hypoxia increased, while desaturation was less pronounced with aging. Cardiac response to hypoxia was blunted with aging in both genders. Similar results were found in the longitudinal study, with a decrease in cardiac and an increase in ventilatory response to hypoxia with aging. These adaptive responses were less pronounced or absent in post-menopausal untrained women. In conclusion, in normal healthy and active subjects, aging has no deleterious effect on cardiac and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, at least up to the eighth decade. Aging is not a contraindication for high altitude, as far as no pathological condition interferes and physical fitness is compatible with the intensity of the expected physical demand of one's individual. Physiological evaluation through hypoxic exercise testing before going to high altitude is helpful to detect risk factors of severe high altitude-related diseases.

  18. Preexisting Immunity, More Than Aging, Influences Influenza Vaccine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Adrian J.; Kim, Jin Hyang; Biber, Renata; Talbot, H. Keipp; Coleman, Laura A.; Chirkova, Tatiana; Gross, F. Liaini; Steward-Clark, Evelene; Cao, Weiping; Jefferson, Stacie; Veguilla, Vic; Gillis, Eric; Meece, Jennifer; Bai, Yaohui; Tatum, Heather; Hancock, Kathy; Stevens, James; Spencer, Sarah; Chen, Jufu; Gargiullo, Paul; Braun, Elise; Griffin, Marie R.; Sundaram, Maria; Belongia, Edward A.; Shay, David K.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2015-01-01

    Background. Influenza disproportionately impacts older adults while current vaccines have reduced effectiveness in the older population. Methods. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of cellular and humoral immune responses of adults aged 50 years and older to the 2008–2009 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and assessed factors influencing vaccine response. Results. Vaccination increased hemagglutination inhibition and neutralizing antibody; however, 66.3% of subjects did not reach hemagglutination inhibition titers ≥ 40 for H1N1, compared with 22.5% for H3N2. Increasing age had a minor negative impact on antibody responses, whereas prevaccination titers were the best predictors of postvaccination antibody levels. Preexisting memory B cells declined with age, especially for H3N2. However, older adults still demonstrated a significant increase in antigen-specific IgG+ and IgA+ memory B cells postvaccination. Despite reduced frequency of preexisting memory B cells associated with advanced age, fold-rise in memory B cell frequency in subjects 60+ was comparable to subjects age 50–59. Conclusions. Older adults mounted statistically significant humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, but many failed to reach hemagglutination inhibition titers ≥40, especially for H1N1. Although age had a modest negative effect on vaccine responses, prevaccination titers were the best predictor of postvaccination antibody levels, irrespective of age. PMID:26380344

  19. Computed tomographic beam-hardening artefacts: mathematical characterization and analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Suk; Chung, Yong Eun; Seo, Jin Keun

    2015-06-13

    This paper presents a mathematical characterization and analysis of beam-hardening artefacts in X-ray computed tomography (CT). In the field of dental and medical radiography, metal artefact reduction in CT is becoming increasingly important as artificial prostheses and metallic implants become more widespread in ageing populations. Metal artefacts are mainly caused by the beam-hardening of polychromatic X-ray photon beams, which causes mismatch between the actual sinogram data and the data model being the Radon transform of the unknown attenuation distribution in the CT reconstruction algorithm. We investigate the beam-hardening factor through a mathematical analysis of the discrepancy between the data and the Radon transform of the attenuation distribution at a fixed energy level. Separation of cupping artefacts from beam-hardening artefacts allows causes and effects of streaking artefacts to be analysed. Various computer simulations and experiments are performed to support our mathematical analysis.

  20. A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary M11-xM2xB2 alloys with AlB2 type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, B.; Högberg, H.; Armiento, R.; Rosen, J.; Hultman, L.

    2015-05-01

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary M11-xM2xB2 alloys comprising MiB2 (Mi = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1-xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at EF in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2.

  1. A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary M11–xM2xB2 alloys with AlB2 type structure

    PubMed Central

    Alling, B.; Högberg, H.; Armiento, R.; Rosen, J.; Hultman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary M11–xM2xB2 alloys comprising MiB2 (Mi = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1–xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at EF in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2. PMID:25970763

  2. A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary M(1)1-x M(2)xB2 alloys with AlB2 type structure.

    PubMed

    Alling, B; Högberg, H; Armiento, R; Rosen, J; Hultman, L

    2015-05-13

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary M(1)1-x M(2)xB2 alloys comprising M(i)B2 (M(i) = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1-xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at EF in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2.

  3. Cellular stress response pathways and ageing: intricate molecular relationships

    PubMed Central

    Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2011-01-01

    Ageing is driven by the inexorable and stochastic accumulation of damage in biomolecules vital for proper cellular function. Although this process is fundamentally haphazard and uncontrollable, senescent decline and ageing is broadly influenced by genetic and extrinsic factors. Numerous gene mutations and treatments have been shown to extend the lifespan of diverse organisms ranging from the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae to primates. It is becoming increasingly apparent that most such interventions ultimately interface with cellular stress response mechanisms, suggesting that longevity is intimately related to the ability of the organism to effectively cope with both intrinsic and extrinsic stress. Here, we survey the molecular mechanisms that link ageing to main stress response pathways, and mediate age-related changes in the effectiveness of the response to stress. We also discuss how each pathway contributes to modulate the ageing process. A better understanding of the dynamics and reciprocal interplay between stress responses and ageing is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies that exploit endogenous stress combat pathways against age-associated pathologies. PMID:21587205

  4. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  5. Age-related responses to mild restraint in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Michael, S D; Altland, P D

    1983-11-01

    Immature, postpubertal, young adult, and middle-aged rats were lightly restrained for 4 h. Relative to untreated controls, restraint uniformly reduced body weight and plasma luteinizing hormone concentration and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration in all age groups. However, restraint increased activities of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, and fructose-diphosphate aldolase in only immature and middle-aged animals. This age-related release of tissue enzymes is hypothesized to reflect enhanced responsiveness to catecholamines in immature rats, and possible ischemia related to diminished vasodilatory activity in middle-aged rats. On the basis of these changes, tolerance to restraint in postpubertal and young adults appears to be slightly greater than that of immature and middle-aged rats.

  6. Oxidative stress response and Nrf2 signaling in aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongqiao; Davies, Kelvin J. A.; Forman, Henry Jay

    2015-01-01

    Increasing oxidative stress, a major characteristic of aging, has been implicated in variety of age-related pathologies. In aging, oxidant production from several sources is increased while antioxidant enzymes, the primary lines of defense, are decreased. Repair systems, including the proteasomal degradation of damaged proteins also declines. Importantly, the adaptive response to oxidative stress declines with aging. Nrf2/EpRE signaling regulates the basal and inducible expression of many antioxidant enzymes and the proteasome. Nrf2/EpRE activity is regulated at several levels including transcription, post-translation, and interaction with other proteins. This review summarizes current studies on age-related impairment of Nrf2/EpRE function and discusses the change of Nrf2 regulatory mechanisms with aging. PMID:26066302

  7. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Age-Hardening Behavior of an Al-Si-Fe-Mn-Cu-Mg Alloy Produced by Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wang; Jishan, Zhang; Baiqing, Xiong; Yongan, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    It has been recognized generally that the spray-deposited process is an innovative technique of rapid solidification. In this paper, Al-20Si-5Fe-3Mn-3Cu-1Mg alloy was synthesized by the spray atomization and deposition technique. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the spray-deposited alloy were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tensile tests. It is observed that the microstructure of spray-deposited Al-20Si-5Fe-3Mn-3Cu-1Mg alloy is composed of the α-Al,Si and the particle-like Al15(FeMn)3Si2 compounds. The aging process of the alloy was investigated by microhardness measurement, differential scanning calorimetry analysis, and TEM observations. The results indicate that the two types of precipitates, S-Al2CuMg and σ-Al5Cu6Mg2 precipitate from matrix and improve the tensile strength of the alloy efficiently at both the ambient and elevated temperatures (300 °C).

  8. Single event upset hardening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.T.; Corbett, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated circuit logic states are maintained by virtue of specific transistor combinations being either on'' (conducting) or off'' (nonconducting). High energy ion strikes on the microcircuit generate photocurrents whose primary detrimental effect is to make off'' transistors appear on,'' confusing the logic state and leading to single event upset (SEU). Protection against these soft errors is accomplished using either technology or circuit techniques, actions that generally impact yield and performance relative to unhardened circuits. We describe, and using circuit simulations analyze, a technique for hardening latches which requires combinations of technology and circuit modifications, but which provides SEU immunity without loss of speed. Specifically, a single logic state is hardened against SEU using technology methods and the information concerning valid states is then used to simplify hardened circuit design. The technique emphasizes some basic hardening concepts, ideas for which will be reviewed. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  9. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  10. Microscopic Origin of Strain Hardening in Methane Hydrate.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jihui; Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Takeshi; Murata, Sumihiko; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2016-03-24

    It has been reported for a long time that methane hydrate presents strain hardening, whereas the strength of normal ice weakens with increasing strain after an ultimate strength. However, the microscopic origin of these differences is not known. Here, we investigated the mechanical characteristics of methane hydrate and normal ice by compressive deformation test using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that methane hydrate exhibits strain hardening only if the hydrate is confined to a certain finite cross-sectional area that is normal to the compression direction. For normal ice, it does not present strain hardening under the same conditions. We show that hydrate guest methane molecules exhibit no long-distance diffusion when confined to a finite-size area. They appear to serve as non-deformable units that prevent hydrate structure failure, and thus are responsible for the strain-hardening phenomenon.

  11. Microscopic Origin of Strain Hardening in Methane Hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jihui; Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Takeshi; Murata, Sumihiko; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported for a long time that methane hydrate presents strain hardening, whereas the strength of normal ice weakens with increasing strain after an ultimate strength. However, the microscopic origin of these differences is not known. Here, we investigated the mechanical characteristics of methane hydrate and normal ice by compressive deformation test using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that methane hydrate exhibits strain hardening only if the hydrate is confined to a certain finite cross-sectional area that is normal to the compression direction. For normal ice, it does not present strain hardening under the same conditions. We show that hydrate guest methane molecules exhibit no long-distance diffusion when confined to a finite-size area. They appear to serve as non-deformable units that prevent hydrate structure failure, and thus are responsible for the strain-hardening phenomenon. PMID:27009239

  12. Aging and response conflict solution: Behavioural and functional connectivity changes

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Behrwind, Simone D.; Roski, Christian; Caspers, Svenja; Amunts, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging has been found associated with less efficient response conflict solution, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms remain elusive. In a two-experiment study, we first examined the behavioural consequences of this putative age-related decline for conflicts induced by spatial stimulus–response incompatibility. We then used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a large, independent sample of adults (n = 399; 18–85 years) to investigate age differences in functional connectivity between the nodes of a network previously found associated with incompatibility-induced response conflicts in the very same paradigm. As expected, overcoming interference from conflicting response tendencies took longer in older adults, even after accounting for potential mediator variables (general response speed and accuracy, motor speed, visuomotor coordination ability, and cognitive flexibility). Experiment 2 revealed selective age-related decreases in functional connectivity between bilateral anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Importantly, these age effects persisted after controlling for regional gray-matter atrophy assessed by voxel-based morphometry. Meta-analytic functional profiling using the BrainMap database showed these age-sensitive nodes to be more strongly linked to highly abstract cognition, as compared with the remaining network nodes, which in turn were more strongly linked to action-related processing. These findings indicate changes in interregional coupling with age among task-relevant network nodes that are not specifically associated with conflict resolution per se. Rather, our behavioural and neural data jointly suggest that healthy aging is associated with difficulties in properly activating non-dominant but relevant task schemata necessary to exert efficient cognitive control over action. PMID:24718622

  13. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  14. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  15. [The effect of daily exposure to low hardening temperature on plant vital activity].

    PubMed

    Markovskaia, E F; Sysoeva, M I; Sherudilo, E G

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological responses of plants to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature was studied under chamber and field conditions. Experiments were carried out on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), marigolds (Tagetes L.), and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants. The obtained data demonstrated a similar pattern of response in all studied plant species to different variants of exposure to low hardening temperature. The main features of plant response to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature include: a higher rate of increase in cold tolerance (cf. two- or threefold increase relative to constant low hardening temperature) that peaked on day 5 (cf. day 2 at constant low hardening temperature) and was maintained for 2 weeks (cf. 3-4 days at constant low hardening temperature); a simultaneous increase in heat tolerance (cf. twofold relative to constant low hardening temperature) maintained over a long period (cf. only in the beginning of the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a sharp drop in the subsequent cold tolerance after plant incubation in the dark (cf. a very low decrease in cold tolerance following the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a combination of high cold tolerance and high photochemical activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (cf. a low non-photochemical quenching at constant low hardening temperature); and the capacity to rapidly increase cold tolerance in response to repeated short-term exposures to low hardening temperature in plants grown outdoors (cf. a gradual increase after repeated exposure to constant low hardening temperature). Possible methods underlying the plant response to daily short-term exposure to low temperature are proposed.

  16. Vasodilatory responsiveness to adenosine triphosphate in ageing humans

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Brett S; Crecelius, Anne R; Voyles, Wyatt F; Dinenno, Frank A

    2010-01-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is reduced with advancing age in humans, as evidenced by blunted vasodilator responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh). Circulating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been implicated in the control of skeletal muscle vascular tone during mismatches in oxygen delivery and demand (e.g. exercise) via binding to purinergic receptors (P2Y) on the endothelium evoking subsequent vasodilatation, and ageing is typically associated with reductions in muscle blood flow under such conditions. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that ATP-mediated vasodilatation is impaired with age in healthy humans. We measured forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) and calculated vascular conductance (FVC) responses to local intra-arterial infusions of ACh, ATP, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before and during ascorbic acid (AA) infusion in 13 young and 13 older adults. The peak increase in FVC to ACh was significantly impaired in older compared with young adults (262 ± 71%vs. 618 ± 97%; P < 0.05), and this difference was abolished during AA infusion (510 ± 82%vs. 556 ± 71%; not significant, NS). In contrast, peak FVC responses were not different between older and young adults to either ATP (675 ± 105%vs. 734 ± 126%) or SNP (1116 ± 111%vs. 1138 ± 148%) and AA infusion did not alter these responses in either age group (both NS). In another group of six young and six older adults, we determined whether vasodilator responses to adenosine and ATP were influenced by P1-receptor blockade via aminophylline. The peak FVC responses to adenosine were not different in young (350 ± 65%) versus older adults (360 ± 80%), and aminophylline blunted these responses by ∼50% in both groups. The peak FVC responses to ATP were again not different in young and older adults, and aminophylline did not impact the vasodilatation in either group. Thus, in contrast to the observed impairments in ACh responses, the vasodilatory response to exogenous ATP is not

  17. Does age matter? The influence of age on response rates in a mixed-mode survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Dietsch, Alia

    2014-01-01

    The appeal of cost savings and faster results has fish and wildlife management agencies considering the use of Internet surveys instead of traditional mail surveys to collect information from their constituents. Internet surveys, however, may suffer from differential age-related response rates, potentially producing biased results if certain age groups respond to Internet surveys differently than they do to mail surveys. We examined this concern using data from a mixed-mode angler survey conducted in South Dakota following the 2011 fishing season. Results indicated that young anglers (16–18) had the lowest return rates and senior anglers (65+) had the highest, regardless of survey mode. Despite this consistency in response rates, we note two concerns: (a) lower Internet response rates and (b) different age groups represented by the Internet and mail survey samples differed dramatically. Findings indicate that constituent groups may be represented differently with the use of various survey modes.

  18. The aging mind: neuroplasticity in response to cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Park, Denise C; Bischof, Gérard N

    2013-03-01

    Is it possible to enhance neural and cognitive function with cognitive training techniques? Can we delay age-related decline in cognitive function with interventions and stave off Alzheimer's disease? Does an aged brain really have the capacity to change in response to stimulation? In the present paper, we consider the neuroplasticity of the aging brain, that is, the brain's ability to increase capacity in response to sustained experience. We argue that, although there is some neural deterioration that occurs with age, the brain has the capacity to increase neural activity and develop neural scaffolding to regulate cognitive function. We suggest that increase in neural volume in response to cognitive training or experience is a clear indicator of change, but that changes in activation in response to cognitive training may be evidence of strategy change rather than indicative of neural plasticity. We note that the effect of cognitive training is surprisingly durable over time, but that the evidence that training effects transfer to other cognitive domains is relatively limited. We review evidence which suggests that engagement in an environment that requires sustained cognitive effort may facilitate cognitive function.

  19. Improved impact toughness of 13Cr martensitic stainless steel hardened by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, L. W.; Chang, Y. M.; Torng, S.; Wu, H. C.

    2002-08-01

    The impact toughness of AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel plate and laser-hardened specimens tempered at various temperatures were examined. Phosphorus was the primary residual impurity responsible for tempered embrittlement of this alloy. The experimental result also indicated that AISI 403 stainless steel was very sensitive to reverse-temper embrittlement. The improved impact toughness of the laser-hardened specimen was attributed to the refined microstructure in the laser-hardened zone.

  20. PML-nuclear bodies decrease with age and their stress response is impaired in aged individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) have been depicted as structures which are involved in processing cell damages and DNA double-strand break repairs. The study was designed to evaluate differences in patients’ PML-NBs response to stress factors like a cancerous disease and ionizing radiation exposure dependent on age. Methods In order to clarify the role of PML-NBs in the aging process, we examined peripheral blood monocytes of 134 cancer patients and 41 healthy individuals between 22 and 92 years of age, both before and after in vitro irradiation. Additionally, we analyzed the samples of the cancer patients after in vivo irradiation. Cells were immunostained and about 1600 cells per individual were analyzed for the presence of PML- and γH2AX foci. Results The number of existing PML-NBs per nucleus declined with age, while the number of γH2AX foci increased with age. There was a non-significant trend that in vivo irradiation increased the number of PML-NBs in cells of young study participants, while in older individuals PML-NBs tended to decrease. It can be assumed that PML-NBs decrease in number during the process of aging. Conclusion The findings suggest that there is a dysfunctional PML-NBs stress response in aged cells. PMID:24694011

  1. Dynamic bake hardening of interstitial-free steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, K.; Jonas, J.J.

    2000-05-01

    Two types of dynamic strain aging (DSA) strengthening methods were investigated to determine their potentials for industrial use. They are referred to here as dynamic-static bake hardening (DSBH) and dynamic bake hardening (DBH). For this purpose, a 0.06 pct Ti interstitial-free (IF) steel was reheated to 900 C and cooled at 12 C/s to room temperature. It was then dynamically bake hardened in the temperature range 100 C to 250 C to strains of 2 to 8 pct at a strain rate of 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}. The tensile properties were determined before and after these treatments. It was found that the occurrence of DSA during dynamic baking led to significant increases in work-hardening rate as well as in the final strength. The results indicate that, for a given solute carbon level, the dynamically and then statically aged samples have higher strengths than those that are bake hardened in the conventional way.

  2. Mechanism of work hardening in Hadfield manganese steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastur, Y. N.; Leslie, W. C.

    1981-05-01

    When Hadfield manganese steel in the single-phase austenitic condition was strained in tension, in the temperature range - 25 to 300 °C, it exhibited jerky (serrated) flow, a negative (inverse) strain-rate dependence of flow stress and high work hardening, characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The strain rate-temperature regime of jerky flow was determined and the apparent activation energies for the appearance and disappearance of serrations were found to be 104 kJ/mol and 146 kJ/mol, respectively. The high work hardening cannot be a result of mechanical twinning because at -50 °C numerous twins were produced, but the work hardening was low and no twins were formed above 225 °C even though work hardening was high. The work hardening decreased above 300 °C because of the cessation of dynamic strain aging and increased again above 400 °C because of precipitation of carbides. An apparent activation energy of 138 kJ/mol was measured for static strain aging between 300 and 400 °C, corresponding closely to the activation energies for the disapperance of serrations and for the volume diffusion of carbon in Hadfield steel. Evidence from the present study, together with the known effect of manganese on the activity of carbon in austenite and previous internal friction studies of high-manganese steels, lead to the conclusion that dynamic strain aging, brought about by the reorientation of carbon members of C-Mn couples in the cores of dislocations, is the principal cause of rapid work hardening in Hadfield steel.

  3. A Critical Assessment of Cyclic Softening and Hardening Behavior in a Near- α Titanium Alloy During Thermomechanical Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Kartik; Sarkar, Rajdeep; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Sundararaman, M.

    2016-10-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of Ti-alloy Timetal 834 has been studied at two temperature intervals viz. 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) and 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) under mechanical strain-controlled cycling. Among the temperatures studied, the alloy exhibited initial cyclic softening followed by cyclic hardening at 723 K (450 °C) in the temperature interval of 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C). However, continuous cyclic hardening was observed at 723 K (450 °C) in 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C). At 573 K (300 °C) and 873 K (600 °C), cyclic softening was observed in the cyclic stress response curves in both the temperature intervals. The dislocation substructure was observed to be planar in both the modes of TMF loading. Based on TEM microstructures and few unconventional fatigue tests, the observed cyclic hardening is attributed to dynamic strain aging. The reduced fatigue life at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) under OP-TMF loading was attributed to the combined effect of cyclic hardening (leading to early strain localization and crack initiation), oxidation, and development of tensile mean stresses.

  4. Premature Aging in Skeletal Muscle Lacking Serum Response Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lahoute, Charlotte; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Favier, Marilyne; Guillet-Deniau, Isabelle; Charvet, Claude; Ferry, Arnaud; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Metzger, Daniel; Tuil, David; Daegelen, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor) is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process. PMID:19079548

  5. Empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Meyer, Esther; Prell, Daniel; Kachelriess, Marc

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Due to x-ray beam polychromaticity and scattered radiation, attenuation measurements tend to be underestimated. Cupping and beam hardening artifacts become apparent in the reconstructed CT images. If only one material such as water, for example, is present, these artifacts can be reduced by precorrecting the rawdata. Higher order beam hardening artifacts, as they result when a mixture of materials such as water and bone, or water and bone and iodine is present, require an iterative beam hardening correction where the image is segmented into different materials and those are forward projected to obtain new rawdata. Typically, the forward projection must correctly model the beam polychromaticity and account for all physical effects, including the energy dependence of the assumed materials in the patient, the detector response, and others. We propose a new algorithm that does not require any knowledge about spectra or attenuation coefficients and that does not need to be calibrated. The proposed method corrects beam hardening in single energy CT data. Methods: The only a priori knowledge entering EBHC is the segmentation of the object into different materials. Materials other than water are segmented from the original image, e.g., by using simple thresholding. Then, a (monochromatic) forward projection of these other materials is performed. The measured rawdata and the forward projected material-specific rawdata are monomially combined (e.g., multiplied or squared) and reconstructed to yield a set of correction volumes. These are then linearly combined and added to the original volume. The combination weights are determined to maximize the flatness of the new and corrected volume. EBHC is evaluated using data acquired with a modern cone-beam dual-source spiral CT scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), with a modern dual-source micro-CT scanner (TomoScope Synergy Twin, CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen, Germany), and with a modern

  6. Hardness variability in commercial and hardened technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, there have been a number of advances in methods to assess and assure the radiation hardness of microelectronics in military and space applications. At the forefront of these is the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology, in which the hardness of product is ``built-in`` through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to varying radiation scenarios. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the use of commercial technology -- with its enhanced performance, reduced cost, and higher reliability -- in military and space systems. In this paper, we initially demonstrate the application of QML techniques to assure and control the radiation response of hardened technologies. Through several examples, we demonstrate intra-die, wafer-to-wafer, and lot-to-lot variations in a hardened technology. We observe 10 to 30% variations in key technology parameters that result from variability in geometry, process, and design layout. Radiation-induced degradation is seen to mirror preirradiation characteristics. We then evaluate commercial technologies and report considerably higher variability in radiation hardness, i.e., variations by a factor of two to five. This variability is shown to arise from a lack of control of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, which a commercial manufacturer has no interest in controlling in a normal process flow.

  7. Hardness variability in commercial and hardened technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Winokur, P. S.; Meisenheimer, T. L.; Sexton, F. W.; Roeske, S. B.; Knoll, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there have been a number of advances in methods to assess and assure the radiation hardness of microelectronics in military and space applications. At the forefront of these is the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology, in which the hardness of product is 'built-in' through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to varying radiation scenarios. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the use of commercial technology -- with its enhanced performance, reduced cost, and higher reliability -- in military and space systems. In this paper, we initially demonstrate the application of QML techniques to assure and control the radiation response of hardened technologies. Through several examples, we demonstrate intra-die, wafer-to-wafer, and lot-to-lot variations in a hardened technology. We observe 10 to 30% variations in key technology parameters that result from variability in geometry, process, and design layout. Radiation-induced degradation is seen to mirror preirradiation characteristics. We then evaluate commercial technologies and report considerably higher variability in radiation hardness, i.e., variations by a factor of two to five. This variability is shown to arise from a lack of control of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, which a commercial manufacturer has no interest in controlling in a normal process flow.

  8. Age differences in responses to conflict in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark H; Kraus, Linda A; Capobianco, Sal

    2009-01-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) has been used successfully to explain age differences in interpersonal conflict behavior: older adults are generally less likely to engage in destructive responses, and more likely to employ nonconfrontational ones. However, this research has focused almost exclusively on conflict with intimates (spouses, family, friends), and has typically not examined conflict in the workplace. The present investigation uses behavior ratings made by bosses, peers, and subordinates of 2513 working adults to examine the association between age and workplace conflict behavior; more specifically, it tests three hypotheses generated from socioemotional selectivity theory. Consistent with predictions, raters generally agreed that older working adults were more likely to engage in nonconfrontational responses (yielding, delaying responding); also as expected, older and younger respondents did not consistently differ in their efforts to constructively solve conflict. Unexpectedly, little evidence was found that older adults engage in less active destructive behavior.

  9. High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.; Frazier, Donald O.; Adams, James H.; Johnson, Michael A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project endeavors to advance the current state-of-the-art in high-performance, radiation-hardened electronics and processors, ensuring successful performance of space systems required to operate within extreme radiation and temperature environments. Because RHESE is a project within the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), RHESE's primary customers will be the human and robotic missions being developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in partial fulfillment of the Vision for Space Exploration. Benefits are also anticipated for NASA's science missions to planetary and deep-space destinations. As a technology development effort, RHESE provides a broad-scoped, full spectrum of approaches to environmentally harden space electronics, including new materials, advanced design processes, reconfigurable hardware techniques, and software modeling of the radiation environment. The RHESE sub-project tasks are: SelfReconfigurable Electronics for Extreme Environments, Radiation Effects Predictive Modeling, Radiation Hardened Memory, Single Event Effects (SEE) Immune Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (SIRF), Radiation Hardening by Software, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), Reconfigurable Computing, Low Temperature Tolerant MEMS by Design, and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments. These nine sub-project tasks are managed by technical leads as located across five different NASA field centers, including Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The overall RHESE integrated project management responsibility resides with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Initial technology development emphasis within RHESE focuses on the hardening of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)s and Field Programmable Analog

  10. Life on the Hardened Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce Granville

    2012-01-01

    The many Coast Salish groups distributed on both sides of the United States-Canada border on the Pacific coast today face significant obstacles to cross the international border, and in some cases are denied passage or intimidated into not attempting to cross. The current situation regarding travel by Aboriginal people reflects the "hardening" of…

  11. Influence of Precipitation Hardening in Mg-Y-Nd on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, P.; Peters, R.; Mendis, C. L.; Müller, S.; Hort, N.

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation hardening is an effective strengthening mechanism to achieve high strength at moderate ductility in Mg-RE alloys. However, improved mechanical properties by precipitates that strengthen the alloy can affect corrosion rates as the finely dispersed particles are often more noble than the matrix. Biodegradable implant material should show a certain corrosion rate, but should be free of pitting, because wide and deep pits are notches that can cause higher stress concentration. WE43 has generally shown an acceptable biological response. In this study, a Mg-Y-Nd-Gd-Dy (WE32) alloy in extruded, solution and precipitation heat-treated conditions has been investigated. Solution heat treatment causes grain growth and strength loss. A rather short ageing response to peak hardness was observed, where peak hardening causes hardness values to exceed that of the initial extruded condition. Grain growth during ageing is not significant. Corrosion was evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization in Ringer Acetate solution. The highest corrosion rate was observed in the T4 condition. The peak aged alloy showed the most homogenous form of corrosion.

  12. Stressed stem cells: Temperature response in aged mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Sethe, Sebastian; Scutt, Andrew M

    2006-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from young (6 week) and aged (56 week) Wistar rats were cultured at standard (37 degrees C) and reduced (32 degrees C) temperature and compared for age markers and stress levels. (ROS, NO, TBARS, carbonyls, lipofuscin, SOD, GPx, apoptosis, proteasome activity) and heat shock proteins (HSP27, -60, -70, -90). Aged MSCs display many of the stress markers associated with aging in other cell types, but results vary across marker categories and are temperature dependant. In young MSCs, culturing at reduced temperature had a generally beneficial effect: the anti-apoptotic heat shock proteins HSP 27, HSP70, and HSP90 were up-regulated; pro-apoptotic HSP60 was downregulated; SOD, GPx increased; and levels in ROS, NO, TBARS, carbonyl, and lipofuscin were diminished. Apoptosis was reduced, but also proteasome activity. In contrast, in aged MSCs, culturing at reduced temperature generally produced no 'beneficial' changes in these parameters, and can even have detrimental effects. Implications for tissue engineering and for stem cell gerontology are discussed. The results suggest that a 'hormesis' theory of stress response can be extended to MSCs, but that cooling cultivation temperature stress produces positive effects in young cells only.

  13. Active Ageing in CIS Countries: Semantics, Challenges, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sidorenko, Alexandre; Zaidi, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Although the CIS countries are connected together by the legacy of breaking away from the Soviet Union, they have had a distinctive transition course and are rather diverse in terms of the population ageing challenges and policy responses in place. The commonality is that a comprehensive national strategy on ageing is lacking, and many of necessary reforms were put aside owing to political uncertainties, lack of societal consensus, and financial instability. The notion of active ageing is associated with the term “accelerated ageing,” which is understood to be an individual living a life under harsh living conditions or a society experiencing rapid increases in the relative number of older persons, and therefore it carries a negative connotation. Yet, in the same spirit as the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations 2012, the CIS countries have initiated sectoral programmes towards enhancing employment of older workers, social participation of older people in the society in a wider sense and also measures promoting health and independent living of older persons. PMID:23346109

  14. Deconstructing the hydrologic response: pattern and dynamics of water age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2013-04-01

    The water storage and release dynamics at the catchment scale are still incompletely understood. This is in particular true when considering actual particle transport rather than only the hydraulic response. The use of environmental tracers is frequently instructive for getting insights into these transport process patterns. However, the potential of tracers is frequently underexploited. Although known since the early days of tracer hydrology that the composition of water in the runoff, i.e. the water age distribution can be highly variable as a function of flow volumes, it is often treated as being time- and thus flow-invariant. Here we use long term (< 20 years) precipitation, flow and tracer (chloride) data of three contrasting upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands to inform integrated conceptual models. Using the models as virtual laboratories, water and tracer fluxes were tracked through the system in order to get a better understanding of the patterns and temporal, wetness induced dynamics in the composition of stream water and its age distributions. Tracking fluxes through the system showed that the various components of a model, representing individual flow processes, such as preferential or groundwater flow, can be characterized by fundamentally different water age distributions. As a consequence, the wetness dependent dynamics and connectivity patterns of these distinct pools of water are responsible for potentially fast and substantial switches in water age distributions. Further, modeled flux water age distributions were found to be highly sensitive to variable catchment wetness conditions and exhibited considerable hysteresis effects, depending on the catchment wetness history. While the water age during wetting-up conditions is controlled by fast processes (e.g. preferential flow), it is controlled by slow processes (e.g. groundwater flow) under drying-up conditions. This non-linearity is caused by the fact that water age distributions are not

  15. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marishka K.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum(ER) is a multifunctional organelle within which protein folding, lipid biosynthesis, and calcium storage occurs. Perturbations such as energy or nutrient depletion, disturbances in calcium or redox status that disrupt ER homeostasis lead to the misfolding of proteins, ER stress and up-regulation of several signaling pathways coordinately called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is characterized by the induction of chaperones, degradation of misfolded proteins and attenuation of protein translation. The UPR plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and thus is central to normal physiology. However, sustained unresolved ER stress leads to apoptosis. Aging linked declines in expression and activity of key ER molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the UPR. One mechanism to explain age associated declines in cellular functions and age-related diseases is a progressive failure of chaperoning systems. In many of these diseases, proteins or fragments of proteins convert from their normally soluble forms to insoluble fibrils or plaques that accumulate in a variety of organs including the liver, brain or spleen. This group of diseases, which typically occur late in life includes Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type II diabetes and a host of less well known but often equally serious conditions such as fatal familial insomnia. The UPR is implicated in many of these neurodegenerative and familial protein folding diseases as well as several cancers and a host of inflammatory diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis. This review will discuss age-related changes in the ER stress response and the role of the UPR in age-related diseases. PMID:22934019

  16. Cutaneous vascular responses and thermoregulation in relation to age.

    PubMed

    Khan, F; Spence, V A; Belch, J J

    1992-05-01

    1. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp and contralateral arm cold challenge were assessed in fingertip skin in relation to age and were correlated with vasoconstrictor ability during body cooling. The above relationship was also examined in diabetic patients in whom vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp and contralateral arm cold challenge had been shown previously to be markedly impaired. 2. Vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp and contralateral arm cold challenge, measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, were significantly reduced in the elderly group, although individual responses varied from normal to absent, and they also had a considerably greater variability as measured on three separate occasions than seen in young subjects. Discriminant analysis showed that, from each of three occasions, 65% of vasoconstrictor responses were abnormal in the elderly group. 3. Body cooling was performed by reducing the environmental temperature from 40 degrees C to 12 degrees C, and the time taken for blood flow to fall to 75%, 50% and 25% of the pre-cooling level (VC75, VC50, VC25, respectively) was calculated. Vasoconstriction was rapid in young subjects and was consistent with good vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp and contralateral arm cold challenge. In the elderly group, vasoconstriction was slower, but only the VC25 value differed significantly [elderly group, 13.3 (7.9-31.0) min, young group, 5.7 (2.7-15.5) min; median (interquartile range); P less than 0.05].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1317761

  17. Consequences of heat hardening on a field fitness component in Drosophila depend on environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Loeschcke, Volker; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-02-01

    Heat hardening increases thermal resistance to more extreme temperatures in the laboratory. However, heat hardening also has negative consequences, and the net benefit of hardening has not been evaluated in the field. We tested short-term heat hardening effects on the likelihood of Drosophila melanogaster to be caught at different temperatures at baits in field sites without natural resources. We predicted that hardened flies should be more frequently caught at the baits at high but not low temperatures. Under cool conditions, flies hardened at 36 degrees C, and to a lesser extent at 34 degrees C, were less frequently caught at baits than nonhardened flies a few hours after release, indicating a negative effect of hardening. In later captures, negative effects tended to disappear, particularly in males. Under warm conditions, there was an overall balance of negative and positive effects, though with a different temporal resolution. Under very hot conditions, when capture rates were low, there was a large benefit of hardening at 36 degrees C and 34 degrees C but not 33 degrees C. Finally, based on climatic records, the overall benefit of hardening in D. melanogaster is discussed as an evolved response to high temperatures occasionally experienced by organisms at some locations.

  18. Modeling sugarcane growth in response to age, insolation, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    How, K.T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a nonlinear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative values of insolation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, or for each crop period derived from weather observations near the test plots. The low R-square values indicate that the selected predictor variables could not account for a substantial proportion of the variations of cane yield and the models have limited predictive values. The nonlinear model is based on known functional relationships between growth and age, growth and insolation, and growth and maximum temperature. A mathematical expression that integrates the effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature is developed. The constant terms and coefficients of the equation are determined from the requirement that the model must produce results that are reasonable when compared with observed monthly elongation data. The nonlinear model is validated and tested using another set of data.

  19. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-02-14

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing-a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population-a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries' economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties.

  20. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-02-14

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing-a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population-a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries' economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. PMID:25468167

  1. Kinematic hardening in creep of Zircaloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedláček, Radan; Deuble, Dietmar

    2016-10-01

    Results of biaxial creep tests with stress changes on Zircaloy-2 tube samples are presented. A Hollomon-type viscoplastic strain hardening model is extended by the Armstrong-Frederic nonlinear kinematic hardening law, resulting in a mixed (i.e. isotropic and kinematic) strain hardening model. The creep tests with stress changes and similar tests published in the literature are simulated by the models. It is shown that introduction of the kinematic strain hardening in the viscoplastic strain hardening model is sufficient to describe the creep transients following stress drops, stress reversals and stress removals.

  2. Secondary hardening steel having improved combination of hardness and toughness

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.; Bhat, Manjeshwar S.; Garrison, Jr., Warren M.

    1979-01-01

    A secondary hardening alloy steel composition consisting essentially of about 0.25-0.5% carbon, about 0.5-1.0% manganese, about 1.5-3.0% nickel, about 0-1.0% chromium, about 1.75-2.5% molybdenum, about 0-0.4% vanadium, and an additive selected from about 1-3% aluminum and a combination of at least about 1% aluminum and at least about 1% silicon for a combined Al+Si content of about 2-4%, the balance being iron and impurity elements. The present steel composition has the following characteristics: it exhibits a flat tempering response, it is hardenable upon tempering to a Rockwell C hardness of at least 50, and it has an improved combination of hardness vs. toughness properties after tempering in the secondary hardening range. A method of preparation is also described.

  3. Surface Fatigue Resistance with Induction Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis; Turza, Alan; Chapman, Mike

    1996-01-01

    Induction hardening has been used for some years to harden the surface and improve the strength and service life of gears and other components. Many applications that employ induction hardening require a relatively long time to finish the hardening process and controlling the hardness of the surface layer and its depth often was a problem. Other surface hardening methods, ie., carbonizing, take a very long time and tend to cause deformations of the toothing, whose elimination requires supplementary finishing work. In double-frequency induction hardening, one uses a low frequency for the preheating of the toothed wheel and a much higher frequency for the purpose of rapidly heating the surface by way of surface hardening.

  4. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  5. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-01-01

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing—a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population—a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries’ economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. PMID:25468167

  6. Pulpal responses to cavity preparation in aged rat molars.

    PubMed

    Kawagishi, Eriko; Nakakura-Ohshima, Kuniko; Nomura, Shuichi; Ohshima, Hayato

    2006-10-01

    The dentin-pulp complex is capable of repair after tooth injuries including dental procedures. However, few data are available concerning aged changes in pulpal reactions to such injuries. The present study aimed to clarify the capability of defense in aged pulp by investigating the responses of odontoblasts and cells positive for class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to cavity preparation in aged rat molars (300-360 days) and by comparing the results with those in young adult rats (100 days). In untreated control teeth, immunoreactivity for intense heat-shock protein (HSP)-25 and nestin was found in odontoblasts, whereas class-II-MHC-positive cells were densely distributed in the periphery of the pulp. Cavity preparation caused two types of pulpal reactions based on the different extent of damage in the aged rats. In the case of severe damage, destruction of the odontoblast layer was conspicuous at the affected site. By 12 h after cavity preparation, numerous class-II-MHC-positive cells appeared along the pulp-dentin border but subsequently disappeared together with HSP-25-immunopositive cells, and finally newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells took the place of the degenerated odontoblasts and acquired immunoreactivity for HSP-25 and nestin by postoperative day 3. In the case of mild damage, no remarkable changes occurred in odontoblasts after operation, and some survived through the experimental stages. These findings indicate that aged pulp tissue still possesses a defense capacity, and that a variety of reactions can occur depending on the difference in the status of dentinal tubules and/or odontoblast processes in individuals.

  7. Dilatant hardening of fluid-saturated sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnenko, Roman Y.; Labuz, Joseph F.

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pore fluid in rock affects both the elastic and inelastic deformation processes, yet laboratory testing is typically performed on dry material even though in situ the rock is often saturated. Techniques were developed for testing fluid-saturated porous rock under the limiting conditions of drained, undrained, and unjacketed response. Confined compression experiments, both conventional triaxial and plane strain, were performed on water-saturated Berea sandstone to investigate poroelastic and inelastic behavior. Measured drained response was used to calibrate an elasto-plastic constitutive model that predicts undrained inelastic deformation. The experimental data show good agreement with the model: dilatant hardening in undrained triaxial and plane strain compression tests under constant mean stress was predicted and observed.

  8. Gingival wound healing: an essential response disturbed by aging?

    PubMed

    Smith, P C; Cáceres, M; Martínez, C; Oyarzún, A; Martínez, J

    2015-03-01

    Gingival wound healing comprises a series of sequential responses that allow the closure of breaches in the masticatory mucosa. This process is of critical importance to prevent the invasion of microbes or other agents into tissues, avoiding the establishment of a chronic infection. Wound healing may also play an important role during cell and tissue reaction to long-term injury, as it may occur during inflammatory responses and cancer. Recent experimental data have shown that gingival wound healing is severely affected by the aging process. These defects may alter distinct phases of the wound-healing process, including epithelial migration, granulation tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. The cellular and molecular defects that may explain these deficiencies include several biological responses such as an increased inflammatory response, altered integrin signaling, reduced growth factor activity, decreased cell proliferation, diminished angiogenesis, reduced collagen synthesis, augmented collagen remodeling, and deterioration of the proliferative and differentiation potential of stem cells. In this review, we explore the cellular and molecular basis of these defects and their possible clinical implications.

  9. Zinc and inflammatory/immune response in aging.

    PubMed

    Vasto, Sonya; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Malavolta, Marco; Cuppari, Irene; Listì, Florinda; Nuzzo, Domenico; Ditta, Vito; Candore, Giuseppina; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-04-01

    Life-long antigenic burden determines a condition of chronic inflammation, with increased lymphocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. A large number of studies have documented changes in zinc metabolism in experimental animal models of acute and chronic inflammation and in human chronic inflammatory conditions. In particular, modification of zinc plasma concentration, as well as intracellular disturbance of antioxidant intracellular pathways, has been found in aging and in some age-related diseases. Zinc deficiency is diffused in aged individuals in order to avoid meat and other high zinc content foods due to fear of cholesterol. Rather, they increase the consumption of refined wheat products that lack zinc and other critical nutrients as a consequence of the refining process. On the other hand, plasma zinc concentration is influenced by proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) and by metallothioneins (MT) homeostasis, which is in turn affected by proinflammatory cytokines. MT increase in aging and chronic inflammation allowing a continuous sequestration of intracellular zinc with subsequent low zinc ion availability against stressor agents and inflammation. This phenomenon leads to an impaired inflammatory/immune response in the elderly. A major target of zinc is NF-kappaB, a transcription factor critical for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines whose production is regulated by extra- and intracellular activating and inhibiting factors interacting with the regulatory elements on cytokine genes. Effects of zinc on translocation of NF-kappaB have been attributed to the suppression of phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitory proteins (A20) that normally sequester it in the cytoplasm. Moreover, this factor and A20 are regulated by specific genes involved in inflammation and by intracellular zinc ion availability. So, it is not so surprising that zinc deficiency is constantly observed in chronic inflammation, such as in old

  10. Zinc and inflammatory/immune response in aging.

    PubMed

    Vasto, Sonya; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Malavolta, Marco; Cuppari, Irene; Listì, Florinda; Nuzzo, Domenico; Ditta, Vito; Candore, Giuseppina; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-04-01

    Life-long antigenic burden determines a condition of chronic inflammation, with increased lymphocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. A large number of studies have documented changes in zinc metabolism in experimental animal models of acute and chronic inflammation and in human chronic inflammatory conditions. In particular, modification of zinc plasma concentration, as well as intracellular disturbance of antioxidant intracellular pathways, has been found in aging and in some age-related diseases. Zinc deficiency is diffused in aged individuals in order to avoid meat and other high zinc content foods due to fear of cholesterol. Rather, they increase the consumption of refined wheat products that lack zinc and other critical nutrients as a consequence of the refining process. On the other hand, plasma zinc concentration is influenced by proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) and by metallothioneins (MT) homeostasis, which is in turn affected by proinflammatory cytokines. MT increase in aging and chronic inflammation allowing a continuous sequestration of intracellular zinc with subsequent low zinc ion availability against stressor agents and inflammation. This phenomenon leads to an impaired inflammatory/immune response in the elderly. A major target of zinc is NF-kappaB, a transcription factor critical for the expression of proinflammatory cytokines whose production is regulated by extra- and intracellular activating and inhibiting factors interacting with the regulatory elements on cytokine genes. Effects of zinc on translocation of NF-kappaB have been attributed to the suppression of phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitory proteins (A20) that normally sequester it in the cytoplasm. Moreover, this factor and A20 are regulated by specific genes involved in inflammation and by intracellular zinc ion availability. So, it is not so surprising that zinc deficiency is constantly observed in chronic inflammation, such as in old

  11. Earthworm metabolomic responses after exposure to aged PCB contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Zeeb, Barbara A; Rutter, Allison

    2012-10-01

    (1)H NMR metabolomics was used to measure earthworm sub-lethal responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically contaminated (>30 years) soils (91-280 mg/kg Aroclor 1254/1260) after two and 14 days of exposure. Although our previous research detected a distinct earthworm metabolic response to PCBs in freshly spiked soil at lower concentrations (0.5-25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254), the results of this study suggest only weak or non-significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles and soil PCB concentrations. This concurs with the expectation that decades of contaminant aging have likely decreased PCB bioavailability and toxicity in the field. Instead of being influenced by soil contaminant concentration, earthworm metabolic profiles were more closely correlated to soil properties such as total soil carbon and soil inorganic carbon. Overall, these results suggested that (1)H NMR metabolomics may be capable of detecting both site specific responses and decreased contaminant bioavailability to earthworms after only two days of exposure, whereas traditional toxicity tests require much more time (e.g. 14 days for acute toxicity and >50 days for reproduction tests). Therefore, there is significant opportunity to develop earthworm metabolomics as a sensitive tool for rapid assessment of the toxicity associated with contaminated field soils.

