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Sample records for age health status

  1. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  2. [Odor perception in relation to age, general health, nutritional status, and dental status].

    PubMed

    Griep, M I; Mets, T F; Vogelaere, P; Collys, K; Laska, M; Massart, D L

    1997-02-01

    Many studies have shown that odour perception declines with age. Considering the possible role of age-related phenomena such as general health, dental health and nutrition in such a decline, their joint effect on variability in odour perception was evaluated in the present study. 73 apparently healthy adults aged from 53 to 86 years (median age = 66), living in the community, took part in this study. The SENIEUR protocol was used to assess the general health status and anthropometric measures were obtained to assess the nutritional status. The sensory detection threshold for isoamylacetate (banana odour) was determined as the lowest detectable odour concentration. Dental status was assessed by a questionnaire on the presence of natural teeth and wearing of dentures. Those in poor general health had significantly higher mean odour thresholds (2.35, SD = 1.34), where threshold concentration was expressed as -log(mol/l), than those in good (3.47, SD = 1.46) or reasonably general health (3.75, SD = 1.02). Partial denture wearers had significantly higher odour thresholds (2.99, SD = 1.12) than those having only natural teeth (4.24, SD = 1.43). Significant correlations between age and anthropometrical values were found, indicating that with age, muscle mass particularly in women decreases (r = -0.50). Odour perception of women correlated significantly inversely with triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.42), indicating that poor sense of small is associated with high body content of fat. Our results indicate that general health and dental state are important age-associated factors in odour perception. Since age does not show a significant independent effect, neither in an analysis of variance, nor in a multiple regression analysis, such factors tend to become more important than chronological age per se.

  3. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  4. Health status among young people in Slovakia: comparisons on the basis of age, gender and education.

    PubMed

    Sleskova, Maria; Salonna, Ferdinand; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Groothoff, Johan W

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the health status of three age groups: first grade secondary school students (mean age 15.9 years), third grade students (mean age 17.8 years) and secondary school leavers (mean age 19.6 years). Females rated their health worse than males on all six indicators (most of these differences were statistically significant). For males, younger age was associated with better self-rated health, less long-standing illness and higher levels of long-term well-being during the previous year. For females, the age differences were more complicated: third grade females reported significantly worse health status in terms of vitality, long-standing illness and number of health complaints than the other two age groups. An analysis of health status by educational level (attendance at or completion of grammar, technical or apprentice school), revealed that grammar school third grade females reported worse health than all other respondents on all six indicators. The third grade of grammar school in Slovakia puts particular stresses on students and, since it has been suggested that females may react more negatively than males to stressful events, this may contribute to their more negative self reports.

  5. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  6. Health status of cloned cattle at different ages.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Remy, D; Cordonnier, N; Richard, C; Issenman, H; Laigre, P; Heyman, Y; Mialot, J-P

    2004-01-01

    The procedure of somatic cloning is associated with important losses during pregnancy and in the perinatal period, reducing the overall efficacy to less than 5% in most cases. A mean of 30% of the cloned calves die before reaching 6 months of age with a wide range of pathologies, including, for the most common, respiratory failure, abnormal kidney development, liver steatosis. Heart and liver weight in relation to body weight are also increased. Surviving animals, although mostly clinically normal, differ from controls obtained by artificial insemination (AI) within the first 1-2 months, to become undistinguishable from them thereafter. Hemoglobin concentrations, for instance, are lower, and leptin concentrations are elevated. In response to the lack of prospective studies addressing the health of adult clones, a long-term, 3-4-year study is currently being conducted to assess the health of mature bovine clones at INRA. Preliminary results over 1 year of study do not show any statistical difference between groups for hematological parameters. PMID:15268782

  7. Age, time, and cohort effects on functional status and self-rated health in elderly men.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeymans, N; Feskens, E J; van den Bos, G A; Kromhout, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated age-related changes in functional status and self-rated health in elderly men, taking into account changes over time and differences between birth cohorts. METHODS: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a longitudinal study of men born in the Netherlands between 1900 and 1920. Functional status and self-rated health were measured in 513 men in 1990, in 381 men in 1993, and in 340 men in 1995. Age, time, and cohort effects were analyzed in a mixed longitudinal model. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses showed that during 5 years of follow-up, the proportion of men without disabilities decreased from 53% to 39%, whereas the percentage who rated themselves as healthy decreased from 50% to 35%. Cross-sectional analyses confirmed changes in functional status, suggesting an age effect. Time-series analyses confirmed changes in self-rated health, suggesting a time effect. No birth-cohort effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Functional status deteriorates with age, whereas self-rated health is not related to age in men aged 70 years and older. The observed 5-year decline in self-rated health seemed to be due to a secular trend. PMID:9357342

  8. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  10. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  11. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  12. Food odor thresholds in relation to age, nutritional, and health status.

    PubMed

    Griep, M I; Mets, T F; Vercruysse, A; Cromphout, I; Ponjaert, I; Toft, J; Massart, D L

    1995-11-01

    Odor perception plays an important role in nutrition. In the present study, the effect of aging and health status on detection of food odors is shown and interrelations with nutritional status are explored. We have tested 26 healthy young (20-25 yrs) and 23 elderly (61-74 yrs) subjects who were screened according to the SENIEUR protocol. Anthropometric measures and blood samples provided 20 parameters of nutritional status. A validated measurement procedure under forced choice conditions was used to quantify the detection thresholds of two food odors of which one had a trigeminal effect and the other mainly had an olfactory effect. There is a significant declining sensitivity for both odors. Our observations indicate that a relation between nutrition and odor perception in the elderly population exists. Whether olfactory deficits cause or are caused by increased nutritional risk deserves further study.

  13. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE HEALTH STATUS OF PRIMARY-SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN (ADJARA REGION).

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, Ts; Jorjoliani, L; Adamia, N

    2016-06-01

    Goal of the research was complex evaluation of the health status of the primary-school aged children residing in various regions (urban, rural) of Adjaria. Cross-section, one-stage research was conducted in the City of Batumi and village Tsikhisdziri. In the process of survey health status of children of 4 public schools, from 6 to 9 years old was studied. Observations covered up to 800 school children in total. Screening included consultations of the multidisciplinary group of specialists, additional laboratory and instrumental studies intended for the purpose of accurate diagnostics. Performed studied showed that 28.3% of the studied population was actually healthy, 55% had functional disorders and 16.7% - chronic diseases. In both, urban and rural areas the share of the digestion system, blood and blood-generating organs, nervous system, ophthalmological pathologies and locomotion system diseases prevailed. PMID:27441536

  14. Influence of age, previous health status, and severity of acute illness on outcome from intensive care.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, J R; Brun-Buisson, C; Trunet, P; Latournerie, J; Chantereau, S; Rapin, M

    1982-09-01

    Age, previous health status (HS), and severity of acute illness were assessed prospectively on 228 unselected patients admitted over 1 yr to the multidisciplinary ICU, to determine their influence on outcome. One hundred and fifty patients (66%) were discharged from the ICU, but the survival rate fell to 50% at 6 months, and was similar after 1 yr (49%). Over a 6-month period, there was improved HS in survivors which gradually leveled off. Compared to prior HS, the final HS was worsened in 37% of survivors. Three factors were important predictors of late survival: age under 50, good previous HS, and less than two visceral failures. We conclude that evaluation of ICU outcome should provide information on 6-month survival and HS and include important variables as age, previous HS, and severity of acute illness. PMID:7105766

  15. Looking at Employment through a Lifespan Telescope: Age, Health, and Employment Status of People with Serious Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Corinne; Schmeidler, Emilie; Todorov, Alexander

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined employment issues for people with serious visual impairments. The study reviewed data from the 1994 and 1995 National Health Interview Survey that included 128,001 people (ages 18-69) with and without visual impairments. Chapter 1 highlights age (seen as lifestage) and health status as…

  16. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  17. Early Childbearing, Marital Status, and Women's Health and Mortality after Age 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henretta, John C.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between a woman's childbearing history and her later health and mortality, with primary focus on whether the association between them is due to early and later socioeconomic status. Data are drawn from the Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931-1941. Results indicate that, conditional on reaching…

  18. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  19. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  20. The Relative Contribution of Health Status and Quality of Life Domains in Subjective Health in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Flores, Maria-Eugenia; Moreno-Jimenez, Antonio; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Gloria; Rojo-Perez, Fermina; Forjaz, Maria Joao

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the influence of different health status dimensions and quality of life (QoL) domains on older adults' subjective health, and to assess the role that residential satisfaction plays in these relationships. A QoL survey was conducted on a representative sample of the community-dwelling older adult population in Madrid province (Spain).…

  1. Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…

  2. Health status of older immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Filice, John K

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to the Canadian-born in terms of age and gender using multiple measures of health status including self-assessed health. Second, we identify the factors associated with health status using the determinants of health framework. In both cases, the key questions are whether differences in health status exist and whether they are explained primarily by socio-economic, socio-demographic, or lifestyle factors that may point to problems with the Canadian health care system. Findings indicate that there is a relative comparability in the health status of older immigrants, even after controlling for age.

  3. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405

  4. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  5. Oral health status and oral hygiene habits among children aged 12-13 years in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Phyo, Aung Zaw Zaw; Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Narksawat, Kulaya

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study among children aged 12-13 years in Yongon, Myanmar to assess the oral health status and oral hygiene habits. The studied 220 students were from two high schools, one urban and the other rural. We conducted an oral health examination following WHO criteria and used a self-administrated questionnaire. The prevalence rate of dental caries among the study population was 53.2%. The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was 1.7 +/- 2.1 teeth per person (decayed, 1.5 +/- 1.9); missing 0.0 +/- 0.2; filled, 0.1 +/- 0.4). Multivariate analysis revealed significant risk factors for dental caries were: the geographical location of the school (adjusted OR=2.24; 95% CI: 1.01-4.94), occupational status of the father (adjusted OR=2.83; 95% CI: 1.05-7.62) and the child's attitude about dental caries (adjusted OR=2.35; 95% CI: 1.18-4.67). Knowledge and oral hygiene habits were not associated with dental caries. The results of this study suggest the need to change from restoration orientated dentistry to dental public health care services, to reduce of the high level of dental caries in this age group.