  12. Effects of Age on Temperature Responses During Exposure to Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, C.K.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Wang, T. J.; Yuan, F.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Wade, C. E.; Dalfan, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rats subjected to centrifugation show a marked decrease in body temperature relating to gravity level. Several studies have indicated, that an initial response to centrifugation is followed by acclimation. To test for differences between young (Y; 2 months) and mature (M; 8 months) rats in their response in temperature, both groups were exposed to hypergravity induced by centrifugation. Thirty-six male rats were divided into four groups according to age and G-load (control (1.0G-Y and 1.0G-M), 2.0G-Y or 2.0G-M) and were housed in pairs in standard vivarium cages. During the 7-day period of centrifugation, temperature was measured every five minutes by surgically implanted telemeters. Body mass was measured daily. We found that initial body temperature in 2.0G-M was less than that of 2.0G-Y. Both hypergravity groups (2.0G-Y and 2.0G-M) showed a decrease in temperature at the onset of centrifugation, and the change in temperature (Delta = 0.5 C) remained the same between the groups. Significant differences persisted with 2.0G-Y recovering to control values in four days and 2.0G-M recovering in five days. These results indicate that the mature animals have a similar response as the younger animals, but take longer to acclimate.

  13. DISPERSION HARDENING OF URANIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Arbiter, W.

    1963-01-15

    A method of hardening U metal involves the forming of a fine dispersion of UO/sub 2/. This method consists of first hydriding the U to form a finely divided powder and then exposing the powder to a very dilute O gas in an inert atmosphere under such pressure and temperature conditions as to cause a thin oxide film to coat each particle of the U hydride, The oxide skin prevents agglomeration of the particles as the remaining H is removed, thus preserving the small particle size. The oxide skin coatings remain as an oxide dispersion. The resulting product may be workhardened to improve its physical characteristics. (AEC)

  14. Radiation Hardened Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project consists of a series of tasks designed to develop and mature a broad spectrum of radiation hardened and low temperature electronics technologies. Three approaches are being taken to address radiation hardening: improved material hardness, design techniques to improve radiation tolerance, and software methods to improve radiation tolerance. Within these approaches various technology products are being addressed including Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA), MEMS Serial Processors, Reconfigurable Processors, and Parallel Processors. In addition to radiation hardening, low temperature extremes are addressed with a focus on material and design approaches.

  15. Energy-Efficient Thermomagnetic and Induction Hardening

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will develop and test a hybrid thermomagnetic and induction hardening technology to replace conventional heat treatment processes in forging applications.

  16. COSMIC-RAY HELIUM HARDENING

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka; Ioka, Kunihito

    2011-03-01

    Recent observations by the CREAM and ATIC-2 experiments suggest that (1) the spectrum of cosmic-ray (CR) helium is harder than that of CR protons below the knee energy, 10{sup 15}eV, and (2) all CR spectra become hard at {approx}>10{sup 11}eV nucleon{sup -1}. We propose a new idea, that higher energy CRs are generated in a more helium-rich region, to explain the hardening without introducing different sources for CR helium. The helium-to-proton ratio at {approx}100 TeV exceeds the Big Bang abundance Y = 0.25 by several times, and the different spectrum is not reproduced within the diffusive shock acceleration theory. We argue that CRs are produced in a chemically enriched region, such as a superbubble, and the outward-decreasing abundance naturally leads to the hard spectrum of CR helium if CRs escape from the supernova remnant shock in an energy-dependent way. We provide a simple analytical spectrum that also fits well the hardening due to the decreasing Mach number in the hot superbubble with {approx}10{sup 6} K. Our model predicts hard and concave spectra for heavier CR elements.

  17. On the Precipitation Hardening of Selective Laser Melted AlSi10Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulkhair, Nesma T.; Tuck, Chris; Ashcroft, Ian; Maskery, Ian; Everitt, Nicola M.

    2015-08-01

    Precipitation hardening of selective laser melted AlSi10Mg was investigated in terms of solution heat treatment and aging duration. The influence on the microstructure and hardness was established, as was the effect on the size and density of Si particles. Although the hardness changes according to the treatment duration, the maximum hardening effect falls short of the hardness of the as-built parts with their characteristic fine microstructure. This is due to the difference in strengthening mechanisms.

  18. Improved hardening theory for cyclic plasticity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Armstrong, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A temperature-dependent version of a combined hardening theory, including isotropic and kinematic hardening, is presented within the framework of recent plasticity formulations. This theory has been found to be especially useful in finite-element analysis of aerospace vehicle engines under conditions of large plastic strain and low-cycle fatigue.

  19. Age alters the cardiovascular response to direct passive heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minson, C. T.; Wladkowski, S. L.; Cardell, A. F.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Kenney, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    During direct passive heating in young men, a dramatic increase in skin blood flow is achieved by a rise in cardiac output (Qc) and redistribution of flow from the splanchnic and renal vascular beds. To examine the effect of age on these responses, seven young (Y; 23 +/- 1 yr) and seven older (O; 70 +/- 3 yr) men were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), Qc (by acetylene rebreathing), central venous pressure (via peripherally inserted central catheter), blood pressures (by brachial auscultation), skin blood flow (from increases in forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography), splanchnic blood flow (by indocyanine green clearance), renal blood flow (by p-aminohippurate clearance), and esophageal and mean skin temperatures. Qc was significantly lower in the older than in the young men (11.1 +/- 0.7 and 7.4 +/- 0.2 l/min in Y and O, respectively, at the limit of thermal tolerance; P < 0. 05), despite similar increases in esophageal and mean skin temperatures and time to reach the limit of thermal tolerance. A lower stroke volume (99 +/- 7 and 68 +/- 4 ml/beat in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05), most likely due to an attenuated increase in inotropic function during heating, was the primary factor for the lower Qc observed in the older men. Increases in HR were similar in the young and older men; however, when expressed as a percentage of maximal HR, the older men relied on a greater proportion of their chronotropic reserve to obtain the same HR response (62 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 4% maximal HR in Y and O, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the older men redistributed less blood flow from the combined splanchnic and renal circulations at the limit of thermal tolerance (960 +/- 80 and 720 +/- 100 ml/min in Y and O, respectively, P < 0. 05). As a result of these combined attenuated responses, the older men had a significantly lower increase in total blood flow directed to

  20. Encouraging Responsible Aging through Pedagogy: The Future Self Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Julie L.; Holley, Lyn M.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory gerontology courses have the potential to enhance student appreciation of aging issues. The effectiveness of such courses for informing views about individual aging is little studied. This study, using a quasi-experimental design, examines the impact of participation in an introductory course in aging on 158 undergraduate students in…

  1. Nanoscale characterization of the biomechanical hardening of bovine zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Frassanito, Maria Cristina; Lamberti, Luciano; Brunelli, Roberto; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Monaci, Maurizio; Papi, Massimiliano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Parasassi, Tiziana; Sylla, Lakamy; Ursini, Fulvio; De Spirito, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular membrane surrounding mammalian oocytes. The so-called zona hardening plays a key role in fertilization process, as it blocks polyspermy, which may also be caused by an increase in the mechanical stiffness of the ZP membrane. However, structural reorganization mechanisms leading to ZP's biomechanical hardening are not fully understood yet. Furthermore, a correct estimate of the elastic properties of the ZP is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of ZP membranes extracted from mature and fertilized bovine oocytes to better understand the mechanisms involved in the structural reorganization of the ZP that may lead to the biomechanical hardening of the ZP. For that purpose, a hybrid procedure is developed by combining atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements, nonlinear finite element analysis and nonlinear optimization. The proposed approach allows us to determine the biomechanical properties of the ZP more realistically than the classical analysis based on Hertz's contact theory, as it accounts for the nonlinearity of finite indentation process, hyperelastic behaviour and material heterogeneity. Experimental results show the presence of significant biomechanical hardening induced by the fertilization process. By comparing various hyperelastic constitutive models, it is found that the Arruda-Boyce eight-chain model best describes the biomechanical response of the ZP. Fertilization leads to an increase in the degree of heterogeneity of membrane elastic properties. The Young modulus changes sharply within a superficial layer whose thickness is related to the characteristic distance between cross-links in the ZP filamentous network. These findings support the hypothesis that biomechanical hardening of bovine ZP is caused by an increase in the number of inter-filaments cross-links whose density should be higher in the ZP inner side.

  2. Nanoscale characterization of the biomechanical hardening of bovine zona pellucida

    PubMed Central

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Frassanito, Maria Cristina; Lamberti, Luciano; Brunelli, Roberto; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Monaci, Maurizio; Papi, Massimiliano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Parasassi, Tiziana; Sylla, Lakamy; Ursini, Fulvio; De Spirito, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular membrane surrounding mammalian oocytes. The so-called zona hardening plays a key role in fertilization process, as it blocks polyspermy, which may also be caused by an increase in the mechanical stiffness of the ZP membrane. However, structural reorganization mechanisms leading to ZP's biomechanical hardening are not fully understood yet. Furthermore, a correct estimate of the elastic properties of the ZP is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of ZP membranes extracted from mature and fertilized bovine oocytes to better understand the mechanisms involved in the structural reorganization of the ZP that may lead to the biomechanical hardening of the ZP. For that purpose, a hybrid procedure is developed by combining atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements, nonlinear finite element analysis and nonlinear optimization. The proposed approach allows us to determine the biomechanical properties of the ZP more realistically than the classical analysis based on Hertz's contact theory, as it accounts for the nonlinearity of finite indentation process, hyperelastic behaviour and material heterogeneity. Experimental results show the presence of significant biomechanical hardening induced by the fertilization process. By comparing various hyperelastic constitutive models, it is found that the Arruda–Boyce eight-chain model best describes the biomechanical response of the ZP. Fertilization leads to an increase in the degree of heterogeneity of membrane elastic properties. The Young modulus changes sharply within a superficial layer whose thickness is related to the characteristic distance between cross-links in the ZP filamentous network. These findings support the hypothesis that biomechanical hardening of bovine ZP is caused by an increase in the number of inter-filaments cross-links whose density should be higher in the ZP inner side. PMID:22675161

  3. Nanoscale characterization of the biomechanical hardening of bovine zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Frassanito, Maria Cristina; Lamberti, Luciano; Brunelli, Roberto; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Monaci, Maurizio; Papi, Massimiliano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Parasassi, Tiziana; Sylla, Lakamy; Ursini, Fulvio; De Spirito, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular membrane surrounding mammalian oocytes. The so-called zona hardening plays a key role in fertilization process, as it blocks polyspermy, which may also be caused by an increase in the mechanical stiffness of the ZP membrane. However, structural reorganization mechanisms leading to ZP's biomechanical hardening are not fully understood yet. Furthermore, a correct estimate of the elastic properties of the ZP is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of ZP membranes extracted from mature and fertilized bovine oocytes to better understand the mechanisms involved in the structural reorganization of the ZP that may lead to the biomechanical hardening of the ZP. For that purpose, a hybrid procedure is developed by combining atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements, nonlinear finite element analysis and nonlinear optimization. The proposed approach allows us to determine the biomechanical properties of the ZP more realistically than the classical analysis based on Hertz's contact theory, as it accounts for the nonlinearity of finite indentation process, hyperelastic behaviour and material heterogeneity. Experimental results show the presence of significant biomechanical hardening induced by the fertilization process. By comparing various hyperelastic constitutive models, it is found that the Arruda-Boyce eight-chain model best describes the biomechanical response of the ZP. Fertilization leads to an increase in the degree of heterogeneity of membrane elastic properties. The Young modulus changes sharply within a superficial layer whose thickness is related to the characteristic distance between cross-links in the ZP filamentous network. These findings support the hypothesis that biomechanical hardening of bovine ZP is caused by an increase in the number of inter-filaments cross-links whose density should be higher in the ZP inner side. PMID:22675161

  4. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  5. Another set of responses and correlated responses to selection on age at reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Partridge, L; Prowse, N; Pignatelli, P

    1999-02-01

    Ageing is the decline in survival probability and fertility later in adult life. It can evolve through mutation accumulation and pleiotropy. Artificial selection by age at reproduction is a useful method for detecting the effects of pleiotropy, and for producing lines that differ in their rate of ageing for further analysis. However, the approach has encountered difficulties from gene-environment interaction and inadvertent selection. We have produced a new set of selection lines in Drosophila melanogaster, breeding from either 'young' or 'old' adults, and avoiding some of the difficulties present in previous studies. Breeding from older adults resulted in an evolutionary increase in survival but, contrary to all previous studies using this method, in no increase in late-life fertility. The increase in survival was accompanied by an evolutionary decline in fertility early in adult life, confirming the importance of pleiotropy in the evolution of ageing. Contrary to previous studies, there were no correlated responses to selection in the pre-adult period; development time, larval competitive ability and adult size achieved did not differ between the lines from the two selection regimes.

  6. Monitoring of hardening and hygroscopic induced strains in a calcium phosphate bone cement using FBG sensor.

    PubMed

    Bimis, A; Karalekas, D; Bouropoulos, N; Mouzakis, D; Zaoutsos, S

    2016-07-01

    This study initially deals with the investigation of the induced strains during hardening stage of a self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement using fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors. A complementary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation was also conducted at different time intervals of the hardening period and its findings were related to the FBG recordings. From the obtained results, it is demonstrated that the FBG response is affected by the microstructural changes taking place when the bone cement is immersed into the hardening liquid media. Subsequently, the FBG sensor was used to monitor the absorption process and hygroscopic response of the hardened and dried biocement when exposed to a liquid/humid environment. From the FBG-based calculated hygric strains as a function of moisture concentration, the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the examined bone cement was obtained, exhibiting two distinct linear regions.

  7. Monitoring of hardening and hygroscopic induced strains in a calcium phosphate bone cement using FBG sensor.

    PubMed

    Bimis, A; Karalekas, D; Bouropoulos, N; Mouzakis, D; Zaoutsos, S

    2016-07-01

    This study initially deals with the investigation of the induced strains during hardening stage of a self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement using fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors. A complementary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation was also conducted at different time intervals of the hardening period and its findings were related to the FBG recordings. From the obtained results, it is demonstrated that the FBG response is affected by the microstructural changes taking place when the bone cement is immersed into the hardening liquid media. Subsequently, the FBG sensor was used to monitor the absorption process and hygroscopic response of the hardened and dried biocement when exposed to a liquid/humid environment. From the FBG-based calculated hygric strains as a function of moisture concentration, the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the examined bone cement was obtained, exhibiting two distinct linear regions. PMID:26807773

  8. SKN-1/Nrf, stress responses, and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, T Keith; Steinbaugh, Michael J; Hourihan, John M; Ewald, Collin Y; Isik, Meltem

    2015-11-01

    The mammalian Nrf/CNC proteins (Nrf1, Nrf2, Nrf3, p45 NF-E2) perform a wide range of cellular protective and maintenance functions. The most thoroughly described of these proteins, Nrf2, is best known as a regulator of antioxidant and xenobiotic defense, but more recently has been implicated in additional functions that include proteostasis and metabolic regulation. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which offers many advantages for genetic analyses, the Nrf/CNC proteins are represented by their ortholog SKN-1. Although SKN-1 has diverged in aspects of how it binds DNA, it exhibits remarkable functional conservation with Nrf/CNC proteins in other species and regulates many of the same target gene families. C. elegans may therefore have considerable predictive value as a discovery model for understanding how mammalian Nrf/CNC proteins function and are regulated in vivo. Work in C. elegans indicates that SKN-1 regulation is surprisingly complex and is influenced by numerous growth, nutrient, and metabolic signals. SKN-1 is also involved in a wide range of homeostatic functions that extend well beyond the canonical Nrf2 function in responses to acute stress. Importantly, SKN-1 plays a central role in diverse genetic and pharmacologic interventions that promote C. elegans longevity, suggesting that mechanisms regulated by SKN-1 may be of conserved importance in aging. These C. elegans studies predict that mammalian Nrf/CNC protein functions and regulation may be similarly complex and that the proteins and processes that they regulate are likely to have a major influence on mammalian life- and healthspan. PMID:26232625

  9. [Very old age in an ageing society. Theoretical challenges, empirical problems and sociopolitical responsibilities].

    PubMed

    Motel-Klingebiel, A; Ziegelmann, J P; Wiest, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on very old age as a challenge for ageing theory, as an empirical problem and as a scope for social policy and it introduces the contributions of the special issue "Very old age in an ageing society". Especially the need for (re-)integration of the life-phases of young and old age is discussed from the position of social and behavioural ageing research. While reaching very old age is an increasingly normal life-event, and thus there is an increasing need for knowledge, there is currently only limited knowledge about it. It is particularly the diversity and inequality within old and very old age and the pathways into latest life that needs to be targeted. Finally, normative patterns and biographical outlines of this increasingly important phase of life need to be developed.

  10. Outsourcing Memory in Response to an Aging Population.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael; Schryer, Emily

    2015-11-01

    With baby boomers entering old age and longevity increasing, policymakers have focused on the physical, social, and health needs of older persons. We urge policymakers to consider cognitive aging as well, particularly normal, age-related memory decline. Psychological scientists attribute memory decline mainly to cognitive overload stemming from age-related reductions in sensory capacities, speed of cognitive processing, and the ability to filter out irrelevant information. Even in the absence of decline, however, memory is imperfect and forgetting can be especially consequential for older adults. For example, forgetting to take prescription medicines is an age-related problem largely because older adults tend to ingest many more prescription drugs. We propose that policymakers focus on increasing environmental support for memory that can reduce the burden on cognitive resources and thus improve recall. In providing environmental support, policymakers need to pay careful attention to potential age-related changes in physical and cognitive capacity, as well as behavior.

  11. Auditory Brainstem Responses from Children Three Months to Three Years of Age: Normal Patterns of Response II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorga, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in 535 children from 3 months to 3 years of age. Results suggested that changes in wave V latency with age are due to central (neural) factors and that age-appropriate norms should be used in evaluations of ABR latencies in children. (Author/DB)

  12. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  13. Radiation-hardened asphaltite composites

    SciTech Connect

    Persinen, A.A.; Trubyatchinskaya, V.N.; Tolmacheva, T.P.

    1981-07-20

    A method is proposed for the production of an asphaltite block material with good physical and mechanical properties. The composite contains epoxide resin, acrylic acid, and asphaltite and radiation or radiation - thermal hardening was used. ED-16 epoxide resin with 490 molecular weight and 17.6% epoxide groups or EBF-23 epoxide resin produced from water-soluble shale phenols with 750 to 800 molecular weight and 21 to 22% epoxide groups was used as the epoxide resin. Analysis of the IR spectra showed that a rapid reaction of acrylic acid with epoxide resin occurs upon the action of ionizing radiation. The mechanical testing showed that the uniform samples obtained had rather high strength and hardness; high heat resistance and low water absorption was noted. The composites are chemically resistant towards concentrated HCl, water, acetone, and benzene. The studies indicated cross-linking occurs as a consequence of the reaction of the epoxide ring with acrylic acid. Asphaltite adds by means of the short alkyl substituents and guinoid structures. 4 tables. (DP)

  14. Aging and demographic plasticity in response to experimental age structures in honeybees (Apis mellifera L).

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Linford, Robyn; Gardner, Preston; Coleman, Jennifer; Fine, Kari

    2008-08-01

    Honeybee colonies are highly integrated functional units characterized by a pronounced division of labor. Division of labor among workers is mainly age-based, with younger individuals focusing on in-hive tasks and older workers performing the more hazardous foraging activities. Thus, experimental disruption of the age composition of the worker hive population is expected to have profound consequences for colony function. Adaptive demography theory predicts that the natural hive age composition represents a colony-level adaptation and thus results in optimal hive performance. Alternatively, the hive age composition may be an epiphenomenon, resulting from individual life history optimization. We addressed these predictions by comparing individual worker longevity and brood production in hives that were composed of a single age cohort, two distinct age cohorts, and hives that had a continuous, natural age distribution. Four experimental replicates showed that colonies with a natural age composition did not consistently have a higher life expectancy and/or brood production than the single cohort or double cohort hives. Instead, a complex interplay of age structure, environmental conditions, colony size, brood production, and individual mortality emerged. A general trade-off between worker life expectancy and colony productivity was apparent, and the transition from in-hive tasks to foraging was the most significant predictor of worker lifespan irrespective of the colony age structure. We conclude that the natural age structure of honeybee hives is not a colony-level adaptation. Furthermore, our results show that honeybees exhibit pronounced demographic plasticity in addition to behavioral plasticity to react to demographic disturbances of their societies.

  15. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  16. Process for hardening the surface of polymers

    DOEpatents

    Mansur, L.K.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-07-14

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them is generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface and improved wear resistance. 1 figure.

  17. Extraordinary strain hardening by gradient structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, XiaoLei; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Liu; Yuan, Fuping; Zhu, Yuntian T

    2014-05-20

    Gradient structures have evolved over millions of years through natural selection and optimization in many biological systems such as bones and plant stems, where the structures change gradually from the surface to interior. The advantage of gradient structures is their maximization of physical and mechanical performance while minimizing material cost. Here we report that the gradient structure in engineering materials such as metals renders a unique extra strain hardening, which leads to high ductility. The grain-size gradient under uniaxial tension induces a macroscopic strain gradient and converts the applied uniaxial stress to multiaxial stresses due to the evolution of incompatible deformation along the gradient depth. Thereby the accumulation and interaction of dislocations are promoted, resulting in an extra strain hardening and an obvious strain hardening rate up-turn. Such extraordinary strain hardening, which is inherent to gradient structures and does not exist in homogeneous materials, provides a hitherto unknown strategy to develop strong and ductile materials by architecting heterogeneous nanostructures.

  18. Process for hardening the surface of polymers

    DOEpatents

    Mansur, Louis K.; Lee, Eal H.

    1992-01-01

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them is generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface and improved wear resistance.

  19. Fatigue hardening in niobium single crystals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doner, M.; Diprimio, J. C.; Salkovitz, E. I.

    1973-01-01

    Nb single crystals of various orientations were cyclically deformed in tension-compression under strain control. At low strain amplitudes all crystals oriented for single slip and some oriented for multiple slip showed a two stage hardening. When present, the first stage was characterized with almost no cyclic work hardening. The rate of hardening in the second stage increased with strain amplitude and the amount of secondary slip. In crystals oriented for single slip kink bands developed on their side faces during rapid hardening stage which resulted in considerable amount of asterism in Laue spots. A cyclic stress-strain curve independent of prior history was found to exist which was also independent of crystal orientation. Furthermore, this curve differed only slightly from that of polycrystalline Nb obtained from data in literature.

  20. Study on the limited hardenability steel

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.P.; Li, L.; Min, Y.A.; Xu, M.H.; Le, J.P.; Liu, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    A series of measurements were taken in the limited hardenability bearing steel rings which were induction hardened and tempered. Measurements showed several features which strengthened the rings: (1) Compressive residual stress are generated from surface to a depth of 3.2 mm and high residual compressive stress at the location where fatigue fracture initiates. (2) The matrix of the hardened layer was composed mainly of lath martensite with dispersed carbides whose formula was Me{sub 3} according to the X-ray spectrum analysis. The carbon content of martensite was estimated to be lower than 0.58% (by weight). The core was constituted of troostite transformed from spheroidal carbide. (3) The amount of retained austenite in the hardened layer was about 5% (in volume) which ensures the high dimensional stability of bearing.

  1. 7 CFR 58.641 - Hardening and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hardening and storage. 58.641 Section 58.641... Procedures § 58.641 Hardening and storage. Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended container it shall be placed in a hardening tunnel or hardening room to continue the freezing process....

  2. 7 CFR 58.641 - Hardening and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hardening and storage. 58.641 Section 58.641... Procedures § 58.641 Hardening and storage. Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended container it shall be placed in a hardening tunnel or hardening room to continue the freezing process....

  3. 7 CFR 58.641 - Hardening and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardening and storage. 58.641 Section 58.641... Procedures § 58.641 Hardening and storage. Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended container it shall be placed in a hardening tunnel or hardening room to continue the freezing process....

  4. 7 CFR 58.641 - Hardening and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hardening and storage. 58.641 Section 58.641... Procedures § 58.641 Hardening and storage. Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended container it shall be placed in a hardening tunnel or hardening room to continue the freezing process....

  5. 7 CFR 58.641 - Hardening and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardening and storage. 58.641 Section 58.641... Procedures § 58.641 Hardening and storage. Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended container it shall be placed in a hardening tunnel or hardening room to continue the freezing process....

  6. [Beam hardening correction method for X-ray computed tomography based on subsection beam hardening curves].

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui-dong; Zhang, Ding-hua

    2009-09-01

    After researching the forming principle of X-ray beam hardening and analyzing the usual methods of beam hardening correction, a beam hardening correction model was established, in which the independent variable was the projection gray, and so the computing difficulties in beam hardening correction can be reduced. By considering the advantage and disadvantage of fitting beam hardening curve to polynomial, a new expression method of the subsection beam hardening curves based on polynomial was proposed. In the method, the beam hardening data were fitted firstly to a polynomial curve which traverses the coordinate origin, then whether the got polynomial curve surged in the fore-part or back-part of the fitting range was judged based on the polynomial curvature change. If the polynomial fitting curve surged, the power function curve was applied to replace the surging parts of the polynomial curve, and the C1 continuity was ensured at the joints of the segment curves. The experimental results of computed tomography (CT) simulation show that the method is well stable in the beam hardening correction for the ideal CT images and CT images with added noises, and can mostly remove the beam hardening artifact at the same time.

  7. Decline in Radiation Hardened Microcircuit Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Two areas of radiation hardened microcircuit infrastructure will be discussed: 1) The availability and performance of radiation hardened microcircuits, and, and 2) The access to radiation test facilities primarily for proton single event effects (SEE) testing. Other areas not discussed, but are a concern include: The challenge for maintaining radiation effects tool access for assurance purposes, and, the access to radiation test facilities primarily for heavy ion single event effects (SEE) testing. Status and implications will be discussed for each area.

  8. Transmission and scanning electron microscope study on the secondary cyclic hardening behavior of interstitial-free steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Chia-Chang; Ho, New-Jin; Huang, Hsing-Lu

    2009-11-15

    Strain controlled fatigue experiment was employed to evaluate automotive grade interstitial-free ferrite steel. Hundreds of grains were examined by scanning electron microscope under electron channeling contrast image technique of backscattered electron image mode for comprehensive comparison of micrographs with those taken under transmission electron microscope. The cyclic stress responses clearly revealed that rapid hardening occurs at the early stage of cycling as a result of multiplication of dislocations to develop loop patches, dipolar walls and dislocation cells at various total strain amplitudes. After primary rapid hardening, stress responses varied from being saturated to further hardening according to dislocation structure evolution at various strain amplitudes. The fatigue failure was always accompanied with further hardening including secondary hardening. The corresponding dislocation structures with the three types of hardening behaviors are discussed. Once the secondary hardening starts, dislocation cells began to develop along grain boundaries in the low strain region and then extended into grain interiors as strain amplitudes increased and cycling went on. The secondary hardening rates were found to be directly proportional to their strain amplitudes.

  9. Laser Surface Hardening of AISI 1045 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruifeng; Jin, Yajuan; Li, Zhuguo; Qi, Kai

    2014-09-01

    The study investigates laser surface hardening in the AISI 1045 steel using two different types of industrial laser: a high-power diode laser (HPDL) and a CO2 laser, respectively. The effect of process parameters such as beam power, travel speed on structure, case depth, and microhardness was examined. In most cases, a heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed below the surface; a substantial increase in surface hardness was achieved. In addition, big differences were found between the hardened specimens after HPDL surface hardening and CO2 laser surface hardening. For HPDL, depths of the HAZ were almost equal in total HAZ o, without surface melting. For CO2 laser, the depths changed a lot in the HAZ, with surface melting in the center. To better understand the difference of laser hardening results when use these two types of laser, numerical (ANSYS) analysis of the heat conduction involved in the process was also studied. For HPDL method, a rectangular beam spot and uniform energy distribution across the spot were assumed, while for CO2 laser, a circular beam spot and Gaussian energy distribution were assumed. The results showed that the energy distribution variety altered the thermal cycles of the HAZ dramatically. The rectangular HPDL laser beam spot with uniform energy distribution is much more feasible for laser surface hardening.

  10. Vaccine strategies to enhance immune responses in the aged

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Julie S.; Haynes, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections with higher risks of morbidity and mortality. This is caused by the accumulation of immune defects with aging. The best way to protect people against infections is vaccination. Unfortunately, the same immune defects that render the elderly susceptible to infectious diseases also prevent the development of protective immunity following immunization. A good example of this is the influenza vaccine that only protects between 40–60% of the vaccinees over 65 years. In the past decade, tremendous efforts have been put toward improving the influenza vaccine for the elderly. We therefore use this example to present various strategies employed to overcome these age-associated immune defects and hence make vaccines more efficacious for the aged. PMID:23764092

  11. Measles revaccination response in a school-age population.

    PubMed

    Wittler, R R; Veit, B C; McIntyre, S; Schydlower, M

    1991-11-01

    Due to the dramatic upsurge in the incidence of measles, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control revised their measles immunization policies in 1989 to include a routine two-dose schedule. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) determine the prevalence of immunologically measles-susceptible subjects in a previously vaccinated, school-age, military dependent population; and (2) assess risk factors to identify immunologically measles-susceptible subjects. Serum was collected just prior to measles revaccination and again 2 weeks later. Measles-specific IgG and IgM titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunologically measles-susceptible subjects constituted 9.8% of the population. The interval since previous measles vaccination was significantly related to pre- and postrevaccination IgG titers in a repeated-measures analysis of variance model. The magnitude of increase in IgG titer following revaccination and analysis of trend for proportions of measles-susceptible subjects were significantly related to the age of initial vaccination. This study supports continued measles revaccination; in addition, revaccination appears to be of greater value at 11 to 12 years of age than at 4 to 6 years of age.

  12. [Towards a sheltered aging in individual and social responsibility].

    PubMed

    Birkenstock, E; Rentsch, T

    2005-08-01

    Aging is a slow process, the beginning of which as well as its progress are defined in quite different ways from the biomedical, psychological, or sociological point of view. Philosophy can perform a significant contribution to a sound and human approach to this phenomenon of life: first clarifying the present situation on the background of historic experiences; second improving a fundamental ascertainment of our ontological condition as human beings, characterized by finiteness and vulnerability, while recalling that humans possess the unique capability to reflect on this aspect of their existence; and, always moving from the results of that analysis, lastly suggesting some tentative solutions, conceived as ethical-practical guidelines and values pool, for an overcoming of the individual and social challenges posed by aging. The aim consists in a re-interpretation of aging as a "becoming oneself", without denying hereby the negativity embodied in the finiteness and fragility of our life. To this purpose it is necessary to distinguish the situations where aging, while maintaining full self-consciousness, can be shaped as an autonomous process, from those, mostly near to the edge of death, for which the goal of self-realization cannot be applied, making rather indispensable the resort to concepts of respect and empathy.

  13. Functional correlates of brain aging: beta and gamma frequency band responses to age-related cortical changes.

    PubMed

    Christov, Mario; Dushanova, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually declined resources by age maximizes its performance by neural network reorganization for greater efficiency of neuronal oscillations in a given frequency band. Whether event-related high-frequency band responses are related to plasticity in neural recruitment contributed to the stability of sensory/cognitive mechanisms accompanying aging or are underlined pathological changes seen in aging brain remains unknown. Aged effect on brain electrical activity was studied in auditory discrimination task (low-frequency and high-frequency tone) at particular cortical locations in beta (β1: 12.5-20; β2: 20.5-30 Hz) and gamma frequency bands (γ1: 30.5-49; γ2: 52-69 Hz) during sensory (post-stimulus interval 0-250 ms) and cognitive processing (250-600 ms). Beta1 activity less affected by age during sensory processing. Reduced beta1 activity was more widespread during cognitive processing. This difference increased in fronto-parietal direction more expressed after high-frequency tone stimulation. Beta2 and gamma activity were more pronounced with progressive age during sensory processing. Reducing regional-process specificity with progressing age characterized age-related and tone-dependent beta2 changes during sensory, but not during cognitive processing. Beta2 and gamma activity diminished with age on cognitive processes, except the higher frontal tone-dependent gamma activity during cognitive processing. With increasing age, larger gamma2 activity was more expressed over the frontal brain areas to high tone discrimination and hand reaction choice. These gamma2 differences were shifted from posterior to anterior brain regions with advancing age. The aged influence was higher on cognitive processes than on perceptual ones. PMID:27373947

  14. Factors Affecting Neurobehavioral Responses of Preterm Infants at Term Conceptional Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assesses the effects of gestational age, race, and sex on neurobehavorial responses of 510 singleton infants who were evaluated at term conceptual age using a modified Prechtl Neurologic Examination. Results suggest that gestational age at birth is the most influential variable; race is also important, but gender has minimum impact. (Author/CB)

  15. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  16. Effect of Parental Age on Treatment Response in Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Opler, Mark; Malaspina, Dolores; Gopal, Srihari; Nuamah, Isaac; Savitz, Adam J; Singh, Jaskaran; Hough, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, but its effect on treatment response has not been longitudinally studied. Methods Association of parental ages at the time of the child's birth with age of onset, initial symptom severity and treatment response (to placebo and three different weight-based doses of paliperidone ER) in adolescents with schizophrenia was assessed in a post-hoc analysis using data from a 6-week double-blind study, the primary results of which are published (NCT 00518323). Results The mean (SD) paternal age was 29.2 (6.2) years, range (16-50) and maternal age was 26.8 (5.7) years, range (17-42) at childbirth for the 201 adolescents (ages 12-17 years) included in the analysis. While parental ages were uncorrelated with age of onset or initial symptom severity, both maternal and paternal age showed significant effects on treatment response (p < 0.03) of all paliperidone ER arms versus placebo. Paternal age was significantly correlated to improvement in positive symptoms and maternal age significantly related to negative symptoms, although only paternal age remained significantly associated with the treatment response in analyses that included both parents’ ages. Conclusions APA was associated with greater treatment response to both paliperidone ER and placebo, but not to age of onset or initial symptom severity in adolescents with schizophrenia. The results support the contention that APA-related schizophrenia has distinct underpinnings from other cases. Further studies are required to explore the role of genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions, in treatment response in this complex disorder. PMID:24144440

  17. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schüller, Sören; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Hülsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. Methods: To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the

  18. The potential role of epigenetic responses to diet in ageing.

    PubMed

    Ford, Dianne; Ions, Laura J; Alatawi, Fatema; Wakeling, Luisa A

    2011-08-01

    Epigenetic changes may be causal in the ageing process and may be influenced by diet, providing opportunities to improve health in later life. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of several areas of research relevant to this topic and to explore a hypothesis relating to a possible role of epigenetic effects, mediated by sirtuin 1, in the beneficial effects of dietary restriction, including increased lifespan. Epigenetic features of ageing include changes in DNA methylation, both globally and at specific loci, which differ between individuals. A major focus of research on dietary influences on epigenetic status has been on nutrition in utero, because the epigenome is probably particularly malleable during this life-course window and because epigenetic marking by early exposures is a compelling mechanism underlying effects on lifelong health. We explore the potential of diet during adulthood, including the practice of dietary restriction, to affect the epigenetic architecture. We report progress with respect to deriving data to support our hypothesis that sirtuin 1 may mediate some of the effects of dietary restriction through effects on DNA methylation and note observations that resveratrol affects DNA methylation and other epigenetic features. Disentangling cause and effect in the context of epigenetic change and ageing is a challenge and requires better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and also the development of more refined experimental tools to manipulate the epigenetic architecture, to facilitate hypothesis-driven research to elucidate these links and thus to exploit them to improve health across the full life-course through dietary measures.

  19. Strain Hardening of Hadfield Manganese Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, P. H.; Olson, G. B.; Owen, W. S.

    1986-10-01

    The plastic flow behavior of Hadfield manganese steel in uniaxial tension and compression is shown to be greatly influenced by transformation plasticity phenomena. Changes in the stress-strain (σ-ɛ) curves with temperature correlate with the observed extent of deformation twinning, consistent with a softening effect of twinning as a deformation mechanism and a hardening effect of the twinned microstructure. The combined effects give upward curvature to the σ-ɛ curve over extensive ranges of plastic strain. A higher strain hardening in compression compared with tension appears to be consistent with the observed texture development. The composition dependence of stacking fault energy computed using a thermodynamic model suggests that the Hadfield composition is optimum for a maximum rate of deformation twinning. Comparisons of the Hadfield steel with a Co-33Ni alloy exhibiting similar twinning kinetics, and an Fe-21Ni-lC alloy deforming by slip indicate no unusual strain hardening at low strains where deformation is controlled by slip, but an unusual amount of structural hardening associated with the twin formation in the Hadfield steel. A possible mechanism of anomalous twin hardening is discussed in terms of modified twinning behavior (pseudotwinning) in nonrandom solid solutions.

  20. Age-Related Response Bias in the Decoding of Sad Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Hühnel, Isabell; Werheid, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that age is negatively associated with the accuracy of decoding emotional facial expressions; this effect of age was found for actors as well as for raters. Given that motivational differences and stereotypes may bias the attribution of emotion, the aim of the present study was to explore whether these age effects are due to response bias, that is, the unbalanced use of response categories. Thirty younger raters (19–30 years) and thirty older raters (65–81 years) viewed video clips of younger and older actors representing the same age ranges, and decoded their facial expressions. We computed both raw hit rates and bias-corrected hit rates to assess the influence of potential age-related response bias on decoding accuracy. Whereas raw hit rates indicated significant effects of both the actors’ and the raters’ ages on decoding accuracy for sadness, these age effects were no longer significant when response bias was corrected. Our results suggest that age effects on the accuracy of decoding facial expressions may be due, at least in part, to age-related response bias. PMID:26516920

  1. Mars north polar deposits: stratigraphy, age, and geodynamical response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Zuber, M.T.; Smrekar, S.E.; Mellon, M.T.; Head, J.W.; Tanaka, K.L.; Putzig, N.E.; Milkovich, S.M.; Campbell, B.A.; Plaut, J.J.; Safaeinili, A.; Seu, R.; Biccari, D.; Carter, L.M.; Picardi, G.; Orosei, R.; Surdas, Mohit P.; Heggy, E.; Zurek, R.W.; Egan, A.F.; Giacomoni, E.; Russo, F.; Cutigni, M.; Pettinelli, E.; Holt, J.W.; Leuschen, C.J.; Marinangeli, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has imaged the internal stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits of Mars. Radar reflections within the deposits reveal a laterally continuous deposition of layers, which typically consist of four packets of finely spaced reflectors separated by homogeneous interpacket regions of nearly pure ice. The packet/interpacket structure can be explained by approximately million-year periodicities in Mars' obliquity or orbital eccentricity. The observed ???100-meter maximum deflection of the underlying substrate in response to the ice load implies that the present-day thickness of an equilibrium elastic lithosphere is greater than 300 kilometers. Alternatively, the response to the load may be in a transient state controlled by mantle viscosity. Both scenarios probably require that Mars has a subchondritic abundance of heat-producing elements.

  2. Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-14

    High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

  3. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  4. Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

  5. 'Work-Hardenable' Ductile Bulk Metallic Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Jayanta; Eckert, Juergen; Tang Meibo; Wang Weihua; Kim, Ki Buem; Baier, Falko; Theissmann, Ralf

    2005-05-27

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (<1%) at room temperature. We present a new class of bulk metallic glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive 'work hardening' and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The 'work-hardening' capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  6. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Antioxidant response and related gene expression in aged oat seed

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingqi; Huo, Heqiang; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate deterioration of oat seeds during storage, we analyzed oxygen radicals, antioxidant enzyme activity, proline content, and gene transcript levels in oat seeds with different moisture contents (MCs; 4, 16, and 28% w/w) during storage for 0, 6, and 12 months (CK, LT-6, and LT-12 treatments, respectively) at 4°C. The germination percentage decreased significantly with higher seed MCs and longer storage duration. The concentrations of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide increased with seed MC increasing. The activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) may have had a complementary or interacting role to scavenge reactive oxygen species. As the storage duration extended, the proline content decreased in seeds with 4 and 16% MC and increased in 28%. These findings suggest that proline played the main role in adaptation to oxidative stress in seeds with higher MC (28%), while antioxidant enzymes played the main role in seeds with lower MCs (4%, 16%). In the gene transcript analyses, SOD1 transcript levels were not consistent with total SOD activity. The transcript levels of APX1 and CAT1 showed similar trends to those of APX and CAT activity. The transcript levels of P5CS1, which encodes a proline biosynthetic enzyme, increased with seed MC increasing in CK. Compared with changing of proline content in seeds stored 12 months, PDH1 transcript levels showed the opposite trend and maintained the lower levels in seeds of 16 and 28% MCs. The transcript level of P5CS1 was significantly affected by MC, and PDH1 could improve stress resistance for seed aging and maintain seed vigor during long-term storage. PMID:25852711

  8. Age-related regional variations of human skin blood flow response to histamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, Ethel; Brenner, Sarah

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess age-related regional variations in skin function, by measuring the cutaneous microvascular response to histamine. Histamine was topically applied to the back and forearm of young and aged volunteers, and the response was quantified utilizing laser Doppler flowmetry. Each group comprised of 14 volunteers. The cutaneous vascular response to histamine was significantly greater on the back than on the forearm of young healthy volunteers, whereas in aged ones the response over these two sites did not significantly differ. These observations indicate anatomical or functional differences between old and young skin as relates to regional variations. They may underlie some of the differences in the manifestations of disease processes in various age groups.

  9. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    PubMed Central

    Angrisani, Rosanna M. Giaffredo; Bautzer, Ana Paula D.; Matas, Carla Gentile; de Azevedo, Marisa Frasson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) in preterm (PT) and term (T) newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I) than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups. PMID:24473955

  10. Innovative Structural Materials and Sections with Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Vikram

    The motivation of this work is based on development of new construction products with strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) geared towards sustainable residential applications. The proposed research has three main objectives: automation of existing manufacturing systems for SHCC laminates; multi-level characterization of mechanical properties of fiber, matrix, interface and composites phases using servo-hydraulic and digital image correlation techniques. Structural behavior of these systems were predicted using ductility based design procedures using classical laminate theory and structural mechanics. SHCC sections are made up of thin sections of matrix with Portland cement based binder and fine aggregates impregnating continuous one-dimensional fibers in individual or bundle form or two/three dimensional woven, bonded or knitted textiles. Traditional fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) use random dispersed chopped fibers in the matrix at a low volume fractions, typically 1-2% to avoid to avoid fiber agglomeration and balling. In conventional FRC, fracture localization occurs immediately after the first crack, resulting in only minor improvement in toughness and tensile strength. However in SHCC systems, distribution of cracking throughout the specimen is facilitated by the fiber bridging mechanism. Influence of material properties of yarn, composition, geometry and weave patterns of textile in the behavior of laminated SHCC skin composites were investigated. Contribution of the cementitious matrix in the early age and long-term performance of laminated composites was studied with supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, silica fume, and wollastonite. A closed form model with classical laminate theory and ply discount method, coupled with a damage evolution model was utilized to simulate the non-linear tensile response of these composite materials. A constitutive material model developed earlier in the group was utilized to characterize and

  11. Kids, candy, brain and behavior: age differences in responses to candy gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Luking, Katherine R; Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-07-01

    The development of reward-related neural systems, from adolescence through adulthood, has received much recent attention in the developmental neuroimaging literature. However, few studies have investigated behavioral and neural responses to both gains and losses in pre-pubertal child populations. To address this gap in the literature, in the present study healthy children aged 7-11 years and young-adults completed an fMRI card-guessing game using candy pieces delivered post-scan as an incentive. Age differences in behavioral and neural responses to candy gains/losses were investigated. Adults and children displayed similar responses to gains, but robust age differences were observed following candy losses within the caudate, thalamus, insula, and hippocampus. Interestingly, when task behavior was included as a factor in post hoc mediation analyses, activation following loss within the caudate/thalamus related to task behavior and relationships with age were no longer significant. Conversely, relationships between response to loss and age within the hippocampus and insula remained significant even when controlling for behavior, with children showing heightened loss responses within the dorsal/posterior insula. These results suggest that both age and task behavior influence responses within the extended reward circuitry, and that children seem to be more sensitive than adults to loss feedback particularly within the dorsal/posterior insula.

  12. SEU hardening of CMOS memory circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Canaris, J.; Liu, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to harden CMOS memory circuits against Single Event Upset (SEU) in the space environment. A RAM cell and Flip Flop design are presented to demonstrate the method. The Flip Flop was used in the control circuitry for a Reed Solomon encoder designed for the Space Station.