  6. Socioeconomic status and self-reported health among middle-aged Japanese men: results from a nationwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine potential associations between socioeconomic factors and self-rated health among a national sample of Japanese men aged 50–59 years between 2005 and 2010, including the 2008 global financial crisis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Randomly selected 2515 census areas from a total of 1.8 million census areas in Japan. Participants This study utilised data from a national, longitudinal survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Starting in 2005, 16 738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire each year. We analysed data for the 6-year period (2005–2010) from participants who had worked for over 20 years in the same industry (n=9727). Main outcome measures We focused on worsening self-rated health status by occupation, education and employment contract. Results Working in the manufacturing industry was associated with worsening self-rated health scores when compared to those working in management (HR=1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). A relationship between education level and worsening self-rated health was also identified as follows: junior high school (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.69), high school (HR=1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42), and vocational college (HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46), when compared with those holding university-level qualifications. Precarious employment (HR=1.17; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) was also associated with worsening self-rated health status in the current study. Conclusions This study suggests that working in manufacturing for more than 20 years and having lower education levels may have a significant impact on the self-rated health of middle-aged Japanese men. This may reflect a progressive decline in Japanese working conditions following the global financial crisis and/or the impact of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:26109119

  7. The Social Determinants of Health in Association with Women’s Health Status of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    BAHEIRAEI, Azam; BAKOUEI, Fatemeh; MOHAMMADI, Eesa; MONTAZERI, Ali; HOSSENI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Prioritizing women’s health helps achievement of the 4th and 5th goals of Millennium Development Program. This study aimed to investigate association between social determinants of health and women’s health of reproductive age. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted on 770, 15 to 49-year-old women residing in any one of the 22 municipality zones across Tehran, Iran. Eligible women were interviewed at home with SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and socio-demographic questionnaires. Social determinants of health contains; ethnicity, education, job, income, and crowding index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS-16. The threshold of P.V was considered 0.05. Results Overall, 770 women with mean age 33.9±9.3 years were interviewed. Majority of them were married (72.27%), housewives (62.2%), of Persian ethnicity (64.3%), and educated to high school level (43.8%). Age with dimensions of health except role emotional, mental health, and social functioning had significant association with B from -0.65 to -0.16.educational level with dimensions of health except role emotional andsocial functioning had significant association with B from 3.61 to 6.43 (P<0.05). Income with dimensions of health except role physical had significant association with B from -9.97 to -4.42. Conclusion Reflection of unfavorable economic conditions and low education level on negative women’ health experiences are alarming. Interaction between social determinants of health and health status must be considered in policymaking, and there is a need for policies that would enhance health of women in the low education and income brackets. PMID:26060783

  8. The effect of age at weaning on the health status of bull calves in a feedlot

    PubMed Central

    Makarechian, Mahmoud; Kubisch, Hans-Michael

    1988-01-01

    Incidence of morbidity and mortality in a feedlot were compared among 381 bull calves weaned one month apart (October 3 and November 1). The calves were 156 and 192 days old at weaning in the earlier and later weaned groups, respectively. Following an adjustment period, the calves were fed a mixed finishing diet containing 90% concentrate ad lib for 140 days in a feedlot. The rate of morbidity did not differ significantly between the two weaning groups. Sick calves in the earlier weaned group had a longer treatment period than those in the later weaned group (3.2 vs 1.4 days, p<0.05). Infections of the respiratory tract were the major cause of sickness and most of the respiratory infections occurred in the early stages of the feedlot period. The frequency of respiratory infections was higher among the earlier weaned calves compared with that in the later weaned group (p<0.01) indicating a higher susceptibility to these infections when calves were weaned at younger ages. Bloat was the second most common health problem among the bulls; however, its incidence did not differ between the two groups (p>0.05). The rate of mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups. PMID:17423140

  9. Health Is a Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, George F.

    1984-01-01

    Although the terms "personal health" and "medical care" are used interchangeably, they have different meanings. Health is a personal responsibility, medicine is a drug given as a form of treatment. A new definition of health is suggested that treats health as a dynamic status. (DF)

  10. Health status and well-being of older adults living in the community and in residential care settings: are differences influenced by age?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Forjaz, Maria João; Prieto-Flores, Maria-Eugenia; Rojo-Perez, Fermina; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Gloria; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to identify the differences and the main factors influencing health status and well-being variables between institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults, as well as the interaction effect of institutionalization and age. Data on a total of 468 older adults from a national survey on non-institutionalized and from a study on institutionalized older people were analyzed. Socio-demographic variables and measures on well-being (Personal Well-being Index, PWI), health status (EQ-5D), functional ability (Barthel Index), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression subscale), loneliness and comorbidity were used. Analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests to examine differences between groups and multiple regression analyses to identify factors associated to health and well-being were performed. Significant differences in health status variables, but not in well-being were detected between groups. Controlling for age, differences in health status (EQ-VAS) were found to be not significant in both groups. In the non-institutionalized group, people aged 78 years or more reported a significantly lower well-being (PWI) than younger counterparts. Step-wise multiple regression analysis showed that depression, functional dependence, loneliness and sex were associated with health status; while depression, health status, loneliness and the interaction of age-institutionalization were related to well-being. The results suggest that age influences community-dwelling older adults' well-being to a greater extent than it does to institutionalized older people. This finding has implications for resource allocation and interventions addressed to improve health and well-being in older adults.

  11. Health status of newcomers.

    PubMed

    Matuk, L C

    1996-01-01

    This article presents and discusses findings on the health status of newcomers residing in Windsor, Ontario. The data are part of a larger study, which was based on the Ontario Health Survey's questionnaire. Data were collected from 548 newcomers through home visits, focus groups, mail surveys, and telephone interviews. Descriptive multivariate analyses focused on main areas in newcomers' physical and mental health status and their access to health services. The findings identified that most newcomers do not have acute, life-threatening physical problems or chronic illness. They do not experience major problems with access to health care or activity limitations. Men are happier, more satisfied with their health, and less stressed than women. This study has implications for adoption of sensitive transcultural approaches to promote newcomers' health. Special challenges lie in women's health and mental health.

  12. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    PubMed

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs. PMID:24390093

  13. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System (HIS). Methods Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population) were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Results Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5) was higher than in Africa on average (1.8). Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1). The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD) visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient visits attributable

  14. Self reported health status, and health service contact, of illicit drug users aged 50 and over: a qualitative interview study in Merseyside, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, Caryl M; Roe, Brenda; Duffy, Paul; Pickering, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years); all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users aged 50 and over is

  15. Health status and Canada's immigrant population.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Danforth, Jeff

    2003-11-01

    Given the framework of the 1984 Canada Health Act, the health status of immigrants should be similar to average levels within whole of Canada. Yet, assuming equality of health status between immigrant and non-immigrants, or between immigrant groups is likely an unrealistic and simplistic assumption, given unseen barriers affecting accessibility, the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, and problems with the provision of health care resources to the immigrant population. Using the National Population Health Survey, this paper focuses upon the health status of the immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants within Canada, with reference to diagnosed conditions, self-assessed health, and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3. Findings indicate that, with the exception of the most recent arrivals, immigrants experience worse health status across most dimensions relative to non-immigrants. Multivariate analysis reveals that age, income adequacy, gender, and home ownership are dimensions upon which health status differs between the two groups.

  16. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Kamaruddin, Alia Annessa Ain; Low, Nie Yen; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis. PMID:27358558

  17. The numbers, educational status and health of enrolled and non-enrolled school-age children in the Allai Valley, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew; Kirby, Helen

    2010-04-01

    A cluster survey of the age, sex and enrolment status of all school-age children 5-14 years old was undertaken in 2006 in a remote rural sub-district of the Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan about a year after a devastating earthquake. Information was collected on the characteristics of children, their households and parents, and on reasons for non-enrolment. The health and nutritional status of a randomly selected child in each household was assessed and enrolled and non-enrolled children were compared by sex. A total of 2032 children were recorded in 925 households, 845 girls and 1187 boys, a sex ratio of 71 girls/100 boys. Half of all girls were not enrolled in school compared with a fifth of all boys. There was no common reason for non-enrolment and they differed between the sexes. The randomly selected children (n = 897) were moderately malnourished: 43% were stunted, 12% were thin and 46% were anaemic. 66% of a sub-sample of children (n = 269) had a low urinary iodine concentration, which could contribute to a low IQ and impaired hearing. There were no statistically significant differences in the nutritional status or health of non-enrolled and enrolled girls. These data contribute towards an understanding of how to improve the education and health of school-age children in a conservative, rural province of Pakistan.

  18. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  19. Health and aging.

    PubMed

    Dhar, H L

    1997-10-01

    Regular meditation is the key to health (mental, physical and social wellbeing). It elevates mind from gross level to finer aspect and makes the body and mind follow the law of nature achieving good health, preventing disease, improving performance and reducing aging process. Balanced diet (less sugar, less salt and less fat as age advances supplemented with vitamins and minerals) and mild to moderate exercise (walking etc.) are complimentary to the effects of meditation.