  13. Extraordinary strain hardening by gradient structure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, XiaoLei; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Liu; Yuan, Fuping; Zhu, Yuntian T.

    2014-01-01

    Gradient structures have evolved over millions of years through natural selection and optimization in many biological systems such as bones and plant stems, where the structures change gradually from the surface to interior. The advantage of gradient structures is their maximization of physical and mechanical performance while minimizing material cost. Here we report that the gradient structure in engineering materials such as metals renders a unique extra strain hardening, which leads to high ductility. The grain-size gradient under uniaxial tension induces a macroscopic strain gradient and converts the applied uniaxial stress to multiaxial stresses due to the evolution of incompatible deformation along the gradient depth. Thereby the accumulation and interaction of dislocations are promoted, resulting in an extra strain hardening and an obvious strain hardening rate up-turn. Such extraordinary strain hardening, which is inherent to gradient structures and does not exist in homogeneous materials, provides a hitherto unknown strategy to develop strong and ductile materials by architecting heterogeneous nanostructures. PMID:24799688

  14. 'Fire hardening' spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle.

    PubMed

    Ennos, Antony Roland; Chan, Tak Lok

    2016-05-01

    It is usually assumed that 'fire hardening' the tips of spears, as practised by hunter-gatherers and early Homo spp., makes them harder and better suited for hunting. This suggestion was tested by subjecting coppiced poles of hazel to a fire-hardening process and comparing their mechanical properties to those of naturally seasoned poles. A Shore D hardness test showed that fire treatment slightly increased the hardness of the wood, but flexural and impact tests showed that it reduced the strength and work of fracture by 30% and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that though potentially slightly sharper and more durable, fire-hardened tips would actually be more likely to break off when used, as may have been the case with the earliest known wooden tool, the Clacton spear. Fire might first have been used to help sharpen the tips of spears, and fire-hardening would have been a mostly negative side effect, not its primary purpose.

  15. 'Fire hardening' spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle.

    PubMed

    Ennos, Antony Roland; Chan, Tak Lok

    2016-05-01

    It is usually assumed that 'fire hardening' the tips of spears, as practised by hunter-gatherers and early Homo spp., makes them harder and better suited for hunting. This suggestion was tested by subjecting coppiced poles of hazel to a fire-hardening process and comparing their mechanical properties to those of naturally seasoned poles. A Shore D hardness test showed that fire treatment slightly increased the hardness of the wood, but flexural and impact tests showed that it reduced the strength and work of fracture by 30% and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that though potentially slightly sharper and more durable, fire-hardened tips would actually be more likely to break off when used, as may have been the case with the earliest known wooden tool, the Clacton spear. Fire might first have been used to help sharpen the tips of spears, and fire-hardening would have been a mostly negative side effect, not its primary purpose. PMID:27194289

  16. Inflammatory nociception responses do not vary with age, but diminish with the pain history

    PubMed Central

    Simón-Arceo, Karina; Contreras, Bernardo; León-Olea, Martha; Coffeen, Ulises; Jaimes, Orlando; Pellicer, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Some of the relevant factors that must be considered when dealing with old age include its growing numbers in the general population and pain contention in this age group. In this sense, it is important to study whether antinociceptive responses change with age. To elucidate this point, persistent pain in animals is the preferred model. In addition, the response to inflammatory pain in the same individual must be explored along its lifetime. Male Wistar rats were infiltrated with carrageenan (50 μl intraplantar) and tested 3 h and 24 h after injection using thermal (plantar test) and mechanociceptive tests (von Frey). The rats were divided into the following groups: (a) young rats infiltrated for the first time at 12 weeks of age and re-infiltrated at 15 and 17 weeks; (b) adult rats infiltrated for the first time at 28 weeks of age and re-infiltrated at 44 and 56 weeks; and (c) old rats infiltrated for the first time at 56 weeks of age and re-infiltrated at 72 weeks. The rats tested for the first time at 12 and 56 weeks of age showed hyperalgesia due to carrageenan infiltration at 3 h and 24 h after injection. This result showed that old rats maintain the same antialgesic response due to inflammation. However, when the injection was repeated in the three age groups, the latency to the thermal and mechanociceptive responses at 3 h is increased when compared to animals exposed for the first time to inflammation. The response to thermal and mechanociception in old rats is the same as in young animals as long as the nociceptive stimulus is not repeated. The repetition of the stimulus produces changes compatible with desensitization of the response and evidences the significance of algesic stimulus repetition in the same individual rather than the age of the individual. PMID:25120479

  17. Marriage behavior response to prime-age adult mortality: evidence from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Mika; Yamauchi, Futoshi

    2009-02-01

    This article examines the effect of AIDS-related mortality of the prime-age adult population on marriage behavior among women in Malawi. A rise in prime-age adult mortality increases risks associated with the search for a marriage partner in the marriage market. A possible behavioral change in the marriage market in response to an increase in prime-age adult mortality is to marry earlier to avoid exposure to HIV/AIDS risks. We test this hypothesis by using micro data from Malawi, where prime-age adult mortality has drastically increased. In the analysis, we estimate the probability of prime-age adult mortality that sample women have observed during their adolescent period by utilizing retrospective information on deaths of their siblings. Empirical analysis shows that excess prime-age adult mortality in the local marriage market lowers the marriage age for females and shortens the interval between the first sex and first marriage.

  18. Deformation in metals after low temperature irradiation: Part II - Irradiation hardening, strain hardening, and stress ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Li, Meimei

    2008-03-01

    Effects of irradiation at temperatures 200oC on tensile stress parameters are analyzed for dozens of bcc, fcc, and hcp pure metals and alloys, focusing on irradiation hardening, strain hardening, and relationships between the true stress parameters. Similar irradiation-hardening rates are observed for all the metals irrespective of crystal type; typically, the irradiation-hardening rates are large, in the range 100 - 1000 GPa/dpa, at the lowest dose of <0.0001 dpa and decrease with dose to a few tens of MPa/dpa or less at about 10 dpa. However, average irradiation-hardening rates over the dose range of 0 dpa − (the dose to plastic instability at yield) are considerably lower for stainless steels due to their high uniform ductility. It is shown that whereas low temperature irradiation increases the yield stress, it does not significantly change the strain-hardening rate of metallic materials; it decreases the fracture stress only when non-ductile failure occurs. Such dose independence in strain hardening behavior results in strong linear relationships between the true stress parameters. Average ratios of plastic instability stress to unirradiated yield stress are about 1.4, 3.9, and 1.3 for bcc metals (and precipitation hardened IN718 alloy), annealed fcc metals (and pure Zr), and Zr-4 alloy, respectively. Ratios of fracture stress to plastic instability stress are calculated to be 2.2, 1.7, and 2.1, respectively. Comparison of these values confirms that the annealed fcc metals and other soft metals have larger uniform ductility but smaller necking ductility when compared to other materials.

  19. Effects of age, signal level, and signal rate on the auditory middle latency response.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D A; Ruth, R A

    1996-04-01

    The effects of age, signal rate, and signal level on the maturing auditory middle latency response (AMLR) were evaluated in 50 normal-hearing subjects ranging in age from 2 days to 35 years. Ipsilateral and contralateral AMLR waveforms were recorded in newborns (n = 10), children (n = 10), preteens (n = 10), teens (n = 10), and adults (n = 10). The AMLR Pa waveform was obtained in 70 to 100 percent of all subjects. The variables of age, signal level, and site of recording significantly affected Pa peak amplitude and absolute latency. However, stimulus rate did not significantly affect the response.

  20. Effects of age, signal level, and signal rate on the auditory middle latency response.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D A; Ruth, R A

    1996-04-01

    The effects of age, signal rate, and signal level on the maturing auditory middle latency response (AMLR) were evaluated in 50 normal-hearing subjects ranging in age from 2 days to 35 years. Ipsilateral and contralateral AMLR waveforms were recorded in newborns (n = 10), children (n = 10), preteens (n = 10), teens (n = 10), and adults (n = 10). The AMLR Pa waveform was obtained in 70 to 100 percent of all subjects. The variables of age, signal level, and site of recording significantly affected Pa peak amplitude and absolute latency. However, stimulus rate did not significantly affect the response. PMID:8652873

  1. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....622 Hardening and storage rooms. Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be...

  2. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....622 Hardening and storage rooms. Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be...

  3. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....622 Hardening and storage rooms. Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be...

  4. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....622 Hardening and storage rooms. Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be...

  5. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....622 Hardening and storage rooms. Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be...

  6. Wisdom-Related Knowledge: Age/Cohort Differences in Response to Life-Planning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jacqui; Baltes, Paul B.

    1990-01-01

    Verbal think-aloud protocols were collected from 60 subjects in 3 age groups ranging from 25 through 81 years. Only 5 percent of the responses were considered wise when rated on the criteria of rich factual and procedural knowledge, lifespan contextualism, relativism, and the recognition and management of uncertainty. Wise responses were equally…

  7. A Lifespan Perspective on Terrorism: Age Differences in Trajectories of Response to 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stacey B.; Poulin, Michael J.; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    A terrorist attack is an adverse event characterized by both an event-specific stressor and concern about future threats. Little is known about age differences in responses to terrorism. This longitudinal study examined generalized distress, posttraumatic stress responses, and fear of future attacks following the September 11, 2001 (9/11)…

  8. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  9. Attribution of Responsibility by Japanese and Americans as a Function of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marvin E.; Iwawaki, Saburo

    1972-01-01

    Two age groups of Japanese and Americans were experimentally compared in the attribution of responsibility. The findings of the study were interpreted in terms of cultural differences in values and parental reward patterns, and show great cultural similarities in the attribution of responsibility. (Authors)

  10. Association of sex and age with responses to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1988-01-01

    The effects of age and sex on the human-body responses to -50 torr LBNP were investigated in subjects who have undergone LBNP tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The comparison of results obtained on women and age-matched men indicated that men had larger relative increases in calf circumference and greater increases in peripheral resistance during the exposure to LBNP than the women; on the other hand, women displayed greater increases in thoracic impedance and heart rate. The comparison of the results on men of different ages (between 29 and 56 y) indicated that older subjects had greater increases in peripheral resistance and less heart rate elevation in response to LBNP. It is suggested that the age-related circulatory differences were due to a reduction in vagal response and a switch to predominant sympathetic nervous system influence in older men.

  11. Gender-specific regulation of response to thyroid hormone in aging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for the assessment of thyroid hormone action is TSH level. Although age and gender are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and gender-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. Methods We analyzed the results of 3564 thyroid function tests obtained from patients who received medication at both out- and inpatient clinics of Shinshu University Hospital. Subjects were from among those with thyroid function test results in the normal or mildly abnormal range. Based on a log-linear relationship between the concentrations of FHs and TSH, we established the putative resistance index to assess the relation between serum FH and TSH levels. Results Free thyroid hormone and TSH concentration showed an inverse log-linear relation. In males, there was a negative relationship between the free T3 resistance index and age. In females, although there were no relationships between age and FHs, the indices were positively related to age. Conclusions These findings indicated that there is a gender-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Although the TSH level is a useful marker for the assessment of peripheral thyroid hormone action, the values should be interpreted carefully, especially with regard to age- and gender-related differences. PMID:22280879

  12. The effect of age on the inflammatory response to arthritis-associated crystals.

    PubMed

    McGill, N W; Dieppe, P A; Swan, A

    1992-10-01

    The effect of age on the inflammatory response to urate and hydroxyapatite crystals was examined using both in vivo (intradermal skin testing) and in vitro (neutrophil death following incubation with urate crystals) methods. No significant difference in crystal-induced inflammation was found between young (< 25 years) and elderly (> 75 years) subjects and there was no correlation between the in vivo and in vitro tests. There was good correlation (0.63, p < 0.001) between the intradermal responses to urate and hydroxyapatite, suggesting that subjects, regardless of their age, are consistent in their response to these two types of arthritis-associated crystal. Advanced age does not lead to a major alteration in the inflammatory response to arthritis-associated crystals.

  13. HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Display Alterations in Immunophenotype and Cellular Responses Associated with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Abbondanzo, Susan J.; Chang, Sulie L.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in anti-retroviral therapy over the last two decades have allowed life expectancy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to approach that of the general population. The process of aging in mammalian species, including rats, results in immune response changes, alterations in immunological phenotypes, and ultimately increased susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In order to investigate the immunological pathologies associated with chronic HIV-1 disease, particularly in aging individuals, the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat model was utilized. HIV-1Tg rats were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine immunological alterations during the aging process. LPS is known to cause an imbalance in cytokine and chemokine release, and provides a method to identify changes in immune responses to bacterial infection in an HIV animal model. An immune profile and accompanying cellular consequences as well as changes in inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release related to age and genotype were assessed in HIV-1Tg rats. The percentage of T cells decreased with age, particularly T cytotoxic cells, whereas T helper cells increased with age. Neutrophils and monocytes increased in HIV-1Tg rats during maturation compared to age-matched F344 control rats. Aging HIV-1Tg rats displayed a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, along with an increase in the chemokine, KC/GRO, in comparison to age-matched controls. Our data indicate that immunophenotype and immune responses can change during aging in HIV-positive individuals. This information could be important in determining the most beneficial age-dependent therapeutic treatment for HIV patients. PMID:25127062

  14. [Independence, consciously accepted dependency, self-responsibility and shared responsibility as key categories of an ethical analysis of old age].

    PubMed

    Kruse, A

    2005-08-01

    This contribution begins with a brief introduction into some seminal problems of ethics: the search for the essential being of things, the attitude of value consciousness in the context of ethical reflections, and the reflection on models of a 'good life' and on decisions as well as actions in significant moral situations. These introductory statements are illustrated by the example of stoic philosophy. In a second step, independence, consciously accepted dependency, self-responsibility and shared responsibility are discussed as highly significant categories for an ethical analysis of all ages. However these categories must be specified with reference to specific ages. In this contribution, such a specification is carried out for old age focussing on the particular relevance of the four categories for ethical analysis. In a third step, each of the four categories is discussed in detail in the context of basic ethical approaches. In this context, ethical analysis proceeds from the perspectives of the individual, the environment, and the society. Concerning the perspective of the society special interest is offered to societal models of good life in old age which might have an impact on the potential development of a pro-aging culture and shared responsibility in older people. Moreover, these models contribute to older people's ability to use the necessary means of support in cases of dependency and to consciously accept dependency. PMID:16133757

  15. Incorporating the effect of orientation hardening in an effective temperature nonequilibrium theory for glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingkai; Xiao, Rui; Nguyen, Thao

    Amorphous polymers exhibit a wide range of time and temperature dependent behavior. Recently, Xiao and Nguyen developed an effective temperature theory that can capture a wide variety of nonequilibrium behaviors at moderate strains. At large strains, the stress response of glassy polymers is dominated by strain hardening as a result of chain alignment. The goal of this study was to extend the effective temperature theory to large deformation and make it capable of modeling strain hardening from deformation-induced molecular alignment. We compared two approaches. In the spirit of internal state variable thermodynamics theory, we introduced a series of stretch-like internal state variables to characterize the molecular resistance to plastic flow associated with each inelastic mechanism. The dependence of free energy on the internal state variables naturally gives rise to a deformation dependent back stress. The flow rule and the evolution of effective temperatures were derived in a thermodynamically consistent manner. In the second approach, we introduced a steady-state limit in the evolution of the effective temperature characterizing the nonequilibrium structure of the material. Both approaches can well capture the experimentally measured phenomena of orientation hardening, including the development of deformation-induced anisotropy in the yield strength and hardening modulus, the Bauschinger effect, and differences in the hardening moduli in tension and compression of pre-oriented specimens.

  16. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  17. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  18. Effect of age on the gastrointestinal-associated mucosal immune response of humans.

    PubMed

    Beharka, A A; Paiva, S; Leka, L S; Ribaya-Mercado, J D; Russell, R M; Nibkin Meydani, S

    2001-05-01

    Age-related changes in gastrointestinal-associated mucosal immune response have not been well studied. Thus, we investigated the effect of age on this response and compared these responses to those of peripheral immune cells. Saliva, blood, and intestinal biopsies were collected from young and old healthy subjects to determine immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), and lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs). Although subject age did not influence the level of total IgA found in saliva, IgA levels in serum increased (p <.05) with age. Older subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and IL-2 production were significantly lower than those of young subjects. LPLs from older subjects produced significantly less IL-2 in response to all stimuli than did that from the young. IEL's ability to proliferate and produce IL-2 was not affected by subject age. Thus, LPL but not IEL demonstrated an age-related decline in immune function similar to that seen in peripheral lymphocytes.

  19. New surface-hardened, low-modulus, corrosion-resistant Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J A; Mishra, A K; Kovacs, P; Poggie, R A

    1994-01-01

    To optimize the performance of total hip replacement, scientists and clinicians are seeking new materials and noncemented, press-fit designs that can improve load transfer to the bone and reduce the incidence of loosening and thigh pain. Currently used Co-Cr-Mo alloy has a relatively high elastic modulus (E = 227 GPa), which limits its ability to transfer load to the surrounding bone in the proximal calcar region. Thus to improve load transfer, designs are considered with less cross-sectional area to increase flexibility, but at the expense of fit and fill, and thus stability of the implant within the bone. Should stem loosening occur, the stem stresses may exceed the relatively low fatigue strength of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy and lead to stem breakage. To improve these conditions, lower modulus Ti-6Al-4V alloy (E = 115 GPa) is being used. More recently, a new lower-modulus (E = 79 GPa) Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy has been developed which does not contain any elemental constituents associated with adverse cell response (i.e., Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Fe, Al, V), and which possesses comparable or superior strength and toughness to existing Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The carefully selected Nb and Zr constituents improve bone biocompatibility and corrosion resistance compared to that of currently used implant metals. Additionally, a unique diffusion hardening (DH) treatment can be conducted during the age-hardening process of this near-beta alloy to produce a hardened surface with abrasion resistance superior to that of Co-Cr-Mo alloy. This also provides an improvement in the micro-fretting tendencies that may occur within femoral head-neck taper regions and modular interfaces of other implant designs. The present study describes the metallurgy and mechanical properties of this unique low modulus Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy, and the heat treatments used to obtain the high strength, corrosion resistance, and surface hardening that renders this biocompatible alloy well-suited for press fit hip replacement

  20. Age-Related Maturation of Wave V Latency of Auditory Brainstem Response in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bist, Sampan Singh; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a noninvasive measurement of a stimulus-locked, synchronous electrical event. ABR provides information concerning the functional integrity of brainstem nuclei. Age is a key factor in the interpretation of ABR peak latency among different age groups. Progressively with time it follows a "maturation pattern" during which latencies decrease. Wave V is very prominent and reliable for detection of threshold in children. The present study was performed to see the effect of age related auditory maturation on ABR wave V latency in children. Subjects and Methods The study involved 80 subjects ranging in age from birth to 12 years. The subjects were divided equally into eight age groups. ABR were elicited by an acoustic click stimuli, brainstem responses collected through electrode and recorded at the same time. Latency of wave V was acknowledged. Results Wave V latency decreased rapidly in early childhood, became slower after 3 years of age and completely matured by 12 years of age. There was no significant difference in latency of wave V between the ears with age. Conclusions There is a distinct maturation pattern of wave V latency in ABR for both ears. ABR is a reliable test to assess the functional maturation of wave V in children.

  1. Age-Related Maturation of Wave V Latency of Auditory Brainstem Response in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bist, Sampan Singh; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a noninvasive measurement of a stimulus-locked, synchronous electrical event. ABR provides information concerning the functional integrity of brainstem nuclei. Age is a key factor in the interpretation of ABR peak latency among different age groups. Progressively with time it follows a "maturation pattern" during which latencies decrease. Wave V is very prominent and reliable for detection of threshold in children. The present study was performed to see the effect of age related auditory maturation on ABR wave V latency in children. Subjects and Methods The study involved 80 subjects ranging in age from birth to 12 years. The subjects were divided equally into eight age groups. ABR were elicited by an acoustic click stimuli, brainstem responses collected through electrode and recorded at the same time. Latency of wave V was acknowledged. Results Wave V latency decreased rapidly in early childhood, became slower after 3 years of age and completely matured by 12 years of age. There was no significant difference in latency of wave V between the ears with age. Conclusions There is a distinct maturation pattern of wave V latency in ABR for both ears. ABR is a reliable test to assess the functional maturation of wave V in children. PMID:27626083

  2. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Kwok K.

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  3. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  4. Laser hardening of diesel engine valve

    SciTech Connect

    Androsov, A.P.; Aleksenko, S.I.; Boyarkin, M.V.; Kusidis, V.G.; Petrov, V.I.

    1988-07-01

    Results are presented of a complex investigation of the effect of laser treatment on the structure and properties of steel 40Kh10S2M and of engine tests with diesel engine valves hardened by the newly devised technology. Results of the investigation of the microstructure of steel 40Kh10S2M, heat-treated by a laser beam, showed that when a specimen is hardened with fusion of the surface layer, it contains two distinct zones of laser action. Results of the effect of laser treatment on the fatigue limit and the wear resistance of the steel and engine tests permit the conclusion that the suggested method of treating valves of internal engine valve gear has good prospects.

  5. The p53 network: Cellular and systemic DNA damage responses in aging and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, H. Christian; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Genome instability contributes to cancer development and accelerates age-related pathologies as evidenced by a variety of congenital cancer susceptibility and progeroid syndromes that are caused by defects in genome maintenance mechanisms. DNA damage response pathways that are mediated through the tumor suppressor p53 play an important role in the cell intrinsic responses to genome instability, including a transient cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. Both senescence and apoptosis are powerful tumor suppressive pathways preventing the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells. However, both pathways can potentially deplete stem and progenitor cell pools, thus promoting tissue degeneration and organ failure, which are both hallmarks of aging. p53 signaling is also involved in mediating non-cell autonomous interactions with the innate immune system and in the systemic adjustments during the aging process. The network of p53 target genes thus functions as an important regulator of cancer prevention and the physiology of aging. PMID:22265392

  6. Pulsed laser surface hardening of ferrous alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Reed, C. B.; Leong, K. H.; Hunter, B. V.

    1999-09-30

    A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser and special optics were used to produce surface hardening on 1045 steel and gray cast iron by varying the process parameters. Unlike CO{sub 2} lasers, where absorptive coatings are required, the higher absorptivity of ferrous alloys at the Nd:YAG laser wavelength eliminates the necessity of applying a coating before processing. Metallurgical analysis of the treated tracks showed that very fine and hard martensitic microstructure (1045 steel) or inhomogeneous martensite (gray cast iron) were obtained without surface melting, giving maximum hardness of HRC 61 and HRC 40 for 1045 steel and gray cast iron respectively. The corresponding maximum case depths for both alloys at the above hardness are 0.6 mm. Gray cast iron was more difficult to harden without surface melting because of its lower melting temperature and a significantly longer time-at-temperature required to diffuse carbon atoms from the graphite flakes into the austenite matrix during laser heating. The thermal distortion was characterized in term of flatness changes after surface hardening.

  7. Strain Hardening in Bidisperse Polymer Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Mark O.; Hoy, Robert S.

    2009-03-01

    The connections between glassy and rubbery strain hardening have been a matter of great controversy in recent years. Recent experiments and our earlier simulations have suggested that the hardening modulus GR is proportional to the entanglement density in glasses, as it is to the crosslink density in rubbers. In this work we present more extensive studies of strain hardening in bidisperse glasses and its relation to microscopic conformational changes. The mixtures contain chains of very different lengths but equivalent chemistry. GR does not scale simply with the entanglement density. Instead it obeys a simple mixing rule, with GR equal to the volume fraction weighted average of the moduli of the two pure components. As in recent studies of monodisperse systems (R. S. Hoy and M. O. Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 117801 (2007)), the stress is directly correlated to the degree of chain orientation. Chains of a given length undergo almost the same degree of alignment in pure systems and mixtures, explaining why the simple mixing rule applies. The connection to recent analytic theories by K. Chen and K. S. Schweizer (PRL, in press) will be discussed.

  8. Intelligent systems for induction hardening processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J.B.; Adkins, D.R.; Robino, C.V.

    1994-12-31

    Induction hardening is widely used to provide enhanced strength, wear resistance, and toughness in components made from medium and high carbon steels. Current limitations of the process include the lack of closed-loop process control, previously unidentified process and material variations which cause continual adjustment of the process parameters, coil and process development by trial and error, and an instability to monitor coil condition. Improvement of the induction hardening process is limited by an inadequate understanding of process fundamentals and material/process interactions. A multidisciplinary team from Sandia National Laboratories and Delphi Saginaw Steering Systems is investigating the induction hardening process under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The application of intelligent control algorithms has led to the development of a closed-loop process controller for the combination of one material, one geometry, single frequency, single shot, process that controls to {plus_minus} 0.1mm. This controller will be demonstrated on the production floor this year. Our approach and the opportunities for expanding the usefulness of this technology will be described.

  9. Work hardening: occupational therapy in industrial rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Matheson, L N; Ogden, L D; Violette, K; Schultz, K

    1985-05-01

    Work hardening, presented in this paper as a "new" service for the industrially injured, is actually well grounded in the traditional models and practices of occupational therapy. From the profession's early roots in industrial therapy to the development of a variety of programs for the industrially injured through the 1950s and 1960s, the historical and philosophical bases of occupational therapy support the use of work as an evaluative and therapeutic medium. What is actually new is the adoption of terminology, technology, and a program format that fits in with the needs of consumers in the 1980s. Recent developments that created the need for the specialized services that occupational therapists are uniquely qualified to provide include growth of private sector vocational rehabilitation, changes in workers' compensation laws, and increasing costs of vocational rehabilitation. This paper describes work hardening in its present form. A case example is given that demonstrates how work hardening can be a cost-effective and time-saving bridge which spans the gap between curative medicine and the return to work. PMID:4014411

  10. Folding and faulting of strain-hardening sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The question of whether single- or multi-layers of sedimentary rocks will fault or fold when subjected to layer-parallel shortening is investigated by means of the theory of elastic-plastic, strain-hardening materials, which should closely describe the properties of sedimentary rocks at high levels in the Earth's crust. The most attractive feature of the theory is that folding and faulting, intimately related in nature, are different responses of the same idealized material to different conditions. When single-layers of sedimentary rock behave much as strain-hardening materials they are unlikely to fold, rather they tend to fault, because contrasts in elasticity and strength properties of sedimentary rocks are low. Amplifications of folds in such materials are negligible whether contacts between layer and media are bonded or free to slip for single layers of dolomite, limestone, sandstone, or siltstone in media of shale. Multilayers of these same rocks fault rather than fold if contacts are bonded, but they fold readily if contacts between layers are frictionless, or have low yield strengths, for example due to high pore-water pressure. Faults may accompany the folds, occurring where compression is increased in cores of folds. Where there is predominant reverse faulting in sedimentary sequences, there probably were few structural units. ?? 1980.

  11. Aging, age-related macular degeneration, and the response-to-retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine A.; Johnson, Mark; Huang, Jiahn-Dar; Rudolf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The largest risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is advanced age. A prominent age-related change in the human retina is the accumulation of histochemically detectable neutral lipid in normal Bruch’s membrane (BrM) throughout adulthood. This change has the potential to have a major impact on physiology of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). It occurs in the same compartment as drusen and basal linear deposit, the pathognomonic extracellular, lipid-containing lesions of ARMD. Here we present evidence from light microscopic histochemistry, ultrastructure, lipid profiling of tissues and isolated lipoproteins, and gene expression analysis that this deposition can be accounted for by esterified cholesterol-rich, apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein particles constitutively produced by the RPE. This work collectively allows ARMD lesion formation and its aftermath to be conceptualized as a response to the retention of a sub-endothelial apolipoprotein B lipoprotein, similar to a widely accepted model of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) (Tabas et al., 2007). This approach provides a wide knowledge base and sophisticated clinical armamentarium that can be readily exploited for the development of new model systems and the future benefit of ARMD patients. PMID:19698799

  12. Impact of age-related neuroglial cell responses on hippocampal deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Joseph O.; Rezaie, Payam; Gabbott, Paul L.; Stewart, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is one of the greatest risk factors for the development of sporadic age-related neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammation is a common feature of this disease phenotype. In the immunoprivileged brain, neuroglial cells, which mediate neuroinflammatory responses, are influenced by the physiological factors in the microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS). These physiological factors include but are not limited to cell-to-cell communication involving cell adhesion molecules, neuronal electrical activity and neurotransmitter and neuromodulator action. However, despite this dynamic control of neuroglial activity, in the healthy aged brain there is an alteration in the underlying neuroinflammatory response notably seen in the hippocampus, typified by astrocyte/microglia activation and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and signaling. These changes may occur without any overt concurrent pathology, however, they typically correlate with deteriorations in hippocamapal or cognitive function. In this review we examine two important phenomenons, firstly the relationship between age-related brain deterioration (focusing on hippocampal function) and underlying neuroglial response(s), and secondly how the latter affects molecular and cellular processes within the hippocampus that makes it vulnerable to age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25972808

  13. Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Matthew K. Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E.; Riddle, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

  14. Age-Specific Variation in Immune Response in Drosophila melanogaster Has a Genetic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Tashauna M.; Hughes, Kimberly A.; Stone, Eric A.; Drnevich, Jenny M.; Leips, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Immunosenescence, the age-related decline in immune system function, is a general hallmark of aging. While much is known about the cellular and physiological changes that accompany immunosenescence, we know little about the genetic influences on this phenomenon. In this study we combined age-specific measurements of bacterial clearance ability following infection with whole-genome measurements of the transcriptional response to infection and wounding to identify genes that contribute to the natural variation in immunosenescence, using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Twenty inbred lines derived from nature were measured for their ability to clear an Escherichia coli infection at 1 and 4 weeks of age. We used microarrays to simultaneously determine genome-wide expression profiles in infected and wounded flies at each age for 12 of these lines. Lines exhibited significant genetically based variation in bacterial clearance at both ages; however, the genetic basis of this variation changed dramatically with age. Variation in gene expression was significantly correlated with bacterial clearance ability only in the older age group. At 4 weeks of age variation in the expression of 247 genes following infection was associated with genetic variation in bacterial clearance. Functional annotation analyses implicate genes involved in energy metabolism including those in the insulin signaling/TOR pathway as having significant associations with bacterial clearance in older individuals. Given the evolutionary conservation of the genes involved in energy metabolism, our results could have important implications for understanding immunosenescence in other organisms, including humans. PMID:22554890

  15. A Generalized Anisotropic Hardening Rule Based on the Mroz Multi-Yield-Surface Model for Pressure Insensitive and Sensitive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Pan, Jwo

    2009-07-27

    In this paper, a generalized anisotropic hardening rule based on the Mroz multi-yield-surface model is derived. The evolution equation for the active yield surface is obtained by considering the continuous expansion of the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process. The incremental constitutive relation based on the associated flow rule is then derived for a general yield function. As a special case, detailed incremental constitutive relations are derived for the Mises yield function. The closed-form solutions for one-dimensional stress-plastic strain curves are also derived and plotted for the Mises materials under cyclic loading conditions. The stress-plastic strain curves show closed hysteresis loops under uniaxial cyclic loading conditions and the Masing hypothesis is applicable. A user material subroutine based on the Mises yield function, the anisotropic hardening rule and the constitutive relations was then written and implemented into ABAQUS. Computations were conducted for a simple plane strain finite element model under uniaxial monotonic and cyclic loading conditions based on the anisotropic hardening rule and the isotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening rules of ABAQUS. The results indicate that the plastic response of the material follows the intended input stress-strain data for the anisotropic hardening rule whereas the plastic response depends upon the input strain ranges of the stress-strain data for the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule.

  16. Influence of development and aging on brain biopterin: implications for dopa-responsive dystonia onset.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Y; Kish, S J

    1998-08-01

    Reduction of biopterin (BP) due to a mutation in the GTP-cyclohydrolase I gene causes hereditary progressive dystonia/dopa-responsive dystonia (HPD/DRD). To determine whether an age-related BP decline may contribute to HPD/DRD onset (from 1 to 13 years of age), we measured brain BP levels in 57 normal subjects ranging in age from 1 day to 92 years. Putaminal BP showed a significant increase in postnatal period, reaching a plateau at 1 to 13 years of age, and a decrease in adulthood. The HPD/DRD onset in childhood is unlikely to be caused by a brain BP decline during the first decade of life, but that in adulthood could be related to the age-dependent decrease. PMID:9710058

  17. Effect of host age on the transplantation, growth, and radiation response of EMT6 tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, S.

    1981-02-01

    The characteristics of EMT6 tumors in young adult and aged BALB/c KaRw mice were compared. The number of tumor cells implanted s.c. necessary to cause tumors in 50% of the injection sites was lower in aging than in young adult mice. The latent period of intradermally implanted tumors was shorter in aging mice than in young animals; however, the growth curves of established tumors were similar. The number and appearance of lung colonies after injection of cells i.v. and the pattern of spontaneous metastases were similar in young and aged animals. Radiation dose-response curves for the cells of tumors in young and aging mice were different and suggested that the proportion of hypoxic cells was higher in tumors on aging animals. These findings suggest that both immunological and nonimmunological tumor-host interactions differ in young and aged animals and that such factors may influence the natural history of the tumor and the response of the tumor to treatment.

  18. Responsible Reporting: Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Irja Marije; Kupper, Frank; Arentshorst, Marlous; Broerse, Jacqueline

    2016-08-01

    Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. 'Responsible Research and Innovation' (RRI) aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into account from the outset. We previously identified that Dutch neuroscientists interpret "responsible innovation" as educating the public on neuroimaging technologies via the popular press. Their aim is to mitigate (neuro)hype, an aim shared with the wider emerging RRI community. Here, we present results of a media-analysis undertaken to establish whether the body of articles in the Dutch popular press presents balanced conversations on neuroimaging research to the public. We found that reporting was mostly positive and framed in terms of (healthcare) progress. There was rarely a balance between technology opportunities and limitations, and even fewer articles addressed societal or ethical aspects of neuroimaging research. Furthermore, neuroimaging metaphors seem to favour oversimplification. Current reporting is therefore more likely to enable hype than to mitigate it. How can neuroscientists, given their self-ascribed social responsibility, address this conundrum? We make a case for a collective and shared responsibility among neuroscientists, journalists and other stakeholders, including funders, committed to responsible reporting on neuroimaging research.

  19. Influence of Age on Antibody Response and Persistence Following Immunization With MenAfriVac

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuxiao; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), developed through the Meningitis Vaccine Project and manufactured by the Serum Institute of India, Ltd, was tested in multiple clinical trials conducted mainly in Africa. The impact of age at which subjects were vaccinated on immune response and persistence postimmunization with PsA-TT was the main focus of the current analysis. Methods. Subjects who were vaccinated with a single dose of 10 µg of PsA-TT at 12–23 months or 22–33 months of age in study A conducted in Mali and The Gambia; at 2–10 years, 11–17 years, or 18–29 years of age in study B conducted in Mali, The Gambia, and Senegal; and at 14–18 weeks, 9–12 months, or 12–18 months of age in study C conducted in Ghana are included in the current analysis. Immunogenicity was measured by group A serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer with baby rabbit complement. Results. Significant differences in SBA titers were found among the age groups in studies B and C both 28 days and 1 year postimmunization. A significant difference in SBA titers between age groups 12–23 months and 22–33 months was only observed 1 year postimmunization in study A. Antibody titers remained at similar levels from 1 to 2 years postimmunization for subjects vaccinated at 12–23 months in study A and at 9–12 months or 12–18 months of age in study C. Conclusions. Subjects immunized at different ages had different postimmunization immune responses as measured by SBA titers. Toddlers tended to have higher immune responses than infants. This pattern persisted at least 1 year postimmunization. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN78147026 (study A), ISRCTN87739946 (study B), and ISRCTN82484612 (study C). PMID:26553685

  20. Reduced Haemodynamic Response in the Ageing Visual Cortex Measured by Absolute fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Laura McKernan; Aitchison, Ross Thomas; Tawse, Melisa; Simmers, Anita Jane; Shahani, Uma

    2015-01-01

    The effect of healthy ageing on visual cortical activation is still to be fully explored. This study aimed to elucidate whether the haemodynamic response (HDR) of the visual cortex altered as a result of ageing. Visually normal (healthy) participants were presented with a simple visual stimulus (reversing checkerboard). Full optometric screening was implemented to identify two age groups: younger adults (n = 12, mean age 21) and older adults (n = 13, mean age 71). Frequency-domain Multi-distance (FD-MD) functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure absolute changes in oxygenated [HbO] and deoxygenated [HbR] haemoglobin concentrations in the occipital cortices. Utilising a slow event-related design, subjects viewed a full field reversing checkerboard with contrast and check size manipulations (15 and 30 minutes of arc, 50% and 100% contrast). Both groups showed the characteristic response of increased [HbO] and decreased [HbR] during stimulus presentation. However, older adults produced a more varied HDR and often had comparable levels of [HbO] and [HbR] during both stimulus presentation and baseline resting state. Younger adults had significantly greater concentrations of both [HbO] and [HbR] in every investigation regardless of the type of stimulus displayed (p<0.05). The average variance associated with this age-related effect for [HbO] was 88% and [HbR] 91%. Passive viewing of a visual stimulus, without any cognitive input, showed a marked age-related decline in the cortical HDR. Moreover, regardless of stimulus parameters such as check size, the HDR was characterised by age. In concurrence with present neuroimaging literature, we conclude that the visual HDR decreases as healthy ageing proceeds. PMID:25909849

  1. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Impaired Mucosal Immune Responses in Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Aso, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruhara, Akitoshi; Takagaki, Kentaro; Oki, Katsuyuki; Ota, Megumi; Nose, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Hideki; Urushihata, Naoki; Sasanuma, Jinichi; Sano, Masayuki; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Aso, Rio; McGhee, Jerry R; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Several clinical trials have shown the ability of AMSCs to regenerate these differentiated cell types. Age-associated dysregulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) immune system has been well documented. Our previous studies showed that impaired mucosal immunity in the GI tract occurs earlier during agingthan is seen in the systemic compartment. In this study, we examined the potential of AMSCs to restore the GI mucosal immune system in aged mice. Aged (>18 mo old) mice were adoptively transferred with AMSCs. Two weeks later, mice were orally immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) three times at weekly intervals. Seven days after the final immunization, when fecal extract samples and plasma were subjected to OVA- and CT-B-specific ELISA, elevated levels of mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and plasma IgG antibody (Ab) responses were noted in aged mouse recipients. Similar results were also seen aged mice which received AMSCs at one year of age. When cytokine production was examined, OVA-stimulated Peyer's patch CD4+ T cells produced increased levels of IL-4. Further, CD4+ T cells from the lamina propria revealed elevated levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ production. In contrast, aged mice without AMSC transfer showed essentially no OVA- or CT-B-specific mucosal SIgA or plasma IgG Ab or cytokine responses. Of importance, fecal extracts from AMSC transferred aged mice showed neutralization activity to CT intoxication. These results suggest that AMSCs can restore impaired mucosal immunity in the GI tract of aged mice. PMID:26840058

  2. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Restore Impaired Mucosal Immune Responses in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aso, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruhara, Akitoshi; Takagaki, Kentaro; Oki, Katsuyuki; Ota, Megumi; Nose, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Hideki; Urushihata, Naoki; Sasanuma, Jinichi; Sano, Masayuki; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Aso, Rio; McGhee, Jerry R.; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Several clinical trials have shown the ability of AMSCs to regenerate these differentiated cell types. Age-associated dysregulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) immune system has been well documented. Our previous studies showed that impaired mucosal immunity in the GI tract occurs earlier during agingthan is seen in the systemic compartment. In this study, we examined the potential of AMSCs to restore the GI mucosal immune system in aged mice. Aged (>18 mo old) mice were adoptively transferred with AMSCs. Two weeks later, mice were orally immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) three times at weekly intervals. Seven days after the final immunization, when fecal extract samples and plasma were subjected to OVA- and CT-B-specific ELISA, elevated levels of mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and plasma IgG antibody (Ab) responses were noted in aged mouse recipients. Similar results were also seen aged mice which received AMSCs at one year of age. When cytokine production was examined, OVA-stimulated Peyer’s patch CD4+ T cells produced increased levels of IL-4. Further, CD4+ T cells from the lamina propria revealed elevated levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ production. In contrast, aged mice without AMSC transfer showed essentially no OVA- or CT-B-specific mucosal SIgA or plasma IgG Ab or cytokine responses. Of importance, fecal extracts from AMSC transferred aged mice showed neutralization activity to CT intoxication. These results suggest that AMSCs can restore impaired mucosal immunity in the GI tract of aged mice. PMID:26840058

  3. A Twin Study of Spatial and Non-Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremen, William S.; Mai, Tuan; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Blankfeld, Howard M.; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Lyons, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed alternation and object alternation are classic spatial and non-spatial delayed response tasks. We tested 632 middle-aged male veteran twins on variants of these tasks in order to compare test difficulty, measure their inter-correlation, test order effects, and estimate heritabilities (proportion of observed variance due to genetic…

  4. Struggling Reader to Struggling Reader: High School Students' Responses to a Cross-Age Tutoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Patricia O.; Elliott, Lori N.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the perceptions and responses of struggling ninth-grade readers who are teaching reading to struggling second- and third-grade students in a cross-age tutoring program. The program was designed to overcome the entrenched, negative affective barriers that older students often bring to the required reading class by…

  5. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  6. Response of the Elderly to Disaster: An Age-Stratified Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Robert; Klenow, Daniel J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of age on elderly tornado victims' (N=62) responses to stress effects. Compared to younger victims (N=240), the elderly did not suffer disproportionate material losses, but were more likely to be injured and have a death in the household. Elderly victims had a lower incidene of emotional and family problems. (Author/JAC)

  7. Norms of Filial Responsibility for Aging Parents across Time and Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Daphna; Silverstein, Merril

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examined the normative expectation that adult children should be responsible for the care of their aging parents, and how this norm changes over the adult life span, across several decades of historical time, in relation to generational position in families, and between successive generations. Analyses were performed using 4…

  8. Are There Age-Related Differences in the Ability to Learn Configural Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rachel; Freedberg, Michael; Hazeltine, Eliot; Voss, Michelle W.

    2015-01-01

    Age is often associated with a decline in cognitive abilities that are important for maintaining functional independence, such as learning new skills. Many forms of motor learning appear to be relatively well preserved with age, while learning tasks that involve associative binding tend to be negatively affected. The current study aimed to determine whether age differences exist on a configural response learning task, which includes aspects of motor learning and associative binding. Young (M = 24 years) and older adults (M = 66.5 years) completed a modified version of a configural learning task. Given the requirement of associative binding in the configural relationships between responses, we predicted older adults would show significantly less learning than young adults. Older adults demonstrated lower performance (slower reaction time and lower accuracy). However, contrary to our prediction, older adults showed similar rates of learning as indexed by a configural learning score compared to young adults. These results suggest that the ability to acquire knowledge incidentally about configural response relationships is largely unaffected by cognitive aging. The configural response learning task provides insight into the task demands that constrain learning abilities in older adults. PMID:26317773

  9. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  10. Age differences in neural response to stereotype threat and resiliency for self-referenced information.

    PubMed

    Colton, Gabriel; Leshikar, Eric D; Gutchess, Angela H

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of cortical midline regions to stereotype threat and resiliency, we compared age groups in an event-related functional MRI study. During scanning, 17 younger and 16 older adults judged whether words stereotypical of aging and control words described them. Judging stereotype words versus control words revealed higher activations in posterior midline regions associated with self-referencing, including the precuneus, for older adults compared to younger adults. While heightening salience of stereotypes can evoke a threat response, detrimentally affecting performance, invoking stereotypes can also lead to a phenomenon called resilience, where older adults use those stereotypes to create downward social-comparisons to "other" older adults and elevate their own self-perception. In an exploration of brain regions underlying stereotype threat responses as well as resilience responses, we found significant activation in older adults for threat over resilient responses in posterior midline regions including the precuneus, associated with self-reflective thought, and parahippocampal gyrus, implicated in autobiographical memory. These findings have implications for understanding how aging stereotypes may affect the engagement of regions associated with contextual and social processing of self-relevant information, indicating ways in which stereotype threat can affect the engagement of neural resources with age.