  20. Jamaican youth health status 2005.

    PubMed

    Fox, K; Gordon-Strachan, G; Johnson, A; Ashley, D

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this survey is to determine health-seeking behaviour, nutritional status and lifestyles of adolescents aged 10-15 years. A random sample of 3003 (1422 males and 1581 females) schoolchildren, aged 10-15 years, was studied in a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered school-based survey conducted in all school types islandwide in a nationally representative sample of Jamaican children currently attending school. Some 3003 youths, 1422 males and 1581 females were interviewed. Males and females had similar healthcare-seeking behaviour but fewer students attending schools in rural areas reported having their eyes or hearing checked, or had seen a dentist than those attending urban schools. Some twelve per cent of adolescents were overweight/obese. More females than males and more urban than rural students were overweight or obese. More boys (86.3%) were physically active in the last week than girls (75%). Physical activity peaked at age 13 years and was lowest at ages 11 and 14-15 years. Some 13% of adolescents 10-15 years old reported having had sexual intercourse, with boys being four times as likely as girls to report sexual activity (OR - 4.97; C.I. - 3.82, 6.47). The median age of sexual debut was 15.43 years for boys and over 15 years for girls. One-third of adolescents drank alcohol and 3% smoked marijuana in the past year. More boys than girls used drugs (p < 0.01). Some 14% of adolescents felt lonely, sad or wanted to cry most of the time/always. One-tenth seriously considered suicide. This study concluded that most adolescents attending primary and secondary schools in Jamaica were not involved in risky behaviour. However, it reveals some critical areas of concern with regard to nutritional status and physical activity, emotional well-being, drug use and sexual activity. PMID:20583678

  1. Marital status and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged Japanese male workers: the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study.

    PubMed

    Kamon, Yuko; Okamura, Tomonori; Tanaka, Taichiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kusaka, Yukinori; Urano, Sumio; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kadowaki, Takashi; Miyoshi, Yuji; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2008-01-01

    Marital status is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Western countries. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between marital status and CVD risk factors in other populations. We investigated lifestyle and CVD risk factors relative to marital status among middle-aged Japanese men. We analyzed baseline data of 40-59-yr-old male workers who participated in the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors between men who were married (Group M; n=1,419, mean age 47.9 +/- 5.1 yr) and those who had never married (Group N; n=163, mean age 46.7 +/- 4.3 yr). Men in Group N were more likely to skip breakfast, work more shifts and exercise less. Current smoking rates, as well as average values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum total cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose were also higher in Group N than in Group M. The proportion of participants with three or more CVD risk factors, namely smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia was higher in Group N, than in Group M (12.9% vs. 5.0%, p<0.01). The difference between Groups M and N was more evident in the subgroup of living with others, than in the subgroup of living alone. Since men who have never married might be at higher risk for CVD, effort should be made to educate this population about decreasing lifestyle-related risk factors. PMID:18540118

  2. Stigma, status, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Lucas, Jeffrey W.; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Taylor, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by “social ordering schemas” that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between “normals” and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma’s impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of

  3. Ellagic acid metabolism by human gut microbiota: consistent observation of three urolithin phenotypes in intervention trials, independent of food source, age, and health status.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Villalba, Rocío; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Selma, María V; Espín, Juan C

    2014-07-16

    Three phenotypes for urolithin production after ellagitannin and ellagic acid intake are consistently observed in different human intervention trials. Subjects can be stratified into three urolithin-producing groups. "Phenotype A" produced only urolithin A conjugates, which included between 25 and 80% of the volunteers in the different trials. "Phenotype B" produced isourolithin A and/or urolithin B in addition to urolithin A, this being the second relevant group (10-50%). "Phenotype 0" (5-25%) was that in which these urolithins were not detected. The three phenotypes were observed independently of the volunteers' health status and demographic characteristics (age, gender, body mass index (BMI)) and of the amount or type of ellagitannin food source ingested (walnuts and other nuts, strawberries, raspberries, and other berries or pomegranates). Interestingly, a higher percentage of phenotype B was observed in those volunteers with chronic illness (metabolic syndrome or colorectal cancer) associated with gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis). These urolithin phenotypes could show differences in the human gut microbiota and should be considered in intervention trials dealing with health benefits of ellagitannins or ellagic acid. Whether this phenotypic variation could be a biomarker related to differential health benefits or illness predisposition deserves further research.

  4. Age, gender and health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, T R; Thanh, V T

    1997-01-01

    Public policy and epidemiological studies have not adequately addressed age and gender differences on important health dimensions among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and health among five age groups of African Americans. A sample of 1,174 respondents age 24 to 85 was selected from the 1986 Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study. Regression analysis was performed using a hierarchical model to examine age and gender on five dimensions of health: functional health, chronic conditions, satisfaction with health, self-ratings of health, and activities of daily living (ADL) limitations controlling for age, education, income, and marital status among five age groups of African Americans. Results revealed that in the 24-39 age group, men had fewer chronic conditions and less ADL limitations, yet rated their health poorer than their female counterparts. In the 75 and over age group men had better functional health yet were less satisfied with their health than women. Control variables were significantly related to objective and subjective dimensions of health especially among the younger age groups. Overall, gender differences persist mainly among the youngest and oldest age groups despite variations in the above demographic variables. Implications for social work practice and future research are discussed.

  5. Light on population health status.

    PubMed Central

    Beyrer, K.; Brauer, G. W.; Fliedner, T. M.; Greiner, C.; Reischl, U.

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994. PMID:10083719

  6. Association between Socioeconomic Status and Cancer Screening in Koreans over 40 Years in Age Based on the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening in a Korean population aged 40 years or older. Methods This cross-sectional study included 12,303 participants (5,284 men and 7,019 women) who participated in the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess participant's SES (household income, occupational, and educational status) and cancer screening behavior. Results Compared to the lowest household income group, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for overall cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.113 (1.606–2.781) in men and 1.476 (1.157–1.883) in women; those for private cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.446 (1.800–3.324) in men and 2.630 (2.050–3.373) in women, while those for National Cancer Screening Programs (NCSP) in the highest income group were 1.076 (0.805–1.439) in men and 0.492 (0.388–0.623) in women. Compared to manual workers, ORs (95% CIs) for private cancer screening of office workers were 1.300 (1.018–1.660) in men and 0.822 (0.616–1.098) in women. In comparison to the least educated men, OR (95% CI) for private cancer screening of the most educated men was statistically significant (1.530 [1.117–2.095]). Conclusion Higher economic status was associated with higher rates of overall and private cancer screening in both sexes and a lower rate of NCSP in women. Male office workers and more educated individuals underwent private cancer screening at a higher rate than manual workers and less educated individuals, respectively. PMID:27688862

  7. Association between Socioeconomic Status and Cancer Screening in Koreans over 40 Years in Age Based on the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening in a Korean population aged 40 years or older. Methods This cross-sectional study included 12,303 participants (5,284 men and 7,019 women) who participated in the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess participant's SES (household income, occupational, and educational status) and cancer screening behavior. Results Compared to the lowest household income group, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for overall cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.113 (1.606–2.781) in men and 1.476 (1.157–1.883) in women; those for private cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.446 (1.800–3.324) in men and 2.630 (2.050–3.373) in women, while those for National Cancer Screening Programs (NCSP) in the highest income group were 1.076 (0.805–1.439) in men and 0.492 (0.388–0.623) in women. Compared to manual workers, ORs (95% CIs) for private cancer screening of office workers were 1.300 (1.018–1.660) in men and 0.822 (0.616–1.098) in women. In comparison to the least educated men, OR (95% CI) for private cancer screening of the most educated men was statistically significant (1.530 [1.117–2.095]). Conclusion Higher economic status was associated with higher rates of overall and private cancer screening in both sexes and a lower rate of NCSP in women. Male office workers and more educated individuals underwent private cancer screening at a higher rate than manual workers and less educated individuals, respectively.

  8. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  9. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  10. Aging, food, culture and health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Kouris-Blazos, A; Hsa-Hage, B H

    1997-01-01

    International comparison of food intake and health studies amongst the aged is providing new insight into the importance of food culture in social context for healthy aging. At same time the possible variance in eating behavior compatible with good health requires consideration. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences) FHILL (Food Habits in Later Life) Project, comprises (1) a morbidity study on about 2,000 elderly in 13 communities (now available on CD Rom) and (2) a mortality follow-up study. In the morbidity study, a total health assessment score or Later Life Status Score (LLSS) has been considered in relation to non-nutritional and nutritional factors. The elderly Greek cohorts aged 70+ in Melbourne. Australia (M = 94, F = 95) and Spata, Greece (M = 51, F = 53) have been used as a model for multivariate analyses to determine separately the importance of non-nutritional (well-being, memory, general health, medication-use, activities of daily living, exercise, social activity and social networks scores) and nutritional variables (intake of food groups g/day, food group variety scores, nutrients) in accounting for LLSS. A mortality follow-up study on the elderly cohort in Spata, Greece has also been completed and published. The findings from these preliminary analyses on the Greek cohorts will be reviewed as an example of how food culture may be influencing both quality of life and survival in Greek elderly. The most important non-nutritional determinants of LLSS in Greeks included: mobility and independence (exercise and activities of daily living), well-being and memory (collectively explained 80% of the variation of LLSS). For nutritional variables, a high intake and variety of plant foods (in particular vegetables, legumes and fruit); a high intake and variety of seafood and a low intake of meat emerged with statistical and biological significance. Results from the mortality study also agree with findings from the morbidity study

  11. Aging, food, culture and health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Kouris-Blazos, A; Hsa-Hage, B H

    1997-01-01

    International comparison of food intake and health studies amongst the aged is providing new insight into the importance of food culture in social context for healthy aging. At same time the possible variance in eating behavior compatible with good health requires consideration. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences) FHILL (Food Habits in Later Life) Project, comprises (1) a morbidity study on about 2,000 elderly in 13 communities (now available on CD Rom) and (2) a mortality follow-up study. In the morbidity study, a total health assessment score or Later Life Status Score (LLSS) has been considered in relation to non-nutritional and nutritional factors. The elderly Greek cohorts aged 70+ in Melbourne. Australia (M = 94, F = 95) and Spata, Greece (M = 51, F = 53) have been used as a model for multivariate analyses to determine separately the importance of non-nutritional (well-being, memory, general health, medication-use, activities of daily living, exercise, social activity and social networks scores) and nutritional variables (intake of food groups g/day, food group variety scores, nutrients) in accounting for LLSS. A mortality follow-up study on the elderly cohort in Spata, Greece has also been completed and published. The findings from these preliminary analyses on the Greek cohorts will be reviewed as an example of how food culture may be influencing both quality of life and survival in Greek elderly. The most important non-nutritional determinants of LLSS in Greeks included: mobility and independence (exercise and activities of daily living), well-being and memory (collectively explained 80% of the variation of LLSS). For nutritional variables, a high intake and variety of plant foods (in particular vegetables, legumes and fruit); a high intake and variety of seafood and a low intake of meat emerged with statistical and biological significance. Results from the mortality study also agree with findings from the morbidity study