  11. Regrowth after skeletal muscle atrophy is impaired in aged rats, despite similar responses in signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    White, Jena R.; Confides, Amy L.; Moore-Reed, Stephanie; Hoch, Johanna M.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regrowth after atrophy is impaired in the aged and in this study we hypothesized that this can be explained by a blunted response of signaling pathways and cellular processes during reloading after hind limb suspension in muscles from old rats. Male Brown Norway Fisher 344 rats at 6 (young) and 32 (old) months of age were subjected to normal ambulatory conditions (amb), hind limb suspension for 14 days (HS), and HS followed by reloading through normal ambulation for 14 days (RE); soleus muscles were used for analysis of intracellular signaling pathways and cellular processes. Soleus muscle regrowth was blunted in old compared to young rats which coincided with a recovery of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in young but not old. However, the response to reloading for p-Akt, p-p70s6k and p-GSK3β protein abundance was similar between muscles from young and old rats, even though main effects for age indicate an increase in activation of this protein synthesis pathway in the aged. Similarly, MAFbx mRNA levels in soleus muscle from old rats recovered to the same extent as in the young, while Murf-1 was unchanged. mRNA abundance of autophagy markers Atg5 and Atg7 showed an identical response in muscle from old compared to young rats, but beclin did not. Autophagic flux was not changed at either age at the measured time point. Apoptosis was elevated in soleus muscle from old rats particularly with HS, but recovered in HSRE and these changes were not associated with differences in caspase-3, -8 or-9 activity in any group. Protein abundance of apoptosis repressor with caspase-recruitment domain (ARC), cytosolic EndoG, as well as cytosolic and nuclear apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) were lower in muscle from old rats, and there was no age-related difference in the response to atrophy or regrowth. Soleus muscles from old rats had a higher number of ED2 positive macrophages in all groups and these decreased with HS, but recovered in HSRE in the old, while no

  12. Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

  13. Constitutive modelling of evolving flow anisotropy including distortional hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryga, Michael P.; Vladimirov, Ivaylo N.; Reese, Stefanie

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents a new constitutive model for anisotropic metal plasticity that takes into account the expansion or contraction (isotropic hardening), translation (kinematic hardening) and change of shape (distortional hardening) of the yield surface. The experimentally observed region of high curvature ('nose') on the yield surface in the loading direction and flattened shape in the reverse loading direction are modelled here by means of the concept of directional distortional hardening. The modelling of directional distortional hardening is accomplished by means of an evolving fourth-order tensor. The applicability of the model is illustrated by fitting experimental subsequent yield surfaces at finite plastic deformation. Comparisons with test data for aluminium low and high work hardening alloys display a good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data.

  14. Aging of the rat adrenocortical cell: response to ACTH and cyclic AMP in vitro.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Carsia, R V

    1983-03-01

    To study intrinsic age-related changes in adrenocortical steroid production, cells isolated from rats of different ages (3 to 24 months) were used. Acute (2 hour) corticosterone production in response to stimulation by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) was measured by radioimmunoassay. With age, adrenocortical cells lose much of their ability to produce corticosterone in the absence or presence of ACTH or cAMP. The loss is progressive from 6 to 24 months of age. Analysis of the data suggests that from 6 to 12 months, an intracellular steroidogenic lesion develops; in addition there may be a loss in ACTH receptors on the plasma membrane. After 12 months these defects increase and are accompanied by a decrease in receptor sensitivity to ACTH.

  15. Donkey and goat milk intake and modulation of the human aged immune response.

    PubMed

    Amati, L; Marzulli, G; Martulli, M; Tafaro, A; Jirillo, F; Pugliese, V; Martemucci, G; D'Alessandro, A G; Jirillo, E

    2010-01-01

    In a group of 14 healthy aged subjects, donkey and goat milk was administered respectively, for a period of one month. Cytokine profile [interleukin (IL)-12, IL-10, IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha] was assessed before and after milk intake by means of a cytometric bead array test. Data demonstrated that IL-12 was undetectable, while IL-10, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were released in very low amounts. Quite interestingly, IL-8 was increased by donkey milk administration, while same cytokine was dramatically decreased following goat milk intake. Same pattern of response was noted with IL-6 even if levels of these cytokine were lower than those detectable in the case of IL-8. Taken together, these findings indicate that administration of donkey milk in the aged host is able to upregulate the immune response, while goat milk seems to reduce the exaggerated acute phase response in elderly.

  16. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.

  17. Specialized induction machines for deep surface and surface hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Andryushchenko, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    Designs of specialized hardening equipment for electrothermal hardening of parts using induction heating are described. These designs include induction machines for deep surface hardening of truck axle shafts, the outer and inner rings of railroad car axle roller bearings, camshafts, axle parts, and the side members of truck frames. This study and others help develop and transmit the technology for producing and introducing specialized induction machines which are effective in heat treatment of heavily loaded machine parts and consume less amounts of metal.

  18. Protection performance evaluation regarding imaging sensors hardened against laser dazzling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Gunnar; Koerber, Michael; Forster, Daniel; Eberle, Bernd

    2015-05-01

    Electro-optical imaging sensors are widely distributed and used for many different purposes, including civil security and military operations. However, laser irradiation can easily disturb their operational capability. Thus, an adequate protection mechanism for electro-optical sensors against dazzling and damaging is highly desirable. Different protection technologies exist now, but none of them satisfies the operational requirements without any constraints. In order to evaluate the performance of various laser protection measures, we present two different approaches based on triangle orientation discrimination on the one hand and structural similarity on the other hand. For both approaches, image analysis algorithms are applied to images taken of a standard test scene with triangular test patterns which is superimposed by dazzling laser light of various irradiance levels. The evaluation methods are applied to three different sensors: a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera, a high dynamic range camera with a nonlinear response curve, and a sensor hardened against laser dazzling.

  19. Metal Artifact Reduction for Polychromatic X-ray CT Based on a Beam-Hardening Corrector.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Suk; Hwang, Dosik; Seo, Jin Keun

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a new method to correct beam hardening artifacts caused by the presence of metal in polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT) without degrading the intact anatomical images. Metal artifacts due to beam-hardening, which are a consequence of X-ray beam polychromaticity, are becoming an increasingly important issue affecting CT scanning as medical implants become more common in a generally aging population. The associated higher-order beam-hardening factors can be corrected via analysis of the mismatch between measured sinogram data and the ideal forward projectors in CT reconstruction by considering the known geometry of high-attenuation objects. Without prior knowledge of the spectrum parameters or energy-dependent attenuation coefficients, the proposed correction allows the background CT image (i.e., the image before its corruption by metal artifacts) to be extracted from the uncorrected CT image. Computer simulations and phantom experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method to alleviate beam hardening artifacts. PMID:26390451

  20. Metal Artifact Reduction for Polychromatic X-ray CT Based on a Beam-Hardening Corrector.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Suk; Hwang, Dosik; Seo, Jin Keun

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a new method to correct beam hardening artifacts caused by the presence of metal in polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT) without degrading the intact anatomical images. Metal artifacts due to beam-hardening, which are a consequence of X-ray beam polychromaticity, are becoming an increasingly important issue affecting CT scanning as medical implants become more common in a generally aging population. The associated higher-order beam-hardening factors can be corrected via analysis of the mismatch between measured sinogram data and the ideal forward projectors in CT reconstruction by considering the known geometry of high-attenuation objects. Without prior knowledge of the spectrum parameters or energy-dependent attenuation coefficients, the proposed correction allows the background CT image (i.e., the image before its corruption by metal artifacts) to be extracted from the uncorrected CT image. Computer simulations and phantom experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method to alleviate beam hardening artifacts.

  1. The effect of aluminum on the work hardening and wear resistance of hadfield manganese steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, B. K.; Subramanyam, D. K.; Leslie, W. C.

    1987-09-01

    A study has been made of the work-hardening and wear resistance of aluminum-modified Hadfield manganese steels ranging in composition from 1.00 to 1.75 Pct carbon and from 0.0 to 4.0 Pct aluminum. Aluminum additions reduced carbon activity and diffusivity in austenites of Hadfield’s composition, increasing the metastable solubility of carbon in Hadfield steel. Aluminum additions inhibited mechanical twinning and, by inference, increased the stacking fault energy of austenite. Increasing carbon in solution in austenite expanded the temperature range over which dynamic strain aging and rapid work hardening occurred. Simultaneous aluminum additions and increased carbon content increased the work-hardening rate and high-stress abrasion resistance of Hadfield steel, but there was an optimum aluminum content beyond which both declined. Maximum work-hardening rate was exhibited by an alloy containing nominally 1.75 Pct C, 13.5 Pct Mn, and 1.3 Pct Al. Improved high-stress abrasion resistance was also found in an alloy containing nominally 1.00 Pct C, 13.5 Pct Mn, and 4.0 Pct Al.

  2. Enabling Strain Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenlis, A; Cai, W

    2006-12-20

    Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling strain hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic strain.

  3. Expecting the Unexpected: Radiation Hardened Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Mehlitz, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation induced Single Event Effects (SEEs) are a serious problem for spacecraft flight software, potentially leading to a complete loss of mission. Conventional risk mitigation has been focused on hardware, leading to slow, expensive and outdated on-board computing devices, increased power consumption and launch mass. Our approach is to look at SEEs from a software perspective, and to explicitly design flight software so that it can detect and correct the majority of SEES. Radiation hardened flight software will reduce the significant residual residual risk for critical missions and flight phases, and enable more use of inexpensive and fast COTS hardware.

  4. Effect of age on the hemodynamic and sympathetic responses at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Lalande, Sophie; Sawicki, Carolyn P; Baker, Jacquie R; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2014-01-15

    Cardiac and peripheral vasomotor factors contribute to the rapid pressor response at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise. We tested the hypothesis that age enhances the sympathetic and vasoconstrictor response at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise so that the pressor response is maintained, despite a diminished cardiac function. Twelve young and twelve older (24 ± 3 and 63 ± 8 yr) individuals performed 20-s isometric handgrip exercise at 30, 40, or 50% of maximal voluntary contraction force. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was measured using microneurography. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (Q) were assessed continuously by finger plethysmography and total peripheral resistance was calculated. MAP increased with the onset of handgrip; this increase was associated with handgrip intensity and was similar in both groups. Heart rate and Q increased with increasing handgrip intensity in both groups, but increases were greater in young vs. older individuals (age × handgrip intensity interaction, P < 0.05). MSNA burst frequency increased (P < 0.01), while MSNA burst incidence tended to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing handgrip intensity in both groups. The change in MSNA between baseline and handgrip, for both frequency and incidence, increased with increasing handgrip intensity for both groups. There was no effect of handgrip intensity or age on total peripheral resistance. The smaller heart rate and Q response during the first 20 s of handgrip exercise in older individuals was not accompanied by a greater sympathetic activation or vasoconstrictor response. However, increases in MAP were similar between groups, indicating that the pressor response at the onset of handgrip exercise is preserved with aging.

  5. Technology Developments in Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Howell, Joe T.

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project consists of a series of tasks designed to develop and mature a broad spectrum of radiation hardened and low temperature electronics technologies. Three approaches are being taken to address radiation hardening: improved material hardness, design techniques to improve radiation tolerance, and software methods to improve radiation tolerance. Within these approaches various technology products are being addressed including Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA), MEMS, Serial Processors, Reconfigurable Processors, and Parallel Processors. In addition to radiation hardening, low temperature extremes are addressed with a focus on material and design approaches. System level applications for the RHESE technology products are discussed.

  6. In vitro age dependent response of macrophages to micro and nano titanium dioxide particles.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Marcos E; Sittner, Maximiliano; Cabrini, Rómulo L; Guglielmotti, María B; Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R

    2015-02-01

    As a result of corrosion, microparticles (MP) and/or nanoparticles (NP) can be released from the metallic implants surface into the bioenvironment. The biological response to these particles depends not only on the physico-chemical properties of the particles but also on host factors, such as age. Macrophages have attracted wide concern in biomedicine. The aim of this investigation was to study the age related biological response of macrophages to TiO2 -MP and NP in vitro. Alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from young and senescent rats were cultured and exposed to TiO2 -MP and NP. Cell metabolism, superoxide anion (O2 (-) ) and nitric oxide (NO) generation, and cytokine release (IL-6, TNFα, IL-10) were measured. Cell metabolism was not affected by particle exposure. O2 (-) and NO generation increased in a dose dependent manner. A marked increase on IL-6 release was found in the young-AM subpopulation exposed to TiO2 -MP. Conversely, both particle sizes induced a dose dependent release of TNFα in senescent-AM. Only the highest concentration of TiO2 -particles caused a significant increase in IL-10 release in AM-cultures. These observations lend strong support to the suggestion that cellular response of macrophages to TiO2 -particles is age dependent. The biological effect of the particles would seem to be more deleterious in the senescent age-group.

  7. Olfactory and behavioural responses of tabanid horseflies to octenol, phenols and aged horse urine.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, F; Manon, S; Puech, L; Buatois, B; Dormont, L; Jay-Robert, P

    2014-06-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of females of two tabanid species, Tabanus bromius L. and Atylotus quadrifarius (Loew) (Diptera: Tabanidae), to ammonia, octenol (1-octen-3-ol), phenols and aged horse urine were compared. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses in both species to octenol, 4-methylphenol (4MP), 3-propylphenol (3PP) and a phenol mixture (4MP and 3PP at a ratio of 16 : 1) increased in a dose-dependent fashion. The most effective stimulus was 4MP and synergism between the two phenols may exist. Aged horse urine also elicited strong EAG responses in both species. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, we identified 29 compounds in horse urine, which included, in particular, ketones, fatty alcohols and phenols, among which 4MP was the most abundant component (~ 80%). Trapping experiments were carried out using Nzi traps baited with various odours. Octenol and the phenol mixture in combination with ammonia increased catches of tabanids by 1.8-2.8 times relative to ammonia alone. Aged horse urine increased catches of T. bromius and A. quadrifarius by 2.2 and 4.1 times, respectively. The high attractiveness of aged horse urine, especially for A. quadrifarius, is not likely to derive from 4MP alone, but from the mixture of various active compounds used in host location. PMID:24188243

  8. Age-related impairment of humoral response to influenza is associated with changes in antigen specific T follicular helper cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Julie S; Masters, April R; Hopkins, Jacob W; Haynes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses are essential for generation of protective humoral immunity during influenza infection. Aging has a profound impact on CD4+ T cell function and humoral immunity, yet the impact of aging on antigen specific TFH responses remains unclear. Influenza specific TFH cells are generated in similar numbers in young and aged animals during infection, but TFH cells from aged mice exhibit significant differences, including reduced expression of ICOS and elevated production of IL-10 and IFNγ, which potentially impairs interaction with cognate B cells. Also, more influenza specific T cells in aged mice have a regulatory phenotype, which could contribute to the impaired TFH function. Adoptive transfer studies with young T cells demonstrated that TGF-β1 in the aged environment can drive increased regulatory T cell accumulation. Aging and the aged environment thus impact antigen specific TFH cell function and formation, which contribute to reduced protective humoral responses. PMID:27109638

  9. Aging and the Skeletal Muscle Angiogenic Response to Exercise in Women.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P; Kraus, Raymond M; Carrithers, John A; Garry, Joseph P; Hickner, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    Whether aging lowers skeletal muscle basal capillarization and angiogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the effects of aging on skeletal muscle capillarization, eight young (YW) and eight aged (AW) women completed 8 weeks of exercise training. The response and relationships of muscle capillarization, interstitial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvascular blood flow to aerobic exercise training were investigated. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained before and after exercise training for the measurement of capillarization. Muscle interstitial VEGF protein and microvascular blood flow were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at PRE, 1-WK, and 8-WKS by microdialysis. Exercise training increased (20%-25%) capillary contacts of type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in YW and AW. Interstitial VEGF protein was higher in AW than YW at rest and was higher in YW than AW during exercise independent of training status. Differences in muscle capillarization were not explained by secreted VEGF nor were differences in VEGF explained by microvascular blood flow. These results confirm that aging (57-76 years age range) does not impair the muscle angiogenic response to exercise training, although sex differences may exist in similarly trained women and men.

  10. Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Berry, Jane M; Freeman, Sara P

    2014-12-01

    Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging literature on vocabulary tests is simply that older adults tend to score higher than younger adults, and not that older adults possess more of a common ability.

  11. Age and skeletal sites affect BMP-2 responsiveness of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Osyczka, Anna Maria; Damek-Poprawa, Monika; Wojtowicz, Aleksandra; Akintoye, Sunday O

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contain osteoprogenitors responsive to stimulation by osteogenic growth factors like bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). When used as grafts, BMSCs can be harvested from different skeletal sites such as axial, appendicular, and orofacial bones, but the lower therapeutic efficacy of BMPs on BMSCs-responsiveness in humans compared to animal models may be due partly to effects of skeletal site and age of donor. We previously reported superior differentiation capacity and osteogenic properties of orofacial BMSCs relative to iliac crest BMSCs in same individuals. This study tested the hypothesis that recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) stimulates human BMSCs differently based on age and skeletal site of harvest. Adult maxilla, mandible, and iliac crest BMSCs from same individuals and pediatric iliac crest BMSCs were comparatively assessed for BMP-2 responsiveness under serum-containing and serum-free insulin-supplemented culture conditions. Adult orofacial BMSCs were more BMP-2-responsive than iliac crest BMSCs based on higher gene transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteogenic transcription factors MSX-2 and Osterix in serum-free insulin-containing medium. Pediatric iliac crest BMSCs were more responsive to rhBMP-2 than adult iliac crest BMSCs based on higher expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin in serum-containing medium. Unlike orofacial BMSCs, MSX-2 and Osterix transcripts were similarly expressed by adult and pediatric iliac crest BMSCs in response to rhBMP-2. These data demonstrate that age and skeletal site-specific differences exist in BMSC osteogenic responsiveness to BMP-2 stimulation and suggest that MSX-2 and Osterix may be potential regulatory transcription factors in BMP-mediated osteogenesis of adult orofacial cells.

  12. The Care Of The Aged: A Responsibility & Challenge For The Family Physician

    PubMed Central

    de Buda, Yvonne

    1979-01-01

    The population increase in the over 65 age group creates a challenge and responsibility for family physicians in the continuing and comprehensive care of the aged. Family physicians have to assess the medical, psychological and social needs of the elderly and provide them with the best care available by utilizing local facilities, community resources, health care personnel, and whenever possible, the cooperation of the patient's family. Medical students, family practice trainees and other health professionals require the appropriate training. New trends in the care of the elderly and medical education geared towards this task are discussed. PMID:20469307

  13. Contrasting neural effects of aging on proactive and reactive response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bloemendaal, Mirjam; Zandbelt, Bram; Wegman, Joost; van de Rest, Ondine; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2016-10-01

    Two distinct forms of response inhibition may underlie observed deficits in response inhibition in aging. We assessed whether age-related neurocognitive impairments in response inhibition reflect deficient reactive inhibition (outright stopping) or also deficient proactive inhibition (anticipatory response slowing), which might be particularly evident with high information load. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in young (n = 25, age range 18-32) and older adults (n = 23, 61-74) with a stop-signal task. Relative to young adults, older adults exhibited impaired reactive inhibition (i.e., longer stop-signal reaction time) and increased blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal for successful versus unsuccessful inhibition in the left frontal cortex and cerebellum. Furthermore, older adults also exhibited impaired proactive slowing, but only as a function of information load. This load-dependent behavioral deficit was accompanied by a failure to increase blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal under high information load in lateral frontal cortex, presupplementary motor area and striatum. Our findings suggest that inhibitory deficits in older adults are caused both by reduced stopping abilities and by diminished preparation capacity during information overload. PMID:27460154

  14. Effects of aging on switching the response direction of pro- and antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Olk, Bettina; Jin, Yu

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of task switching between pro- and antisaccades and switching the direction of these saccades (response switching) on performance of younger and older adults. Participants performed single-task blocks, in which only pro- or only antisaccades had to be made as well as mixed-task blocks, in which pro- and antisaccades were required. Analysis of specific task switch effects in the mixed-task blocks showed switch costs for error rates for prosaccades for both groups, suggesting that antisaccade task rules persisted and affected the following prosaccade. The comparison between single- and mixed-task blocks showed that mixing costs were either equal or smaller for older than younger participants, indicating that the older participants were well able to keep task sets in working memory. The most prominent age difference that was observed for response switching was that for the older but not younger group task switching and response switching interacted, resulting in less errors when two consecutive antisaccades were made in the same direction. This finding is best explained with a facilitation of these consecutive antisaccades. The present study clearly demonstrated the impact of response switching and a difference between age groups, underlining the importance of considering this factor when investigating pro- and antisaccades, especially antisaccades, and when investigating task switching and aging. PMID:21046366

  15. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  16. Contrasting neural effects of aging on proactive and reactive response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bloemendaal, Mirjam; Zandbelt, Bram; Wegman, Joost; van de Rest, Ondine; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2016-10-01

    Two distinct forms of response inhibition may underlie observed deficits in response inhibition in aging. We assessed whether age-related neurocognitive impairments in response inhibition reflect deficient reactive inhibition (outright stopping) or also deficient proactive inhibition (anticipatory response slowing), which might be particularly evident with high information load. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in young (n = 25, age range 18-32) and older adults (n = 23, 61-74) with a stop-signal task. Relative to young adults, older adults exhibited impaired reactive inhibition (i.e., longer stop-signal reaction time) and increased blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal for successful versus unsuccessful inhibition in the left frontal cortex and cerebellum. Furthermore, older adults also exhibited impaired proactive slowing, but only as a function of information load. This load-dependent behavioral deficit was accompanied by a failure to increase blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal under high information load in lateral frontal cortex, presupplementary motor area and striatum. Our findings suggest that inhibitory deficits in older adults are caused both by reduced stopping abilities and by diminished preparation capacity during information overload.

  17. Age of Diagnosis Influences Serologic Responses in Children with Crohn Disease: A Possible Clue to Etiology?

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, James; Kugathasan, Subra; Dubinsky, Marla; Mei, Ling; Crandall, Wallace; LeLeiko, Neal; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Rosh, Joel; Evans, Jonathan; Mack, David; Otley, Anthony; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Bahar, Ron; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Silber, Gary; Quiros, J. Antonio; Wrobel, Iwona; Nebel, Justin; Landers, Carol; Picornell, Yoanna; Targan, Stephan; Lerer, Trudy; Hyams, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is often associated with antibodies to microbial antigens. Differences in immune response may offer clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. AIM To examine the influence of age at diagnosis on serologic response in children with CD. METHODS Data were drawn from 3 North American multicenter pediatric IBD research consortia. At or shortly after diagnosis, pANCA, ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, anti-ompC and anti-CBir1 were assayed. Results were compared as a function of age at CD diagnosis (0–7 years vs 8–15 years). RESULTS 705 children (79 <8 yr of age at diagnosis, 626 ≥8yr) were studied. Small bowel CD was less frequent in the younger group (48.7% vs 72.6%; p<0.0001) while colonic involvement was comparable (91.0% vs 86.5%). ASCA IgA and IgG were seen in <20% of those 0–7 yr compared to nearly 40% of those 8–15 yr (p<0.001), while anti-CBir1 was more frequent in the younger children (66% vs 54%, p<0.05). Anti-CBir1 detected a significant number of children in both age groups who otherwise were serologically negative. Both age at diagnosis and site of CD involvement were independently associated with expression of ASCA and anti-CBir1. CONCLUSIONS Compared to children 8–15 yr of age at diagnosis, those 0–7 yr are more likely to express anti-CBir1 but only half as likely to express ASCA. These age-associated differences in antimicrobial seropositivity suggest that there may be different, and as yet unrecognized, genetic, immunologic and/or microbial factors leading to CD in the youngest children. PMID:19107777

  18. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-03-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting /sup 3/H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities.

  19. Thermogenesis and mitochondrial GDP binding with age in response to the novel agonist CGP-12177A.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, P J; Matheny, M; Borst, S E

    1992-02-01

    The ability to regulate body temperature diminishes with age in both humans and rodents. To investigate whether attenuation of sympathetically activated thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) may account for the loss of thermoregulation with age, we assessed O2 consumption and body temperature in response to norepinephrine and the specific BAT beta-adrenergic agonist CGP-12177A in 6-, 18-, and 24-mo-old rats. In addition, the effects of this agonist on interscapular BAT mitochondrial GDP binding in young and senescent rats were determined. CGP-12177A rapidly induced an elevation in O2 consumption, which peaked at 25 min, followed by a decline over 4 h. The peak increase in O2 consumption over baseline and the cumulative 4-h response were decreased with age [P less than 0.02, analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. CGP-12177A induced an increase in body temperature that paralleled but appropriately lagged behind the increase in O2 consumption and that was decreased with age (P less than 0.02, ANOVA). The norepinephrine-induced increase in O2 consumption was also reduced with age but was not paralleled by a change in body temperature and was associated with a four- to fivefold increase in physical activity. In young rats CGP-12177A increased the number of available BAT mitochondrial GDP binding sites at 20 and 60 min post-injection, but in senescent rats GCP-12177A was unable to increase GDP binding. These data indicate that CGP-12177A is a novel agonist for BAT thermogenesis. With age there is a reduced capacity for thermogenesis that involves a failure to increase GDP binding, either due to a diminished amount of uncoupling protein with age or a failure to unmask reserve GDP binding sites.

  20. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Lo, Amy Cheuk Yin; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming; Shih, Kendrick Co

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe and compare the differences in electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats and to better understand the effect of age on retinal histology and function. METHODS The electroretinographic responses of two different age groups of adult DA rats were compared. Animals were divided into younger adult DA rats 10-12wk (n=8) and older adult DA rats 17-19wk (n=8). Full field electroretinography (ERG) was recorded simultaneously from both eyes after dark adaption and light adaption and parameters including the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR), negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR), scotopic a-wave, b-wave, photopic a-wave, b-wave and photopic negative response (PhNR) were compared between groups. RESULTS The older adult rats displayed lower stimulation thresholds of the STRs (pSTR and nSTR) and higher amplitudes of pSTR, scotopic a-wave and b-wave, photopic b-wave and PhNR amplitudes, with shorter implicit times. Photopic a-wave amplitudes were however higher in the younger adult rats. CONCLUSION In summary, for the rod system, photoreceptor, bipolar cell and RGC activity was enhanced in the older adult rats. For the cone system, RGC and bipolar cell activity was enhanced, while photoreceptor activity was depressed in the older adult rats. Such age-related selective modification of retinal cell function needs to be considered when conducting ophthalmic research in adult rats. PMID:26558198

  1. Hardened Client Platforms for Secure Internet Banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchi, C.; Zakhidov, S.

    We review the security of e-banking platforms with particular attention to the exploitable attack vectors of three main attack categories: Man-in-the-Middle, Man-in-the-PC and Man-in-the-Browser. It will be shown that the most serious threats come from combination attacks capable of hacking any transaction without the need to control the authentication process. Using this approach, the security of any authentication system can be bypassed, including those using SecureID Tokens, OTP Tokens, Biometric Sensors and Smart Cards. We will describe and compare two recently proposed e-banking platforms, the ZTIC and the USPD, both of which are based on the use of dedicated client devices, but with diverging approaches with respect to the need of hardening the Web client application. It will be shown that the use of a Hardened Browser (or H-Browser) component is critical to force attackers to employ complex and expensive techniques and to reduce the strength and variety of social engineering attacks down to physiological fraud levels.

  2. Photothermal characterization of grind-hardened steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prekel, H.; Ament, Ch.; Goch, G.

    2003-01-01

    Grind hardening is a promising production process which combines grinding and hardening within one step. Due to the fact that many material and process parameters partially influence the properties of the workpieces in a nonlinear way, it is difficult to predict for instance the surface hardness and hardness penetration depth. In this study, photothermal radiometry is used as an approach to determine the hardness penetration depth. Photothermal phase signals have been measured as a function of frequency. First measurements showed a strong influence of surface roughness, causing phase signal maxima at unexpected high frequencies (f>60 Hz). After finishing of the surfaces, the maxima of phase signals shifted toward lower frequencies (f<10 Hz). In an attempt to extract a preliminary calibration curve, the measured phase values of each sample were added and correlated to the hardness penetration depth. The resulting curve reveals a good correlation between phase sum and the hardness penetration depth. Further research is necessary to collect more experimental data and to support the current results by theoretical models.

  3. Ageing and thermal responses during passive heat exposure: sweating and sensory aspects.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Andre; Candas, Victor

    2007-05-01

    The present study investigated the causes of decreases in sweating capacities with age. The hypothesis was that the decrease in local sweat rate in older individuals was associated with deterioration in thermal cutaneous receptor responses leading to weaker signals to the thermoregulatory center (i.e. the hypothalamus). Fifteen older (>60 years), 15 middle-aged (40-50 years) and 15 young (20-30 years) men were exposed for 90 min to a 40 degrees C, 14 degrees C dew point environment. The thermal detection threshold was measured at 9 different cutaneous locations. The results showed a reduced sweat output with age, and that older and middle-aged subjects had higher core and skin temperatures than young subjects. In addition, there was a sensory thermal sensitivity decrease and a correlation between thermal sensitivity and local sweat rate in older and middle-aged subjects, but not in young subjects. The data suggest that the age-related effects on thermoregulatory mechanisms reflect local skin changes rather than central alterations.

  4. Humoral immune responses are maintained with age in a long-lived ectotherm, the red-eared slider turtle.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Laura M; Clairardin, Sandrine G; Paitz, Ryan T; Hicke, Justin W; LaMagdeleine, Katie A; Vogel, Laura A; Bowden, Rachel M

    2013-02-15

    Aging is typically associated with a decrease in immune function. However, aging does not affect each branch of the immune system equally. Because of these varying effects of age on immune responses, aging could affect taxa differently based on how the particular taxon employs its resources towards different components of immune defense. An example of this is found in the humoral immune system. Specific responses tend to decrease with age while non-specific, natural antibody responses increase with age. Compared with mammals, reptiles of all ages have a slower and less robust humoral immune system. Therefore, they may invest more in non-specific responses and thus avoid the negative consequences of age on the immune system. We examined how the humoral immune system of reptiles is affected by aging and investigated the roles of non-specific, natural antibody responses and specific responses by examining several characteristics of antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the red-eared slider turtle. We found very little evidence of immunosenescence in the humoral immune system of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, which supports the idea that non-specific, natural antibody responses are an important line of defense in reptiles. Overall, this demonstrates that a taxon's immune strategy can influence how the immune system is affected by age.

  5. Effects of induction hardening and prior cold work on a microalloyed medium carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, J.L. ); Medlin, D.J. ); Krauss, G. )

    1999-08-01

    The torsional strength and microstructural response to induction hardening of a 10V45 steel with prior cold work was evaluated. The vanadium-microalloyed 1045 (10V45) steel was characterized in three conditions: as-hot-rolled, 18% cold-reduced, and 29% cold-reduced. Two of these evaluations, 10V45 as-hot-rolled and 10V45-18%, were subjected to stationary and progressive induction hardening to three nominal case depths: 2, 4, and 6 mm. All specimens were subsequently furnace tempered at 190 C for 1 h. The martensitic case microstructures contained residual lamellar carbides due to incomplete dissolution of the pearlitic carbides in the prior microstructure. Torsional overload strength, as measured by maximum torque capacity, is greatly increased by increasing case depth, and to a lesser extent by increasing prior cold work level. Maximum torque capacity ranges from 2520 to 3170 N[center dot]m, depending upon induction hardening processing. Changing induction hardening processing from stationary (single-shot) to progressive (scan) had little effect on torque capacity.

  6. Beam hardening correction for a cone-beam CT system and its effect on spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Fu, Guo-Tao; Sun, Cui-Li; Wang, Yan-Fang; Wei, Cun-Feng; Cao, Da-Quan; Que, Jie-Min; Tang, Xiao; Shi, Rong-Jian; Wei, Long; Yu, Zhong-Qiang

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we present a beam hardening correction (BHC) method in three-dimension space for a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system in a mono-material case and investigate its effect on the spatial resolution. Due to the polychromatic character of the X-ray spectrum used, cupping and streak artifacts called beam hardening artifacts arise in the reconstructed CT images, causing reduced image quality. In addition, enhanced edges are introduced in the reconstructed CT images because of the beam hardening effect. The spatial resolution of the CBCT system is calculated from the edge response function (ERF) on different planes in space. Thus, in the CT images with beam hardening artifacts, enhanced ERFs will be extracted to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF), obtaining a better spatial resolution that deviates from the real value. Reasonable spatial resolution can be obtained after reducing the artifacts. The 10% MTF value and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function with and without BHC are presented.

  7. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: The role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Blanchard Fields, Fredda

    2013-01-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (Charles, 2010) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examines how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults aged 18–81 (N=190). Results indicated older adults’ negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure three to six hours afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, nor any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. Implications of these results for emotion theories of aging are discussed. PMID:24364410

  8. A Computational Model of Inferior Colliculus Responses to Amplitude Modulated Sounds in Young and Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabang, Cal F.; Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Venkataraman, Yamini; Fisher, Zachery L.; Gardner, Stephanie M.; Bartlett, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) receives ascending excitatory and inhibitory inputs from multiple sources, but how these auditory inputs converge to generate IC spike patterns is poorly understood. Simulating patterns of in vivo spike train data from cellular and synaptic models creates a powerful framework to identify factors that contribute to changes in IC responses, such as those resulting in age-related loss of temporal processing. A conductance-based single neuron IC model was constructed, and its responses were compared to those observed during in vivo IC recordings in rats. IC spike patterns were evoked using amplitude-modulated tone or noise carriers at 20–40 dB above threshold and were classified as low-pass, band-pass, band-reject, all-pass, or complex based on their rate modulation transfer function tuning shape. Their temporal modulation transfer functions were also measured. These spike patterns provided experimental measures of rate, vector strength, and firing pattern for comparison with model outputs. Patterns of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic convergence to IC neurons were based on anatomical studies and generalized input tuning for modulation frequency. Responses of modeled ascending inputs were derived from experimental data from previous studies. Adapting and sustained IC intrinsic models were created, with adaptation created via calcium-activated potassium currents. Short-term synaptic plasticity was incorporated into the model in the form of synaptic depression, which was shown to have a substantial effect on the magnitude and time course of the IC response. The most commonly observed IC response sub-types were recreated and enabled dissociation of inherited response properties from those that were generated in IC. Furthermore, the model was used to make predictions about the consequences of reduction in inhibition for age-related loss of temporal processing due to a reduction in GABA seen anatomically with age. PMID:23129994

  9. Role of aortic input impedance in the decreased cardiovascular response to exercise with aging in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, F C; Weisfeldt, M L; Milnor, W R

    1981-01-01

    The diminished cardiac output response to exercise with advancing age may be attributable to intrinsic inability of the old ventricle to respond appropriately and/or to an additional loading imposed upon the ventricle by the aged vascular system. The steady (resistance) and pulsatile (characteristic impedance) load components together comprise the vascular load faced by the ejecting ventricle. To study the effect of exercise on both vascular components of load, the aortic input impedance was measured in chronically instrumented young and old beagle dogs during graded treadmill exercise before and after beta blockade. Ascending aortic flow was measured by a cuff electromagnetic flow probe, and pressure was measured by a high-fidelity semiconductor transducer. At low levels of exercise the old animals demonstrated a striking 20% increase in characteristic impedance and a 28% decrease in peripheral resistance with no increase in stroke volume. This vascular loading and limitation in stroke volume persisted across the higher exercise levels. In contrast, the young group demonstrated no increase in characteristic impedence, a progressive decrease in peripheral resistance, and a progressive increase in stroke volume across the same exercise levels. These age differences in vascular response and ventricular output were abolished by beta blockade. The groups did not demonstrate a difference in heart rate response, but the young had a greater increase in external left ventricular power than the old across exercise. These data demonstrated a profound difference in the response of young and old vasculature to exercise. At low and intermediate exercise levels the pulsatile vascular load appeared to be a major factor in the limitation of stroke volume in old dogs. At high levels of exercise, the limited exercise response in the old dog may be caused in part by a diminished inotropic responsiveness as well as by the vascular loading. PMID:7251864

  10. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age.

    PubMed

    Galbavy, William; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino; Liu, Lixin; Rebecchi, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC), and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month) naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days), or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3); whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical) were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however, did not

  11. Age-related changes of auditory brainstem responses in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chi-Wing; Navarro, Xochi; Engle, James R; Recanzone, Gregg H

    2015-07-01

    Nonhuman primates, compared with humans and rodents, have historically been far less used for studies of age-related hearing loss, primarily because of their long life span and high cost of maintenance. Strong similarities in genetics, anatomy, and neurophysiology of the auditory nervous system between humans and monkeys, however, could provide fruitful opportunities to enhance our understanding of hearing loss. The present study used a common, noninvasive technique for testing hearing sensitivity in humans, the auditory brainstem response (ABR), to assess the hearing of 48 rhesus macaques from 6 to 35 yr of age to clicks and tone stimuli between 0.5 and 16.0 kHz. Old monkeys, particularly those above 21.5 yr of age, had missing ABR waveforms at high frequencies. Regression analyses revealed that ABR threshold increased as a function of age at peaks II and IV simultaneously. In the suprathreshold hearing condition (70 dB peak sound pressure level), ABR-based audiograms similarly varied as a function of age such that old monkeys had smaller peak amplitudes and delayed latencies at low, middle, and high frequencies. Peripheral hearing differences remained a major influence associated with age-related changes in audiometric functions of old monkeys at a comparable sensation level across animals. The present findings suggest that hearing loss occurs in old monkeys across a wide range of frequencies and that these deficits increase in severity with age. Parallel to prior studies in monkeys, we found weak effects of sex on hearing, and future investigations are necessary to clarify its role in age-related hearing loss. PMID:25972589

  12. Age-related changes of auditory brainstem responses in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chi-Wing; Navarro, Xochi; Engle, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates, compared with humans and rodents, have historically been far less used for studies of age-related hearing loss, primarily because of their long life span and high cost of maintenance. Strong similarities in genetics, anatomy, and neurophysiology of the auditory nervous system between humans and monkeys, however, could provide fruitful opportunities to enhance our understanding of hearing loss. The present study used a common, noninvasive technique for testing hearing sensitivity in humans, the auditory brainstem response (ABR), to assess the hearing of 48 rhesus macaques from 6 to 35 yr of age to clicks and tone stimuli between 0.5 and 16.0 kHz. Old monkeys, particularly those above 21.5 yr of age, had missing ABR waveforms at high frequencies. Regression analyses revealed that ABR threshold increased as a function of age at peaks II and IV simultaneously. In the suprathreshold hearing condition (70 dB peak sound pressure level), ABR-based audiograms similarly varied as a function of age such that old monkeys had smaller peak amplitudes and delayed latencies at low, middle, and high frequencies. Peripheral hearing differences remained a major influence associated with age-related changes in audiometric functions of old monkeys at a comparable sensation level across animals. The present findings suggest that hearing loss occurs in old monkeys across a wide range of frequencies and that these deficits increase in severity with age. Parallel to prior studies in monkeys, we found weak effects of sex on hearing, and future investigations are necessary to clarify its role in age-related hearing loss. PMID:25972589

  13. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  14. Age-related differences in the pancreatic beta-cell response to hyperglycemia after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R K; Hernandez, J M; Williamson, D L; O'Gorman, D J; Evans, W J; Kirwan, J P

    1998-09-01

    Eccentric exercise (ECC) causes muscle damage, insulin resistance, and increased pancreatic beta-cell secretion in young individuals. However, the effects of age on the pancreatic beta-cell response to glucose after ECC are unknown. Hyperglycemic clamps (180 min, 10.0 mM) were performed on eight young (age 22 +/- 1 yr) and eight older (age 66 +/- 2 yr) healthy sedentary males without exercise (CONT) and 48 h after ECC. ECC increased (P < 0.02) muscle soreness ratings and plasma creatine kinase concentrations in both groups. Insulin and C-peptide secretions were similar between young and older subjects during CONT clamps. ECC increased (P < 0.05) first-phase (0-10 min) C-peptide area under the curve in young (4.2 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.7 +/- 0.6 nM . min; ECC vs. CONT, respectively) but not in older subjects (3.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.7 nM . min; ECC vs. CONT), with significant group differences (P < 0.02). Indeed, ECC repressed (P < 0.05) first-phase peak C-peptide concentrations in older subjects (0. 93 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.12 +/- 0.11 nM; ECC vs. CONT). Moreover, first-phase C-peptide-to-insulin molar ratios suggest age-related differences (P < 0.05) in insulin/C-peptide clearance after ECC. Furthermore, the observed C-peptide response after ECC was related to abdominal adiposity [r = -0.62, P < 0.02, and r = -0.66, P < 0. 006, for first and second (10-180 min) phases, respectively]. In conclusion, older individuals did not exhibit the compensatory increase in beta-cell secretion observed among young individuals after ECC. Thus, with increasing age, the pancreatic beta-cell may be less responsive to the physiological stress associated with ECC. PMID:9725813

  15. Blunted hypertrophic response in aged skeletal muscle is associated with decreased ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Tyler J.; Lee, Jonah D.; England, Jonathan H.; Chaillou, Thomas; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of skeletal muscle to hypertrophy in response to a growth stimulus is known to be compromised in older individuals. We hypothesized that a change in the expression of protein-encoding genes in response to a hypertrophic stimulus contributes to the blunted hypertrophy observed with aging. To test this hypothesis, we determined gene expression by microarray analysis of plantaris muscle from 5- and 25-mo-old mice subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of synergist ablation to induce hypertrophy. Overall, 1,607 genes were identified as being differentially expressed across the time course between young and old groups; however, the difference in gene expression was modest, with cluster analysis showing a similar pattern of expression between the two groups. Despite ribosome protein gene expression being higher in the aged group, ribosome biogenesis was significantly blunted in the skeletal muscle of aged mice compared with mice young in response to the hypertrophic stimulus (50% vs. 2.5-fold, respectively). The failure to upregulate pre-47S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression in muscle undergoing hypertrophy of old mice indicated that rDNA transcription by RNA polymerase I was impaired. Contrary to our hypothesis, the findings of the study suggest that impaired ribosome biogenesis was a primary factor underlying the blunted hypertrophic response observed in skeletal muscle of old mice rather than dramatic differences in the expression of protein-encoding genes. The diminished increase in total RNA, pre-47S rRNA, and 28S rRNA expression in aged muscle suggest that the primary dysfunction in ribosome biogenesis occurs at the level of rRNA transcription and processing. PMID:26048973

  16. Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2014-03-01

    Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cyclic fatigue loading (FL) on the microstructural strain response of SDFT fascicles from young and old horses. The data demonstrate two independent age-related mechanisms of fatigue failure; in young horses, FL caused low levels of matrix damage and decreased rotation. This suggests that loading causes alterations to the helix substructure, which may reduce their ability to recoil and recover. By contrast, fascicles from old horses, in which the helix is already compromised, showed greater evidence of matrix damage and suffer increased fibre sliding after FL, which may partially explain the age-related increase in tendinopathy. Elucidation of helix structure and the precise alterations occurring owing to both ageing and FL will help to develop appropriate preventative and repair strategies for tendinopathy.

  17. The Moderating Role of Age in Responses to Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jennifer G; Manika, Danae; Stout, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Age is an important factor that can influence processing of and response to health messages. Many studies examining evaluations of and responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) have incorporated age as a predictor variable, moderating variable, or sample criterion. However, findings have been inconsistent. This study attempts to add clarity to this body of research by assessing age differences in the antecedent factors of various DTCA outcomes. A multigroup structural equation modeling analysis revealed several significant differences in variable relationships between older (50+) and younger (<50) adults. Overall, older adults exhibited greater complexity in their consideration of DTCA than younger adults in terms of the sheer number of significant relationships within the model. In particular, trust in mediated health information sources and trust in one's physician appeared to be more relevant predictors for older adults. Trust in DTCA was also distinguished as having an inverse relationship with behavioral intentions among older adults while showing a straightforward positive association with attention among younger adults. Further analysis indicated that health status accounted for some but not all of the age differences. It is suggested that younger adults are more open to seeking additional information following DTCA exposure, whereas older adults remain ambivalent.

  18. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  19. Pathological gambling and age: differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment variables.

    PubMed

    González-Ibáñez, A; Mora, M; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ariza, A; Lourido-Ferreira, M R

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible differences in personality, psychopathology, and response to treatment in pathological gambling according to age. The sample, comprising 67 participants, was divided into three groups: 32.6% with ages ranging between 17 and 26 years, 31.3% between 27 and 43 years, and 35.8% over 44 years of age. The participants were administered the following tests, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI; Hathaway, S.R. & McKinley, J.C. (1943, 1961). Cuestionario de personalidad MMPI. Madrid Seccion de Estudios de TEA ed. 1970, 1975], sensation-seeking questionnaire [SSS; Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking; beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates], and the Symptom Check List Revised [SCL-90-R; Derogatis, L.R. (1977). Symptom check list-90 revised. Administration scoring and procedures manual. Baltimore]. All underwent a group treatment programme that was carried out in the Pathological Gambling Unit at Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge (CSUB), Teaching hospital, Barcelona, Spain. The findings show differences depending on age in the participants' personality and in psychopathology and in their response to treatment.

  20. The Moderating Role of Age in Responses to Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jennifer G; Manika, Danae; Stout, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Age is an important factor that can influence processing of and response to health messages. Many studies examining evaluations of and responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) have incorporated age as a predictor variable, moderating variable, or sample criterion. However, findings have been inconsistent. This study attempts to add clarity to this body of research by assessing age differences in the antecedent factors of various DTCA outcomes. A multigroup structural equation modeling analysis revealed several significant differences in variable relationships between older (50+) and younger (<50) adults. Overall, older adults exhibited greater complexity in their consideration of DTCA than younger adults in terms of the sheer number of significant relationships within the model. In particular, trust in mediated health information sources and trust in one's physician appeared to be more relevant predictors for older adults. Trust in DTCA was also distinguished as having an inverse relationship with behavioral intentions among older adults while showing a straightforward positive association with attention among younger adults. Further analysis indicated that health status accounted for some but not all of the age differences. It is suggested that younger adults are more open to seeking additional information following DTCA exposure, whereas older adults remain ambivalent. PMID:26312583

  1. β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in aging heart and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Nicola; Komici, Klara; Corbi, Graziamaria; Pagano, Gennaro; Furgi, Giuseppe; Rengo, Carlo; Femminella, Grazia D.; Leosco, Dario; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Elderly healthy individuals have a reduced exercise tolerance and a decreased left ventricle inotropic reserve related to increased vascular afterload, arterial-ventricular load mismatching, physical deconditioning and impaired autonomic regulation (the so called “β-adrenergic desensitization”). Adrenergic responsiveness is altered with aging and the age-related changes are limited to the β-adrenergic receptor density reduction and to the β-adrenoceptor-G-protein(s)-adenylyl cyclase system abnormalities, while the type and level of abnormalities change with species and tissues. Epidemiological studies have shown an high incidence and prevalence of heart failure in the elderly and a great body of evidence correlate the changes of β-adrenergic system with heart failure pathogenesis. In particular it is well known that: (a) levels of cathecolamines are directly correlated with mortality and functional status in heart failure, (b) β1-adrenergic receptor subtype is down-regulated in heart failure, (c) heart failure-dependent cardiac adrenergic responsiveness reduction is related to changes in G proteins activity. In this review we focus on the cardiovascular β-adrenergic changes involvement in the aging process and on similarities and differences between aging heart and heart failure. PMID:24409150

  2. Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cyclic fatigue loading (FL) on the microstructural strain response of SDFT fascicles from young and old horses. The data demonstrate two independent age-related mechanisms of fatigue failure; in young horses, FL caused low levels of matrix damage and decreased rotation. This suggests that loading causes alterations to the helix substructure, which may reduce their ability to recoil and recover. By contrast, fascicles from old horses, in which the helix is already compromised, showed greater evidence of matrix damage and suffer increased fibre sliding after FL, which may partially explain the age-related increase in tendinopathy. Elucidation of helix structure and the precise alterations occurring owing to both ageing and FL will help to develop appropriate preventative and repair strategies for tendinopathy. PMID:24402919

  3. Shifts in the carbohydrate, polyol, and amino acid pools during rapid cold-hardening and diapause-associated cold-hardening in flesh flies (Sarcophaga crassipalpis): a metabolomic comparison.

    PubMed

    Michaud, M Robert; Denlinger, David L

    2007-10-01

    Flesh flies can enhance their cold hardiness by entering a photoperiod-induced pupal diapause or by a temperature-induced rapid cold-hardening process. To determine whether the same or different metabolites are involved in these two responses, derivatized polar extracts from flesh flies subjected to these treatments were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). This metabolomic approach demonstrated that levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis (glycerol, glucose, alanine, pyruvate) were elevated by both treatments. Metabolites elevated uniquely in response to rapid cold-hardening include glutamine, cystathionine, sorbitol, and urea while levels of beta-alanine, ornithine, trehalose, and mannose levels were reduced. Rapid cold-hardening also uniquely perturbed the urea cycle. In addition to the elevated metabolites shared with rapid cold-hardening, leucine concentrations were uniquely elevated during diapause while levels of a number of other amino acids were reduced. Pools of two aerobic metabolic intermediates, fumarate and citrate, were reduced during diapause, indicating a reduction of Krebs cycle activity. Principal component analysis demonstrated that rapid cold-hardening and diapause are metabolically distinct from their untreated, non-diapausing counterparts. We discuss the possible contribution of each altered metabolite in enhancing the overall cold hardiness of the organism, as well as the efficacy of GC-MS metabolomics for investigating insect physiological systems.

  4. Aging related ER stress is not responsible for anabolic resistance in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chalil, Sreeda; Pierre, Nicolas; Bakker, Astrid D; Manders, Ralph J; Pletsers, Annelies; Francaux, Marc; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T; Deldicque, Louise

    2015-12-25

    Anabolic resistance reflects the inability of skeletal muscle to maintain protein mass by appropriate stimulation of protein synthesis. We hypothesized that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to anabolic resistance in skeletal muscle with aging. Muscles were isolated from adult (8 mo) and old (26 mo) mice and weighed. ER stress markers in each muscle were quantified, and the anabolic response to leucine was assessed by measuring the phosphorylation state of S6K1 in soleus and EDL using an ex vivo muscle model. Aging reduced the muscle-to-body weight ratio in soleus, gastrocnemius, and plantaris, but not in EDL and tibialis anterior. Compared to adult mice, the expression of ER stress markers BiP and IRE1α was higher in EDL, and phospho-eIF2α was higher in soleus and EDL of old mice. S6K1 response to leucine was impaired in soleus, but not in EDL, suggesting that anabolic resistance contributes to soleus weight loss in old mice. Pre-incubation with ER stress inducer tunicamycin before leucine stimulation increased S6K1 phosphorylation beyond the level reached by leucine alone. Since tunicamycin did not impair leucine-induced S6K1 response, and based on the different ER stress marker regulation patterns, ER stress is probably not involved in anabolic resistance in skeletal muscle with aging.

  5. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    RHESE covers a broad range of technology areas and products. - Radiation Hardened Electronics - High Performance Processing - Reconfigurable Computing - Radiation Environmental Effects Modeling - Low Temperature Radiation Hardened Electronics. RHESE has aligned with currently defined customer needs. RHESE is leveraging/advancing SOA space electronics, not duplicating. - Awareness of radiation-related activities through out government and industry allow advancement rather than duplication of capabilities.

  6. [Hardening of dental tissue by CO2 laser radiation].

    PubMed

    Aboites, V; Díaz, O; Cuevas, F

    1989-03-01

    A study was conducted to test the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on dental tissue. It was found that hardening of the dental tissue occurs. This was observed qualitatively by direct observation and by X-ray radiography. The hardening produced was also quantitatively measured using a hardness-meter on Rockwell scale.

  7. Hardening treatment of friction surfaces of ball journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlenko, A. O.; Davidov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the technology of finishing plasma hardening by the application of the multi-layer nanocoating Si-O-C-N system to harden the friction surfaces of the ball journal bearings. The authors of the paper have studied the applied wear-resistant anti-friction coating tribological characteristics, which determine the increase in wear resistance of the ball journal bearings.

  8. Age-Related Resistance in Arabidopsis Is a Developmentally Regulated Defense Response to Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Julianne V.; Zaton, Kasia; Sarkar, Raani; Cameron, Robin K.

    2002-01-01

    Age-related resistance (ARR) has been observed in a number of plant species; however, little is known about the biochemical or molecular mechanisms involved in this response. Arabidopsis becomes more resistant, or less susceptible, to virulent Pseudomonas syringae (pv tomato or maculicola) as plants mature (in planta bacterial growth reduction of 10- to 100-fold). An ARR-like response also was observed in response to certain environmental conditions that accelerate Arabidopsis development. ARR occurs in the Arabidopsis mutants pad3-1, eds7-1, npr1-1, and etr1-4, suggesting that ARR is a distinct defense response, unlike the induced systemic resistance or systemic acquired resistance responses. However, three salicylic acid (SA) accumulation-deficient plant lines, NahG, sid1, and sid2, did not exhibit ARR. A heat-stable antibacterial activity was detected in intercellular washing fluids in response to Pst inoculation in wild-type ARR-competent plants but not in NahG. These data suggest that the ability to accumulate SA is necessary for the ARR response and that SA may act as a signal for the production of the ARR-associated antimicrobial compound(s) and/or it may possess direct antibacterial activity against P. syringae. PMID:11884688

  9. Aged human muscle demonstrates an altered gene expression profile consistent with an impaired response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Jozsi, A C; Dupont-Versteegden, E E; Taylor-Jones, J M; Evans, W J; Trappe, T A; Campbell, W W; Peterson, C A

    2000-12-01

    The gene expression profile of skeletal muscle from healthy older (62-75 years old) compared with younger (20-34 years old) men demonstrated elevated expression of genes typical of a stress or damage response, and decreased expression of a gene encoding a DNA repair/cell cycle checkpoint protein. Although the expression of these genes was relatively unaffected by a single bout of resistance exercise in older men, acute exercise altered gene expression in younger men such that post-exercise gene expression in younger men was similar to baseline gene expression in older men. The lack of response of muscle from older subjects to resistance exercise was also apparent in the expression of the inflammatory response gene IL-1beta, which did not differ between the age groups at baseline, but increased within 24 h of the exercise bout only in younger subjects. Other genes with potentially important roles in the adaptation of muscle to exercise, specifically in the processes of angiogenesis and cell proliferation, showed a similar response to exercise in older compared with younger subjects. Only one gene encoding the multifunctional, early growth response transcription factor EGR-1, showed an opposite pattern of expression in response to exercise, acutely decreasing in younger and increasing in older subjects. These results may provide a molecular basis for the inherent variability in the response of muscle from older as compared with younger individuals to resistance training.

  10. A Two-tiered compensatory response to loss of DNA repair modulates aging and stress response pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fensgård, Øyvind; Kassahun, Henok; Bombik, Izabela; Rognes, Torbjørn; Lindvall, Jessica Margareta; Nilsen, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    Activation of oxidative stress-responses and downregulation of insulin-like signaling (ILS) is seen in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) deficient segmental progeroid mice. Evidence suggests that this is a survival response to persistent transcription-blocking DNA damage, although the relevant lesions have not been identified. Here we show that loss of NTH-1, the only Base Excision Repair (BER) enzyme known to initiate repair of oxidative DNA damage inC. elegans, restores normal lifespan of the short-lived NER deficient xpa-1 mutant. Loss of NTH-1 leads to oxidative stress and global expression profile changes that involve upregulation of genes responding to endogenous stress and downregulation of ILS. A similar, but more extensive, transcriptomic shift is observed in the xpa-1 mutant whereas loss of both NTH-1 and XPA-1 elicits a different profile with downregulation of Aurora-B and Polo-like kinase 1 signaling networks as well as DNA repair and DNA damage response genes. The restoration of normal lifespan and absence oxidative stress responses in nth-1;xpa-1 indicate that BER contributes to generate transcription blocking lesions from oxidative DNA damage. Hence, our data strongly suggests that the DNA lesions relevant for aging are repair intermediates resulting from aberrant or attempted processing by BER of lesions normally repaired by NER. PMID:20382984

  11. Immune response and mitochondrial metabolism are commonly deregulated in DMD and aging skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Baron, Daniel; Magot, Armelle; Ramstein, Gérard; Steenman, Marja; Fayet, Guillemette; Chevalier, Catherine; Jourdon, Philippe; Houlgatte, Rémi; Savagner, Frédérique; Pereon, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a complex process involving multiple pathways downstream of the primary genetic insult leading to fatal muscle degeneration. Aging muscle is a multifactorial neuromuscular process characterized by impaired muscle regeneration leading to progressive atrophy. We hypothesized that these chronic atrophying situations may share specific myogenic adaptative responses at transcriptional level according to tissue remodeling. Muscle biopsies from four young DMD and four AGED subjects were referred to a group of seven muscle biopsies from young subjects without any neuromuscular disorder and explored through a dedicated expression microarray. We identified 528 differentially expressed genes (out of 2,745 analyzed), of which 328 could be validated by an exhaustive meta-analysis of public microarray datasets referring to DMD and Aging in skeletal muscle. Among the 328 validated co-expressed genes, 50% had the same expression profile in both groups and corresponded to immune/fibrosis responses and mitochondrial metabolism. Generalizing these observed meta-signatures with large compendia of public datasets reinforced our results as they could be also identified in other pathological processes and in diverse physiological conditions. Focusing on the common gene signatures in these two atrophying conditions, we observed enrichment in motifs for candidate transcription factors that may coordinate either the immune/fibrosis responses (ETS1, IRF1, NF1) or the mitochondrial metabolism (ESRRA). Deregulation in their expression could be responsible, at least in part, for the same transcriptome changes initiating the chronic muscle atrophy. This study suggests that distinct pathophysiological processes may share common gene responses and pathways related to specific transcription factors.

  12. Hormesis, cellular stress response and vitagenes as critical determinants in aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Cornelius, Carolin; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Iavicoli, Ivo; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Calabrese, Edward J

    2011-08-01

    Understanding mechanisms of aging and determinants of life span will help to reduce age-related morbidity and facilitate healthy aging. Average lifespan has increased over the last centuries, as a consequence of medical and environmental factors, but maximal life span remains unchanged. Extension of maximal life span is currently possible in animal models with measures such as genetic manipulations and caloric restriction (CR). CR appears to prolong life by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage. But ROS formation, which is positively implicated in cellular stress response mechanisms, is a highly regulated process controlled by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways. By sensing the intracellular nutrient and energy status, the functional state of mitochondria, and the concentration of ROS produced in mitochondria, the longevity network regulates life span across species by co-ordinating information flow along its convergent, divergent and multiply branched signaling pathways, including vitagenes which are genes involved in preserving cellular homeostasis during stressful conditions. Vitagenes encode for heat shock proteins (Hsp) Hsp32, Hsp70, the thioredoxin and the sirtuin protein systems. Dietary antioxidants, such as carnosine, carnitines or polyphenols, have recently been demonstrated to be neuroprotective through the activation of hormetic pathways, including vitagenes. The hormetic dose-response, challenges long-standing beliefs about the nature of the dose-response in a lowdose zone, having the potential to affect significantly the design of pre-clinical studies and clinical trials as well as strategies for optimal patient dosing in the treatment of numerous diseases. Given the broad cytoprotective properties of the heat shock response there is now strong interest in discovering and developing pharmacological agents capable of inducing stress responses. In this review we discuss the most current and up to date

  13. Estradiol impairs response inhibition in young and middle-aged, but not old rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Victor C.; Neese, Steven L.; Korol, Donna L.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens have been shown to have a strong influence on such cognitive domains as spatial memory, response learning, and several tasks of executive function, including both working memory and attention. However, the effects of estrogens on inhibitory control and timing behavior, both important aspects of executive function, have received relatively little attention. We examined the effects of estradiol on inhibitory control and timing using a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task. Ovariectomized young (3 month), middle-aged (12 month), and old (18 month) Long-Evans rats received 5% or 10% 17β-estradiol in cholesterol vehicle or cholesterol vehicle alone via Silastic implants and were tested on a DRL task requiring them to wait 15 seconds between lever presses to receive a food reinforcer. The ratio of reinforced to non-reinforced lever presses did not differ across age in the cholesterol vehicle group. Conversely, 17β-estradiol impaired learning of the DRL task in young and middle-aged rats, but the learning of old rats was not impaired relative to vehicle controls following either 5% or 10% 17β-estradiol treatment. Overall, old rats also made fewer lever presses than both the young and middle-aged rats. These results provide new evidence that estrogens impair inhibitory control, an important aspect of self regulation, and add to existing evidence that estrogens differentially affect cognition at different ages. PMID:21281713

  14. Effect of cell donor age on the cellular response to nanoparticle exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana

    As human age there are many significant changes that occur in the skin. Here we investigate how the age-dependent changes in dermal fibroblast mechanics affect cell response to the AuNPs nanoparticles. To analyze these processes we exposed cells from donors of different age groups to AuNPs of two different sizes. Our results indicate that there are significant changes in cell rigidity with age, which in turn lead to different penetration rates of AuNPs through cell membrane and overall nanoparticle toxicity. Cell proliferation results revealed that all cell groups exposed to the same concentration of AuNPs had a very similar decrease in cell proliferation and similar impact on cell morphology. However, recovery data demonstrated that the rate of recovery from the damage is much faster for neonatal cells as compared to 30- and 80-years old cell group. Therefore, we conclude that nanoparticle uptake depends on cell membrane mechanics that in turn is a function of cell donor age.

  15. Use of the Hayling Task to Measure Inhibition of Prepotent Responses in Normal Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleville, Sylvie; Rouleau, Nancie; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    This study measures the effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal aging on the inhibition of prepotent responses. AD patients, normal aged controls, and young subjects were tested with the Hayling task, which measures the ability to inhibit a semantically constrained response, and with the Stroop procedure. AD patients showed a severe deficit…

  16. The hardening phenomenon in irritant contact dermatitis: an interpretative update.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon A; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-03-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is common and poses a significant problem in high-risk populations. In most cases, ICD resolves despite continued exposure in a process known as 'hardening', allowing individuals to continue with their work. Those who cannot clear ICD develop chronic ICD, which is a significant source of emotional, physical, and financial distress for affected individuals. While hardening is well known among labourers and clinicians, its mechanism remains to be elucidated. Much can be learned from the study of self-healing processes like the hardening phenomenon. This overview briefly documents the pathogenesis of ICD, focuses on the latest advances pertaining to the hardening phenomenon in ICD, and then highlights potential avenues of productive research. A better understanding of the 'hardening' process in the skin will hopefully lead to advances for the treatment of ICD.

  17. New analytical approach for neutron beam-hardening correction.

    PubMed

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Hachouf, M; Boucenna, A

    2016-01-01

    In neutron imaging, the beam-hardening effect has a significant effect on quantitative and qualitative image interpretation. This study aims to propose a linearization method for beam-hardening correction. The proposed method is based on a new analytical approach establishing the attenuation coefficient as a function of neutron energy. Spectrum energy shift due to beam hardening is studied on the basis of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) simulated data and the analytical data. Good agreement between MCNP and analytical values has been found. Indeed, the beam-hardening effect is well supported in the proposed method. A correction procedure is developed to correct the errors of beam-hardening effect in neutron transmission, and therefore for projection data correction. The effectiveness of this procedure is determined by its application in correcting reconstructed images.

  18. New analytical approach for neutron beam-hardening correction.

    PubMed

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Hachouf, M; Boucenna, A

    2016-01-01

    In neutron imaging, the beam-hardening effect has a significant effect on quantitative and qualitative image interpretation. This study aims to propose a linearization method for beam-hardening correction. The proposed method is based on a new analytical approach establishing the attenuation coefficient as a function of neutron energy. Spectrum energy shift due to beam hardening is studied on the basis of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) simulated data and the analytical data. Good agreement between MCNP and analytical values has been found. Indeed, the beam-hardening effect is well supported in the proposed method. A correction procedure is developed to correct the errors of beam-hardening effect in neutron transmission, and therefore for projection data correction. The effectiveness of this procedure is determined by its application in correcting reconstructed images. PMID:26609685

  19. Age and sex differences in blood lactate response to sprint running in elite master athletes.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Marko T; Suominen, Harri; Mero, Antti

    2005-12-01

    The effect of age and sex on anaerobic glycolytic capacity in master athletes is currently unclear. To study this issue, we determined blood lactate concentrations after competitive sprint running in male and female master athletes of different age. Eighty-one men (40-88 yrs) and 75 women (35-87 yrs) participating in the sprint events (100-m, 200-m, 400-m) in the European Veterans Athletics Championships were studied. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip and analysed for peak lactate concentration ([La]bpeak). The [La]bpeak following 100-m to 400-m races showed a curvilinear decline (p < 0.001-0.05) with age in both men and women. However, the age related differences in the [La]b peak were not significant before 70 years of age. No significant sex related differences were found in [La]b peak for any sprint event. The [La]b peak correlated significantly (p < 0.001-0.05) with running times in all sprint distances except for the age-controlled correlation in men for the 100-m and 200-m. In conclusion, the present study showed age but not sex differences in blood lactate response to competitive sprint running in master athletes. Although the [La]b peak level of the athletes was considerably higher than that reported for untrained men and women, these cross-sectional findings suggest that anaerobic energy production from glycolysis declines in later years and may be a factor in the deterioration in sprint performance.

  20. Exercise-induced hippocampal anti-inflammatory response in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Simões, Priscila Santos Rodrigues; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by cognitive decline, memory impairment and an increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Most of these age-related alterations have been associated with deleterious processes such as changes in the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Indeed, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines are found in the aged brain. This perturbation in pro- and anti-inflammatory balance can represent one of the mechanisms that contribute to age-associated neuronal dysfunction and brain vulnerability. We conducted an experimental study to investigate whether an aerobic exercise program could promote changes in inflammatory response in the brains of aged rats. To do so, we evaluated the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 1 beta (IL1β), interleukin 6 (IL6) and interleukin 10 (IL10) in the hippocampal formation of 18 month old rats that underwent treadmill training over 10 consecutive days. Quantitative immunoassay analyses showed that the physical exercise increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL10 in the hippocampal formation of aged rats, when compared to the control group. The hippocampal levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL6 and TNFα were not statistically different between the groups. However, a significant reduction in IL1β/IL10, IL6/IL10 and TNFα/IL10 ratio was observed in the exercised group in relation to the control group. These findings indicate a favorable effect of physical exercise in the balance between hippocampal pro- and anti-inflammatory during aging, as well as reinforce the potential therapeutic of exercise in reducing the risk of neuroinflammation-linked disorders.

  1. Crash Analysis of Automotive Chassis Structure Considering the Strain Hardening Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashalkar, A. S.; Parvekar, R. P.

    2011-08-01

    The work hardening during the forming process is generally ignored in crash analysis. This paper presents computational details of the effect of forming process on crash response of typical Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV). Forming results for front panels of a medium-sized SUV were calculated using Hyperform and LS Dyna. These were imported into the crash model and crash results compared with and without the forming effects. Time taken to generate the forming data by a variety of methods is quantified and the trade-off between time taken and accuracy is examined. LS-DYNA was used for both forming and crash simulations. The effect of thickness, work hardening and residual stresses on the crashworthiness results is measured; crash response is seen to be significantly affected when the effects of forming are included. The paper proposes a systematic method to transfer data from the forming analysis to crashworthiness analysis (both using LS-DYNA), allowing thickness, residual stress and plastic strain data selectively or in combination to be used to initialise the crash model. The relative effect of each of these forming parameters has been examined and the importance of, work hardening on the crash response of the stamping front rail has been identified. A significant change in energy absorption, peak force and stroke of the front rail was predicted, indicating a far stiffer response in the formed rail than would be expected based on the nominal material properties. Therefore, forming effects should be accounted for in vehicle crashworthiness predictions.

  2. Age and response bias: evidence from the strength-based mirror effect.

    PubMed

    Criss, Amy H; Aue, William; Kılıç, Aslı

    2014-10-01

    Performance in episodic memory is determined both by accurate retrieval from memory and by decision processes. A substantial body of literature suggests slightly poorer episodic memory accuracy for older than younger adults; however, age-related changes in the decision mechanisms in memory have received much less attention. Response bias, the willingness to endorse an item as remembered, is an important decision factor that contributes to episodic memory performance, and therefore understanding age-related changes in response bias is critical to theoretical development. We manipulate list strength in order to investigate two aspects of response bias. First, we evaluate whether criterion placement in episodic memory differs for older and younger adults. Second, we ask whether older adults have the same degree of flexibility to adjust the criterion in response to task demands as younger adults. Participants were tested on weakly and strongly encoded lists where word frequency (Experiment 1) or similarity between targets and foils (Experiment 2) was manipulated. Both older and younger adults had higher hit rates and lower false-alarm rates for strong lists than for weak lists (i.e., a strength-based mirror effect). Older adults were more conservative (less likely to endorse an item as studied) than younger adults, and we found no evidence that older and younger adults differ in their ability to flexibly adjust their criterion based on the demands of the task.

  3. Rapid cold hardening: a gut feeling.

    PubMed

    Worland, M R; Convey, P; Luke ov, A

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the rate of cold hardening of a field population of Antarctic springtails and the effect of eating food with particular levels of ice nucleating activity on the animal's whole body freezing point. The SCPs of samples of c. 20, freshly collected, Cryptopygus antarcticus were measured hourly over a 32 hour collection period using differential scanning calorimetry and related to habitat temperature. The mean SCP of the springtails increased from -24 to -10 degree C during which time the habitat temperature warmed slowly from -2.5 to +2.5 degree C. In laboratory experiments, previously starved, cold tolerant springtails were fed on selected species of algae with measured SCP's but there was no clear correlation between the SCP of food and that of the animals after feeding. Microscopic examination of faecal pellets and guts from springtails showed that algal cells were completely destroyed during digestion.

  4. Jerky loads on surface-hardened gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rettig, H.; Wirth, X.

    1978-01-01

    Damage occurs again and again in practice in the form of transmissions with surface hardened gears which break after a very long operating time (explained by seldom occurring jerky loads). Gear drives are frequently exposed to jerky stresses which are greater than their fatigue limit. These stresses are considered in gear calculations, first, by shock factors when the transmission is to be designed as high endurance with regard to overloads and, second, in the form of operating ratios when the design is to be time enduring with regard to overloads. The size of the operating ratio depends not only on torque characteristics, drive and processing machine, but also on the material and heat treatment.

  5. Keystroke Dynamics-Based Credential Hardening Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlow, Nick; Cukic, Bojan

    abstract Keystroke dynamics are becoming a well-known method for strengthening username- and password-based credential sets. The familiarity and ease of use of these traditional authentication schemes combined with the increased trustworthiness associated with biometrics makes them prime candidates for application in many web-based scenarios. Our keystroke dynamics system uses Breiman’s random forests algorithm to classify keystroke input sequences as genuine or imposter. The system is capable of operating at various points on a traditional ROC curve depending on application-specific security needs. As a username/password authentication scheme, our approach decreases the system penetration rate associated with compromised passwords up to 99.15%. Beyond presenting results demonstrating the credential hardening effect of our scheme, we look into the notion that a user’s familiarity to components of a credential set can non-trivially impact error rates.

  6. Hardening and yielding in colloidal gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gado, Emanuela; Colombo, Jader; Bouzid, Mehdi

    Attractive colloidal gel networks are disordered elastic solids that can form even in extremely dilute particle suspensions. With interaction strengths comparable to the thermal energy, their stress-bearing network can locally restructure via breaking and reforming inter-particle bonds. We use molecular dynamics simulations of a model system to investigate the strain hardening and the yielding process. During shear start up protocol, the system exhibits strong localization of tensile stresses that may be released through the breaking and formation of new bonds. In this regime, the small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis shows that the storage and the loss modulus follow a power law behavior that are closely reminiscent of experimental observations. At large accumulated strains, the strain-induced reorganization of the gel may trigger flow heterogeneities and eventually lead to the yielding of the gel via a quasi brittle damage of its structure.

  7. Iron piston having selectively hardened ring groove

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, D.E.; Lindsay, J.E.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a long-lasting cast iron piston body for an internal combustion engine, the piston body comprising a generally cylindrical sidewall and having an annular groove in the wall encircling the body for receiving a piston ring. The groove is defined by opposed faces that intersect the wall, the piston body being composed predominantly of gray iron characterized by an as-cast pearlitic microstructure, the groove face comprising an integrally cast, selectively hardened iron band adjacent the piston sidewall and encircling the piston body. The band is characterized by a martensitic microstructure substantially harder than the pearlitic microstructure and is effective to reduce wear resulting from a piston ring seated within the groove.

  8. Laser hardening process simulation for mechanical parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, G.; Orazi, L.; Fortunato, A.; Campana, G.; Cuccolini, G.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper a numerical simulation of laser hardening process is presented. The Finite Difference Method (FDM) was used to solve the heat transfer and the carbon diffusion equations for a defined workpiece geometry. The model is able to predict the thermal cycle into the target material, the phase transformations and the resulting micro-structures according to the laser parameters, the workpiece dimensions and the physical properties of the workpiece. The effects of the overlapping tracks of the laser beam on the resulting micro-structures is also considered. The initial workpiece micro-structure is taken into account in the simulation by a digitized photomicrograph of the ferrite perlite distribution before the thermal cycle. Experimental tests were realized on a C43 plate and the good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is shown.

  9. Strain hardening mechanisms in a Ni-Mo-Cr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dymek, S. ); Dollar, M. ); Klarstrom, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    HAYNES 242 alloy has been recently developed for gas turbine components applications. This age-hardenable alloy, consisting essentially of Ni-25%Mo-8%Cr, utilizes a long-range-ordering reaction to form uniformly sized and distributed, extremely small (on the order of 10nm), ordered particles. Excellent strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, low thermal expansion characteristics and good oxidation resistance of Haynes 242 alloy has encouraged a number of studies designed to characterize its properties. What is lacking is an attempt to understand the fundamentals of the deformation and strengthening mechanisms in this alloy. This on-going research has been undertaken to explore deformation mechanisms in unaged and aged Haynes 242 alloy. The emphasis has been put on the effects of initial precipitation structure on the development of deformation structure and how it controls selected mechanical properties. This paper presents selected results and reports a change in the deformation mode from crystallographic glide in an unaged alloy into twinning in the presence of ordered particles. Deformation twinning in Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-Cr alloys was reported earlier but was not discussed in detail. This research sheds light on possible origins of particle-induced twinning in alloys strengthened by small ordered particles.

  10. Metabolites and hormones are involved in the intraspecific variability of drought hardening in radiata pine.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Saiz-Fernández, I; Rodríguez, J L; Pérez-Alfocea, P; Sampedro, M C; Barrio, R J; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies of metabolic and physiological bases of plant tolerance and hardening against drought are essential to improve genetic breeding programs, especially in productive species such as Pinus radiata. The exposure to different drought cycles is a highly effective tool that improves plant conditioning, but limited information is available about the mechanisms that modulate this process. To clarify this issue, six P. radiata breeds with well-known differences in drought tolerance were analyzed after two consecutive drought cycles. Survival rate, concentration of several metabolites such as free soluble amino acids and polyamines, and main plant hormones varied between them after drought hardening, while relative growth ratio and water potential at both predawn and dawn did not. Hardening induced a strong increase in total soluble amino acids in all breeds, accumulating mainly those implicated in the glutamate metabolism (GM), especially L-proline, in the most tolerant breeds. Other amino acids from GM such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-arginine (Arg) were also strongly increased. GABA pathway could improve the response against drought, whereas Arg acts as precursor for the synthesis of spermidine. This polyamine showed a positive relationship with the survival capacity, probably due to its role as antioxidant under stress conditions. Finally, drought hardening also induced changes in phytohormone content, showing each breed a different profile. Although all of them accumulated indole-3-acetic acid and jasmonic acid and reduced zeatin content in needles, significant differences were observed regarding abscisic acid, salicylic acid and mainly zeatin riboside. These results confirm that hardening is not only species-dependent but also an intraspecific processes controlled through metabolite changes.

  11. Nitrogen dynamics in arctic tundra soils of varying age: differential responses to fertilization and warming.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuriko; Shaver, Gaius R; Rastetter, Edward B; Giblin, Anne E; Laundre, James A

    2013-12-01

    In the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, different glaciation histories have created landscapes with varying soil age. Productivity of most of these landscapes is generally N limited, but varies widely, as do plant species composition and soil properties (e.g., pH). We hypothesized that the projected changes in productivity and vegetation composition under a warmer climate might be mediated through differential changes in N availability across soil age. We compared readily available [water-soluble NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and amino acids (AA)], moderately available (soluble proteins), hydrolyzable, and total N pools across three tussock-tundra landscapes with soil ages ranging from 11.5k to 300k years. The effects of fertilization and warming on these N pools were also compared for the two younger sites. Readily available N was highest at the oldest site, and AA accounted for 80-89 % of this N. At the youngest site, inorganic N constituted the majority (80-97 %) of total readily available N. This variation reflected the large differences in plant functional group composition and soil chemical properties. Long-term (8-16 years) fertilization increased the soluble inorganic N by 20- to 100-fold at the intermediate-age site, but only by twofold to threefold at the youngest site. Warming caused small and inconsistent changes in the soil C:N ratio and AA, but only in soils beneath Eriophorum vaginatum, the dominant tussock-forming sedge. These differential responses suggest that the ecological consequences of warmer climates on these tundra ecosystems are more complex than simply elevated N-mineralization rates, and that the responses of landscapes might be impacted by soil age, or time since deglaciation.

  12. Aging and sleep deprivation induce the unfolded protein response in the pancreas: implications for metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Nirinjini; Davis, James G; Zhu, Jingxu; Yabumoto, Maya; Singletary, Kristan; Brown, Marishka; Galante, Raymond; Agarwal, Beamon; Baur, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption has detrimental effects on glucose metabolism through pathways that remain poorly defined. Although numerous studies have examined the consequences of sleep deprivation (SD) in the brain, few have directly tested its effects on peripheral organs. We examined several tissues in mice for induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) following acute SD. In young animals, we found a robust induction of BiP in the pancreas, indicating an active UPR. At baseline, pancreata from aged animals exhibited a marked increase in a pro-apoptotic transcription factor, CHOP, that was amplified by SD, whereas BiP induction was not observed, suggesting a maladaptive response to cellular stress with age. Acute SD increased plasma glucose levels in both young and old animals. However, this change was not overtly related to stress in the pancreatic beta cells, as plasma insulin levels were not lower following acute SD. Accordingly, animals subjected to acute SD remained tolerant to a glucose challenge. In a chronic SD experiment, young mice were found to be sensitized to insulin and have improved glycemic control, whereas aged animals became hyperglycemic and failed to maintain appropriate plasma insulin concentrations. Our results show that both age and SD cooperate to induce the UPR in pancreatic tissue. While changes in insulin secretion are unlikely to play a major role in the acute effects of SD, CHOP induction in pancreatic tissues suggests that chronic SD may contribute to the loss or dysfunction of endocrine cells and that these effects may be exacerbated by normal aging. PMID:24102714

  13. Differential peptidomics assessment of strain and age differences in mice in response to acute cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Ossyra, John R; Zombeck, Jonathan A; Nosek, Michael R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-12-01

    Neurochemical differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis between individuals and between ages may contribute to differential susceptibility to cocaine abuse. This study measured peptide levels in the pituitary gland (Pit) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in adolescent (age 30 days) and adult (age 65 days) mice from four standard inbred strains, FVB/NJ, DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, and BALB/cByJ, which have previously been characterized for acute locomotor responses to cocaine. Individual peptide profiles were analyzed using mass spectrometric profiling and principal component analysis. Sequences of assigned peptides were verified by tandem mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis classified all strains according to their distinct peptide profiles in Pit samples from adolescent mice, but not adults. Select pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were significantly higher in adolescent BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice than in FVB/NJ or C57BL/6J mice. A subset of peptides in the LH, but not in the Pit, was altered by cocaine in adolescents. A 15 mg/kg dose of cocaine induced greater peptide alterations than a 30 mg/kg dose, particularly in FVB/NJ animals, with larger differences in adolescents than adults. Neuropeptides in the LH affected by acute cocaine administration included pro-opiomelanocortin-, myelin basic protein-, and glutamate transporter-derived peptides. The observed peptide differences could contribute to differential behavioral sensitivity to cocaine among strains and ages. Peptides were measured using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) in individual lateral hypothalamus and pituitary samples from four strains and two ages of inbred mice in response to acute cocaine administration. Principal component analyses (PCA) classified the strains according to their peptide profiles from adolescent mice, and a subset of peptides in the lateral hypothalamus was altered by cocaine in adolescents.

  14. Age specific responses to acute inhalation of diffusion flame soot particles: Cellular injury and the airway antioxidant response

    PubMed Central

    Van Winkle, Laura S.; Chan, Jackie K.W.; Anderson, Donald S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Wexler, Anthony S; Wallis, Christopher; Abid, Aamir D.; Sutherland, Katherine M.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of particulate matter (PM) are confounded by the fact that PM is a complex mixture of primary (crustal material, soot, metals) and secondary (nitrates, sulfates and organics formed in the atmosphere) compounds with considerable variance in composition by sources and location. We have developed a laboratory-based PM that is replicable, does not contain dust or metals and that can be used to study specific health effects of PM composition in animal models. We exposed both neonatal (7 days of age) and adult rats to a single 6-hr exposure of laboratory generated fine diffusion flame soot (DFP; 170 ug/m3), or filtered air. Pulmonary gene and protein expression as well as indicators of cytotoxicity were evaluated 24 hours after exposure. Although DFP exposure did not alter airway epithelial cell composition in either neonates or adults, increased LDH activity was found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of neonates indicating an age-specific increase in susceptibility. In adults, 16 genes were differentially expressed as a result of DFP exposure while only 6 genes were altered in the airways of neonates. Glutamate cytsteine ligase protein was increased in abundance in both DFP exposed neonates and adults indicating an initiation of antioxidant responses involving the synthesis of glutathione. DFP significantly decreased catalase gene expression in adult airways, although catalase protein expression was increased by DFP in both neonates and adults. We conclude that key airway antioxidant enzymes undergo changes in expression in response to a moderate PM exposure that does not cause frank epithelial injury and that neonates have a different response pattern than adults. PMID:20961279

  15. Increased endoplasmic reticulum stress in mouse osteocytes with aging alters Cox-2 response to mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chalil, Sreeda; Jaspers, Richard T; Manders, Ralph J; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Bakker, Astrid D; Deldicque, Louise

    2015-02-01

    Aging reduces bone mass as well as the anabolic response of bone to mechanical stimuli, resulting in osteopenia. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress impairs the response of myogenic cells to anabolic stimuli, and is involved in sarcopenia, but whether ER stress also contributes to osteopenia is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether ER stress exists in bones of aged mice, and whether this impairs the osteocyte response to mechanical stimulation. Primary osteocytes were obtained from long bones of adult (8 months) and old (24-26 months) mice, treated with or without the pharmacological ER stress inducer tunicamycin, and either or not subjected to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF). The osteocyte response to PFF was assessed by measuring cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) mRNA levels and nitric oxide (NO) production. mRNA levels of ER stress markers were higher in old versus adult osteocytes (+40% for activating transcription factor-4, +120% for C/EBP homologous protein, and +120% for spliced X-box binding protein-1, p < 0.05). The Cox-2 response to PFF was fourfold decreased in cells from old bones (p < 0.001), while tunicamycin decreased PFF-induced Cox-2 expression by threefold in cells from adult bones (p < 0.01). PFF increased NO production by 50% at 60 min in osteocytes from old versus adult bones (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our data indicate that the expression of several ER stress markers was higher in osteocytes from bones of old compared to adult mice. Since ER stress altered the response of osteocytes to mechanical loading, it could be a novel factor contributing to osteopenia. PMID:25539857

  16. Aging Is Accompanied by a Blunted Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Protein Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Benjamin Toby; Gorissen, Stefan H.; Pennings, Bart; Koopman, René; Groen, Bart B. L.; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging (sarcopenia) forms a global health concern. It has been suggested that an impaired capacity to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in response to protein intake is a key contributor to sarcopenia. We assessed whether differences in post-absorptive and/or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates exist between large cohorts of healthy young and older men. Procedures We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing in vivo post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates determined with stable isotope methodologies between 34 healthy young (22±1 y) and 72 older (75±1 y) men, and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between 35 healthy young (22±1 y) and 40 older (74±1 y) men. Findings Post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates did not differ significantly between the young and older group. Post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates were 16% lower in the older subjects when compared with the young. Muscle protein synthesis rates were >3 fold more responsive to dietary protein ingestion in the young. Irrespective of age, there was a strong negative correlation between post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis rates and the increase in muscle protein synthesis rate following protein ingestion. Conclusions Aging is associated with the development of muscle anabolic inflexibility which represents a key physiological mechanism underpinning sarcopenia. PMID:26536130

  17. Effects of thyroid hormone on. beta. -adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimoto, G.; Hashimoto, K.; Hoffman, B.B.

    1987-03-01

    The authors have compared the effects of ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/)-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T/sub 3/ treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T/sub 3/ treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial ..beta..-adrenergic receptor sites measured by (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, ..beta..-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T/sub 3/-treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T/sub 3/ treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T/sub 3/ treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals.

  18. Age-related changes in mouse taste bud morphology, hormone expression, and taste responsivity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu-Kyong; Cong, Wei-na; Cai, Huan; Kim, Wook; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M; Martin, Bronwen

    2012-04-01

    Normal aging is a complex process that affects every organ system in the body, including the taste system. Thus, we investigated the effects of the normal aging process on taste bud morphology, function, and taste responsivity in male mice at 2, 10, and 18 months of age. The 18-month-old animals demonstrated a significant reduction in taste bud size and number of taste cells per bud compared with the 2- and 10-month-old animals. The 18-month-old animals exhibited a significant reduction of protein gene product 9.5 and sonic hedgehog immunoreactivity (taste cell markers). The number of taste cells expressing the sweet taste receptor subunit, T1R3, and the sweet taste modulating hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, were reduced in the 18-month-old mice. Concordant with taste cell alterations, the 18-month-old animals demonstrated reduced sweet taste responsivity compared with the younger animals and the other major taste modalities (salty, sour, and bitter) remained intact. PMID:22056740

  19. Rule-Based Cell Systems Model of Aging using Feedback Loop Motifs Mediated by Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kriete, Andres; Bosl, William J.; Booker, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Investigating the complex systems dynamics of the aging process requires integration of a broad range of cellular processes describing damage and functional decline co-existing with adaptive and protective regulatory mechanisms. We evolve an integrated generic cell network to represent the connectivity of key cellular mechanisms structured into positive and negative feedback loop motifs centrally important for aging. The conceptual network is casted into a fuzzy-logic, hybrid-intelligent framework based on interaction rules assembled from a priori knowledge. Based upon a classical homeostatic representation of cellular energy metabolism, we first demonstrate how positive-feedback loops accelerate damage and decline consistent with a vicious cycle. This model is iteratively extended towards an adaptive response model by incorporating protective negative-feedback loop circuits. Time-lapse simulations of the adaptive response model uncover how transcriptional and translational changes, mediated by stress sensors NF-κB and mTOR, counteract accumulating damage and dysfunction by modulating mitochondrial respiration, metabolic fluxes, biosynthesis, and autophagy, crucial for cellular survival. The model allows consideration of lifespan optimization scenarios with respect to fitness criteria using a sensitivity analysis. Our work establishes a novel extendable and scalable computational approach capable to connect tractable molecular mechanisms with cellular network dynamics underlying the emerging aging phenotype. PMID:20585546

  20. Acacetin promotes healthy aging by altering stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Mishra, B N; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-08-01

    The progression in lifespan has been associated with elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress level which contributes to development of age related disorders. The discovery of lifespan modulating phytomolecules may promote development of natural therapies against age related afflictions. Acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyflavone), is a naturally occurring flavonoid known to possess therapeutic properties. To this end, the present study evaluates effect of acacetin (AC) on lifespan, stress and neurotoxicity for the first time by using well-established free living, multicellular Caenorhabditis elegans model system. The 25 μM dose of AC significantly prolonged the mean lifespan of worms by 27.31% in comparison to untreated control and other tested doses of AC. Additionally, AC enhanced stress resistance against oxidative and thermal stress in worms. Furthermore, AC attenuated age related intracellular ROS level, aggregation of age pigment lipofuscin and increased the mean survival in stress hypersensitive mev-1 mutant by 40.5%. AC supplementation also reduced the alpha synuclein aggregation in transgenic worm model of Parkinson's disease. The enhanced stress resistance, lifespan and alleviation of age related pathology can be attributed to increment in stress modulatory enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) level. Altogether the results suggest AC exposure maintains stress level, health span and extends mean lifespan of C. elegans. The longevity promoting and neuromodulatory effects of AC are mediated by up regulation of the stress response genes sod-3 and gst-4. The present finding gives new insights of natural remedies and their future prospects in developing therapeutic interventions for managing age related diseases. PMID:27150237

  1. Age related effects in children taking the computerized assessment of response bias and word memory test.

    PubMed

    Courtney, John C; Dinkins, Juliet P; Allen, Lyle M; Kuroski, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    The assessment of effort is a fundamental component of test performance analysis, since effort determines whether a psychological evaluation is valid. The assessment of effort in children has proven problematic. This may be related to the variable and inconsistent nature of children's developing self-regulatory systems, and the fact that measures commonly used to assess effort were standardized on adults. If one uses effort measures designed for adults to assess children, then one must presume that the maintenance of effort in children is comparable to the same behavior in adults. However, because children's executive functioning, including their abilities to self-regulate, attend, concentrate, and to engage in various cognitive activities improve with time (Barkley, 1997, pp. 209-234), our hypothesis is that young children's effort regulation is dissimilar to that of adults, and the presumption of similarity is implausible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age is a significant influence upon young children's performances on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) and Word Memory Test (WMT). Statistical analysis suggests that younger children (those under 10 years of age) tended to produce poorer performance on these instruments. Younger children's scores differed significantly from children ages 10 and older. Children 11 years and older produced CARB and WMT results similar to adult participants, suggesting a viability for adult normative comparisons with children in this age range. The current investigation concluded that children's maintenance of effort appears to be significantly related to age and reading ability level. Consequently, the use of current adult-based norms with the CARB and WMT, without regard for a child's developmental status and other contextual factors such as the child's ability to read, appears ill-advised especially with children under 11 years of age. PMID:12815513

  2. Age-Stratified Treatment Response Rates in Hospitalized Patients with Clostridium difficile Infection Treated with Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Vy P.; Luce, Andrea M.; Ruppelt, Sara C.; Wei, Wenjing; Aitken, Samuel L.; Musick, William L.; Roux, Ryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Consensus on the optimal treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is rapidly changing. Treatment with metronidazole has been associated with increased clinical failure rates; however, the reasons for this are unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess age-related treatment response rates in hospitalized patients with CDI treated with metronidazole. This was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of hospitalized patients with CDI. Patients were assessed for refractory CDI, defined as persistent diarrhea after 7 days of metronidazole therapy, and stratified by age and clinical characteristics. A total of 242 individuals, aged 60 ± 18 years (Charlson comorbidity index, 3.8 ± 2.4; Horn's index, 1.7 ± 1.0) were included. One hundred twenty-eight patients (53%) had severe CDI. Seventy patients (29%) had refractory CDI, a percentage that increased from 22% to 28% and to 37% for patients aged less than 50 years, for patients from 50 to 70 years, and for patients aged >70 years, respectively (P = 0.05). In multivariate analysis, Horn's index (odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50 to 2.77; P < 0.001), severe CDI (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.15 to 4.41; P = 0.018), and continued use of antibiotics (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.30 to 5.39; P = 0.0072) were identified as significant predictors of refractory CDI. Age was not identified as an independent risk factor for refractory CDI. Therefore, hospitalized elderly patients with CDI treated with metronidazole had increased refractory CDI rates likely due to increased underlying severity of illness, severity of CDI, and concomitant antibiotic use. These results may help identify patients that may benefit from alternative C. difficile treatments other than metronidazole. PMID:26195522

  3. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  4. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P < 0.05) between individual muscle and postmortem aging period. The WBSF of all muscles except the superficial digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All

  5. Aging of whiskey increases the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor response.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hirofumi; Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Aoshima, Hitoshi

    2003-08-27

    It is known that the target of most mood-defining compounds such as ethanol is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activities in the human brain. Because both extracts of whiskey by pentane and fragrant components in whiskey potentiate the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting cRNAs prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors in order to study the effects of whiskey itself on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. Whiskey itself also potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors generally more than ethanol at the same concentration as that of the whiskey. The potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response increased with the aging period of the whiskey. Inhalation of whiskey to mice increased the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital more than that of the same concentration of ethanol as the whiskey. These results suggest that not only ethanol but also minor components in whiskey play an important role in the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated response and possibly the sedative effect of whiskey. Although the minor components are present in extremely small quantities compared with ethanol in alcoholic beverages, they may modulate the mood or consciousness of humans through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic compounds are easily absorbed into the brain across the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response.