  12. Health status assessment through an integrative biomarker approach in mussels of different ages with a different history of exposure to the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Izagirre, U; Garmendia, L; Soto, M; Etxebarria, N; Marigómez, I

    2014-09-15

    A battery of cell and tissue-level biomarkers was applied in mussels of 6 size-classes collected from Galicia and the Basque coast in summer 2007 in an attempt to examine the health status of individuals affected as adults (mature before 2003), affected during their developmental or juvenile stages (2003-2004 offspring), or not directly affected by the Prestige oil spill (POS) exposure (presumably 2005-2006 offspring). This battery of biomarkers was akin to those formerly applied on mussels of 3.5-4.5 cm shell length for which there exist biomarker reference values in the studied geographical areas. The cause-effect relationship between biological responses and the different history of exposure to POS fuel oil was intricate for different reasons: (a) growth rate was dissimilar in mussels of the two studied localities and much lower than expected, (b) a chronological basis could not be directly associated to POS events (all mussels except the smallest from Galicia had been subjected to the direct POS impact at one or another stage of their life-cycle); and (c) some biomarkers and histopathology seemingly depended on size/age irrespectively of the locality and the POS chronology. As a whole, the present study gives a very useful set of reference values of biomarkers obtained for Mytilus galloprovincialis of different size-classes. Finally, it is recommended that Mussel Watch programmes should be designed by standardising the age of the sentinel mussels rather than their size, especially if the programme covers large or diverse geographical areas, if long-term trends are relevant or if significant pollution effects on growth are expected.

  13. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1995-04-01

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information of the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors of aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  14. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) in adolescents and adults who have undergone the Fontan procedure and are living with only 1 ventricle is presumed to be diminished. Objectives This study aimed to compare QOL, health status, and prevalence of depression in adolescents/adults after the Fontan procedure with healthy counterparts and to identify predictors of QOL in the Fontan group. Methods Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescents and adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure were compared with 66 age-matched healthy counterparts. Quality of life, health status, depression, and social support were measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Short Form Survey Version 2, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Predictors of QOL were determined using multiple linear regression. Results Adolescents and adults in the Fontan group reported lower physical health status (mean [SD] = 46.5 [9.3] vs mean [SD] = 55.9 [5.1], P < .001) and were more depressed (mean [SD] = 7.3 [5.9] vs mean [SD] = 4.5 [4.3], P < .004) than their healthy counterparts. There were no differences in QOL, mental health status, or social support between the 2 groups. Functional status (New York Heart Association class), depression, and social support accounted for 55% of the variance in QOL in the Fontan group. Conclusions Despite lower levels of physical health, the QOL of Fontan patients was comparable with that of their healthy counterparts; this finding contradicts previous proxy reports, self-reports, and assumptions that QOL is lower in patients with complex single ventricle congenital heart disease. However, because Fontan patients were more depressed than their healthy counterparts, the need for early screening and detection is warranted. PMID:21912272

  15. A quantitative approach to perceived health status: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S M; McKenna, S P; McEwen, J; Backett, E M; Williams, J; Papp, E

    1980-12-01

    The current recognition of the importance of perceived health status as a predictor of need for, and utilisation of, health services has led to attempts to produce indicators which assess subjective rather than objective health problems. The development of the Nottingham Health Profile is described, together with a study which tested the validity of the instrument on four groups of elderly people differing in health status. The results showed that the profile was capable of discriminating between groups differing in terms of diagnosed chronic illness, number of consultations at primary care level, and physiological fitness. Age, sex, and marital status were not significant overall in affecting scores. In these elderly subjects, perceived health status accorded well with objective health status. Further tests of the profile are now taking place on younger groups of subjects. PMID:7241028

  16. Aging and Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study comparing older adults’ health literacy skills with their satisfaction with health care providers’ communication efforts did not find a correlation between the two measures. However, the results were interesting, including the fact that almost 40 percent of participants experienced moderate to severe difficulties in understanding everyday health information as presented in a food label (Newest Vital Sign assessment). This has implications for senior patient engagement in health care, particularly at a time when so many health transactions such as scheduling and records requests, not to mention general health information, are moving to online only format. Librarians should be aware of the issues surrounding health literacy in older adults and work with providers to address those deficits in health care navigation in this population. PMID:24634614

  17. [Health status of delinquent male youths].

    PubMed

    Oliván Gonzalvo, G

    2002-04-30

    Objective. To assess the health status of delinquent male youths at the time of their admission to a juvenile correctional center.Design. Cross-sectional descriptive study over a 6-year period (1995-2000). Setting. Health primary care. Juvenile correctional center in Zaragoza, Spain. Participants. Two hundred forty male adolescents were admitted during the study period. Mean age was 15 years (SD, 1.3) (range, 13-17 years). Measurements and main results. Health status via medical history and physical examination was assessed according to standard protocols and individualized complementary laboratory examinations were performed. Most frequent health problems were smoking habit (97.1%), drug/alcohol abuse (54.1%), odontologic (40%), psychopathologic disorders (17.1%), incomplete immunization status (16.6%), growth and nutritional disorders (14.5%) growth delay (5.8%), malnutrition (3.3%), overweight (2.1%), obesity (3.3%) , infectious diseases associated with intravenous drug use and/or risk sexual behaviors (10.4%) hepatitis C (4.6%), hepatitis B (2.9%), AIDS (2.1%), syphilis (0.8%) , dermatological (10%), opthalmological (7.5%), and respiratory (5%). Less prevalent health problems were orthopedic (3.3%), anemia (3.3%), otic (2.5%), cardiovascular (2.5%), and intestinal parasitism (1.6%). Conclusions. Early intervention during the stay into juvenile correctional center regarding their physical health and especially their mental health, from the sanitary and educative viewpoint, presents a unique opportunity to solve the basic health needs of these high-risk adolescents.

  18. Perceived health status and health insurance status: protective factors against health-related debt?

    PubMed

    Christy, Kameri; Hampton-Stover, Elena; Shobe, Marcia; Hammig, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Current health care debate has largely focused on the need for health insurance coverage rather than quality coverage. Yet the economic downturn has resulted in an increasing number of individuals who are uninsured or underinsured, and consequently face financial hardships. Multivariate analyses were used with 95 adults to examine relationships between health insurance, health status, and health debt. Controlling for demographics, and human and financial capital, findings suggest that health debt is not related to health insurance or health status. However, individuals with post-secondary education and non-homeowners appear to be more at risk for accumulating health debt.

  19. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  20. Social Integration and Mental Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deimling, Gary T.; Harel Zev

    Social support has been found to be positively related to well being in elderly individuals. To examine the effects of social integration (social resources, social interaction, and perceived adequacy of resources), and health, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status (SES) on mental health among urban elderly individuals, 1,727 persons from…

  1. Low Economic Status Is Identified as an Emerging Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men Aged 30 to 59 Years in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Sang Wan; Yi, Ka Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared the association between economic status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) using large nationwide datasets covering the previous 10 years in Korea. Methods We analyzed the association between economic status and DM using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2001 to 2010 weighted to represent the Korean population between 30 and 59 years of age. The economic status of participants was classified into quartiles according to monthly family income with an equivalence scale. Results In men, the prevalence of diabetes in the lowest income quartile (Q1) was significantly higher than that in the other quartiles in 2008 (age and body mass index-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.846; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.126 to 3.027; P=0.015), 2009 (OR, 1.706; 95% CI, 1.094 to 2.661; P=0.019), and 2010 (OR, 1.560; 95% CI, 1.024 to 2.377; P=0.039) but not in 2001 or 2005. The data indicated that classification in the lowest economic status was an independent risk factor for diabetes even after adjusting for abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and education level in men of KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Although economic status was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in women (P<0.001), there was no significant association between economic status and DM in women. Conclusion Korean men between 30 and 59 years of age with the lowest economic status had a significantly higher prevalence of DM in 2008 to 2010 even after adjusting for other risk factors. PMID:25922808

  2. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  3. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  4. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  5. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  6. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  7. Space age health care delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

  8. Depression, socioeconomic status, age, and marital status in black women: a national study.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Beech, Bettina M; Naumann, Wendy; Kovach, Kristen W; Pugh, Letha; Fapohunda, Bolaji

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between an array of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and depression among Black women; determined which SES indicator was most strongly associated with depression; and examined whether the relationship between SES and depression was the same across age and marital status. A sample of 1,407 Black women recruited through the National Black Women's Health Project completed a survey on psychological well-being. Independent variables included income, education, median income within zip codes, marital status, and age. The dependent variable was depression as measured by the CES-D. The average CES-D score among participants was 12.67 (SD = 10.54), and 31.9% screened positive for depression. An inverse relationship was found between income and education and depression. The higher the yearly household income and education level the lower the scores on the CES-D. Income was the SES indicator most strongly associated with depression. Younger women had higher scores on the CES-D. Never-married women exhibited significantly higher levels of depression compared to women who were married or living together with an intimate partner. There were no significant interactions between SES indicators, age, and marital status. These findings suggest that income, education level, marital status, and age may be important demographic variables to consider when designing interventions to address depression among Black women.