  6. Aging of whiskey increases the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor response.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hirofumi; Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Aoshima, Hitoshi

    2003-08-27

    It is known that the target of most mood-defining compounds such as ethanol is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activities in the human brain. Because both extracts of whiskey by pentane and fragrant components in whiskey potentiate the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting cRNAs prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors in order to study the effects of whiskey itself on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. Whiskey itself also potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors generally more than ethanol at the same concentration as that of the whiskey. The potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response increased with the aging period of the whiskey. Inhalation of whiskey to mice increased the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital more than that of the same concentration of ethanol as the whiskey. These results suggest that not only ethanol but also minor components in whiskey play an important role in the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated response and possibly the sedative effect of whiskey. Although the minor components are present in extremely small quantities compared with ethanol in alcoholic beverages, they may modulate the mood or consciousness of humans through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic compounds are easily absorbed into the brain across the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. PMID:12926865

  7. Aging, isometric strength and endurance, and cardiovascular responses to static effort.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, J S; Lind, A R

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of age to isometric muscular strength are few, on isometric endurance rare, and on the physiological responses to static effort nonexistent. This investigation assessed the maximal handgrip strength, the duration of a fatiguing handgrip contraction at a tension of 40% of maximal strength and the heart rate and blood pressure during that contraction of 100 men aged from 22 to 62 yr. The subjects of this study were all men employed in a machine shop for a large aircraft corporation. The homogeneity of their occupations may well explain why, unlike previous reports, we found no change in muscular strength or muscular endurance with age. However, although heart rate increased during the contraction in all subjects, the increase in heart rate was greater in younger men. In contrast, while both systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased during the contraction in all subjects, the largest increase in systolic blood pressure was attained by the men in the older decades; there was no difference due to age in the diastolic blood pressures. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1110248

  8. Atherosclerosis and Vascular Aging as Modifiers of Tumor Progression, Angiogenesis, and Responsiveness to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Halka; St. Croix, Brad; Milsom, Chloe; May, Linda; Guo, Qing; Yu, Joanne L.; Klement, Petr; Rak, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    It is rarely considered that age-related common vascular co-morbidities may affect therapeutic outcomes of antiangiogenic therapy in cancer. Indeed, the accepted model of human disease consists of 4- to 8-week-old (young) tumor-bearing, but otherwise healthy, experimental mice, yet human cancers are diagnosed and treated in later decades of life when atherosclerosis and vascular diseases are highly prevalent. Here we present evidence that tumor growth and angiogenesis are profoundly altered in mice affected by natural aging and with genetically induced atherosclerosis (in ApoE−/− mice). Thus, transplantable tumors (Lewis lung carcinoma and B16F1) grew at higher rates in young (4 to 8 weeks old) ApoE+/+ and ApoE−/− nonatherosclerotic syngeneic recipients than in their old (12 to 18 months old) or atherosclerotic (old/ApoE−/−) counterparts. These age-related changes were paralleled by reduced tumor vascularity, lower expression of tumor endothelial marker 1, increased acute tumor hypoxia, depletion of circulating CD45−/VEGFR+ cells, and impaired endothelial sprouting ex vivo. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to metronomic therapy with cyclophosphamide exerted antimitotic effects on tumors in young hosts, but this effect was reduced in atherosclerotic mice. Collectively, our results suggest that vascular aging and disease may affect tumor progression, angiogenesis, and responses to therapy. PMID:17823292

  9. Response to rest and exercise in the cold: effects of age and aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Falk, B; Bar-Or, O; Smolander, J; Frost, G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether age-related differences in the response to cold exposure are due to aging per se or are caused by a reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) often observed with aging. Three groups of men, 8 young adults (YA), 8 well-trained seniors (TS), and 11 untrained seniors (US), were tested on a cycle ergometer in thermoneutral (22 degrees C) and cold (5 degrees C) conditions during rest and then during exercise (approximately 50 W). In the thermoneutral conditions, 10 min of rest were followed by 10 min of exercise. After 60 min of rest, subjects entered the cold where 30 min of rest were followed by 30 min exercise. The subjects of the three groups had similar body surface area and subcutaneous fat thickness. It was found that rectal temperature (Tre) decreased during rest in the cold and continued to decrease at a higher rate during exercise in TS and US but not in YA. The mean skin temperature was similar in all the groups, except for the thigh temperature, which was lower in YA than in TS and US. Oxygen uptake (VO2) increased during cold, significantly more so at rest than during exercise. YA displayed the highest VO2 during the first 10 min of rest in the cold, whereas TS displayed the highest VO2 during exercise in the cold. Neither aging nor VO2max appeared to affect thermal comfort or cold sensation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Variability of corticosteroid responses during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Ismail, A H; Bottoms, G D

    1975-04-01

    Two groups of middle-aged male subjects (both N=11), one active (mean age 44.6 years) and one sedentary (mean age 43.7 years), undertook a graded exercise stress test on a bicycle ergometer in the post-absorptive state. Blood serum corticosteroid levels were measured at the following stages of metabolism; at rest, under conditions of submaximal and "maximal' exercise and during recovery. The active group showed no significant change in mean serum corticosteroid levels from resting values, during exercise and recovery. However the sedentary group displayed a significant increase in mean serum corticosteroid levels from a resting value of 5.81 plus or minus 0.41 mub-g/100 ml. (mean plus or minus S.E.) to 7.83 plus or minus 0.71 mug/100 ml. during "maximal' exercise (p smaller than 0.05), which was maintained throughout recovery 7.82 plus or minus 0.70 ug/100 ml (p smaller than 0.05). Futhermore the active group demonstrated significantly lower mean serum corticosteroid levels compared with the sedentary group under conditions of submaximal (p smaller than 0.05) and "maximal' (p smaller than 0.01) exercise and during recovery (p smaller than 0.01). It was concluded that the variability in the response patterns of serum corticosteroids during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males, reflected the physiological differences observed between the two groups of subjects.

  11. The influence of age on dorsal hand vein responsiveness to norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Martin, S A; Alexieva, S; Carruthers, S G

    1986-09-01

    The influence of age on the responsiveness of dorsal hand vein alpha-receptors to local infusions of norepinephrine was investigated by the use of a novel technique, the linear variable differential transformer. Studies were conducted in two groups of healthy subjects, 26 elderly individuals (14 men and 12 women) 60 to 78 years old and 32 young individuals (24 men and eight women) 16 to 29 years old. There was wide interindividual variation in responsiveness to norepinephrine within both groups of subjects. The dose of norepinephrine required to produce 50% venoconstriction in the elderly ranged from 1.5 to 300 ng/min (geometric mean 24.0 ng/min). The dose required to produce 50% venoconstriction in younger individuals ranged from 1.6 to 360 ng/min (geometric mean 23.8 ng/min). These results suggest that there is no systematic influence of age on dorsal hand vein alpha-receptor responsiveness. A power calculation demonstrates a very small likelihood of a type II error.

  12. Age modifies the immunologic response and clinical presentation of American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Augusto M; Amorim, Camila F; Barbosa, Juliana L S; Lago, Alexsandro S; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2015-06-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main causal agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) that may present as cutaneous, mucosal, or disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease is highly prevalent in young males and there is a lack of studies of ATL in the elderly. Herein, we compared clinical manifestations, immunologic response, and response to antimony therapy between patients > 60 years of age (N = 58) and patients who were 21-30 years of age (N = 187). The study was performed in Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, a well-known area of L. braziliensis transmission. Cytokine production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen was performed. Elderly subjects more frequently had a previous history of cutaneous leishmaniasis, large lesions, or mucosal leishmaniasis, and they were less likely to have lymphadenopathy. There was no difference regarding gender and response to therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects produced a similar amount of tumor necrosis factor than young patients but they produced less interferon-gamma and more interleukin-10 than young subjects. We concluded that elderly patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis should be searched for mucosal or disseminated leishmaniasis. The decreased interferon-gamma production and increase in interleukin-10 observed in elderly patients may contribute to parasite persistence and L. braziliensis infection dissemination.

  13. Differences in the pattern of proliferative response with age in thymocytes undergoing spontaneous and induced proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hameed, M R; Coffman, F D; Cohen, S; Fresa, K L

    1989-10-15

    The proliferative capacity of thymocytes from C3H/HeJ mice decrease as the animals attain maturity. The proliferative response of thymocytes from 24- to 28-week-old mice to stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) is only 20% of that observed at 4 weeks of age. The decreased proliferative capacity of thymocytes in response to Con A stimulation observed between 4 and 24 weeks of age closely correlates to the drop in thymic weight and cellularity observed during this period. In contrast, the spontaneous proliferative capacity of thymocytes, as well as proliferation of thymocytes in response to stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, drops only slightly during this period, as proliferation under these condition in thymocytes from 24- to 28-week-old mice is approximately 65-70% of that observed in 4-week-old animals. We have previously shown that cytoplasmic extracts from proliferating lymphoid cells contain a factor, termed the activator of DNA replication (ADR), which is capable of inducing DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. We show in this study that the decreased proliferative capacity of thymocytes during whole organism maturation and thymic involution is associated with decreased endogenous levels of ADR, while nuclear sensitivity of thymocyte to ADR was retained during these process. The diminution of ADR activity during thymic involution was quantitatively greater than the loss in proliferative capacity. PMID:2790966

  14. Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase (HPK-1) regulates stress responses and ageing in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Slavica; Wood, Mallory; Llamosas, Estelle; Thaivalappil, Priya; Lee, Karen; Liao, Bing Mana; Chew, Yee Lian; Rhodes, Aaron; Yucel, Duygu; Crossley, Merlin; Nicholas, Hannah R

    2016-01-01

    Proteins of the Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase (HIPK) family regulate an array of processes in mammalian systems, such as the DNA damage response, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a single HIPK homologue called HPK-1. Previous studies have implicated HPK-1 in longevity control and suggested that this protein may be regulated in a stress-dependent manner. Here we set out to expand these observations by investigating the role of HPK-1 in longevity and in the response to heat and oxidative stress. We find that levels of HPK-1 are regulated by heat stress, and that HPK-1 contributes to survival following heat or oxidative stress. Additionally, we show that HPK-1 is required for normal longevity, with loss of HPK-1 function leading to a faster decline of physiological processes that reflect premature ageing. Through microarray analysis, we have found that HPK-1-regulated genes include those encoding proteins that serve important functions in stress responses such as Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes. Consistent with a role in longevity assurance, HPK-1 also regulates the expression of age-regulated genes. Lastly, we show that HPK-1 functions in the same pathway as DAF-16 to regulate longevity and reveal a new role for HPK-1 in development. PMID:26791749

  15. Tissue-specific autophagy responses to aging and stress in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Hannah C; Okada, Megan; Merz, Alexey J; Miller, Dana L

    2015-06-01

    Cellular function relies on a balance between protein synthesis and breakdown. Macromolecular breakdown through autophagy is broadly required for cellular and tissue development, function, and recovery from stress. While Caenorhabditis elegans is frequently used to explore cellular responses to development and stress, the most common assays for autophagy in this system lack tissue-level resolution. Different tissues within an organism have unique functional characteristics and likely vary in their reliance on autophagy under different conditions. To generate a tissue-specific map of autophagy in C. elegans we used a dual fluorescent protein (dFP) tag that releases monomeric fluorescent protein (mFP) upon arrival at the lysosome. Tissue-specific expression of dFP::LGG-1 revealed autophagic flux in all tissues, but mFP accumulation was most dramatic in the intestine. We also observed variable responses to stress: starvation increased autophagic mFP release in all tissues, whereas anoxia primarily increased intestinal autophagic flux. We observed autophagic flux with tagged LGG-1, LGG-2, and two autophagic cargo reporters: a soluble cytoplasmic protein, and mitochondrial TOMM-7. Finally, an increase in mFP in older worms was consistent with an age-dependent shift in proteostasis. These novel measures of autophagic flux in C. elegans reveal heterogeneity in autophagic response across tissues during stress and aging.

  16. Age Modifies the Immunologic Response and Clinical Presentation of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Augusto M.; Amorim, Camila F.; Barbosa, Juliana L. S.; Lago, Alexsandro S.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main causal agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) that may present as cutaneous, mucosal, or disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease is highly prevalent in young males and there is a lack of studies of ATL in the elderly. Herein, we compared clinical manifestations, immunologic response, and response to antimony therapy between patients > 60 years of age (N = 58) and patients who were 21–30 years of age (N = 187). The study was performed in Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, a well-known area of L. braziliensis transmission. Cytokine production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen was performed. Elderly subjects more frequently had a previous history of cutaneous leishmaniasis, large lesions, or mucosal leishmaniasis, and they were less likely to have lymphadenopathy. There was no difference regarding gender and response to therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects produced a similar amount of tumor necrosis factor than young patients but they produced less interferon-gamma and more interleukin-10 than young subjects. We concluded that elderly patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis should be searched for mucosal or disseminated leishmaniasis. The decreased interferon-gamma production and increase in interleukin-10 observed in elderly patients may contribute to parasite persistence and L. braziliensis infection dissemination. PMID:25918209

  17. Impaired musculoskeletal response to age and exercise in PPARβ(-/-) diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, He; Desvergne, Beatrice; Ferrari, Serge; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Fragility fractures are recognized complication of diabetes, but yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This is particularly pronounced in type 2 diabetes in which the propensity to fall is increased but bone mass is not necessarily low. Thus, whether factors implicated in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes directly impact on the musculoskeletal system remains to be investigated. PPARβ(-/-) mice have reduced metabolic activity and are glucose intolerant. We examined changes in bone and muscle in PPARβ(-/-) mice and investigated both the mechanism behind those changes with age as well as their response to exercise. Compared with their wild type, PPARβ(-/-) mice had an accelerated and parallel decline in both muscle and bone strength with age. These changes were accompanied by increased myostatin expression, low bone formation, and increased resorption. In addition, mesenchymal cells from PPARβ(-/-) had a reduced proliferation capacity and appeared to differentiate into more of an adipogenic phenotype. Concomitantly we observed an increased expression of PPARγ, characteristic of adipocytes. The anabolic responses of muscle and bone to exercise were also diminished in PPARβ(-/-) mice. The periosteal bone formation response to direct bone compression was, however, maintained, indicating that PPARβ controls periosteal bone formation through muscle contraction and/or metabolism. Taken together, these data indicate that PPARβ deficiency leads to glucose intolerance, decreased muscle function, and reduced bone strength. On a molecular level, PPARβ appears to regulate myostatin and PPARγ expression in muscle and bone, thereby providing potential new targets to reverse bone fragility in patients with metabolic disturbances.

  18. Contesting the dogma of an age-related heat shock response impairment: implications for cardiac-specific age-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Carnemolla, Alisia; Labbadia, John P; Lazell, Hayley; Neueder, Andreas; Moussaoui, Saliha; Bates, Gillian P

    2014-07-15

    Ageing is associated with the reduced performance of physiological processes and has been proposed as a major risk factor for disease. An age-related decline in stress response pathways has been widely documented in lower organisms. In particular, the heat shock response (HSR) becomes severely compromised with age in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, a comprehensive analysis of the consequences of ageing on the HSR in higher organisms has not been documented. We used both HS and inhibition of HSP90 to induce the HSR in wild-type mice at 3 and 22 months of age to investigate the extent to which different brain regions, and peripheral tissues can sustain HSF1 activity and HS protein (HSP) expression with age. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we were unable to detect a difference in the level or kinetics of HSP expression between young and old mice in all brain regions. In contrast, we did observe an age-related reduction in chaperone levels and HSR-related proteins in the heart. This could result in a decrease in the protein folding capacity of old hearts with implications for age-related cardiac disorders.

  19. Challenging residents to assume maximal responsibilities in homes for the aged.

    PubMed

    Rodstein, M

    1975-07-01

    A program for activating residents of homes for the aged to assume maximal responsibilities is described. Promoting maximal physical and mental health through various modalities including activity programs, appropriate exercise and participation in democratic self-government mechanisms, will result in a happier, healthier population of residents in institutions for the aged. The increased demands on staff time and patience will be compensated for by relief of the too-frequent feelings of hopelessness and boredom endemic among the staff of long-term care facilities. Such programs demand constant effort by all staff members, patients, volunteers and relatives because if they succumb to the usual human dislike of persistency, short-term gains can easily be lost. PMID:1141631

  20. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Nieto-Romero, Andres R

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual's maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a light-dark box, and in a forced swim test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms. PMID:25783197

  1. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Nieto-Romero, Andres R

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual's maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a light-dark box, and in a forced swim test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms.

  2. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.; Nieto, Andres

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual’s maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a Light-Dark Box, and in a Forced Swim Test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms. PMID:25783197

  3. Unveiling the Origin of Work Hardening Behavior in an Ultrafine-Grained Manganese Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel by Hydrogen Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xu; Li, Wei; Zhao, Hongshan; Han, Qihang; Wang, Li; Jiao, Huisheng; Jin, Xuejun

    2016-09-01

    To reveal the origin of work hardening behavior in an ultrafine-grained manganese transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, specific experiments were designed with the assistance of hydrogen. Although the effect of hydrogen on the austenite transformation was negligible, the work hardening rate ( Θ) was apparently reduced for hydrogenated samples, indicating that TRIP effect cannot account for the high Θ alone. The collaborative effect of dislocation accumulation in ferrite and austenite transformation is proposed to explain the responsible mechanism.

  4. Conservation Research and Development/ New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. DeArdo; C. Isaac Garcia

    2003-12-15

    Conservation Research and Development/New Ultra-Low Carbon High Strength Steels with Improved Bake Hardenability for Enhanced Stretch Formability and Dent Resistance. The experimental work can be divided into four phases. In each phase, the materials were received or designed, processed and tested, to evaluate the BH increment or response, as a function of compositions and processing conditions. Microstructural characterization by various techniques was performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of flow stress increment by bake hardening.

  5. Tailored work hardening descriptions in simulation of sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegter, Henk; Mulder, Hans.; van Liempt, Peter; Heijne, Jan

    2013-12-01

    In the previous decades much attention has been given on an accurate material description, especially for simulations at the design stage of new models in the automotive industry. Improvements lead to shorter design times and a better tailored use of material. It also contributed to the design and optimization of new materials. The current description of plastic material behaviour in simulation models of sheet metal forming is covered by a hardening curve and a yield surface. In this paper the focus will be on modelling of work hardening for advanced high strength steels considering the requirements of present applications. Nowadays work hardening models need to include the effect of hard phases in a soft matrix and the effect of strain rate and temperature on work hardening. Most material tests to characterize work hardening are only applicable to low strains whereas many practical applications require hardening data at relatively high strains. Therefore, physically based hardening descriptions are needed allowing reliable extensions to high strain values.

  6. Gene expression changes in response to aging compared to heat stress, oxidative stress and ionizing radiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Landis, Gary; Shen, Jie; Tower, John

    2012-11-01

    Gene expression changes in response to aging, heat stress, hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, and ionizing radiation were compared using microarrays. A set of 18 genes were up-regulated across all conditions, indicating a general stress response shared with aging, including the heat shock protein (Hsp) genes Hsp70, Hsp83 and l(2)efl, the glutathione-S-transferase gene GstD2, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mUPR) gene ref(2)P. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed using quantitative PCR, Northern analysis and GstD-GFP reporter constructs. Certain genes were altered in only a subset of the conditions, for example, up-regulation of numerous developmental pathway and signaling genes in response to hydrogen peroxide. While aging shared features with each stress, aging was more similar to the stresses most associated with oxidative stress (hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, ionizing radiation) than to heat stress. Aging is associated with down-regulation of numerous mitochondrial genes, including electron-transport-chain (ETC) genes and mitochondrial metabolism genes, and a sub-set of these changes was also observed upon hydrogen peroxide stress and ionizing radiation stress. Aging shared the largest number of gene expression changes with hyperoxia. The extensive down-regulation of mitochondrial and ETC genes during aging is consistent with an aging-associated failure in mitochondrial maintenance, which may underlie the oxidative stress-like and proteotoxic stress-like responses observed during aging.

  7. Gene expression changes in response to aging compared to heat stress, oxidative stress and ionizing radiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Landis, Gary; Shen, Jie; Tower, John

    2012-11-01

    Gene expression changes in response to aging, heat stress, hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, and ionizing radiation were compared using microarrays. A set of 18 genes were up-regulated across all conditions, indicating a general stress response shared with aging, including the heat shock protein (Hsp) genes Hsp70, Hsp83 and l(2)efl, the glutathione-S-transferase gene GstD2, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mUPR) gene ref(2)P. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed using quantitative PCR, Northern analysis and GstD-GFP reporter constructs. Certain genes were altered in only a subset of the conditions, for example, up-regulation of numerous developmental pathway and signaling genes in response to hydrogen peroxide. While aging shared features with each stress, aging was more similar to the stresses most associated with oxidative stress (hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, ionizing radiation) than to heat stress. Aging is associated with down-regulation of numerous mitochondrial genes, including electron-transport-chain (ETC) genes and mitochondrial metabolism genes, and a sub-set of these changes was also observed upon hydrogen peroxide stress and ionizing radiation stress. Aging shared the largest number of gene expression changes with hyperoxia. The extensive down-regulation of mitochondrial and ETC genes during aging is consistent with an aging-associated failure in mitochondrial maintenance, which may underlie the oxidative stress-like and proteotoxic stress-like responses observed during aging. PMID:23211361

  8. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  9. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    PubMed

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  10. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    PubMed Central

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC-MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p < 0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and workday hours, and these time of day PMR activity profiles were similar across ages examined (4–10 dpf). 10 dpf zebrafish larvae were consistently more sensitive to DPH than either the 4 or 7 dpf larvae with an environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more

  11. Age-Related Differences in Response to Music-Evoked Emotion among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, K. G.; Quintin, E. M.; South, M.

    2016-01-01

    While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older…

  12. The Effect of Age in the Alteration in Fluid Balance of Rats in Response to Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    With an increase in gravity load induced by centrifugation or upon return to Earth following spaceflight, there is a period of adjustment in fluid balance in rats. With centrifugation there is a reduced fluid intake with maintenance of the rate of urine excretion. Following spaceflight there is an increase in urine output and maintenance of fluid intake. The initial period of acclimation to hypergravity is associated with a net loss of fluids. In the present study in response to centrifugation at 2.0 G this period of acclimation is present in mature rats for a longer period of time, about 24 hours. Following this initial response a period of over compensation has previously been reported. In the present study this was not observed. The net effect of these alterations in water intake and output in response to centrifugation for 14 days was slight increase in the percent total body water, with effective compensation seen in both young and mature rats. Older rats have been shown to have a reduced relative thirst and compensatory renal function in response to hypohydration, hyperosmolality and pharmacological stimuli. Responsiveness to these stimuli are delayed and/or attenuated in older animals. Similar findings were noted in the present study in the initial response to centrifugation. The older animal had a delayed return of fluid intake to control levels. The delay of one day did not appear to effect long-term fluid homeostasis, as there was difference in the response of percent total body water at the end of 14 days of centrifugation with both age groups having a slight but significant increase. This increase has been attributed to the increase in lean body mass induced by centrifugation.

  13. Strain hardening of metal parts with use of impulse wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, A. V.; Soloviev, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes a strain hardening method with the use of impulse waves. This method increases energy transfer to the strained material extending its technological capabilities with development of a deep strengthened layer and allowing formation of a heterogeneous hardened structure using plastic deformation. This structure has specified distribution of the hard and soft (visco-plastic) areas. Due to development of the heterogeneous structure in the surface layer created by strain hardening with impulse wave, durability of parts that suffer contact fatigue loading is significantly increased.

  14. Age Impacts Pulmonary Inflammation and Systemic Bone Response to Inhaled Organic Dust Exposure.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jill A; Romberger, Debra J; Wyatt, Todd A; Staab, Elizabeth; VanDeGraaff, Joel; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Dusad, Anand; Klassen, Lynell W; Duryee, Michael J; Mikuls, Ted R; West, William W; Wang, Dong; Bailey, Kristina L

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural workers have high rates of airway and skeletal health disease. Studies recently demonstrated that inhaled agricultural organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway injury is associated with bone deterioration in an animal model. However, the effect of age in governing these responses to organic dusts is unclear, but might be important in future approaches. Young (7-9 wk) and older (12-14,o) male C57BL/6 mice received intranasal (i.n.) inhalation exposure to ODE from swine confinement facilities once or daily for 3 wk. Acute ODE-induced neutrophil influx and cytokine and chemokine (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant [CXCL1], macrophage inflammatory protein-2 [CXCL2]) airway production were reduced in older compared to young mice. Repetitive ODE treatment, however, increased lymphocyte recruitment and alveolar compartment histopathologic inflammatory changes in older mice. Whole lung cell infiltrate analysis revealed that young, but not older, mice repetitively treated with ODE demonstrated an elevated CD4:CD8 lymphocyte response. Acute inhalant ODE exposure resulted in a 4-fold and 1.5-fold rise in blood neutrophils in young and older mice, respectively. Serum IL-6 and CXCL1 levels were elevated in young and older mice i.n. exposed once to ODE, with increased CXCL1 levels in younger compared to older mice. Although older mice displayed reduced bone measurements compared to younger mice, younger rodents demonstrated ODE-induced decrease in bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone microarchitecture quality as determined by computed tomography (CT) analysis. Collectively, age impacts the airway injury and systemic inflammatory and bone loss response to inhalant ODE, suggesting an altered and enhanced immunologic response in younger as compared to older counterparts.

  15. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  16. Dermal Aged and Fetal Fibroblasts Realign in Response to Mechanical Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Christine; Grymes, Rose; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Integrins specifically recognize and bind extracellular matrix components, providing physical anchor points and functional setpoints. Focal adhesion complexes, containing integrin and cytoskeletal proteins, are potential mechanoreceptors, poised to distribute applied forces through the cytoskeleton. Pursuing the hypothesis that cells both perceive and respond to external force, we applied a stretch/relaxation regimen to normal human fetal and aged dermal fibroblast monolayers cultured on flexible membranes. The frequency and magnitude of the applied force is precisely controlled by the Flexercell Unit(Trademark). A protocol of stretch (20% elongation of the monolayer) at a frequency of 6 cycles/min caused a progressive change from a randomly distributed pattern of cells to a symmetric, radial distribution with cells aligned parallel to the applied force. We have coined the term 'orienteering' as the process of active alignment of cells in response to applied force. Cytochalasin D was added in graded doses to investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in force perception and transmission. A clear dose response was found; at high concentrations orienteering was abolished; and the drug's impact was reversible. The two cell strains used were similar in their alignment behavior and in their responses to cytochalasin D. Orienteering was influenced by cell density, and the cell strains studied differed in this respect. Fetal cells, unlike their aged counterparts, failed to orient at high cell density. In both cell strains, mid-density cultures aligned rapidly and sparse cultures lagged. These results indicate that both cell-cell adhesion and cytoskeleton integrity are critical in mediating the orienteering response. Differences between these two cell strains may relate to their expression of extracellular matrix molecules (fibronectin, collagen type 1) integrins and their relative binding affinities.

  17. Rac1 modulates acute and subacute genotoxin-induced hepatic stress responses, fibrosis and liver aging

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, A; Wartlick, F; Henninger, C; Kaina, B; Fritz, G

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 for the hepatic response to genotoxic insults and liver aging, rac1 was deleted in liver of mice by Mx1-Cre-based recombination. Knockout of rac1 caused complex changes in basal as well as doxorubicin and ionizing radiation-induced mRNA expression of various genotoxic stress response-related genes, including hspa1b, rad51, wrn and xpc. Rac1 deletion protected the liver from acute toxicity following doxorubicin treatment. Moreover, the level of S139 phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), which is indicative of DNA damage, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-6) and pro-fibrotic (CTGF, TGFβ, αSMA) factors were mitigated in rac1 knockout animals. By contrast, lack of rac1 promoted subacute hepatotoxicity, which was determined 3 weeks after injection of multiple low doses of doxorubicin by assaying the γH2AX level, mitotic index and pro-fibrotic gene expression. Regarding ionizing radiation, rac1 deficiency had no major effects on DNA damage induction or acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses. Mice lacking hepatic rac1 for extended period of time (15 months) revealed increased mRNA expression of fibrosis-related factors (CTGF, TGFβ, collagen, MMP1) and fibrotic tissue remodeling. In addition, protein expression of the senescence marker p16 was enhanced in the absence of rac1. Taken together, the data provide evidence that Rac1 is required for doxorubicin-induced DNA damage induction. It is also involved in both the acute and delayed inflammatory and fibrotic stress response in the liver following doxorubicin, but not ionizing radiation, treatment and, furthermore, protects against endogenous liver aging. PMID:23519127

  18. Response bias in "remembering" emotional stimuli: a new perspective on age differences.

    PubMed

    Kapucu, Aycan; Rotello, Caren M; Ready, Rebecca E; Seidl, Katharina N

    2008-05-01

    Older adults sometimes show a recall advantage for emotionally positive, rather than neutral or negative, stimuli (S. T. Charles, M. Mather, & L. L. Carstensen, 2003). In contrast, younger adults respond "old" and "remember" more often to negative materials in recognition tests. For younger adults, both effects are due to response bias changes rather than to enhanced memory accuracy (S. Dougal & C. M. Rotello, 2007). We presented older and younger adults with emotional and neutral stimuli in a remember-know paradigm. Signal-detection and model-based analyses showed that memory accuracy did not differ for the neutral, negative, and positive stimuli, and that "remember" responses did not reflect the use of recollection. However, both age groups showed large and significant response bias effects of emotion: Younger adults tended to say "old" and "remember" more often in response to negative words than to positive and neutral words, whereas older adults responded "old" and "remember" more often to both positive and negative words than to neutral stimuli. PMID:18444767

  19. Age-related declines in immune response in a wild mammal are unrelated to immune cell telomere length.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Waring, Laura; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2016-02-24

    Senescence has been hypothesized to arise in part from age-related declines in immune performance, but the patterns and drivers of within-individual age-related changes in immunity remain virtually unexplored in natural populations. Here, using a long-term epidemiological study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), we (i) present evidence of a within-individual age-related decline in the response of a key immune-signalling cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), to ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation, and (ii) investigate three putative drivers of individual variation in the rate of this decline (sex, disease and immune cell telomere length; ICTL). That the within-individual rate of age-related decline markedly exceeded that at the population level suggests that individuals with weaker IFNγ responses are selectively lost from this population. IFNγ responses appeared to decrease with the progression of bovine tuberculosis infection (independent of age) and were weaker among males than females. However, neither sex nor disease influenced the rate of age-related decline in IFNγ response. Similarly, while ICTL also declines with age, variation in ICTL predicted neither among- nor within-individual variation in IFNγ response. Our findings provide evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune performance in a wild mammal and highlight the likely complexity of the mechanisms that generate them. PMID:26888036

  20. Age-related declines in immune response in a wild mammal are unrelated to immune cell telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Laura; McDonald, Robbie A.; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Senescence has been hypothesized to arise in part from age-related declines in immune performance, but the patterns and drivers of within-individual age-related changes in immunity remain virtually unexplored in natural populations. Here, using a long-term epidemiological study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), we (i) present evidence of a within-individual age-related decline in the response of a key immune-signalling cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), to ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation, and (ii) investigate three putative drivers of individual variation in the rate of this decline (sex, disease and immune cell telomere length; ICTL). That the within-individual rate of age-related decline markedly exceeded that at the population level suggests that individuals with weaker IFNγ responses are selectively lost from this population. IFNγ responses appeared to decrease with the progression of bovine tuberculosis infection (independent of age) and were weaker among males than females. However, neither sex nor disease influenced the rate of age-related decline in IFNγ response. Similarly, while ICTL also declines with age, variation in ICTL predicted neither among- nor within-individual variation in IFNγ response. Our findings provide evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune performance in a wild mammal and highlight the likely complexity of the mechanisms that generate them. PMID:26888036

  1. Evaluation of age-dependent response to NMDA receptor antagonism in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2015-04-01

    Imbalances in glutamatergic signaling have been proposed as the cause of several neurological disturbances. The use of MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, to mimic features of these neurological disorders is effective both in mammals and in fish. However, the variability of the subunits comprising the NMDA receptor during development alters the pharmacokinetic properties of the receptor and leads to different responses to this drug. Here, we evaluated the locomotor response of zebrafish to MK-801 (1, 5, and 20 μM) through the development (30 days postfertilization [dpf] to 2 years postfertilization [ypf]). The NMDA receptor subunit gene expression was also analyzed through the development (7 dpf to 2 ypf). Zebrafish displayed an age-related response to MK-801 with a higher response at 60 and 120 dpf. The magnitude of hyperlocomotion promoted by MK-801 seems to be less powerful for zebrafish in relation to rodents. The verification of expression levels in zebrafish NMDA receptor subunits shows that NR1.1 had a slight reduction throughout the development, while the NR2 subunits, especially NR2A.2 and NR2C.1, vary their expression levels according to the stage of development. The time-specific locomotor response to MK-801 through the development could be a consequence of differential NMDA receptor subunit expression. This result of developmental response to MK-801 is a crucial component in the consolidation of zebrafish as a suitable model to study glutamatergic neurotransmission in early phases.

  2. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: the role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2013-12-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (S. T. Charles, 2010, Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 136, pp. 1068-1091) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examined how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults (N = 190) aged 18-81 years. Results indicated that older adults' negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure 3-6 hr afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, or any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. We discuss the implications of these results for emotion theories of aging.

  3. Effects of negative ageing on deformation and strength response of geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M.; Towhata, I.; Yamada, S.; Qureshi, M. U.; Kawano, K.

    2009-04-01

    Negative ageing or decay of grains with time is often ignored in conventional geotechnical investigations. Geology is always vital in such a scenario but the micro-scale geotechnical point of concern is the time-dependent loss of strength and deformation characteristics. This paper presents unique data from torsional shear tests on crushed soft rocks from Yokosuka, Japan and 2005-Kashmir earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. Material being sensitive to disintegrate by water-action allowed to simulate the long-term stress-strain and volume change response under saturated conditions whereas dry tests on similar soil represent initial intact response of the material. Negative ageing is manipulated by an enormous decrease in shear strength parameters, changes in grain size curve and increase in volumetric compression. It is concluded that for long-term hazard evaluation of various geotechnical structures, the effects of loss of strength due to decay of grains with time should be incorporated in conventional analysis and design models.

  4. Age-dependent transcriptional and epigenomic responses to light exposure in the honey bee brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nils; Kucharski, Robert; Rössler, Wolfgang; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-07-01

    Light is a powerful environmental stimulus of special importance in social honey bees that undergo a behavioral transition from in-hive to outdoor foraging duties. Our previous work has shown that light exposure induces structural neuronal plasticity in the mushroom bodies (MBs), a brain center implicated in processing inputs from sensory modalities. Here, we extended these analyses to the molecular level to unravel light-induced transcriptomic and epigenomic changes in the honey bee brain. We have compared gene expression in brain compartments of 1- and 7-day-old light-exposed honey bees with age-matched dark-kept individuals. We have found a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), both novel and conserved, including several genes with reported roles in neuronal plasticity. Most of the DEGs show age-related changes in the amplitude of light-induced expression and are likely to be both developmentally and environmentally regulated. Some of the DEGs are either known to be methylated or are implicated in epigenetic processes suggesting that responses to light exposure are at least partly regulated at the epigenome level. Consistent with this idea light alters the DNA methylation pattern of bgm, one of the DEGs affected by light exposure, and the expression of microRNA miR-932. This confirms the usefulness of our approach to identify candidate genes for neuronal plasticity and provides evidence for the role of epigenetic processes in driving the molecular responses to visual stimulation. PMID:27398303

  5. Macrophage Response to UHMWPE Submitted to Accelerated Ageing in Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Magda F G; Mansur, Alexandra A P; Martins, Camila P S; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F; Mansur, Herman S

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been the most commonly used bearing material in total joint arthroplasty. Wear and oxidation fatigue resistance of UHMWPE are regarded as two important properties to extend the longevity of knee prostheses. The present study investigated the accelerated ageing of UHMWPE in hydrogen peroxide highly oxidative chemical environment. The sliced samples of UHMWPE were oxidized in a hydrogen peroxide solution for 120 days with their total level of oxidation (Iox) characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The potential inflammatory response, cell viability and biocompatibility of such oxidized UHMWPE systems were assessed by a novel biological in vitro assay based on the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) by activated murine macrophages with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) cytokine and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, macrophage morphologies in contact with UHMWPE oxidized surfaces were analyzed by cell spreading-adhesion procedure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results have given significant evidence that the longer the period of accelerated aging of UHMWPE the higher was the macrophage inflammatory equivalent response based on NO secretion analysis.

  6. The department of internal medicine: hub of the academic health center response to the aging imperative.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, W R

    2000-08-15

    In the 21st century, geriatrics will increasingly dominate U.S. health care as the median age of the population progressively increases. Academic departments of geriatrics have been created in nations that have already experienced this shift. As an alternative strategy that builds on traditional strengths of academic medicine in the United States, departments of internal medicine should lead a multidepartmental, pan-institutional response to the aging imperative. Recognition of gerontology and geriatric medicine as central to the missions of internal medicine in clinical care, education, and research must be increased. In the process, academic departments of internal medicine will develop a high level of geriatric expertise and will launch many programs that address this challenge. Successful development of geriatric programs will serve as a catalyst to strengthen the integration among and between generalists and subspecialists. This will entail developing optimal sites and systems of geriatric care--at different levels of care and over time--that can enhance the geriatric education of medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians. The study of aging and geriatric health care will also become an integral part of departmental research, in its subspecialty divisions as well as its divisions of general internal medicine and geriatrics. This strategy is urgently recommended as both a challenge and an opportunity for all departments of internal medicine. PMID:10929171

  7. Effects of age and sex on hormonal responses to weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F.; Leach, C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of horizontal bedrest on the excretion of catecholamines, aldosterone, and cortisol by human subjects grouped by age and sex are examined. The responses are assessed by assays of 24-hr urine samples collected throughout the studies. In 36-45-yr-olds, the excretion of epinephrine increases, whereas it decreases in the 46-55- and 56-65-yr-old groups. Norepinephrine excretion decreases (5-27%) in all groups during bedrest. Aldosterone excretion increases in the younger two groups of both males (19 and 6%) and females (47 and 9%). A slight decrease is observed in 56-65-yr-old males (6%), whereas excretion in females is unchanged. Cortisol excretion increases in the youngest groups of both men (12%) and women (13%) but decreases in the 56-65-yr-old groups (6 and 5%). For the two groups of intermediate age (46-55 yr), excretion in females decreases (15%), whereas in males it increases (19%). It is believed that hormone measurements may be of value in explaining variation in stress tolerance due to age and/or sex during space flight.

  8. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kitty S.; Gross, Alden L.; Pezzin, Liliana E.; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Methods Data for persons ≥65 from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N=9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N=5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on: 1) common items; 2) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF); 3) DIF-adjusted all items. Results Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision, but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. Discussion IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. PMID:26526748

  9. The strain path dependence of plastic deformation response of AA5754: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Minh-Son; Hu, Lin; Iadicola, Mark; Creuziger, Adam; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2013-12-16

    This work presents modeling of experiments on a balanced biaxial (BB) pre-strained AA5754 alloy, subsequently reloaded uniaxially along the rolling direction and transverse direction. The material exhibits a complex plastic deformation response during the change in strain path due to 1) crystallographic texture, 2) aging (interactions between dislocations and Mg atoms) and 3) recovery (annihilation and re-arrangement of dislocations). With a BB prestrain of about 5 %, the aging process is dominant, and the yield strength for uniaxially deformed samples is observed to be higher than the flow stress during BB straining. The strain hardening rate after changing path is, however, lower than that for pre-straining. Higher degrees of pre-straining make the dynamic recovery more active. The dynamic recovery at higher strain levels compensates for the aging effect, and results in: 1) a reduction of the yield strength, and 2) an increase in the hardening rate of re-strained specimens along other directions. The yield strength of deformed samples is further reduced if these samples are left at room temperature to let static recovery occur. The synergistic influences of texture condition, aging and recovery processes on the material response make the modeling of strain path dependence of mechanical behavior of AA5754 challenging. In this study, the influence of crystallographic texture is taken into account by incorporating the latent hardening into a visco-plastic self-consistent model. Different strengths of dislocation glide interaction models in 24 slip systems are used to represent the latent hardening. Moreover, the aging and recovery effects are also included into the latent hardening model by considering strong interactions between dislocations and dissolved atom Mg and the microstructural evolution. These microstructural considerations provide a powerful capability to successfully describe the strain path dependence of plastic deformation behavior of AA5754.

  10. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  11. Radiation-hardened microwave communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Crutcher, R.I.; Vandermolen, R.I. )

    1990-01-01

    The consolidated fuel reprocessing program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing signal transmission techniques and equipment to improve the efficiency of remote handling operations for nuclear applications. These efforts have been largely directed toward the goals of (a) remotely controlling bilateral force-reflecting servomanipulators for dexterous manipulation-based operations in remote maintenance tasks and (b) providing television viewing of the work site. In September 1987, developmental microwave transceiving hardware operating with dish antennas was demonstrated in the advanced integrated maintenance system (AIMS) facility at ORNL, successfully implementing both high-quality one-way television transmissions and simultaneous bidirectional digital control data transmissions with very low error rates. Initial test results based on digital transmission at a 1.0-Mbaud data rate indicated that the error rates of the microwave system were comparable to those of a hardwired system. During these test intervals, complex manipulator operations were performed, and the AIMS transporter was moved repeatedly without adverse effects on data integrity. Results of these tests have been factored into subsequent phases of the development program, with an ultimate goal of designing a fully radiation-hardened microwave signal transmission system for use in nuclear facilities.

  12. Cyber situational awareness and differential hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Tebben, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The advent of cyber threats has created a need for a new network planning, design, architecture, operations, control, situational awareness, management, and maintenance paradigms. Primary considerations include the ability to assess cyber attack resiliency of the network, and rapidly detect, isolate, and operate during deliberate simultaneous attacks against the network nodes and links. Legacy network planning relied on automatic protection of a network in the event of a single fault or a very few simultaneous faults in mesh networks, but in the future it must be augmented to include improved network resiliency and vulnerability awareness to cyber attacks. Ability to design a resilient network requires the development of methods to define, and quantify the network resiliency to attacks, and to be able to develop new optimization strategies for maintaining operations in the midst of these newly emerging cyber threats. Ways to quantify resiliency, and its use in visualizing cyber vulnerability awareness and in identifying node or link criticality, are presented in the current work, as well as a methodology of differential network hardening based on the criticality profile of cyber network components.

  13. Intervertebral disc cell response to dynamic compression is age and frequency dependent.

    PubMed

    Korecki, Casey L; Kuo, Catherine K; Tuan, Rocky S; Iatridis, James C

    2009-06-01

    The maintenance of the intervertebral disc extracellular matrix is regulated by mechanical loading, nutrition, and the accumulation of matrix proteins and cytokines that are affected by both aging and degeneration. Evidence suggests that cellular aging may lead to alterations in the quantity and quality of extracellular matrix produced. The aims of this study were to examine the role of loading and maturation (a subset of aging), and the interaction between these two factors in intervertebral disc cell gene expression and biosynthesis in a controlled 3D culture environment. Cells were isolated from young (4-6 months) and mature (18-24 months) bovine caudal annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus tissue. Isolated cells were seeded into alginate and dynamically compressed for 7 days at either 0.1, 1, or 3 Hz or maintained as a free-swelling control. After 7 days, DNA and sulfated glycosaminoglycan contents were analyzed along with real time, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis for collagen types I and II, aggrecan, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene expression. Results suggest that maturation plays an important role in intervertebral disc homeostasis and influences the cell response to mechanical loading. While isolated intervertebral disc cells responded to mechanical compression in 3D culture, the effect of loading frequency was minimal. Altered cellular phenotype and biosynthesis rates appear to be an attribute of the cell maturation process, potentially independent of changes in cellular microenvironment associated with lost nutrition and disc degeneration. Mature cells may have a decreased capacity to create or retain extracellular matrix components in response to mechanical loading compared to young cells.