  9. Associations of vitamin D status, bone health and anthropometry, with gross motor development and performance of school-aged Indian children who were born at term with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Suzanne; Rehman, Andrea M; Yousafzai, Aisha; Chugh, Reema; Kaur, Manpreet; Sachdev, H P S; Trilok-Kumar, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little information regarding motor development of children born at term with low birth weight (LBW), a group that constitutes a large proportion of children in South Asia. We used data from infancy and at school age from a LBW cohort to investigate children's motor performance using causal inference. Design Cross-sectional follow-up study. Setting Delhi, India. Participants We recruited 912 children aged 5 years who had participated in a trial of vitamin D for term LBW infants in the first 6 months of life. Outcome measures We focused on gross motor development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) gross motor scale and several measures of motor performance. We examined the effects on these of current anthropometry, vitamin D status and bone health, controlling for age, sex, season of interview, socioeconomic variables, early growth, recent morbidity, sun exposure and animal food intake. Results In adjusted analyses, stunted children (height-for-age Z (HAZ) <−2) took longer to run 20 m (0.52 s, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.70; p<0.001) and had greater odds of a failing score on the ASQ (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.41 to 6.38, p=0.004). Greater arm muscle area was associated with faster run time, and the ability to perform more stands and squats in 15 s. Poorer vitamin D status was associated with the ability to perform more stands and squats. Lower tibia ultrasound Z score was associated with greater hand grip strength. Early growth and current body mass index had no associations with motor outcomes. Conclusions Current HAZ and arm muscle area showed the strongest associations with gross motor outcomes, likely due to a combination of simple physics and factors associated with stunting. The counterintuitive inverse associations of tibia health and vitamin D status with outcomes may require further research. PMID:26747034

  10. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  11. Learning Wellness: How Ageing Australians Experience Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…

  12. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  13. Religion, Spirituality, and Health Status in Geriatric Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Daaleman, Timothy P.; Perera, Subashan; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Religion and spirituality remain important social and psychological factors in the lives of older adults, and there is continued interest in examining the effects of religion and spirituality on health status. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of religion and spirituality with self-reported health status in a community-dwelling geriatric population. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 277 geriatric outpatients participating in a cohort study in the Kansas City area. Patients underwent a home assessment of multiple health status and functional indicators by trained research assistants. A previously validated 5-item measure of religiosity and 12-item spirituality instrument were embedded during the final data collection. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between each factor and self-reported health status. RESULTS In univariate analyses, physical functioning (P <.01), quality of life (P <.01), race (P <.01), depression (P <.01), age (P = .01), and spirituality (P <.01) were all associated with self-reported health status, but religiosity was not (P = .12). In a model adjusted for all covariates, however, spirituality remained independently associated with self-appraised good health (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS Geriatric outpatients who report greater spirituality, but not greater religiosity, are more likely to appraise their health as good. Spirituality may be an important explanatory factor of subjective health status in older adults. PMID:15053283

  14. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  15. Health status of prisoners in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Schuler, Andrée; Matheson, Flora I.; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the literature for quantitative research on the health status of persons in custody in provincial, territorial, and federal correctional facilities in Canada, and summarize recent evidence. Quality of evidence A search was performed in research databases and the websites of relevant Canadian governmental and non-governmental organizations for quantitative studies of health conducted between 1993 and 2014. Studies were included that provided quantitative data on health status for youth or adults who had been detained or incarcerated in a jail or prison in Canada. Main message The health status of this population is poor compared with the general Canadian population, as indicated by data on social determinants of health, mortality in custody, mental health, substance use, communicable diseases, and sexual and reproductive health. Little is known about mortality after release, chronic diseases, injury, reproductive health, and health care access and quality. Conclusion Health status data should be used to improve health care and to intervene to improve health for persons while in custody and after release, with potential benefits for all Canadians. PMID:27427562

  16. Folate status and health: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Oexle, Konrad; Rißmann, Anke; Pietrzik, Klaus; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-04-01

    Each year approximately 2400 pregnancies develop folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly in Europe. Currently, 70% of all affected pregnancies are terminated after prenatal diagnosis. The prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) has been significantly lowered in more than 70 countries worldwide by applying fortification with folic acid. Periconceptional supplementation of folic acid also reduces the risk of congenital heart diseases, preterm birth, low birth weight, and health problems associated with child mortality and morbidity. All European governments failed to issue folic acid fortification of centrally processed and widely eaten foods in order to prevent NTDs and other unwanted birth outcomes. The estimated average dietary intake of folate in Germany is 200 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day. More than half of German women of reproductive age do not consume sufficient dietary folate to achieve optimal serum or red blood cell folate concentrations (>18 or 1000 nmol/L, respectively) necessary to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly. To date, targeted supplementation is recommended in Europe, but this approach failed to reduce the rate of NTDs during the last 10 years. Public health centers for prenatal care and fortification with folic acid in Europe are urgently needed. Only such an action will sufficiently improve folate status, prevent at least 50% of the NTD cases, reduce child mortality and morbidity, and alleviate other health problems associated with low folate such as anemia. PMID:25825915

  17. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  18. The Health Status of Children Living in Urban Appalachian Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Kathryn; Obermiller, Phillip J.

    This study compares the health status of Appalachian children living in Cincinnati neighborhoods to that of children living in five predominantly low-income black neighborhoods and children living in the rest of Cincinnati. Age-specific, standardized morbidity ratio analyses were performed to compare the frequency of admissions to hospital and…

  19. Code Status and Resuscitation Options in the Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Haresh L.; Patel, Neal R.; Choma, Neesha N.; Grande, Jonathan; Giuse, Dario A.; Lehmann, Christoph U.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The advance discussion and documentation of code-status is important in preventing undesired cardiopulmonary resuscitation and related End of Life interventions. Code-status documentation remains infrequent and paper-based, which limits its usefulness. This study evaluates a tool to document code-status in the electronic health records at a large teaching hospital, and analyzes the corresponding data. Methods Encounter data for patients admitted to the Medical Center were collected over a period of 12 months (01-APR-2012 – 31-MAR-2013) and the code-status attribute was tracked for individual patients. The code-status data were analyzed separately for adult and pediatric patient populations. We considered 131,399 encounters for 83,248 adult patients and 80,778 encounters for 55,656 pediatric patients in this study. Results 71% of the adult patients and 30% of the pediatric patients studied had a documented code-status. Age and severity of illness influenced the decision to document code-status. Demographics such as gender, race, ethnicity, and proximity of primary residence were also associated with the documentation of code-status. Conclusion Absence of a recorded code-status may result in unnecessary interventions. Code-status in paper charts may be difficult to access in cardiopulmonary arrest situations and may result in unnecessary and unwanted interventions and procedures. Documentation of Code-status in electronic records creates a readily available reference for care providers. PMID:25447035

  20. Age and Self-Rated Health in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2005-01-01

    I examine age variation in the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on self-rated health in Korea by including three alternative indicators of SES--liquid assets, home ownership, and real estate ownership--as well as two standard measures of education and household income. Furthermore, I consider the SES-health relationship and its variation by…

  1. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  2. Health status of migrant farmworkers: a literature review and commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Rust, G S

    1990-01-01

    I made a computerized search of MEDLINE files from 1966 through October 1989 followed by a review of this literature. Four hundred eighty-five articles were scanned; 152 were found specifically related to migrant families, while another 51 articles addressed the health of agricultural workers or farmers in general. Solid data exist on dental health, nutrition and, to a lesser extent, childhood health. Data also were prominent in several disease categories including certain infectious diseases, pesticide exposures, occupational dermatoses, and lead levels in children. Estimates of the size of the migrant and seasonal farmworker population vary widely. Basic health status indicators such as age-related death rates are unknown. Prevalence rates of the most common cause of death in the United States have yet to be studied. More research is needed into the health problems and health status of migrant and seasonal farmworker families. PMID:2205116

  3. Health Status, Personal Definition of Health, and Health Behavior Choice in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Norma J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among health status, personal definition of health, and health behavior choice in the elderly. Self-assessed health status was measured using a modified Cantril Ladder, personal definition of health was measured using the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS), and health behavior…

  4. Life cycle responses to health insurance status.

    PubMed

    Pelgrin, Florian; St-Amour, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the lifetime effects of exogenous changes in health insurance coverage (e.g. Medicare, PPACA, termination of employer-provided plans) on the dynamic optimal allocation (consumption, leisure, health expenditures), status (health and wealth), and welfare. We solve, simulate, and structurally estimate a parsimonious life cycle model with endogenous exposure to morbidity and mortality risks, and exogenous health insurance. By varying coverage, we identify the marginal effects of insurance when young and/or when old on allocations, statuses, and welfare. Our results highlight positive effects of insurance on health, wealth and welfare, as well as mid-life substitution away from healthy leisure in favor of more health expenses, caused by peaking wages, and accelerating health issues.

  5. Children with special health care needs: how immigrant status is related to health care access, health care utilization, and health status.

    PubMed

    Javier, Joyce R; Huffman, Lynne C; Mendoza, Fernando S; Wise, Paul H

    2010-07-01

    To compare health care access, utilization, and perceived health status for children with SHCN in immigrant and nonimmigrant families. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey to identify 1404 children (ages 0-11) with a special health care need. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between immigrant status and health access, utilization, and health status variables. Compared to children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in nonimmigrant families, CSHCN in immigrant families are more likely to be uninsured (10.4 vs. 4.8%), lack a usual source of care (5.9 vs. 1.9%), report a delay in medical care (13.0 vs. 8.1%), and report no visit to the doctor in the past year (6.8 vs. 2.6%). They are less likely to report an emergency room visit in the past year (30.0 vs. 44.0%), yet more likely to report fair or poor perceived health status (33.0 vs. 16.0%). Multivariate analyses suggested that the bivariate findings for children with SHCN in immigrant families largely reflected differences in family socioeconomic status, parent's language, parental education, ethnicity, and children's insurance status. Limited resources, non-English language, and limited health-care use are some of the barriers to staying healthy for CSHCN in immigrant families. Public policies that improve access to existing insurance programs and provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care will likely decrease health and health care disparities for this population.

  6. Ageing, dementia and oral health.

    PubMed

    Foltyn, P

    2015-03-01

    Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. PMID:25762045

  7. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans. PMID:27416644

  8. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.