  14. Aging alters muscle reflex control of autonomic cardiovascular responses to rhythmic contractions in humans.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Simranjit K; Weavil, Joshua C; Venturelli, Massimo; Rossman, Matthew J; Gmelch, Benjamin S; Bledsoe, Amber D; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the influence of aging on the group III/IV muscle afferents in the exercise pressor reflex-mediated cardiovascular response to rhythmic exercise. Nine old (OLD; 68 ± 2 yr) and nine young (YNG; 24 ± 2 yr) males performed single-leg knee extensor exercise (15 W, 30 W, 80% max) under control conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, leg blood flow (QL), systemic (SVC) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were continuously determined. With no hemodynamic effect at rest, fentanyl blockade during exercise attenuated both cardiac output and QL ∼17% in YNG, while the decrease in cardiac output in OLD (∼5%) was significantly smaller with no impact on QL (P = 0.8). Therefore, in the face of similar significant ∼7% reduction in MAP during exercise with fentanyl blockade in both groups, LVC significantly increased ∼11% in OLD, but decreased ∼8% in YNG. The opposing direction of change was reflected in SVC with a significant ∼5% increase in OLD and a ∼12% decrease in YNG. Thus while cardiac output seems to account for the majority of group III/IV-mediated MAP responses in YNG, the impact of neural feedback on the heart may decrease with age and alterations in SVC become more prominent in mediating the similar exercise pressor reflex in OLD. Interestingly, in terms of peripheral hemodynamics, while group III/IV-mediated feedback plays a clear role in increasing LVC during exercise in the YNG, these afferents seem to actually reduce LVC in OLD. These peripheral findings may help explain the limited exercise-induced peripheral vasodilation often associated with aging.

  15. The metabolic response to postnatal leptin in rats varies with age and may be litter dependent.

    PubMed

    Granado, M; Diaz, F; Fuente-Martín, E; García-Cáceres, C; Argente, J; Chowen, J A

    2014-06-01

    Hyperleptinemia during postnatal life induces long-term effects on metabolism. However, these effects are controversial as both increased and decreased propensity towards obesity has been reported. To further analyze the effects of chronic neonatal hyperleptinemia on the subsequent metabolic profile, male Wistar rats proceeding from 18 different litters (8 pups/litter) received a daily subcutaneous injection of either saline (10 ml/kg, n=36) or leptin (3 μg/g, n=36) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND9. Rats were sacrificed at 10, 40, or 150 days of age. At 10 days of age, leptin treated rats had decreased body weight (p<0.001) and body fat (p<0.05). Leptin levels and glycemia were increased (p<0.01), whereas insulin, total lipids, triglycerides and glycerol levels were decreased (p<0.05). At PND40 rats receiving leptin had increased glycemia (p<0.01) and plasma HDL and LDL levels, but decreased total lipids (p<0.05). At PND150 neonatal leptin treatment induced different effects in rats raised in different litters. Rats from litter 1 had increased body weight (p<0.05), body fat (p<0.01), and plasma leptin (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.001), total lipid (p<0.001), LDL (p<0.05), and glycerol (p<0.001) levels. In rats from litter 2 these parameters did not differ from controls. Rats from litter 3 had decreased body weight (p<0.05), visceral fat (p<0.01) and plasma leptin (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.001), glycerol (p<0.001), and HDL (p<0.001) levels. In conclusion, the metabolic response to postnatal leptin varies with age, with the response in adulthood being variable and most likely influenced by other factors, including the genetic make-up.

  16. Aging alters muscle reflex control of autonomic cardiovascular responses to rhythmic contractions in humans.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Simranjit K; Weavil, Joshua C; Venturelli, Massimo; Rossman, Matthew J; Gmelch, Benjamin S; Bledsoe, Amber D; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the influence of aging on the group III/IV muscle afferents in the exercise pressor reflex-mediated cardiovascular response to rhythmic exercise. Nine old (OLD; 68 ± 2 yr) and nine young (YNG; 24 ± 2 yr) males performed single-leg knee extensor exercise (15 W, 30 W, 80% max) under control conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, leg blood flow (QL), systemic (SVC) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were continuously determined. With no hemodynamic effect at rest, fentanyl blockade during exercise attenuated both cardiac output and QL ∼17% in YNG, while the decrease in cardiac output in OLD (∼5%) was significantly smaller with no impact on QL (P = 0.8). Therefore, in the face of similar significant ∼7% reduction in MAP during exercise with fentanyl blockade in both groups, LVC significantly increased ∼11% in OLD, but decreased ∼8% in YNG. The opposing direction of change was reflected in SVC with a significant ∼5% increase in OLD and a ∼12% decrease in YNG. Thus while cardiac output seems to account for the majority of group III/IV-mediated MAP responses in YNG, the impact of neural feedback on the heart may decrease with age and alterations in SVC become more prominent in mediating the similar exercise pressor reflex in OLD. Interestingly, in terms of peripheral hemodynamics, while group III/IV-mediated feedback plays a clear role in increasing LVC during exercise in the YNG, these afferents seem to actually reduce LVC in OLD. These peripheral findings may help explain the limited exercise-induced peripheral vasodilation often associated with aging. PMID:26386110

  17. Nitric oxide and cellular stress response in brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders: the role of vitagenes.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Boyd-Kimball, Debra; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Butterfield, D Allan

    2004-01-01

    nitrosative stress. An amount of experimental evidence indicates that increased rate of free radical generation and decreased efficiency of the reparative/degradative mechanisms, such as proteolysis, are factors that primarily contribute to age-related elevation in the level of oxidative stress and brain damage. Given the broad cytoprotective properties of the heat shock response there is now strong interest in discovering and developing pharmacological agents capable of inducing such a response. These findings have led to new perspectives in medicine and pharmacology, as molecules inducing this defense mechanism appear to be possible candidates for novel, cytoprotective strategies. Particularly, manipulation of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms such as the heat shock response, through nutritional antioxidants or pharmacological compounds, represents an innovative approach to therapeutic intervention in diseases causing tissue damage, such as neurodegeneration. Consistent with this notion, maintenance or recovery of the activity of vitagenes may possibly delay the aging process and decrease the occurrence of age-related diseases with resulting prolongation of a healthy life span.

  18. Development of pulsed gas discharge lasers for shock hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Gerd; Tkotz, R.; Keusch, C.; Negendanck, Matthias; Christiansen, Jens; Hoffmann, D. H. H.

    1996-08-01

    Shock hardening of metals (e.g. Ti, stainless steel) by pulsed lasers offers the possibility of large hardening depth (several millimeters) without serious damage to the surface of the workpiece. Previous investigations for shock hardening have mainly been performed with high power solid state lasers. The adaptation of commercial, high power gas discharge lasers to the shock hardening process could make this process relevant for industrial applications, as high repetition rates may be used. Two different laser systems have been investigated: a TEA carbon-dioxide laser and a XeCl laser. Both systems have pulse energies of some joule, a pulse length of several ten nanoseconds, and pulse repetition rates of up to 10 Hertz. The divergence of the beam was minimized to improve focusing properties. Systematic measurements of the laser induced pressure by means of piezo probes have been performed. An enhancement of the hardness of illuminated Ti(RT15) targets has been found and is reported.

  19. Possible correlation between work-hardening and fatigue-failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kettunen, P. O.; Kocks, U. F.

    1969-01-01

    Conceptual theory proposes that cyclic hardening due to non-uniform strain and stress amplitudes during testing, especially during the initial application of stress to a specimen, may correlate positively with the ultimate strength of the specimen under test.

  20. Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of precipitation-hardening stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1970-01-01

    Accelerated test program results show which precipitation hardening stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In certain cases stress corrosion susceptibility was found to be associated with the process procedure.

  1. Autoimmunity and aging: the age-related response of mice of a long-lived strain to trinitrophenylated syngeneic mouse red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Naor, D; Bonavida, B; Walford, R L

    1976-12-01

    Mice of 1.5, 9, 22, and 31 to 32 months of age were injected with the thymus-dependent antigen, TNP-SRC, or the thymus-independent antigen, TNP-SRC, TNP-MRC. The anti-SRC and TNP immune responses to TNP-SRC were markedly reduced in older mice, whereas the anti-TNP response to the TNP-MRC showed no substantial decline. Young mice produced higher anti-TNP plaque-forming cell responses after injection of TNP-SRC than after TNP-MRC, whereas in older mice the reverse obtained. Old mice but not young mice displayed a high anti-SRC cross-reactive response after injection of TNP-MRC. The avidity of anti-TNP antibody of young mice immunized with TNP-SRC was higher than that following immunization with TNP-MRC, whereas the avidities of anti-TNP antibodies from old mice injected with these two reagents were the same. Those individual mice which showed a poorly regulated immune response also displayed an autologous anti-MRC plaque-forming cell response after injection of either TNP-SRC or TNP-MRC. It is suggested that mechanisms mediated by suppressor T cells may be responsible for regulating the autoimmune response to modified self antigens, and that these are severely impaired in age individuals.

  2. The combination of precipitation and dispersion hardening in powder metallurgy produced Cu-Ti-Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozic, D.; Dimcic, O.; Dimcic, B. Cvijovic, I.; Rajkovic, V.

    2008-08-15

    Microstructure and microhardness properties of precipitation hardened Cu-Ti and precipitation/dispersion hardened Cu-Ti-Si alloys have been analyzed. Cu-1.2Ti and Cu-1.2Ti-3TiSi{sub 2} (wt.%) atomized powders were characterized before and after consolidation by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing). Rapidly solidified powders and HIP-ed compacts were subsequently subjected to thermal treatment in hydrogen at temperatures between 300 and 600 deg. C. Compared to Cu-Ti powder particles and compacts, obtained by the same procedure, the strengthening effect in Cu-1.2Ti-3TiSi{sub 2} powder particles and compacts was much greater. The binary and ternary powders both reveal properties superior to those of Cu-1.2Ti and Cu-1.2Ti-3TiSi{sub 2} compacts. Microhardness analysis as a function of the aging temperature of Cu-1.2Ti-3TiSi{sub 2} alloy shows an interaction between precipitation and dispersion hardening which offers possibilities for an application at elevated temperatures.

  3. Blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes aged 10 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine arterial blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes. The study group comprised 711 young athletes (457 boys, 254 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean 13.41 ± 3.12 years) who had been training for an average of 7.62 ± 4.2 h per week for an average of 4.01 ± 2.5 years. Participants with elevated arterial blood pressure above the 90th percentile at rest were excluded from investigation. A symptom-limited, multistage exercise test to exhaustion was performed using a Monark cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure was measured with an aneroid manometer in the third minute of each stage of the test. Mean systolic arterial blood pressure during peak exercise was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 183.21 ± 27.97 mm Hg and 170.97 ± 21.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.03). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age and workload had significant effects on arterial blood pressure during the test. Systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise can be described with the following equations: boys, SBPex (mm Hg) = -1.92 × age (years) + 0.55 × workload (W) + 120.84; girls, SBPex (mm Hg) = -0.88 × age (years) + 0.48 × workload (W) + 111.22. The study results describe reference values of arterial blood pressure during the exercise test. The presented equations and figures can help to assess whether the arterial blood pressure at each stage of the exercise test exceeds the normal range or not.

  4. Blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes aged 10 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine arterial blood pressure response to exercise in young athletes. The study group comprised 711 young athletes (457 boys, 254 girls) aged 10 to 18 years (mean 13.41 ± 3.12 years) who had been training for an average of 7.62 ± 4.2 h per week for an average of 4.01 ± 2.5 years. Participants with elevated arterial blood pressure above the 90th percentile at rest were excluded from investigation. A symptom-limited, multistage exercise test to exhaustion was performed using a Monark cycle ergometer. Arterial blood pressure was measured with an aneroid manometer in the third minute of each stage of the test. Mean systolic arterial blood pressure during peak exercise was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 183.21 ± 27.97 mm Hg and 170.97 ± 21.4 mm Hg, respectively (p = 0.03). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age and workload had significant effects on arterial blood pressure during the test. Systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise can be described with the following equations: boys, SBPex (mm Hg) = -1.92 × age (years) + 0.55 × workload (W) + 120.84; girls, SBPex (mm Hg) = -0.88 × age (years) + 0.48 × workload (W) + 111.22. The study results describe reference values of arterial blood pressure during the exercise test. The presented equations and figures can help to assess whether the arterial blood pressure at each stage of the exercise test exceeds the normal range or not. PMID:26683975

  5. Is Animal Age a Factor In the Response of Bone to Spaceflight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, E. R.; Garetto, L. P.; Doty, S. B.; Halloran, B. P.; Turner, R. T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The rodent bone response to spaceflight may be influenced by a multitude of actors including flight duration, strain, and housing. Review of bone formation rates during spaceflight suggests that age may also play a role in the response. Weanling rats show fewer bone changes than older rats. To determine if the long bones of weanling rats were insensitive to weight-bearing, a hindlimb unloading experiment was conducted simultaneously with a 9d shuttle flight in 34d old group-housed male rats. All animals were injected with bone markers 7d and 1d before flight and euthanized at landing, 24hr, and 72hr following recovery. If no differences in body weight, bone length, or bone formation at the tibiofibular junction were noted at the different time points, data were combined for each group. No significant differences in body weight were found at any time period among the groups. The humerus, tibia, and femur elongated significantly during the flight period with no difference in lengths between groups at the end of the flight period. The group-housed flight rats showed no change in cortical bone formation rate compared to preflight values, flight controls, or vivarium controls. However, the hindlimb unloading group showed a significant 30% decrease in bone formation rate compared to all other groups. Individually-housed 38d old animals flown for 14d showed approx. 10% suppression of cortical growth. We speculate that the mechanical threshold required for cross-sectional bone growth is reached in group-house weanling rats during spaceflight, perhaps, through physical interactions, and that the weanling animals are sensitive to loading. However, the threshold is not fully reached in either singly-housed flight or hindlimb unloaded weanling rats. Older singly-housed flight animals appear to show equal or greater bone changes compared to hindlimb unloaded rats. We conclude that age, flight duration, strain, and housing have important roles in rodent skeletal responses to

  6. Lead-induced modifications of immune responses in aging male and female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Genova, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effects of lead intoxication on the immunological responses of aging male and female Balb/c mice. Both males and females on the lead diet exhibited a loss of weight after one week of treatment. The animals began to gain weight again after eight or fifteen weeks for males and females respectively. Although both groups continued to gain weight at a rate consistent with control animals, they never reached the same weights as their same-sex control counterparts. Immunofluorescent staining indicated the presence of greater renal pathology in lead-fed animals as compared to controls. Lead-fed males demonstrated the greatest pathology of any group. Both T and B cell mitogenic responses declined during the early phases of the experiment. This was followed, at age 25-27 weeks, by an increase in activity to levels greater than those of control animals. The depression and subsequent increase in mitogenic responses was mirrored in the ability of T cells to regulate B cell plaque formation when stimulated with sheep red blood cells. T cell function returned to control levels in coincidence with the increase in T and B cell mitogenicity. The return of T cell functionality to control levels coincides with the increased mitogenesis noted in T and B cell populations and the onset of weight gains by lead-fed animals. This coincidence suggests the occurrence of a physiological or immunological change which is compensating for the continued lead intoxication. One such change may be a lead induced reduction in the number or function of a T cell subset, eg. T suppressors.

  7. Physiological responses to psychological stress: importance of adiposity in men aged 50–70 years

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, S U; Torres, S J; Nowson, C A; Tilbrook, A J; Turner, A I

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50–70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20–25 kg/m2; n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27–35 kg/m2; n=17) men (50–70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500 h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7–15 min from 1400 to 1700 h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired. PMID:24867909

  8. Laser-ultrasonic hardening of the surface of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gureev, D M

    1998-03-31

    An investigation was made of the feasibility of laser-ultrasonic hardening of the surface of steel with a controlled change in the structurally stressed state of the surface layer. The advantages of the laser-ultrasonic treatment were demonstrated by the formation of harder and deeper surface hardening zones with simultaneous control of their structure and phase composition and of the formation of residual stresses. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  9. Strain hardening of fcc metal surfaces induced by microploughing

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Dickerson, R.M.; Russell, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    Microploughing experiments were used as a method for better understanding the ploughing mechanism in gold and iridium single crystals. The plough depths ranged from 20 nm in iridium to 1,600 nm in gold. Yield stress profiles and TEM analyses indicate that both materials strain harden even when very small volumes of material are involved. Strain hardening theory, as applied to bulk material, is useful in analyzing the results.

  10. Auditory Brainstem Gap Responses Start to Decline in Middle Age Mice: A Novel Physiological Biomarker for Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Tanika T.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.; Frisina, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The CBA/CaJ mouse strain's auditory function is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but on a mouse life cycle “time frame”. This pattern of ARHL is relatively similar to that of most humans: difficult to clinically diagnose at its onset, and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, CBA mice were used for the present study to analyze the beginning stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility, but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison to the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable to previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system is already beginning in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented as a possibility for attenuating further damage to the auditory system due to ARHL. PMID:25307161

  11. Auditory brainstem gap responses start to decline in mice in middle age: a novel physiological biomarker for age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Tanika T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    The auditory function of the CBA/CaJ mouse strain is normal during the early phases of life and gradually declines over its lifespan, much like human age-related hearing loss (ARHL) but within the "time frame" of a mouse life cycle. This pattern of ARHL is similar to that of most humans: difficult to diagnose clinically at its onset and currently not treatable medically. To address the challenge of early diagnosis, we use CBA mice to analyze the initial stages and functional onset biomarkers of ARHL. The results from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) audiogram and Gap-in-noise (GIN) ABR tests were compared for two groups of mice of different ages, namely young adult and middle age. ABR peak components from the middle age group displayed minor changes in audibility but had a significantly higher prolonged peak latency and decreased peak amplitude in response to temporal gaps in comparison with the young adult group. The results for the younger subjects revealed gap thresholds and recovery rates that were comparable with previous studies of auditory neural gap coding. Our findings suggest that age-linked degeneration of the peripheral and brainstem auditory system begins in middle age, allowing for the possibility of preventative biomedical or hearing protection measures to be implemented in order to attenuate further damage to the auditory system attributable to ARHL.

  12. Intake of a milk-based wolfberry formulation enhances the immune response of young-adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Karine; Benyacoub, Jalil; Sanchez-Garcia, José; Foata, Francis; Segura-Roggero, Iris; Serrant, Patrick; Moser, Mireille; Blum, Stephanie

    2010-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations of immune responses. Wolfberry, a popular Chinese functional ingredient, is prized for its anti-aging properties; however, little is known about the immunological effect of wolfberry intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dietary intake of a milk-based formulation of wolfberry, named Lacto-Wolfberry, on in vivo and ex vivo parameters of adaptive immunity in young-adult and aged mice. Over 44 days, young-adult (2 months) and aged (21 months) C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with a controlled diet and received drinking water supplemented or not with 0.5% (wt/vol) Lacto-Wolfberry. All mice were immunized on day 15 and challenged on day 22 with a T cell- dependent antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation significantly increased in vivo systemic immune markers that are known to decline with aging. Indeed, both antigen-(KLH) specific humoral response and cell-mediated immune responses in young-adult and aged mice were enhanced when compared to their respective controls. No significant effect of Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation was observed on ex vivo spleen cells proliferative response to mitogens and on splenocyte T cell subsets. In conclusion, dietary intake of Lacto-Wolfberry may favorably modulate the poor responsiveness to antigenic challenge observed with aging. PMID:20230278

  13. Susceptibility of the aging Brown Norway rat to carbaryl, an anti-cholinesterase-based insecticide: Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proportion of aged in the United States is projected to expand markedly for the next several decades. Hence, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of young adult, mature adult, a...

  14. Assessing Defense Structure in School-Age Children Using the Response Evaluation Measure-71-Youth Version (REM-Y-71)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Katy B.; Medic, Sanja; Yasnovsky, Jessica; Steiner, Hans

    2006-01-01

    This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n=290; grades 3-8; age range: 8-15; mean=11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and…

  15. Hardening by bubbles in He-implanted Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, J. A.; Follstaedt, D. M.; Myers, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Detailed finite-element modeling of nanoindentation data is used to obtain the mechanical properties of Ni implanted with 1-10 at. % He. The mechanical properties of this material elucidate the fundamental materials science of dislocation pinning by nanometer-size gas bubbles and also have implications for radiation damage of materials. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy showed that implantation of 1-5 at. % He at room temperature or at 200 deg. C produced a highly damaged layer extending to a depth of 700-800 nm and containing a fine dispersion of He bubbles with diameters of 1.1{+-}0.2 nm. Implantation at 500 deg. C enlarged the bubble sizes. By fitting the nanoindentation data with a finite-element model that includes the responses of both the implanted layer and the unimplanted substrate in the deformation, the Ni(He) layers are shown to have hardnesses as much as approximately seven times that of untreated Ni, up to 8.3{+-}0.6 GPa. Examination of the dependence of yield strength on He concentration, bubble size, and bubble density reveals that an Orowan hardening mechanism is likely to be in operation, indicating that the bubbles pin dislocation motion as strongly as hard second-phase precipitates do. This strong pinning of dislocations by bubbles is also supported by our numerical simulations, which show that substantial applied shear stress is required to move a dislocation through an empty cavity.

  16. The morphology and ageing behaviour of δ-ferrite in a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, R.; Singh, R. N.; Sinha, T. K.; Kashyap, B. P.

    1992-10-01

    Dual phase (martensite + δ-ferrite) microstructures were developed in a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, by austenitising at 1523-1623 K, followed by water-quenching. These duplex structures were thermally aged at 973 K for ageing periods varying from 30 min to 21 h. Morphological aspects of δ-ferrite phase and its response to age-hardening were studied by optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis and microhardness testing. It was observed that austenitizing at 1523 K produced fine, acicular δ-ferrite while the δ-ferrite formed by austenitising at higher temperatures (1573-1623 K) were massive, irregular-shaped and banded. Moreover the presence of 8-ferrite caused an abnormally strong (110) reflection, observed in X-ray diffraction patterns of martensite plus δ-ferrite structures. This behaviour is thought to be due to development of (110) texture in δ-ferrite phase. Thermal ageing at 973 K caused age-hardening of δ-ferrite with a peak hardness attained after 3.6 ks of ageing. Electron microscopic results suggest that the observed hardening was caused by the formation of Fe 2Mo Laves phase.

  17. Contribution of β' and β precipitates to hardening in as-solutionized Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys for dental prosthesis applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghwan; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hieda, Junko; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Fukui, Hisao

    2014-04-01

    Dental Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys exhibit a unique hardening behavior, which the mechanical strengths enhance significantly which enhances the mechanical strength significantly after high-temperature (1123K) solution treatment without aging treatment. The mechanism of the unique hardening is not clear. The contribution of two precipitates (β' and β phases) to the unique hardening behavior in the as-solutionized Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys was investigated. In addition, the chemical composition of the β' phase was investigated. The fine β' phase densely precipitates in a matrix. The β' phase (semi-coherent precipitate), which causes lattice strain, contributes greatly to the unique hardening behavior. On the other hand, the coarse β phase sparsely precipitates in the matrix. The contribution of the β phase (incoherent precipitate), which does not cause lattice strain, is small. The chemical composition of the β' phase was determined. This study reveals that the fine β' phase precipitated by high-temperature solution treatment leads to the unique hardening behavior in dental Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys in the viewpoints of the lattice strain contrast and interface coherency. It is expected to make the heat treatment process more practical for hardening. The determined chemical composition of β' phase would be helpful to study an unknown formation process of β' phase.

  18. Normal aging alters in vivo passive biomechanical response of the rat gastrocnemius-Achilles muscle-tendon unit.

    PubMed

    Plate, Johannes F; Wiggins, Walter F; Haubruck, Patrick; Scott, Aaron T; Smith, Thomas L; Saul, Katherine R; Mannava, Sandeep

    2013-02-01

    Predisposition to Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures in middle-aged individuals may be associated with age-related changes to inherent passive biomechanical properties of the gastrocnemius-Achilles (GC-AT) muscle-tendon unit, due to known muscle-tendon structural changes in normal aging. The goal of this study was to determine whether the passive biomechanical response of the GC-AT muscle-tendon unit was altered with age in 6 young (8 months) and 6 middle-aged (24 months) F344xBN hybrid rats from the National Institute on Aging colony. Fung's quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model was used to determine in vivo history and time-dependent load-relaxation response of the GC-AT. Effective stiffness and modulus were also estimated using linear regression analysis. Fung's QLV revealed a significantly decreased magnitude of the relaxation response (parameter C, p=0.026) in middle-aged animals compared to young animals (0.108±0.007 vs. 0.144±0.015), with similar time-dependent viscous GC-AT properties (τ(1), τ(2)). The product of elastic parameters (A*B), which represents the initial slope of the elastic response, was significantly increased by 50% in middle-aged rats (p=0.014). Estimated GC-AT stiffness increased 28% at peak tensions in middle-aged rats (2.7±0.2 N/mm) compared to young rats (1.9±0.2 N/mm; p=0.036). While the limitations of this animal model must be considered, the changes we describe could be associated with the observation that GC-AT pathology and injury is more common in middle-aged individuals. Further studies are necessary to characterize the load-to-failure behavior of AT in middle-aged compared to young animals.

  19. Linear response subordination to intermittent energy release in off-equilibrium aging dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Simon; Sibani, Paolo

    2008-03-01

    The interpretation of experimental and numerical data describing off-equilibrium aging dynamics crucially depends on the connection between spontaneous and induced fluctuations. The hypothesis that linear response fluctuations are statistically subordinated to irreversible outbursts of energy, so-called quakes, leads to predictions for the average values and the fluctuation spectra of physical observables in reasonable agreement with experimental results (see e.g. Sibani et al 2006 Phys. Rev. B 74 224407). Using simulational data from a simple but representative Ising model with plaquette interactions, direct statistical evidence supporting the subordination hypothesis is presented and discussed in this work. Both energy and magnetic fluctuations are analyzed, with and without an external magnetic field present. In all cases, fluctuation spectra have a Gaussian zero centered component. For large negative values, the energy spectrum additionally features an intermittent tail describing the quakes. In the magnetization spectrum, two intermittent tails are present. These are symmetric around zero for zero-field, but asymmetric in other cases. The field has thus a biasing effect on the spontaneous intermittent magnetic fluctuations. Furthermore, the field has a negligible effect on the energy fluctuation spectra. From the observed strict temporal correlation between quakes and intermittent magnetization fluctuations, it is possible to conclude that the linear response is controlled by the quakes and inherits their temporal statistics. On this basis, the information culled from intermittent linear response data can be analyzed in the same way as spontaneous thermal energy fluctuations. The latter have a central rôle in thermally activated dynamics, but are harder to measure than linear response data.

  20. Rapid cold hardening and expression of heat shock protein genes in the B-biotype Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren; Li, Xue; Oetting, Ronald D

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the rapid cold hardening processes of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). It was found that all developmental stages of B. tabaci have the capacity of rapid cold hardening and the length of time required to induce maximal cold hardiness at 0 °C varies with stage. There was only 18.3% survival when adult whiteflies were transferred directly from 26 °C to -8.5 °C for 2 h. However, exposure to 0 °C for 1 h before transfer to -8.5 °C increased the survival to 81.2%. The whiteflies show "prefreeze" mortality when they were exposed to temperatures above the supercooling point (SCP), although the range of SCP of whiteflies is -26 °C to -29 °C. The rapid cold hardening had no effect on SCP and reduced the lower lethal temperature of adults from -9 °C to -11 °C. Rapid cold-hardened adults had a similar lifespan as the control group but deposited fewer eggs than nonhardened individuals. The expression profiles during cold hardening and recovery from this process revealed that HSP90 did not respond to cold stress. However, HSP70 and HSP20 were significantly induced by cold with different temporal expression patterns. These results suggest that the rapid cold hardening response is possibly advantageous to whiteflies that are often exposed to drastic temperature fluctuations in spring or autumn in northern China, and the expression of HSP70 and HSP20 may be associated with the cold tolerance of B. tabaci.

  1. [Effects of bee pollen on lipid peroxides and immune response in aging and malnourished mice].

    PubMed

    Qian, B; Zang, X; Liu, X

    1990-05-01

    The results showed that the level of hemolysin (HC), the numbers of plaque forming cells (PFC) and specific rosette forming cells (SRFC) in primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were markedly lowered and the lipoperoxide level in brain, liver and serum was increased in aging (over 18 months) and malnourished mice fed with ground corn in comparison to normal controls, while HC and the numbers of PFC and SRFC were significantly increased and the lipoperoxide level was markedly decreased after treatment with bee pollen 10 g/kg/d orally for 3 months and with 20% bee pollen-containing ground corn for 3 weeks respectively. The reduction of total protein and albumin contents of serum, DNA, RNA and protein contents of spleen and thymus in mice fed with ground corn can be prevented by adding 20% bee pollen in ground corn diet.

  2. Empathic responsivity at 3 years of age in a sample of cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D; Molnar, Danielle S; Colder, Craig D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to cocaine and behavioral and physiological responsivity. Participants were 216 mother-infant dyads (116 cocaine exposed-CE, 100 nonexposed-NCE) recruited at birth. Measures of heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained during baseline and during a task designed to elicit empathy (exposure to infant crying). When the effects of prenatal cocaine use were examined in the context of polydrug use, results of model testing indicated that lower gestational age, prenatal exposure to cocaine and postnatal exposure to alcohol were each associated with a reduced suppression of RSA during the empathy task. These findings provide additional support for an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and dysregulation during early childhood during affect-eliciting environmental challenges. PMID:24444666

  3. Techniques for setting modes of thermal and deformation effect at combined hardening and finishing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimyanov, Kh M.; Rakhimyanov, K. Kh; Rakhimyanov, A. Kh; Kutyshkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers the issues of setting the modes of thermal and deformation effects in the basic schemes at combined hardening and finishing operations. On the basis of solving the thermal physical problem of material high rate heating, the parameters of a thermohardened layer were determined within the range of the investigated modes. An algorithm for setting the mode parameters of high rate heating responsible for the hardening effect at the combined processing was proposed. The analysis of the mathematical model for forming a surface microrelief at ultrasonic deformation showed that the sizes, the form of fragments and the density of a microrelief were determined by the processing kinematic parameters. An algorithm for setting the rotation speed and feeding at ultrasonic deformation according to microrelief characteristics was developed. The conditions to form a completely regular microrelief on the processed surface that represent the ratio between a single imprint diameter at the ultrasonic deformation and the processing kinematic parameters were determined. The complex of the algorithms suggested for setting the mode parameters of high rate heating and ultrasonic deformation constitutes the techniques for setting the modes of combined hardening and finishing operations.

  4. Quantifying dislocation microstructure evolution and cyclic hardening in fatigued face-centered cubic single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Ahmed M.; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2016-06-01

    Discrete dislocation dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the dislocation microstructure evolution and cyclic hardening during the early stages of fatigue loading in nickel single crystals. The effects of the crystal size and initial dislocation densities on both the mechanical response and the evolution of dislocation microstructure were quantified. Crystals having an initial dislocation density of 1012 m-2 and diameter less than 2.0 μm do not show any dislocation density multiplication or cyclic hardening. In contrast, crystals having the same initial dislocation density and diameters larger than 2.0 μm show a significant dislocation density accumulation in the form of dislocation cell-like structures, even after only a few number of loading cycles. This dislocation density accumulation was also accompanied by considerable cyclic hardening. The dislocation cell size and its wall thickness increase with increasing crystal size. With increasing dislocation density the critical crystal size, at which dislocation cell-structures form, decreases. The information theoretic entropy is utilized as a metric to quantify the extent of dislocation patterning and the formation and evolution of dislocation cell structures over time. Cross-slip was found to play a dominant role in the dislocation cell-structure formation. Further insights on the mechanisms contributing to the observed behavior are presented and discussed.

  5. Age affects the contraction-induced mitochondrial redox response in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Claflin, Dennis R; Jackson, Malcolm J; Brooks, Susan V

    2015-01-01

    Compromised mitochondrial respiratory function is associated with advancing age. Damage due to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) with age is thought to contribute to the mitochondrial deficits. The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD(+)) forms plays an essential role in the cyclic sequence of reactions that result in the regeneration of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Monitoring mitochondrial NADH/NAD(+) redox status during recovery from an episode of high energy demand thus allows assessment of mitochondrial function. NADH fluoresces when excited with ultraviolet light in the UV-A band and NAD(+) does not, allowing NADH/NAD(+) to be monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. Our goal was to assess mitochondrial function by monitoring the NADH fluorescence response following a brief period of high energy demand in muscle from adult and old wild-type mice. This was accomplished by isolating whole lumbrical muscles from the hind paws of 7- and 28-month-old mice and making simultaneous measurements of force and NADH fluorescence responses during and after a 5 s maximum isometric contraction. All muscles exhibited fluorescence oscillations that were qualitatively similar and consisted of a brief transient increase followed by a longer transient period of reduced fluorescence and, finally, an increase that included an overshoot before recovering to resting level. Compared with the adult mice, muscles from the 28 mo mice exhibited a delayed peak during the first fluorescence transient and an attenuated recovery following the second transient. These findings indicate an impaired mitochondrial capacity to maintain NADH/NAD(+) redox homeostasis during contractile activity in skeletal muscles of old mice. PMID:25698975

  6. Strain Hardening and Strain Softening of Reversibly Cross-linked Supramolecular Polymer Networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Donghua; Craig, Stephen L

    2011-09-27

    The large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior of metallo-supramolecular polymer networks formed by adding bis-Pd(II) cross-linkers to poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution is reported. The influence of scanning frequency, dissociation rate of cross-linkers, concentration of cross-linkers, and concentration of PVP solution on the large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior is explored. In semidilute unentangled PVP solutions, above a critical scanning frequency, strain hardening of both storage moduli and loss moduli is observed. In the semidilute entangled regime of PVP solution, however, strain softening is observed for samples with faster cross-linkers (k(d) ∼ 1450 s(-1)), whereas strain hardening is observed for samples with slower cross-linkers (k(d) ∼ 17 s(-1)). The mechanism of strain hardening is attributed primarily to a strain-induced increase in the number of elastically active chains, with possible contributions from non-Gaussian stretching of polymer chains at strains approaching network fracture. The divergent strain softening of samples with faster cross-linkers in semidilute entangled PVP solutions, relative to the strain hardening of samples with slower cross-linkers, is consistent with observed shear thinning/shear thickening behavior reported previously and is attributed to the fact that the average time that a cross-linker remains detached is too short to permit the local relaxation of polymer chain segments that is necessary for a net conversion of elastically inactive to elastically active cross-linkers. These and other observations paint a picture in which strain softening and shear thinning arise from the same set of molecular mechanisms, conceptually uniting the two nonlinear responses for this system.

  7. Strain Hardening and Strain Softening of Reversibly Cross-linked Supramolecular Polymer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Donghua; Craig, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    The large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior of metallo-supramolecular polymer networks formed by adding bis-Pd(II) cross-linkers to poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution is reported. The influence of scanning frequency, dissociation rate of cross-linkers, concentration of cross-linkers, and concentration of PVP solution on the large amplitude oscillatory shear behavior is explored. In semidilute unentangled PVP solutions, above a critical scanning frequency, strain hardening of both storage moduli and loss moduli is observed. In the semidilute entangled regime of PVP solution, however, strain softening is observed for samples with faster cross-linkers (kd ∼ 1450 s−1), whereas strain hardening is observed for samples with slower cross-linkers (kd ∼ 17 s−1). The mechanism of strain hardening is attributed primarily to a strain-induced increase in the number of elastically active chains, with possible contributions from non-Gaussian stretching of polymer chains at strains approaching network fracture. The divergent strain softening of samples with faster cross-linkers in semidilute entangled PVP solutions, relative to the strain hardening of samples with slower cross-linkers, is consistent with observed shear thinning/shear thickening behavior reported previously and is attributed to the fact that the average time that a cross-linker remains detached is too short to permit the local relaxation of polymer chain segments that is necessary for a net conversion of elastically inactive to elastically active cross-linkers. These and other observations paint a picture in which strain softening and shear thinning arise from the same set of molecular mechanisms, conceptually uniting the two nonlinear responses for this system. PMID:22043083

  8. Hardening of Titan's aerosols by their charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Vasili; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    2003-12-01

    Titan's haze consists of long chain polymers of pure and N-mixed hydrocarbons (Coustenis et al., 1989, Icarus 80, 54-76, 1991, Icarus 89, 152-167). These polymers have regularly alternating (i.e., conjugated) double/single and triple/single bonds, which open either spontaneously (free aging) or under the action of some external factors (forced aging), the latter being very diverse, e.g., charging, photolysis, radiolysis, thermolysis, chemical effect of environment, etc. An essential of free aging was examined previously (Dimitrov and Bar-Nun, 2002, Icarus 156, 530-538). The main distinction between free and any forced aging is that both of them possess the same thermodynamics while different kinetics, the forced aging in any case being faster, proceeding in different pathways than the free aging. The more extensive is the list of the external effects and the more intensive they are, the faster and more variably the forced aging proceeds. In this paper we quantified the kinetics of forced aging, considering charging of Titan's aerosol population. It was found that forced aging proceeds approximately hundred times faster as compared to the free aging. Various physico-chemical properties of Titan's aerosol material, including coagulation coefficients, depending on particle size and medium conditions, were defined. The comparison of the aging rate, rate of sedimentation and rate of the particle increase proves that Titan's aerosol domain can be subdivided conditionally into two big subdomains. The upper one contains minor portion (<5%) of the total aerosol bulk, unannealed aerosol particles being fine and sticky. The lower subdomain contains the major portion (>95%) of aerosol bulk, which is completely aged, coarsely dispersed particles. We established the border between these subdomains at the altitude Z˜620 km.

  9. Misregulation of an adaptive metabolic response contributes to the age-related disruption of lipid homeostasis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Karpac, Jason; Biteau, Benoit; Jasper, Heinrich

    2013-09-26

    Loss of metabolic homeostasis is a hallmark of aging and is commonly characterized by the deregulation of adaptive signaling interactions that coordinate energy metabolism with dietary changes. The mechanisms driving age-related changes in these adaptive responses remain unclear. Here, we characterize the deregulation of an adaptive metabolic response and the development of metabolic dysfunction in the aging intestine of Drosophila. We find that activation of the insulin-responsive transcription factor Foxo in intestinal enterocytes is required to inhibit the expression of evolutionarily conserved lipases as part of a metabolic response to dietary changes. This adaptive mechanism becomes chronically activated in the aging intestine, mediated by changes in Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Age-related chronic JNK/Foxo activation in enterocytes is deleterious, leading to sustained repression of intestinal lipase expression and the disruption of lipid homeostasis. Changes in the regulation of Foxo-mediated adaptive responses thus contribute to the age-associated breakdown of metabolic homeostasis.

  10. Aging- and task-related resilience decline is linked to food responsiveness in highly social honey bees.

    PubMed

    Speth, Martin T; Kreibich, Claus D; Amdam, Gro V; Münch, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Conventional invertebrate models of aging have provided striking examples for the influence of food- and nutrient-sensing on lifespan and stress resilience. On the other hand, studies in highly social insects, such as honey bees, have revealed how social context can shape very plastic life-history traits, for example flexible aging dynamics in the helper caste (workers). It is, however, not understood how food perception and stress resilience are connected in honey bee workers with different social task behaviors and aging dynamics. To explore this linkage, we tested if starvation resilience, which normally declines with age, depends on food responsiveness in honey bees. We studied two typically non-senesced groups of worker bees with different social task behaviors: mature nurses (caregivers) and mature foragers (food collectors). In addition, we included a group of old foragers for which functional senescence is well-established. Bees were individually scored for their food perception by measuring the gustatory response to different sucrose concentrations. Subsequently, individuals were tested for survival under starvation stress. We found that starvation stress resilience, but not gustatory responsiveness differed between workers with different social task behaviors (mature nurses vs. mature foragers). In addition starvation stress resilience differed between foragers with different aging progressions (mature foragers vs. old foragers). Control experiments confirmed that differences in starvation resilience between mature nurses and mature foragers were robust against changing experimental conditions, such as water provision and activity. For all worker groups we established that individuals with low gustatory responsiveness were more resilient to starvation stress. Finally, for the group of rapidly aging foragers we found that low food responsiveness was linked to a delayed age-related decline in starvation resilience. Our study highlights associations between

  11. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-04

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  12. Teen responses when a younger school-age sibling has been bullied

    PubMed Central

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of bullying among children, and the sometimes tragic consequences as a result, has become a major concern in schools. The larger research for this study reported on in-depth interviews with 28 elementary and middle school-age boys and girls (7–12 years) who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, mostly on school grounds, and the responses of their parents and teachers. Responses of the children's teen siblings to the younger child's revelations of being bullied are the focus of this report. In-depth interviews with each teen sibling (n = 28) and with each bullied child revealed how the children viewed the teen siblings' supportive strategies. Almost all the children (89%) reported that their older siblings talked with them and offered advice. The teen siblings shared with the younger ones that they too (71%) had been bullied, or they knew someone who had been bullied (18%). Teens gave the advice to ‘bully back’ to 11% and advice to ‘tell someone’ to 32% of the younger children. The children felt quite positive about their older siblings' advice (89%), which did differ depending on the bullied child's gender. Teen siblings gave advice to ‘avoid bullies’ to 77% of female and to 27% of male younger children. PMID:25931644

  13. Righteous realists: Perceptions of American power and responsibility in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    This is a study of the moral and ethical dimensions of political realism in post-World War II America, especially in relation to realist thought on nuclear weapons issues. Emphasis is placed on evolving notions of power and responsibility as they form the basis for a realist philosophy of power in the nuclear age. It is argued that the realists developed a concept of responsible power which was a hybrid of traditional American ideals and European Realpolitik. Included are chapters on the personal and intellectual background of five noteworthy realists, the realist position on some basic dilemmas in political ethics, the problem of usable and unusable force, the realists' view on deterrence and arms control, the question of democracy versus guardianship, and the realists as cultural critics. This study highlights the coherence of realist thought while pointing out the paradoxes upon which it is based. It situates realism in its historical context and reveals realism's relationship to explicit political and cultural values. It concludes that at their core, the realists were moralists; and realism was the entity through which they reconciled morality and power.

  14. Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subjects.

    PubMed

    Paolisso, G; Sgambato, S; Pizza, G; Passariello, N; Varricchio, M; D'Onofrio, F

    1989-04-01

    In eight aged non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) subjects, insulin response and action were studied before and after chronic magnesium supplementation (2 g/day) to diet. Chronic magnesium supplementation to diet versus placebo produced 1) a significant increase in plasma (0.83 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.78 +/- 0.06 mM, P less than .05) and erythrocyte (2.03 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.09 mM, P less than .01) magnesium levels, 2) an increase in acute insulin response (AIR) (4.0 +/- 0.6 vs. -1.6 +/- 0.6 mU/L, P less than .05) to glucose pulse, and 3) an increase in glucose infusion rate (GIR) (3.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .025) calculated in the last 60 min of a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (100 mU.m2.min-1 during 180 min) glucose clamp. Net increase in AIR, glucose disappearance rate after glucose pulse, and GIR were significantly and positively correlated to the net increase in erythrocyte magnesium content calculated after chronic magnesium supplementation to diet. In conclusion, our data suggest that NIDDM subjects may benefit from therapeutic chronic administration of magnesium salts.

  15. The Elderly in the Aging Society: Emerging Roles and Responsibilities. Symposium on Aging in the Jewish World (July 1985, Jerusalem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.; Kosberg, Jordan I.

    This report makes specific references to Jewish concerns while examining the respective responsibilities of the state, community, family, and the individual in caring for the elderly. It makes the critical point that reliance on the nuclear family in modern societies for elderly support becomes more tenuous to the extent that there are fewer adult…

  16. Application of Low Dose Radiation Adaptive Response to Control Aging-Related Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative damage has been implicated in the pathogenesis of most aging-related diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant supplementation has been found to be ineffective in reducing such diseases, but increased endogenous production of antioxidants from the adaptive response due to physical and cognitive exercises (which increase oxidative metabolism and oxidative stress) has been effective in reducing some of the diseases. Low dose radiation (LDR), which increases oxidative stress and results in adaptive response of increased antioxidants, may provide an alternative method of controlling the aging-related diseases. We have studied the effect of LDR on the induction of adaptive response in rat brains and the effectiveness of the LDR in reducing the oxidative damage caused by subsequent high dose radiation. We have also investigated the effect of LDR on apomorphine-induced rotations in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) unilaterally-lesioned rat model of Parkinson?s disease (PD). LDR was observed to initiate an adaptive response in the brain, and reduce the oxidative damage from subsequent high dose radiation exposure, confirming the effectiveness of LDR adaptive response in reducing the oxidative damage from the free radicals due to high dose radiation. LDR resulted in a slight improvement in Tyrosine hydroxylase expression on the lesioned side of substantia nigra (indicative of its protective effect on the dopaminergic neurons), and reduced the behavioral symptoms in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Translation of this concept to humans, if found to be applicable, may be a possible approach for controlling the progression of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Since any translation of the concept to humans would be hindered by the currently prevalent carcinogenic concerns regarding LDR based on the linear no-threshold (LNT) model, we have also studied the justifications for the use of the LNT model. One of the shortcomings of the LNT model is that it

  17. Age-Related Differences in Response to Music-Evoked Emotion Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, K G; Quintin, E M; South, M

    2016-04-01

    While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older adolescents (ages 16-18). Compared to controls, the ASD group demonstrated reduced skin conductance response to music-evoked emotion. Younger groups, regardless of diagnosis, showed greater physiological reactivity to scary stimuli than to other emotions. There was a significant interaction of age group and diagnostic group in identifying scary music stimuli, possibly evidencing disrupted developmental trajectories in ASD for integrating physiological and cognitive cues that may underlie symptoms of anxiety. PMID:26520146

  18. When Age Matters: Differences in Facial Mimicry and Autonomic Responses to Peers' Emotions in Teenagers and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses. PMID:25337916

  19. Analyses and models of the autogenous shrinkage of hardening cement paste. 1: Modeling at macroscopic scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, C.; Ehrlacher, A.; Acker, P.