  9. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…

  10. First molar health status in different craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the health status of permanent first molars and different craniofacial relationships among adolescents. Study design This is a retrospective study on patients’ records aged 11–15 years. Sex, skeletal relationship, vertical growth pattern, malocclusion, overjet, and overbite were assessed. The health status of permanent first molars was recorded from the orthopantomograms and intraoral photographs as “sound” and “not sound”. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze and correlate the assessed variables. Significance level was set at P<0.05. Results A total of 210 records were evaluated; 81 were male, 68 had Class I and 91 had Class II skeletal relationships. More than half of the subjects had normal (n=67) to moderate deep bite (n=72); normal (n=91), moderately increased (n=54), to severely increased (n=50) overjet; and Class I (n=106) and Class II division 1 (n=75) malocclusion. Significant differences were found in the health status of the permanent first molars with respect to sex (P=0.034), vertical growth pattern (P=0.01), and overbite (P=0.047). Strong correlations were only found between the health status of the permanent first molars and the following variables: sex (P=0.036) and vertical growth pattern (P=0.004). Significant correlation was further found between the upper left first molar health status and sex (P=0.019) and the lower right first molar health status and the vertical growth pattern (P=0.001). No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships (P>0.05). Conclusion Sex difference and vertical growth patterns were found to be potential predictors of the health status of the permanent first molars. No significant association was found with the anteroposterior craniofacial relationships. PMID:27462176

  11. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim status transaction. The health care claim status transaction is the transmission of either of...

  12. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim status transaction. The health care claim status transaction is the transmission of either of...

  13. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim status transaction. The health care claim status transaction is the transmission of either of...

  14. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care claim status transaction. The health care claim status transaction is the transmission of either of...

  15. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  16. Age-Status Labeling in Homosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.

    1976-01-01

    Homosexual men (N=95) between 25 and 68 years of age were asked to classify themselves as young, middle-aged, or old. The popular suggestion of accelerated aging in homosexual men was not supported. (Author)

  17. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates

  18. Telemental health: A status update.

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama

    2015-06-01

    A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the "therapeutic alliance", privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities.

  19. Telemental health: A status update

    PubMed Central

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama

    2015-01-01

    A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the “therapeutic alliance”, privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities. PMID:26043340

  20. Telemental health: A status update.

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael; Naim, Lama

    2015-06-01

    A rather large body of literature now exists on the use of telemental health services in the diagnosis and management of various psychiatric conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of telemental health, focusing on four main areas: computerized CBT (cCBT), Internet-based CBT (iCBT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and mobile therapy (mTherapy). Four scientific databases were searched and, where possible, larger, better-designed meta-analyses and controlled trials were highlighted. Taken together, published studies support an expanded role for telepsychiatry tools, with advantages that include increased care access, enhanced efficiency, reduced stigma associated with visiting mental health clinics, and the ability to bypass diagnosis-specific obstacles to treatment, such as when social anxiety prevents a patient from leaving the house. Of technology-mediated therapies, cCBT and iCBT possess the most efficacy evidence, with VRET and mTherapy representing promising but less researched options that have grown in parallel with virtual reality and mobile technology advances. Nonetheless, telepsychiatry remains challenging because of the need for specific computer skills, the difficulty in providing patients with a deep understanding or support, concerns about the "therapeutic alliance", privacy fears, and the well documented problem of patient attrition. Future studies should further test the efficacy, advantages and limitations of technology-enabled CBT, as well as explore the online delivery of other psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological modalities. PMID:26043340

  1. Health and nutritional status of old-old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M A; Anderson, C; Forgey, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the initial results of a baseline cross-sectional evaluation of the health and nutritional status of 58 old-old African Americans, 74 years of age and older, residing in low income housing complexes in metropolitan Oklahoma City. Although the population had a high overall functional status, cognitive status, and mood, there were a number of nutritional parameters suggestive of nutritional risk. In particular, 20% of subjects had relatively low serum albumin levels, 14% had serum cholesterol levels below 160 mg/dl, and a subset of the population reported low intake during 24 hour dietary recall. The National Center and Caucus on Black Aged report that 60% of African American elders live at or below the poverty level. These study findings suggest that the present cohort of African American elders may be at nutritional risk.

  2. Cancer survival disparities by health insurance status.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoling; Roche, Lisa M; Pawlish, Karen S; Henry, Kevin A

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies found that uninsured and Medicaid insured cancer patients have poorer outcomes than cancer patients with private insurance. We examined the association between health insurance status and survival of New Jersey patients 18-64 diagnosed with seven common cancers during 1999-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for 5-year cause-specific survival were calculated from Cox proportional hazards regression models; health insurance status was the primary predictor with adjustment for other significant factors in univariate chi-square or Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. Two diagnosis periods by health insurance status were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. For breast, colorectal, lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and prostate cancer, uninsured and Medicaid insured patients had significantly higher risks of death than privately insured patients. For bladder cancer, uninsured patients had a significantly higher risk of death than privately insured patients. Survival improved between the two diagnosis periods for privately insured patients with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer and NHL, for Medicaid insured patients with NHL, and not at all for uninsured patients. Survival from cancer appears to be related to a complex set of demographic and clinical factors of which insurance status is a part. While ensuring that everyone has adequate health insurance is an important step, additional measures must be taken to address cancer survival disparities.

  3. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  4. Formaldehyde exposure and health status in households.

    PubMed Central

    Broder, I; Corey, P; Brasher, P; Lipa, M; Cole, P

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a case study concerned with acute and subacute health effects of formaldehyde in the indoor air, which is based on a large group of control houses and houses retroinsulated 4 to 5 years earlier with urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI). Both groups underwent an environmental and health assessment on two occasions separated by an interval of 12 months, during which about one-half of the UFFI group performed remedial work on their houses. The results show that in the first survey of the study population, before remedial work, there was a moderate excess of many adverse health status indicators among the UFFI subset relative to the controls. This was associated with the presence of direct exposure-response relationships between formaldehyde levels in the UFFI houses and the prevalence of a number of symptoms. No comparable relationships were seen among the controls. At the second survey, performed following the removal of the UFFI, there was an appreciable reduction in the excess of most adverse health status indicators among the UFFI subjects. This improvement in health status among the UFFI removal subset was not associated with any significant diminution of formaldehyde exposures, although the previously observed exposure-response relationships had vanished. These observations imply that the findings obtained in the preremedial stage of the study cannot be explained by formaldehyde exposure alone. PMID:1821362

  5. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  6. Bone Related Health Status in Adolescent Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Olmedillas, Hugo; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moreno, Luís A.; Casajús, José A.; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists. Methods Male road cyclists (n = 22) who had been training for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years with a volume of 10 h/w, were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22) involved in recreational sports activities. Subjects were divided in 2 groups based on age: adolescents under 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 13) and over 17 yrs (cyclists, n = 11; controls, n = 9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured on a cycloergometer. Whole body, lumbar spine, and hip bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and bone area were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were also estimated. Results The BMC of cyclists was lower for the whole body, pelvis, femoral neck and legs; BMD for the pelvis, hip, legs and whole body and legs bone area was lower but higher in the hip area (all, P≤0.05) after adjusting by lean mass and height. The BMC of young cyclists was 10% lower in the leg and 8% higher in the hip area than young controls (P≤0.05). The BMC of cyclists over 17 yrs was 26.5%, 15.8% and 14.4% lower BMC at the pelvis, femoral neck and legs respectively while the BMD was 8.9% to 24.5% lower for the whole body, pelvis, total hip, trochanter, intertrochanter, femoral neck and legs and 17.1% lower the vBMD at the femoral neck (all P≤0.05). Grouped by age interaction was found in both pelvis and hip BMC and BMD and in femoral neck vBMD (all P≤0.05). Conclusion Cycling performed throughout adolescence may negatively affect bone health, then compromising the acquisition of peak bone mass. PMID:21980360

  7. Trends in the Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of data from the National Health Interview Survey shows consistent and substantial improvements in the relative health of the aged from 1961-81. Explanations for this trend include cohort effects, Medicare and Medicaid, and other programs for the aged. Increasing health service needs should be partially offset by this trend.…

  8. Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454

  9. Ageing, status politics and sociological theory.

    PubMed

    Turner, B S

    1989-12-01

    As a feature of social change and as an aspect of social stratification, ageing and age groups have been seriously neglected by sociological theory. This article attempts to conceptualize age groups in a multi-dimensional model of stratification which considers ageing in relation to economic class, political entitlement, or citizenship, and cultural life-styles. This multi-dimensional model provides an analytical basis for rejecting functionalist theories of ageing, which emphasize the positive functions of social disengagement, activity theories, which show that self-esteem in ageing is an effect of continuing social involvement, and Marxist social gerontology, which argues that retirement is determined by labour-market requirements in capitalism. The article concludes by developing a reciprocity-maturation curve of ageing which explains age stigmatization through exchange theory as an effect of declining social reciprocity. Both young and elderly social groups in a period of economic recession are perceived to be socially dependent, and become the targets of 'the politics of resentment'. The processes of social ageing can be located in the core of sociological theory, because they are connected fundamentally to the conditions of social solidarity. PMID:2688794

  10. Selected Health Status Indicators and Behaviors of Young Adults, United States-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…

  11. Health status of anthracite surface coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Amandus, H.E.; Petersen, M.R.; Richards, T.B.

    1989-03-01

    In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled.

  12. Breastfeeding, infant health, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R; O'Gara, C

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between infant feeding practices and infant growth in a study carried out in the slums of Tegucigalpa, Honduras. The following hypothese are tested: whether infants who are breastfed will grow better than infants who are bottlefed (infants who are both breastfed and bottlefed will occupy an intermediate position); whether the positive effect of breastfeeding and the negative impact of bottlefeeding will be enhanced after controlling for measures of socioeconomic status; and whether the magnitude of the effects that can be ascribed to breast and bottlefeeding decline with age such that by late infancy growth and health are less affected by milk feeding practice. Data were collected in a cross-sectional study in 1982 of low-income "barrios" of Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras. Data were collected by means of a household questionnaire and a physical examination of the infant. 912 households with living infants participated. Only households in which a birth had occurred in the 12 months preceding the interview were included. The following conclusions resulted from the study: infants who are breastfed grow better than infants who are bottle fed; infants who were both bottle-and breastfed occupied the intermediate position in terms of growth; controlling for potentially confusing factors tended to make associations with breastfeeding more positive and more negative with bottlefeeding; the results indicate stronger, more consistent associations in the 1st 9 months of life than in the period from 9 to 12 months. Breastfeeding is best through infancy, and then supplementary feeding is required.

  13. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty) from the 2000 US Census (tracts). Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36) scale). Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%). Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty), those in the highest tertile (most poverty) had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical), role limitations(emotional), physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (β-coefficient [β] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039), mental health (β = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53) and global health (β = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33) composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation. PMID:22182286

  14. Health Status of Kanaka Maoli (Indigenous Hawaiians).

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Richard Kekuni

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: To summarize the current health status of Kanaka Maoli (indigenous Hawaiians) with historical background, underlying factors responsible for the Kanaka Maoli health plight and recommendations. METHODS: The author reviewed the available literature and some not readily available, unpublished information. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kanaka Maoli continue to have the worst health and socio­economic indicators of the various ethnic groups in their home islands of Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i). Cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, obstructive lung disease, maternal and infant health and mental distress are the prominent maladies. Tobacco smoking, high­fat diet, alcohol drinking, hyperlipidemia and obesity are the major lifestyle risk factors. Societal factors, such as depopulation, foreign transmigration, colonial exploitation, coercive assimilation, cultural conflict and racism persist. Since 1990, Kanaka Maoli communities have established five island­wide Native Hawaiian Health Care Systems to improve availability, accessibility, and acceptability of health services to their people, but with inadequate resources. CONCLUSIONS: Under present conditions, while the future may bring some amelioration of Kanaka Maoli ill health, the price will be progressive acculturation and loss of Kanaka Maoli identity. Accordingly, recommendations include augmented revitalization of the traditional culture, effective recontrol by the Kanaka Maoli of their lives and natural resources and thus, improved total health. KEY WORDS: Pacific Islander Americans, Kanaka Maoli, Hawaiians, Indigenous Health, Culture, Ethnicity, Racism, Colonialism, Sovereignty

  15. Health-related worries, perceived health status, and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Ren, A; Okubo, T; Takahashi, K

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the association of health-related worries (over cancers, diabetes, work-related stress, heart attack, obesity, general physical fitness, and/or other health conditions) and perceived health status (excellent, good, fair or poor) to the utilization of health care services for 19, 139 Japanese local public service employees. Data on health-related worries and health status were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire survey in 1988 and analyzed in relation to the subsequent 12-month utilization of health care. Results showed that perceived health status was associated with the utilization for almost all medical conditions and so was worry over a specific condition and the subsequent utilization of health care services. The implication of these findings is that measures targeting the relief of an employee's health-related worries, through either health consultation or other health programs, may contribute to the reduction of an employee's health care utilization and costs.

  16. Age at First Birth, Health, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirowsky, John

    2005-01-01

    The biodevelopmental view sees the readiness and soundness of the organism at the time of first birth as its prime link to health and survival years and decades later. It suggests an optimum age at first birth shortly after puberty. The biosocial view emphasizes social correlates and consequences of age at first birth that may influence health and…

  17. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A C; O'Connell, S M; O'Mullane, E; Hoey, H M C V

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children. PMID:21186752

  18. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  19. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    PubMed Central

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  20. Chicano Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

    Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

  1. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity. PMID:10518916

  2. Oral health status in children with renal disorders.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Gupta, M; Mehta, A

    2012-01-01

    Advances in pediatric nephrology have resulted in increased survival rates of children with renal disorders. Renal disease is characterized by multiple organ involvement, including soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Data regarding the oral health status of Indian children with renal disorders is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of children with renal disorders in Jaipur city, India. Thirty six children in the age-group of 4-14 years, diagnosed with renal disorders were selected Data pertaining to demographics, medication history, body mass index and blood investigations were obtained from the hospital records. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to diagnose dental caries. Enamel defects were recorded according to Developmental Defects of Enamel index. Oral hygiene status, salivary pH and buffering capacity were also assessed. The mean blood hemoglobin value was 9.75 gm/dl, blood urea nitrogen 43.06 gm/dl and serum creatinine 1.5 mg/dl. Enamel defects were seen in 58.3% of children. Their mean deft and DMFT scores were 1.5 and 0.5, respectively. The mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S) score was 1.56. Gingival overgrowth was not present. Mean salivary pH was 6.92 and buffering capacity of stimulated saliva was 9.86. It is necessary for pediatric dentists to follow preventive oral health regimens that are tailored to these patients.

  3. Healthy ageing, but what is health?

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2013-12-01

    Ageing occurs in spite of complex pathways of maintenance and repair. There is no "enemy within", which has the specific evolution-selected function to cause ageing and death. This understanding of ageing should transform our approach towards interventions from therapeutic "anti-ageing" to maintaining health. But what is health? Ideally, health is a state of complete physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. But in pragmatic terms, health is a state of adequate physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. In order to identify a set of measurable, evidence-based and demonstratable parameters of health, robustness and resilience at various levels, the concept of homeodynamic space can be a useful one. Age-related health problems for which there are no clear-cut causative agents, except the complex process of ageing, may be better tackled by focusing on health mechanisms and their maintenance, rather than disease management and treatment. Continuing the disease-oriented research approaches are economically, socially and psychologically unsustainable as compared with health-oriented and preventive strategies, such as hormesis. Supporting health-oriented research is the urgency of our time.

  4. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  5. Household portfolio choices, health status and health care systems: A cross-country analysis based on SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Atella, Vincenzo; Brunetti, Marianna; Maestas, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Health risk is increasingly viewed as an important form of background risk that affects household portfolio decisions. However, its role might be mediated by the presence of a protective full-coverage national health service that could reduce households’ probability of incurring current and future out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We use SHARE data to study the influence of current health status and future health risk on the decision to hold risky assets, across ten European countries with different health systems, each offering a different degree of protection against out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We find robust empirical evidence that perceived health status matters more than objective health status and, consistent with the theory of background risk, health risk affects portfolio choices only in countries with less protective health care systems. Furthermore, portfolio decisions consistent with background risk models are observed only with respect to middle-aged and highly-educated investors. PMID:23885134

  6. Household portfolio choices, health status and health care systems: A cross-country analysis based on SHARE.

    PubMed

    Atella, Vincenzo; Brunetti, Marianna; Maestas, Nicole

    2012-05-01

    Health risk is increasingly viewed as an important form of background risk that affects household portfolio decisions. However, its role might be mediated by the presence of a protective full-coverage national health service that could reduce households' probability of incurring current and future out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We use SHARE data to study the influence of current health status and future health risk on the decision to hold risky assets, across ten European countries with different health systems, each offering a different degree of protection against out-of-pocket medical expenditures. We find robust empirical evidence that perceived health status matters more than objective health status and, consistent with the theory of background risk, health risk affects portfolio choices only in countries with less protective health care systems. Furthermore, portfolio decisions consistent with background risk models are observed only with respect to middle-aged and highly-educated investors.

  7. Health status of the elderly in the Marigot Health District, Dominica.

    PubMed

    Veen-de Vries, N R; Luteijn, A J; Nasiiro, R S; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1999-06-01

    The health status and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, glaucoma and visual disorders of 123 elderly people (56 men, 67 women) in the Marigot Health District, Dominica, were assessed by means of four questionnaires; collection of data from their medical records; physical examination, measurement of blood pressure, visual acuity and intra-ocular pressure (IOP); and testing for glucosuria. The overall health status was good, but 20% were dependent on care. 74% were independent in the activities in daily life, with only moderate limitations in activities. The health status decreased considerably in those over 75 years of age. There were slight perceived differences in health status between men and women. About 40% of the study population were known to be hypertensive, and another 13% had an elevated blood pressure on examination. Diabetes mellitus was present in 15%. 20% had a visual acuity of 0.1 or below, and 10% had an elevated IOP. During the study, a considerable number of new cases of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and elevated IOP were diagnosed. 50% of the study population who were on medication used this more than as prescribed. This study indicates a high prevalence of the secondary complications of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cataract, glaucoma and osteo-arthritis that cause disability and dependency in the elderly population. Education, diagnosis at an early stage and appropriate treatment of these disorders may prevent or delay their development. We sugggest the development of a programme oriented approach of primary health care for the elderly to support this.

  8. The Relationship of Age and Marital Status to Women's Needs for Interdependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein; Woog, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Examined the prominence of intimacy concerns, i.e., connectedness and independent needs in a sample of women in the health professions, analyzing for age and marital status. Used the Life Priorities Q-Sort. Older and single women were found to be significantly more independent than younger and married women. (Author/KS)

  9. Health care utilization and changes in health status over time for migraineurs

    PubMed Central

    Chuck, Anderson; Jacobs, Philip; Ohinmaa, Arto; Schopflocher, Donald; Rashiq, Saifudin; Feroe, Raquel

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Determining how migraineurs manage their condition from the viewpoint of health resource utilization (including both medical and personal resources) may provide insights that could lead to more effective care strategies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative importance of modifiable health-influencing activities for migraineurs, and to compare the effects of these activities between migraineurs and nonmigraineurs in the general population. METHODS: Linear regression analysis was applied to all persons older than 19 years of age with migraine in the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1. The dependent variable was reported health status change over time. Explanatory variables were a series of health care utilization, health behaviour and background control variables. RESULTS: Results showed that health status was positively associated with higher levels of physical activity and negatively associated with smoking for both migraineurs and nonmigraineurs, even when controlling for all other variables. CONCLUSION: By modifying controllable resources and behaviours, the reported health status of migraineurs can be improved as effectively as nonmigraineurs. PMID:18080049

  10. 45 CFR 162.1401 - Health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health care claim status transaction. 162.1401 Section 162.1401 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1401 Health care...