    1995-10-01

    After having studied phenomena linked to hydration and self-desiccation, one notes that capillary depression is the main origin of the autogenous shrinkage of hardening cement paste. Based on this mechanism, modeling at macroscopic scale is undertaken for a commonly used cement paste (CPA 55) with a W/C ratio = 0.42. It consists in introducing a macroscopic stress due to the capillary depression and characterizing the viscoelastic aging behavior of the material. The result is in satisfactory agreement with measurements.

  20. Reverse-Martensitic Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel upon Up-quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiminori; Guo, Defeng; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiangyi

    2016-08-01

    Reverse-martensitic transformation utilizing up-quenching was demonstrated for austenitic stainless steel. Up-quenching was done following the stress-induced phase modification to martensite and then enrichment of the body-centered-cubic ferrite. Transmission-electron-microscopy observation and Vickers hardness test revealed that the reverse-martensitic transformation yields quench hardening owing to an introduction of highly-concentrated dislocation. It is furthermore found that Cr precipitation on grain boundaries caused by isothermal aging is largely suppressed in the present approach.

  1. Facial Expression in Response to Smell and Taste Stimuli in Small and Appropriate for Gestational Age Newborns.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Michael; Stolar, Orit; Uliel, Shimrit; Mandel, Dror; Mani, Ariel; Dollberg, Shaul; Reifen, Ram; Steiner, Jacob E; Harel, Shaul; Leitner, Yael

    2015-10-01

    Small for gestational age newborns can later suffer from eating difficulties and slow growth. Nutritional preferences can be influenced by changes in sensory perception of smell and taste. To determine whether these could be detected at birth, the authors examined the different recognition pattern of smell and taste in small for gestational age newborns compared to appropriate for gestational age controls, as expressed by gusto-facial and naso-facial reflexes. The authors performed video analysis of facial expressions of 10 small for gestational age and 12 control newborns exposed to various tastes and smells. No difference in the facial recognition patterns for taste or smell was demonstrated between small for gestational age and controls, except for perception of distilled water. Newborns show recognizable patterns of facial expression in response to taste and smell stimuli. Perception of taste and smell in small for gestational age newborns is not different from controls, as measured by the method of facial recognition.

  2. Anisotropic hardening model based on non-associated flow rule and combined nonlinear kinematic hardening for sheet materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherizadeh, Aboozar; Green, Daniel E.; Yoon, Jeong W.

    2013-12-01

    A material model for more effective analysis of plastic deformation of sheet materials is presented in this paper. The model is capable of considering the following aspects of plastic deformation behavior of sheet materials: the anisotropy in yielding stresses in different directions by using a quadratic yield function (based on Hill's 1948 model and stress ratios), the anisotropy in work hardening by introducing non-constant flow stress hardening in different directions, the anisotropy in plastic strains in different directions by using a quadratic plastic potential function and non-associated flow rule (based on Hill's 1948 model and plastic strain ratios, r-values), and finally some of the cyclic hardening phenomena such as Bauschinger's effect and transient behavior for reverse loading by using a coupled nonlinear kinematic hardening (so-called Armstrong-Frederick-Chaboche model). Basic fundamentals of the plasticity of the model are presented in a general framework. Then, the model adjustment procedure is derived for the plasticity formulations. Also, a generic numerical stress integration procedure is developed based on backward-Euler method (so-called multi-stage return mapping algorithm). Different aspects of the model are verified for DP600 steel sheet. Results show that the new model is able to predict the sheet material behavior in both anisotropic hardening and cyclic hardening regimes more accurately. By featuring the above-mentioned facts in the presented constitutive model, it is expected that more accurate results can be obtained by implementing this model in computational simulations of sheet material forming processes. For instance, more precise results of springback prediction of the parts formed from highly anisotropic hardened materials or that of determining the forming limit diagrams is highly expected by using the developed material model.

  3. General analytical shakedown solution for structures with kinematic hardening materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Baofeng; Zou, Zongyuan; Jin, Miao

    2016-04-01

    The effect of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behaviors of structure has been investigated by performing shakedown analysis for some specific problems. The results obtained only show that the shakedown limit loads of structures with kinematic hardening model are larger than or equal to those with perfectly plastic model of the same initial yield stress. To further investigate the rules governing the different shakedown behaviors of kinematic hardening structures, the extended shakedown theorem for limited kinematic hardening is applied, the shakedown condition is then proposed, and a general analytical solution for the structural shakedown limit load is thus derived. The analytical shakedown limit loads for fully reversed cyclic loading and non-fully reversed cyclic loading are then given based on the general solution. The resulting analytical solution is applied to some specific problems: a hollow specimen subjected to tension and torsion, a flanged pipe subjected to pressure and axial force and a square plate with small central hole subjected to biaxial tension. The results obtained are compared with those in literatures, they are consistent with each other. Based on the resulting general analytical solution, rules governing the general effects of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behavior of structure are clearly.

  4. Reduction of work hardening rate in low-carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalamanchili, Bhaskar Rao

    Low carbon grades of steel rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subject to ductility failures during production due to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing. The high work hardening rates are attributed to the presence of residuals, free nitrogen, or combinations thereof. This research concludes that the most cost-effective way to reduce the work hardening rate during wire drawing is to combine boron with nitrogen to form boron nitride, and thus reducing its work hardening contribution. The results of this study also conclude the following: (1) Boron/Nitrogen ratio is the more significant factor than rod tensile strength, which affects work hardening rate. Higher ratio is better in the 0.79 to 1.19 range. (2) Maintaining this narrow B/N range requires precise process control. (3) Process conditions such as dissolved oxygen (<25 ppm), carbon (≤0.05%) and ladle refining temperature (<2930°F) are necessary for optimizing boron recovery. (4) An average of 89% boron recovery is obtained with the above controlled process conditions. (5) Use of Boron has no adverse effects on the several metallurgical properties tested except with minor difficulty with scale for descaling. North Star Steel Texas (North Star) benefited from this research by being able to provide a competitive edge in both quality and cost of its low carbon boron grades thus making North Star a preferred supplier of wire rod for these products.

  5. Solute hardening and softening effects in B2 nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, L.M.; Liu, C.T.; Anderson, I.M.; Chang, Y.A.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of substitutional solute additions including Fe, Mn, and Pd on the hardness of B2-ordered NiAl alloys was investigated. The solid solution hardening behavior of intermetallics is more complex than that of typical metallic solid solutions because of complications arising from the site preference of the solute as well as the effects of the solute on the concentrations of other point defects, e.g., vacancies and anti-site defects. For this reason, care was taken to experimentally establish solute site preferences and point defect concentrations in the NiAl alloys before analyzing the hardness data. By taking these factors into account it was possible to rationalize the observed unusual hardening effects. Three distinct categories of solid solution hardening behavior were encountered. The first was hardening by the solute addition itself. This was observed in the case of Pd additions to Al-poor NiAl. However, when fe or Mn is added to Al-poor NiAl a second category is observed; these elements are seen to soften the material. The third category of behavior is observed when Fe is added to NiAl with a constant Al concentration of 50 at. %. In this case it is vacancies, rather than solute atoms, which harden the material.

  6. Interaction of mouse splenocytes and macrophages with bacterial strains in vitro: the effect of age in the immune response.

    PubMed

    Van Beek, A A; Hoogerland, J A; Belzer, C; De Vos, P; De Vos, W M; Savelkoul, H F J; Leenen, P J M

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics influence the immune system, both at the local and systemic level. Recent findings suggest the relation between microbiota and the immune system alters with age. Our objective was to address direct effects of six bacterial strains on immune cells from young and aged mice: Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Bifidobacterium breve ATCC15700, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC15697, and Akkermansia muciniphila ATCC BAA-835. We used splenocytes and naïve or interferon-γ-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as responder populations. All tested bacterial strains induced phenotypic and cytokine responses in splenocytes and BMDM. Based on magnitude of the cellular inflammatory response and cytokine profiles, two subgroups of bacteria were identified, i.e. L. plantarum and L. casei versus B. breve, B. infantis, and A. muciniphila. The latter group of bacteria induced high levels of cytokines produced under inflammatory conditions, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. Responses to L. lactis showed features of both subgroups. In addition, we compared responses by splenocytes and BMDM derived from young mice to those of aged mice, and found that splenocytes and BMDM derived from aged mice had an increased IL-10 production and dysregulated IL-6 and TNF production compared to young immune cells. Overall, our study shows differential inflammatory responses to distinct bacterial strains, and profound age-dependent effects. These findings, moreover, support the view that immune environment importantly influences bacterial immune effects. PMID:26689225

  7. Heterogeneous vasodilator responses of human limbs: influence of age and habitual endurance training.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Sean C; Leuenberger, Urs A; Hogeman, Cynthia S; Proctor, David N

    2005-07-01

    Forearm endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired with age in sedentary, but not endurance-trained, men. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether these age- and physical activity-related differences in endothelium-dependent vasodilation also occur in the leg. Brachial and common femoral arterial blood flow were measured with Doppler ultrasound during increasing doses of acetylcholine (1, 4, and 16 microg.100 ml limb tissue(-1).min(-1)), substance P (8, 31, and 125 pg.100 ml limb tissue(-1).min(-1)), and sodium nitroprusside (0.063, 0.25, and 1 microg.100 ml limb tissue(-1).min(-1)) in 23 healthy men (8 younger sedentary, 8 older sedentary, and 7 older endurance trained). Increases in forearm blood flow to the highest dose of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were smaller (P < 0.05) in older sedentary (841 +/- 142%, 428 +/- 74%) compared with younger sedentary (1,519 +/- 256%, 925 +/- 163%) subjects. Similarly, increases in forearm blood flow to sodium nitroprusside (1 microg.100 ml limb tissue(-1).min(-1)) were smaller (P < 0.05) in older endurance-trained (505 +/- 110%) compared with younger sedentary (925 +/- 163%) subjects. In contrast, no differences in leg blood flow responses to intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine, substance P, or sodium nitroprusside were noted between subject groups. These results demonstrate that 1) acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced vasodilation are attenuated in the forearm vasculature and preserved in the leg vasculature of older sedentary subjects and 2) sodium nitroprusside-induced vasodilation remains attenuated in the forearm vasculature of healthy older endurance-trained men but preserved in the leg vasculature of these men.

  8. Redox regulation of cellular stress response in aging and neurodegenerative disorders: role of vitagenes.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Guagliano, Eleonora; Sapienza, Maria; Panebianco, Mariangela; Calafato, Stella; Puleo, Edoardo; Pennisi, Giovanni; Mancuso, Cesare; Butterfield, D Allan; Stella, Annamaria Giuffrida

    2007-01-01

    Reduced expression and/or activity of antioxidant proteins lead to oxidative stress, accelerated aging and neurodegeneration. However, while excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic, regulated ROS play an important role in cell signaling. Perturbation of redox status, mutations favoring protein misfolding, altered glyc(osyl)ation, overloading of the product of polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation (hydroxynonenals, HNE) or cholesterol oxidation, can disrupt redox homeostasis. Collectively or individually these effects may impose stress and lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in brain cells. Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Friedreich's ataxia are major neurological disorders associated with production of abnormally aggregated proteins and, as such, belong to the so-called "protein conformational diseases". The pathogenic aggregation of proteins in non-native conformation is generally associated with metabolic derangements and excessive production of ROS. The "unfolded protein response" has evolved to prevent accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins. Recent discoveries of the mechanisms of cellular stress signaling have led to new insights into the diverse processes that are regulated by cellular stress responses. The brain detects and overcomes oxidative stress by a complex network of "longevity assurance processes" integrated to the expression of genes termed vitagenes. Heat-shock proteins are highly conserved and facilitate correct protein folding. Heme oxygenase-1, an inducible and redox-regulated enzyme, has having an important role in cellular antioxidant defense. An emerging concept is neuroprotection afforded by heme oxygenase by its heme degrading activity and tissue-specific antioxidant effects, due to its products carbon monoxide and biliverdin, which is then reduced by biliverdin reductase in bilirubin. There is increasing interest in dietary compounds that can

  9. Age-related differences in memory-encoding fMRI responses after accounting for decline in vascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiying; Hebrank, Andrew C; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Section, Jarren; Park, Denise C; Lu, Hanzhang

    2013-09-01

    BOLD fMRI has provided a wealth of information about the aging brain. A common finding is that posterior regions of the brain manifest an age-related decrease in activation while the anterior regions show an age-related increase. Several neurocognitive models have been proposed to interpret these findings. However, one issue that has not been sufficiently considered to date is that the BOLD signal is based on vascular responses secondary to neural activity. Thus the above findings could be in part due to a vascular change, especially in view of the expected decline of vascular health with age. In the present study, we aim to examine age-related differences in memory-encoding fMRI response in the context of vascular aging. One hundred and thirty healthy subjects ranging from 20 to 89 years old underwent a scene-viewing fMRI task and, in the same session, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was measured in each subject using a CO2-inhalation task. Without accounting for the influence of vascular changes, the task-activated fMRI signal showed the typical age-related decrease in visual cortex and medial temporal lobe (MTL), but manifested an increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In the same individuals, an age-related CVR reduction was observed in all of these regions. We then used a previously proposed normalization approach to calculate a CVR-corrected fMRI signal, which was defined as the uncorrected signal divided by CVR. Based on the CVR-corrected fMRI signal, an age-related increase is now seen in both the left and right sides of IFG; and no brain regions showed a signal decrease with age. We additionally used a model-based approach to examine the fMRI data in the context of CVR, which again suggested an age-related change in the two frontal regions, but not in the visual and MTL regions.

  10. Proteolysis of Xenopus laevis egg envelope ZPA triggers envelope hardening.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Leann L; Hedrick, Jerry L

    2004-11-12

    The egg envelope of most animal eggs is modified following fertilization, resulting in the prevention of polyspermy and hardening of the egg envelope. In frogs and mammals a prominent feature of envelope modification is N-terminal proteolysis of the envelope glycoprotein ZPA. We have purified the ZPA protease from Xenopus laevis eggs and characterized it as a zinc metalloprotease. Proteolysis of isolated egg envelopes by the isolated protease resulted in envelope hardening. The N-terminal peptide fragment of ZPA remained disulfide bond linked to the ZPA glycoprotein moiety following proteolysis. We propose a mechanism for egg envelope hardening involving ZPA proteolysis by an egg metalloprotease as a triggering event followed by induction of global conformational changes in egg envelope glycoproteins. PMID:15474476

  11. Effects of Aging on Osteogenic Response and Heterotopic Ossification Following Burn Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jonathan R.; Eboda, Oluwatobi N.; Brownley, R. Cameron; Cilwa, Katherine E.; Pratt, Lauren E.; De La Rosa, Sara; Agarwal, Shailesh; Buchman, Steven R.; Cederna, Paul S.; Morris, Michael D.; Wang, Stewart C.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common and debilitating complication of burns, traumatic brain injuries, and musculoskeletal trauma and surgery. Although the exact mechanism of ectopic bone formation is unknown, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) capable of osteogenic differentiation are known to play an essential role. Interestingly, the prevalence of HO in the elderly population is low despite the high overall occurrence of musculoskeletal injury and orthopedic procedures. We hypothesized that a lower osteogenicity of MSCs would be associated with blunted HO formation in old compared with young mice. In vitro osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs from old (18–20 months) and young (6–8 weeks) C57/BL6 mice was assessed, with or without preceding burn injury. In vivo studies were then performed using an Achilles tenotomy with concurrent burn injury HO model. HO formation was quantified using μCT scans, Raman spectroscopy, and histology. MSCs from young mice had more in vitro bone formation, upregulation of bone formation pathways, and higher activation of Smad and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling following burn injury. This effect was absent or blunted in cells from old mice. In young mice, burn injury significantly increased HO formation, NF-κB activation, and osteoclast activity at the tenotomy site. This blunted, reactive osteogenic response in old mice follows trends seen clinically and may be related to differences in the ability to mount acute inflammatory responses. This unique characterization of HO and MSC osteogenic differentiation following inflammatory insult establishes differences between age populations and suggests potential pathways that could be targeted in the future with therapeutics. PMID:25122460

  12. Macular morphology and response to ranibizumab treatment in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dervenis, Nikolaos; Younis, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess whether specific characteristics of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) affect structural and functional outcomes and number of injections needed in ranibizumab (0.05 mL of 10 mg/mL Lucentis solution)-treated wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. Patients and methods This retrospective case series included 62 newly diagnosed wet AMD patients treated with three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections followed by monthly follow-up and pro re nata retreatment. The presence of dome-shaped pigment epithelial detachment (PED), disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and subretinal and intraretinal fluid was associated with changes in Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity, central macular thickness (CMT), and number of injections needed during the 6-month follow-up. Results The presence of PED was associated with lower values of CMT at presentation (399 μm [±132 μm] vs 310 μm [±51 μm], P=0.005). The presence of RPE disruption was associated with worse visual acuity in month 6 (0.36 [±0.22] vs 0.61 [0.45], P=0.027) and fewer injections (4.23 [±0.92] vs 3.55 [±0.60], P=0.007). The presence of intraretinal fluid at presentation was associated with worse visual acuity outcomes in month 4 (P=0.045) but not in month 6. Conclusion The dome-shaped PED was associated with lower CMT at presentation, but it did not affect response to treatment. RPE disruption was associated with worse functional outcomes with fewer injections. Intraretinal fluid at presentation may suggest delayed response to treatment. Individualized SD-OCT analysis could lead to individualized approach to wet AMD patients. SD-OCT can offer imaging biomarkers to assess the prognosis of anti-VEGF treatment in AMD patients. PMID:27366051

  13. Public policy response, aging in place, and big data platforms: Creating an effective collaborative system to cope with aging of the population.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Chen, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rapid aging of the population is poised to become the next global public health challenge, as is apparent by the fact that 23.1% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to disorders in people aged 60 years and older. Aging of the population is the biggest driver of substantial increases in the prevalence of chronic conditions, and the prevalence of multi-morbidity is much higher in older age groups. This places a large burden on countries' health and long-term care systems. Many behavioral changes and public policy responses to aging of the population have been implemented to cope with these challenges. A system of "aging in place" has been implemented in some high-income countries in order to better provide coordinated and cost-effective health services for the elderly. This approach reduces institutional care while supporting home- or community-based care and other services. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT), assistive devices, medical diagnostics, and interventions offer many ways of more efficiently providing long-term care as part of aging in place. The use of big data on a web services platform in an effective collaborative system should promote systematic data gathering to integrate clinical and public health information systems to provide support across the continuum of care. However, the use of big data in collaborative system is a double-edged sword, as it also bring challenges for information sharing, standardized data gathering, and the security of personal information, that warrant full attention.

  14. Public policy response, aging in place, and big data platforms: Creating an effective collaborative system to cope with aging of the population.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Chen, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rapid aging of the population is poised to become the next global public health challenge, as is apparent by the fact that 23.1% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to disorders in people aged 60 years and older. Aging of the population is the biggest driver of substantial increases in the prevalence of chronic conditions, and the prevalence of multi-morbidity is much higher in older age groups. This places a large burden on countries' health and long-term care systems. Many behavioral changes and public policy responses to aging of the population have been implemented to cope with these challenges. A system of "aging in place" has been implemented in some high-income countries in order to better provide coordinated and cost-effective health services for the elderly. This approach reduces institutional care while supporting home- or community-based care and other services. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT), assistive devices, medical diagnostics, and interventions offer many ways of more efficiently providing long-term care as part of aging in place. The use of big data on a web services platform in an effective collaborative system should promote systematic data gathering to integrate clinical and public health information systems to provide support across the continuum of care. However, the use of big data in collaborative system is a double-edged sword, as it also bring challenges for information sharing, standardized data gathering, and the security of personal information, that warrant full attention. PMID:25787904

  15. Effect of age and severity of cognitive dysfunction on spontaneous activity in pet dogs - part 2: social responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rosado, B; González-Martínez, A; Pesini, P; García-Belenguer, S; Palacio, J; Villegas, A; Suárez, M-L; Santamarina, G; Sarasa, M

    2012-11-01

    Changes in social interactions with owners and other dogs are frequently observed in dogs with cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS). The aim of this work was to assess the effect of age and severity of CDS on social responsiveness. This is the second part of a 2-part report on spontaneous activity in pet dogs. A human interaction test and a mirror test were administered at baseline and 6 months later to assess social responses to humans and conspecifics, respectively, to four groups of privately-owned dogs: young (n=9), middle-aged (n=9), cognitively unimpaired aged (n=31), and cognitively impaired aged (n=36). The severity of cognitive impairment was considered in the last group and dogs were categorised as having either mild or severe CDS. The influence of the person and the mirror on locomotion and exploratory behaviour was also studied. Dogs were recorded in a testing room and the video recordings were subsequently analysed. Young dogs displayed more interactions involving physical contact with a person. Young and middle-aged dogs showed more vocalisations in response to social isolation. In contrast, aged animals spent more time in front of the mirror. Changes in social responsiveness associated with severe CDS included decreased response to social isolation and human interaction and increased time in front of the mirror, suggesting a deficit in habituation. Testing of spontaneous activity might help to characterise CDS in aged dogs, a condition increasingly diagnosed in veterinary clinics and a potentially useful natural model of Alzheimer's disease in humans. PMID:22578689

  16. Desensitized morphological and cytokine response after stretch-shortening muscle contractions as a feature of aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Rader, Erik P; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Kashon, Michael L; Gu, Ja K; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2015-12-01

    Recovery from contraction-induced injury is impaired with aging. At a young age, the secondary response several days following contraction-induced injury consists of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and segmental muscle fiber degeneration to aid in the clearance of damaged tissue and repair. This morphological response has not been wholly established at advanced age. Our aim was to characterize muscle fiber morphology 3 and 10 days following stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs) varying in repetition number (i.e. 0, 30, 80, and 150) for young and old rats. For muscles of young rats, muscle fiber degeneration was overt at 3 days exclusively after 80 or 150 SSCs and returned significantly closer to control values by 10 days. For muscles of old rats, no such responses were observed. Transcriptional microarray analysis at 3 days demonstrated that muscles of young rats differentially expressed up to 2144 genes while muscles of old rats differentially expressed 47 genes. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that cellular movement was a major biological process over-represented with genes that were significantly altered by SSCs especially for young rats. Protein levels in muscle for various cytokines and chemokines, key inflammatory factors for cell movement, increased 3- to 50-fold following high-repetition SSCs for young rats with no change for old rats. This age-related differential response was insightful given that for control (i.e. 0 SSCs) conditions, protein levels of circulatory cytokines/chemokines were increased with age. The results demonstrate ongoing systemic low-grade inflammatory signaling and subsequent desensitization of the cytokine/chemokine and morphological response to contraction-induced injury with aging - features which accompany age-related impairment in muscle recovery.

  17. Determination of Anisotropic Hardening of Sheet Metals by Shear Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schikorra, Marco; Brosius, Alexander; Kleiner, Matthias

    2005-08-01

    With regard to the increasing necessity of accurate material data determination for the prediction of springback, a material testing equipment has been developed and set up for the measurement of material hardening within cyclic loading. One reason for inaccurate springback predictions can be seen in a missing consideration of load reversal effects in a realistic material model description. Due to bending and unbending while the material is drawn from the flange over a radius of a deep drawing tool, a hardening takes place which leads to an expanding or shifting of the elastic area and yield locus known as isotropic, kinematic, or combined hardening. Since springback is mainly influenced by the actual stress state and a correct distinction between elastic and elastic-plastic regions, an accurate prediction of these stress and strain components is basically required to simulate springback accurately, too. The presented testing method deals with shearing of sheet metal specimens in one or more load cycles to analyze the change of yield point and yield curve. The experimental set up is presented and discussed and the results are shown for different materials such as aluminum A199.5, stainless steel X5CrNi18.10, dual phase steel DP600, and copper Cu99.99. To guarantee a wide experimental range, different sheet thicknesses were used additionally. Simulations using the finite element method were carried out to compare the measured results with calculated results from different yield criterions and different hardening laws mentioned above. It was possible to show that commonly used standard material hardening laws like isotropic and kinematic hardening laws often do not lead to accurate stress state predictions when load reversals occur. The work shows the range of occurring differences and strategies to obtain to a more reliable prediction.

  18. Predictions for weak mechanical ignition of strain hardened granular explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, Keith A.

    2004-04-01

    Predictions are given for the coupled bulk and grain scale response of initially unstressed, strain hardened granular HMX (C4H8N8O8) due to mild piston impact (impact speeds <100 m/s). Importantly, this response depends on the material's strain history as the stress necessary for bulk inelastic compaction (crush up) increases with the solid volume fraction. Although the quasistatic compaction behavior of HMX is well characterized, the influence of strain history on the bulk and grain scale dynamic loading response has largely been unexplored. In this study, the initial solid volume fraction of the unstressed material is varied over the range of φf⩽φ0⩽1, where φf=0.655 is its free pour value. A Hugoniot analysis for the bulk material identifies three dispersed compaction wave structures that depend on the impact speed and initial solid volume fraction, and are analogous to elastic-plastic waves in dynamically loaded solids. For increasing impact speed, these structures consist of (1) a single viscoelastic wave; (2) a leading viscoelastic wave and a trailing viscoplastic wave; and (3) a single viscoplastic wave. It is shown that the resulting localized heating near intergranular contact surfaces can trigger sustained combustion of the material. Predictions for the grain scale thermochemical response indicate that significant bulk viscoplastic heating is required for ignition of materials with φf⩽φ0⩽0.88, whereas bulk viscoelastic heating leads to the ignition of denser materials (φ0>0.91). Both viscoelastic and viscoplastic heating are predicted to be important for ignition of materials having 0.88⩽φ0⩽0.91. Within this transition range there is predicted a sharp increase in impact sensitivity as the power input needed for ignition rapidly decreases to a value close to that for the free pour density (0.40 MW/cm2) before increasing again. This result is important for assessing the impact sensitivity and deflagration-to-detonation transition of

  19. Epigenetics of Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications for Pharmacogenomics and Drug Response

    PubMed Central

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Torrellas, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic variability (DNA methylation/demethylation, histone modifications, microRNA regulation) is common in physiological and pathological conditions. Epigenetic alterations are present in different tissues along the aging process and in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Epigenetics affect life span and longevity. AD-related genes exhibit epigenetic changes, indicating that epigenetics might exert a pathogenic role in dementia. Epigenetic modifications are reversible and can potentially be targeted by pharmacological intervention. Epigenetic drugs may be useful for the treatment of major problems of health (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disorders, brain disorders). The efficacy and safety of these and other medications depend upon the efficiency of the pharmacogenetic process in which different clusters of genes (pathogenic, mechanistic, metabolic, transporter, pleiotropic) are involved. Most of these genes are also under the influence of the epigenetic machinery. The information available on the pharmacoepigenomics of most drugs is very limited; however, growing evidence indicates that epigenetic changes are determinant in the pathogenesis of many medical conditions and in drug response and drug resistance. Consequently, pharmacoepigenetic studies should be incorporated in drug development and personalized treatments. PMID:26703582

  20. A twin study of spatial and non-spatial delayed response performance in middle age.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Mai, Tuan; Panizzon, Matthew S; Franz, Carol E; Blankfeld, Howard M; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A; Tsuang, Ming T; Lyons, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Delayed alternation and object alternation are classic spatial and non-spatial delayed response tasks. We tested 632 middle-aged male veteran twins on variants of these tasks in order to compare test difficulty, measure their inter-correlation, test order effects, and estimate heritabilities (proportion of observed variance due to genetic influences). Non-spatial alternation (NSA), which may involve greater reliance on processing of subgoals, was significantly more difficult than spatial alternation (SA). Despite their similarities, NSA and SA scores were uncorrelated. NSA performance was worse when administered second; there was no SA order effect. NSA scores were modestly heritable (h(2)=.25; 26); SA was not. There was shared genetic variance between NSA scores and general intellectual ability (r(g)=.55; .67), but this also suggests genetic influences specific to NSA. Compared with findings from small, selected control samples, high "failure" rates in this community-based sample raise concerns about interpretation of brain dysfunction in elderly or patient samples.

  1. Aging analysis reveals slowed tau turnover and enhanced stress response in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Chad; Kraft, Clara; Jinwal, Umesh; Koren, John; Johnson, Amelia; Anderson, Laura; Lebson, Lori; Lee, Daniel; Dickson, Dennis; de Silva, Rohan; Binder, Lester I; Morgan, David; Lewis, Jada

    2009-01-01

    We have extensively analyzed the biochemical and histochemical profiles of the tau protein from the rTg4510 transgenic mouse model in which the animals uniquely develop forebrain tau pathologies similar to those found in human tauopathies. Levels of several soluble phosphorylated tau species were highest at 1 month relative to later time points, suggesting that certain tau hyperphosphorylation events were insufficient to drive tangle formation in young mice. Despite a robust, pre-tangle-like accumulation of phospho-tau in 1-month-old mice, this material was cleared by 3 months, indicating that the young mouse brain either fails to facilitate tau insolubility or possesses an enhanced ability to clear tau relative to the adult. We also found that while heat shock protein expression increased with normal aging, this process was accelerated in rTg4510 mice. Moreover, by exploiting an exon 10 (-) specific antibody, we demonstrated that endogenous mouse tau turnover was slowed in response to human tau over-expression, and that this endogenous tau adopted disease-related properties. These data suggest that a younger brain fails to develop lasting tau pathology despite elevated levels of phosphorylated tau, perhaps because of reduced expression of stress-related proteins. Moreover, we show that the active production of small amounts of abnormal tau protein facilitates dysfunction and accumulation of otherwise normal tau, a significant implication for the pathogenesis of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia L; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific MatAb on the anti-OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti-OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

  3. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Painter, Michio W; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J; Zhang, Alice X; Wagers, Amy J; Havton, Leif A; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-07-16

    The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired dedifferentiation, myelin clearance, and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance.

  4. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids

    DOE PAGES

    Langer, James S.

    2015-09-18

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman. The paper then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  5. Impact of Scaled Technology on Radiation Testing and Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief overview of some of the radiation challenges facing emerging scaled digital technologies with implications on using consumer grade electronics and next generation hardening schemes. Commercial semiconductor manufacturers are recognizing some of these issues as issues for terrestrial performance. Looking at means of dealing with soft errors. The thinned oxide has indicated improved TID tolerance of commercial products hardened by "serendipity" which does not guarantee hardness or say if the trend will continue. This presentation also focuses one reliability implications of thinned oxides.

  6. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids.

    PubMed

    Langer, J S

    2015-09-01

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman [Acta Mat. 58, 3718 (2010)ACMAFD1359-645410.1016/j.actamat.2010.03.009]. It then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  7. The anisotropic work-hardening of WC crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Luyckx, S.B.; Nabarro, F.R.N.; Wai, S.W.; James, M.N. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that it has been found that indented (1010) surfaces of WC crystals exhibit piled-up material next to the indentations while (0001) surfaces exhibit sunk-in material. Since in some metals sunk-in material around indenters indicates a higher work-hardening capacity than piled-up material, slip line and etch pit patterns around indentations were analyzed, in order to deduce the dislocation reactions occurring in each case. It was found that 1/6(1210) sessile dislocations can be produced only when indenting (0001) surfaces, which is consistent with a higher work-hardening capacity of (0001) surfaces.

  8. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, James S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman. The paper then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  9. On the hardening and softening of nanocrystalline materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fougere, G.E.; Weertman, J.R. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Siegel, R.W. . Materials Science Div.)

    1993-04-01

    Nanocrystalline Pd and Cu samples have been thermally treated to determine whether the relation between hardness and grain size depend on the method used to vary the grain sizes. Previous reports indicate that hardening with decreasing grain size resulted from data obtained using individual samples, while softening with decreasing grain size resulted from data from a given sample that had been thermally treated. Hardening and softening regimes were evident for the nanocrystalline cu, and the hardness improvements over the original as-consolidated state were maintained throughout the thermal treatments. This review examines our hardness results for Cu and Pd and those for other nanocrystalline materials.

  10. Precipitation hardening of a novel aluminum matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, Oscar Marcelo

    2002-09-15

    Deterioration of properties in cast aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) due to matrix/reinforcement chemical reactions is absent when AlB{sub 2} particles are used as reinforcements. This communication reports the fabrication of a heat-treatable AMC reinforced with borides. Final hardness values can be adjusted by solution and precipitation, which harden the composite. Evolution of the microstructure is concisely presented as observed by secondary electron microscopy. Precipitation hardening of the aluminum matrix, observed by microhardness measurements, has been corroborated by differential thermal analysis.

  11. Temperature influence on water transport in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Drouet, Emeline; Poyet, Stéphane; Torrenti, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-15

    Describing water transport in concrete is an important issue for the durability assessment of radioactive waste management reinforced concrete structures. Due to the waste thermal output such structures would be submitted to moderate temperatures (up to 80 °C). We have then studied the influence of temperature on water transport within hardened cement pastes of four different formulations. Using a simplified approach (describing only the permeation of liquid water) we characterized the properties needed to describe water transport (up to 80 °C) using dedicated experiments. For each hardened cement paste the results are presented and discussed.

  12. The effect of age on the renal response to PTH infusion.

    PubMed

    Naafs, M A; Fischer, H R; Koorevaar, G; Hackeng, W H; Schopman, W; Silberbusch, J

    1987-11-01

    The renal responses to PTH infusion were compared in two age groups of healthy subjects. Basal nephrogenous cyclic AMP (NcAMP) was higher (1.68 +/- 0.74 vs. 0.97 +/- 0.50 nmol/dl GF; P less than 0.05) and TmPO4/GFR was lower (0.93 +/- 0.21 vs. 1.16 +/- 0.14 mmol/liter; P less than 0.025) in 10 elderly subjects compared with 12 young adults. Creatinine clearance was decreased in the elderly (84.8 +/- 25.7 vs. 144.7 +/- 43.2 ml/min; P less than 0.005) and serum iPTH tended to be increased (0.15 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.11 +/- 0.03 pmol/liter). Following the infusion of 3 IU bPTH/kg bodyweight, no significant differences in delta NcAMP and delta TmPO4/GFR were seen between the groups. When responses were expressed as percentual change of basal level, elderly subjects showed a % NcAMP of 1831 +/- 1200 which was comparable with 2038 +/- 1503% in young adults. However, the percentual change in TmPO4/GFR was significantly higher in elderly persons (24.2 +/- 11.9 vs. 11.9 +/- 8.0%; P less than 0.01). In young subjects, virtually absent TmPO4/GFR responses were found in 3 cases with a relatively low basal TmPO4/GFR (between 0.92 and 0.98 mmol/liter), but these cases showed normal increases in NcAMP. Elderly subjects retained a considerable delta TmPO4/GFR notwithstanding a basal TmPO4/GFR below 0.92 in seven out of 10 cases. These results confirm the existence of a slight increase in parathyroid activity in the elderly. In addition, they suggest an augmented sensitivity of the renal tubule concerning PO4 reabsorption in elderly subjects. It is speculated that this phenomenon is related to the fall in bone mineral retention in senescence and might reflect a defense mechanism against phosphate overload. PMID:2825933

  13. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Erica S.; Flannery, Brenna M.; Gardner, Elizabeth M.; Pestka, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos) and adult (3 mos) mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm) DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes. PMID:26492270

  14. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses.

    PubMed

    Clark, Erica S; Flannery, Brenna M; Gardner, Elizabeth M; Pestka, James J

    2015-10-19

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos) and adult (3 mos) mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm) DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes.

  15. Increased age reduces DAF-16 and SKN-1 signaling and the hormetic response of Caenorhabditis elegans to the xenobiotic juglone

    PubMed Central

    Przybysz, Aaron J.; Choe, Keith P.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Strange, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Cells adapt to stressors by activating mechanisms that repair damage and protect them from further injury. Stress-induced damage accumulates with age and contributes to age associated diseases. Increased age attenuates the ability to mount a stress response, but little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. To begin addressing this problem, we studied hormesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. When exposed to a low concentration of the xenobiotic juglone, young worms mount a robust hormetic stress response and survive a subsequent exposure to a higher concentration of juglone that is normally lethal to naïve animals. Old worms are unable to mount this adaptive response. Microarray and RNAi analyses demonstrate that an altered transcriptional response to juglone is responsible in part for the reduced adaptation of old worms. Many genes differentially regulated in young versus old animals are known or postulated to be regulated by the FOXO homologue DAF-16 and the Nrf2 homologue SKN-1. Activation of these pathways is greatly reduced in juglone stressed old worms. DAF-16- and SKN-1-like transcription factors play highly conserved roles in regulating stress resistance and longevity genes. Our studies provide a foundation for developing a molecular understanding of how age affects cytoprotective transcriptional pathways. PMID:19428455

  16. Strengthening of Cu–Ni–Si alloy using high-pressure torsion and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seungwon; Matsunaga, Hirotaka; Sauvage, Xavier; Horita, Zenji

    2014-04-01

    An age-hardenable Cu–2.9%Ni–0.6%Si alloy was subjected to high-pressure torsion. Aging behavior was investigated in terms of hardness, electrical conductivity and microstructural features. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size is refined to ∼ 150 nm and the Vickers microhardness was significantly increased through the HPT processing. Aging treatment of the HPT-processed alloy led to a further increase in the hardness. Electrical conductivity is also improved with the aging treatment. It was confirmed that the simultaneous strengthening by grain refinement and fine precipitation is achieved while maintaining high electrical conductivity. Three dimensional atom probe analysis including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanosized precipitates having compositions of a metastable Cu{sub 3}Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} phase and a stable NiSi phase were formed in the Cu matrix by aging of the HPT-processed samples and these particles are responsible for the additional increase in strength after the HPT processing. - Highlights: • Grain refinement is achieved in Corson alloy the size of ∼150nm by HPT. • Aging at 300°C after HPT leads to further increase in the mechanical property. • Electrical conductivity reaches 40% IACS after aging for 100 h. • 3D-APT revealed the formation of nanosized-precipitates during aging treatment. • Simultaneous hardening in both grain refinement and precipitation is achieved.

  17. Effects of Age and Task Load on Drivers’ Response Accuracy and Reaction Time When Responding to Traffic Lights

    PubMed Central

    Salvia, Emilie; Petit, Claire; Champely, Stéphane; Chomette, René; Di Rienzo, Franck; Collet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Due to population aging, elderly drivers represent an increasing proportion of car drivers. Yet, how aging alters sensorimotor functions and impacts driving safety remains poorly understood. This paper aimed at assessing to which extent elderly drivers are sensitive to various task loads and how this affects the reaction time (RT) in a driving context. Old and middle-aged people completed RT tasks which reproduced cognitive demands encountered while driving. Participants had to detect and respond to traffic lights or traffic light arrows as quickly as possible, under three experimental conditions of incremental difficulty. In both groups, we hypothesized that decision-making would be impacted by the number of cues to be processed. The first test was a simple measure of RT. The second and third tests were choice RT tasks requiring the processing of 3 and 5 cues, respectively. Responses were collected within a 2 s time-window. Otherwise, the trial was considered a no-response. In both groups, the data revealed that RT, error rate (incorrect answers), and no-response rate increased along with task difficulty. However, the middle-aged group outperformed the elderly group. The RT difference between the two groups increased drastically along with task difficulty. In the third test, the rate of no-response suggested that elderly drivers needed more than 2 s to process complex information and respond accurately. Both prolonged RT and increased no-response rate, especially for difficult tasks, might attest an impairment of cognitive abilities in relation to aging. Accordingly, casual driving conditions for young drivers may be particularly complex and stressful for elderly people who should thus be informed about the effects of normal aging upon driving. PMID:27462266

  18. Physiological responses and RPE during underwater treadmill walking in women of middle and advanced age.

    PubMed

    Shono, T; Fujishima, K; Hotta, N; Ogaki, T; Ueda, T; Otoki, K; Teramoto, K; Shimizu, T

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses and RPE during water walking using the Flowmill, which has a treadmill at the base of a water flume, in order to obtain basic data for prescribing water walking for people of middle and advanced age. Twenty healthy female volunteers with an age of 59.1 +/- 5.2 years took part in this study. They belonged to the same swimming club and regularly swam and exercised in water. Walking in water took place in the Flowmill. Subjects completed four consecutive bouts of 4 min duration at progressively increasing speeds (20, 30, 40 and 50 m/min) with 1 min rest between each bout. In addition, water velocity was adjusted to the walking speed of each bout. Subjects were instructed to swing both arms in order to maintain their balance during walking in water. The water depth was to the level of the xiphoid process and the water temperature was 30.31 +/- 0.08 degrees C. Both heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) increased exponentially as walking speed increased. HR was 125 +/- 15 bpm, and VO2 was 18.10 +/- 2.72 ml/kg.min-1 during walking in water at 50 m/min, which was the highest speed. The exercise intensity at this speed was equivalent to 5.2 +/- 0.8 Mets. The relationship between HR and VO2 during walking in water showed a highly significant linear relationship in each subject. There was also a highly significant linear relationship in the mean HR and VO2 of all subjects. Blood lactate concentration (LA) measured at rest and immediately after each bout was 1.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/l at rest, 1.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l at 20 m/min, 1.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at 30 m/min, 1.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/l at 40 m/min, and 2.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/l at 50 m/min. LA at 50 m/min was significantly higher than at rest and at the other speeds. The relationship between HR and RPE during walking in water showed a highly significant linear relationship. The relationship between walking speed and energy expenditure calculated from VO2 and the respiratory exchange

  19. Hormonal and metabolic response in middle-aged women to moderate physical effort during aerobics.

    PubMed

    Charmas, Małgorzata; Opaszowski, Benedykt H; Charmas, Robert; Rózańska, Dorota; Jówko, Ewa; Sadowski, Jerzy; Dorofeyeva, Lena

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the metabolic and hormone response in middle-aged women to acute physical aerobic exercise accompanied by music, the so-called "aerobics." The experiment (single 60-minute aerobics session) included 11 women aged between 30 and 50. The following variables were determined in blood samples collected from the participants four times (in fasting state [I], before exercise [II], after exercise [III], and after 12 hours of rest [IV]): concentration of lactic acid, glucose, free fatty acids, leptin, insulin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, the measurements included body mass before and after the exercise, and body temperature was taken in the auditory canal and on the forehead. The heart rate was registered during the exercise on a continuous basis. In all cases, the heart rate did not reach its maximum level, and on average, it amounted to approximately 70% of the maximum pulse rate. Therefore, this effort can be considered as submaximal. In all cases, we observed loss of body mass (from 0.2 to 0.7 kg) (p > 0.02) increase in the temperature measured on forehead. Significantly, accompanied by nonsignificant increase in the temperature measured on the tympanic membrane was registered. Single loading gives rise to change in hormone and metabolic profiles. Furthermore, a decrease in blood concentration of glucose before and after aerobics (p > 0.001) could be observed, and if the determination taken at measurement IV of glucose in blood is taken into consideration, then the value taken in measurement I is significantly the highest in relation to other measurements. Concentration of free fatty acids were increased (p > 0.002) after exercise and remained on the same level until the following day. The levels of insulin were significantly decreased, but growth hormone levels were increased. The exercise had no impact on testosterone concentration, whereas average blood concentration of leptin in the successive

  20. Aging-dependent alterations in gene expression and a mitochondrial signature of responsiveness to human influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Juilee; Mohanty, Subhasis; West, A Phillip; Joshi, Samit R; Ueda, Ikuyo; Wilson, Jean; Meng, Hailong; Blevins, Tamara P; Tsang, Sui; Trentalange, Mark; Siconolfi, Barbara; Park, Koonam; Gill, Thomas M; Belshe, Robert B; Kaech, Susan M; Shadel, Gerald S; Kleinstein, Steven H; Shaw, Albert C

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate gene expression pathways underlying age-associated impairment in influenza vaccine response, we screened young (age 21-30) and older (age≥65) adults receiving influenza vaccine in two consecutive seasons and identified those with strong or absent response to vaccine, including a subset of older adults meeting criteria for frailty. PBMCs obtained prior to vaccination (Day 0) and at day 2 or 4, day 7 and day 28 post-vaccine were subjected to gene expression microarray analysis. We defined a response signature and also detected induction of a type I interferon response at day 2 and a plasma cell signature at day 7 post-vaccine in young responders. The response signature was dysregulated in older adults, with the plasma cell signature induced at day 2, and was never induced in frail subjects (who were all non-responders). We also identified a mitochondrial signature in young vaccine responders containing genes mediating mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation that was consistent in two different vaccine seasons and verified by analyses of mitochondrial content and protein expression. These results represent the first genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of age-associated dynamics following influenza vaccination, and implicate changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and function as a critical factor in human vaccine responsiveness.

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