  11. Health Status of Migrant Farmworkers: A Literature Review and Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the medical literature on the health status of migrant farmworkers. Finds adequate coverage of dental health, nutrition, and childhood health, as well as several disease categories. Finds that more research is needed on population estimates, basic health status indicators, and the prevalence rates of the most common causes of death. (FMW)

  12. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  13. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  14. [Health status of high-altitude population].

    PubMed

    Okumiya, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    The health status of high-altitude population in Qinghai (China), Ladakh (India), and Arunachal (India) was investigated using comprehensive geriatric functional assessment in relation to their recent lifestyle change with the socio-economic globalization. People in urban areas had a higher prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases and poorer geriatric functions, and a lower subjective quality of life (QOL) than people in rural areas. The optimal prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and preservation of a high QOL are important for the people living in each of the above-mentioned areas with a high altitude.

  15. The relationship between memory complaints, activity and perceived health status.

    PubMed

    Lee, P-L

    2014-04-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) is a possible symptom of mild cognitive impairment which may progress to dementia. The present study examines the relationship of physical activity (PA), cognitive activity (CA), social activity (SA), and perceived health status (HS) with SMC for middle age and older adults. Participants were from the MIDUS II study (Midlife in the United States) recruited in 2004-2006 (Mean age = 55.99; N = 3030). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed with SMC as the dependent variable, along with PA, CA, SA, and HS as the independent variables. The study revealed that SMC was strongly related to PA, CA, and HS, while controlling covariates. Further, HS had the strongest link with SMC among these predictors while interaction effects (PA × HS, CA × HS, and SA × HS) were insignificant. In addition, different results were achieved in younger versus older groups. Participants with more CA, PA and perception of better health had lower frequency of memory complaints. PMID:24646046

  16. Mental health status, aggression, and poor driving distinguish traffic offenders from non-offenders but health status predicts driving behavior in both groups

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Dortaj, Fariborz; Esmaeili, Alireza; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders. Methods A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1%) and 407 (47.9%) were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer mental health status, and worse driving behavior. Among non-offenders, multiple regression indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer health status and driving behavior. Further, the predictive power of poorer mental health status, but not aggression, for driving behavior was replicated for male non-offenders. PMID:26300646

  17. Wage differences according to health status in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline

    2014-11-01

    Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%.

  18. Status of men's health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, S Larry

    2014-07-01

    Men are more likely to die of cancer, heart disease, or diabetes at younger ages than women - a reality that is compounded by the reluctance of men to use healthcare services. In addition to reduced life expectancy, men can also expect to live fewer healthy years than their female counterparts. As gynecologists and obstetricians have led the women's health movement in addressing gender-specific gaps in care, urologists are well-poised to take on a leadership role to advocate for, and address, men's health initiatives. PMID:25243037

  19. Oral Health and Nutritional Status of Semi-Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2009-01-01

    Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…

  20. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  1. Disability incidence and official health status transitions in Russia.

    PubMed

    Becker, Charles M; Merkuryeva, Irina S

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of being disabled in Russia, along with the probability of moving from one disability status to another, using data from 1994 through 2005 from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Results from multinomial probit regressions indicate that disability risk rises sharply with age, declines with income and self-reported good health, and is lower for women. Neither smoking nor drinking alcohol increases either the risk of being or becoming disabled. Recovery--health status improvement--improves with household size. Misclassification or measurement error is important: a surprisingly large proportion of "incurably" disabled Russians do in fact recover. This study has been funded in part by National Institute of Aging grant #2P30 AG17248-02 through the Population Aging Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. We are grateful to Aleksandr Andreev for outstanding research assistance. Jeanine Braithwaite, John Komlos, Cem Mete, Mieke Meurs, Daniel Mont, Frank Sloan, and five anonymous referees contributed valuable comments. We acknowledge our appreciation without implicating them in remaining errors and misinterpretations.

  2. Mechanisms by which Childhood Personality Traits Influence Adult Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test a lifespan health-behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. Design The model was tested on 1,054 members of the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort, which is a population-based cohort participating in a longitudinal study of personality and health spanning 40 years from childhood to midlife. Outcome Self-reported health status as a latent construct indicated by general health, functional status, and body mass index. Results Childhood Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect/Imagination influenced adult health status indirectly through educational attainment, healthy eating habits, and smoking. Several direct effects of childhood traits on health behaviors and health status were also observed. Conclusion The model extends past associations found between personality traits and health behaviors or health status by identifying a life-course pathway based on the health-behavior model through which early childhood traits influence adult health status. The additional direct effects of personality traits indicate that health-behavior mechanisms may not provide a complete account of relations between personality and health. PMID:17209705

  3. Health of Aging Parents and Childless Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendig, Hal; Dykstra, Pearl A.; van Gaalen, Ruben I.; Melkas, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews and presents research findings on the relationships between parenthood and health over the life span. Existing research shows lacunae. The links between reproductive behavior and longevity generally focus on family size rather than contrasting parents and nonparents. Studies of marital status differentials in survival…

  4. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  5. Oral health status in Navajo Nation Head Start Children

    PubMed Central

    Batliner, Terrence; Wilson, Anne; Tiwari, Tamanna; Glueck, Deborah; Henderson, William G; Thomas, Jacob F; Braun, Patricia A; Cudeii, Diana; Quissell, David O; Albino, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study assessed oral health status for preschool aged children in Navajo Nation to obtain baseline decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs) data and dental caries patterns, describe socio-demographic correlates of children’s baseline dmfs measures, and compare the children’s dmfs measures to previous dental survey data for Navajo Nation from Indian Health Service and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods The analyzed study sample included 981 child/caregiver dyads residing in Navajo Nation who completed baseline dmfs assessments for an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving Navajo Nation Head Start Centers. Calibrated dental hygienists collected baseline dmfs data from child participants ages 3–5 years (488 males and 493 females), and caregivers completed a Basic Research Factors Questionnaire (BRFQ). Results Mean dmfs for the study population was 21.33 (SD =19.99) and not appreciably different from the 1999 Indian Health Service survey of Navajo Nation preschool aged children (mean=19.02, SD=16.59, p=0.08). However, 69.5 percent of children in the current study had untreated decay compared to 82.9 percent in the 1999 Indian Health Service survey (p<0.0001). Study results were considerably higher than the 16.0 percent reported for 2–4 year old children in the Whites Only group from the 1999–2004 NHANES data. Age had the strongest association with dmfs, followed by child gender, and caregivers’ income and education. Conclusion Dental caries in preschool aged Navajo children is extremely high compared to other US population segments and dmfs has not appreciably changed for more than a decade. PMID:24954053

  6. Assessment of nutritional status: effects of different methods to determine age on the classification of undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Gorstein, J

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of nutritional status using anthropometry has been widely employed in field studies and nutritional surveillance programmes. Two of the primary indicators used, weight-for-age and height-for-age, require accurate age information for proper assessments to be made. Three data sets on nutritional status were evaluated using different methods to determine age: rounding to the most recently attained month, rounding to the nearest whole month, and ages computed from birth dates and visit dates. The impact of these different methods on the classification of nutritional status were found to be dramatic, especially in infants during the first year of life. In some cases, when ages are rounded to the most recently attained month, as few as 43% of the children classified as malnourished based on the indicator, height-for-age, and the cut-off point, less than -2 Standard Deviations from the reference median, are identified relative to when ages are computed from birth and visit dates. Beyond the discrepancies in estimating prevalence below specific cut-off points to designate undernutrition, the use of the different methods also affects entire distributions. The problem of using different methods to estimate age, and the impact they have on the classification of undernutrition are of critical public health importance, especially when this information is used to identify individuals and groups as well as for planning and policy development.

  7. Correlates of the health statuses of the faculty at midlife

    PubMed Central

    Galeon, Galvin Alaan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R), Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general. PMID:27134476

  8. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  9. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  10. Quantifying the effect of health status on health care utilization using a preference-based health measure.

    PubMed

    Lima, Viviane Dias; Kopec, Jacek A

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of health status on current and future payments and number of visits to health professionals in a large, representative community sample in British Columbia, Canada. The study population was comprised of all respondents to the 1994/5 cycle of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS) who were 12 years of age or older and residing in the province of British Columbia (N = 2084). Health status was measured with the Health Utilities Index (HUI). Two outcomes were defined for each subject: (a) the sum of all healthcare costs covered by the Medical Services Plan, incurred during a given fiscal year, and (b) the total number of visits to all health practitioners during the same year. Outcome data were obtained for a period 1994-1998. We examined the relationship between the HUI and healthcare use in a multivariate log-linear model. In the full sample, better health in 1994-1995 was associated with lower healthcare cost and lower number of visits from 1994 through 1998. The overall adjusted cost ratio was 0.89 (99% CI = 0.85, 0.94) and the overall adjusted visit ratio was 0.91 (99% CI + 0.87, 0.95). The effect of health status on the costs of care and on the number of visits was similar in men and women, was stronger in persons less than 45 years of age compared to those 45+, and was not different according to place of residence. We conclude that the HUI is a strong predictor of health services use over 5 years. A 0.1 improvement in health utility is associated with a 10% reduction in the costs of care and number of visits to health professionals. PMID:15550300

  11. [Investigation of stomatologic status of middle-aged and elderly people in Western Georgia].

    PubMed

    Morchadze, L A; Margvelashvili, V V; Lobzhanidze, T A

    2009-12-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. People aged 65 and over now comprise a greater share of the world's population than ever before, and this proportion will increase during the 21st century. Increased lifetime in old age is combined with a concern about its quality. Oral health care of the elderly is one of the important aspects affecting the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to describe stomatologic status among middle-aged and elderly people in western Georgia. 355 subjects aged 55-90 years old were surveyed. According to oral health survey data, a high prevalence and intensity of dental caries and periodontal disease were apparent. Prosthetic status and treatment need were recorded in standard condition using oral health assessment forms. It is concluded that a high percentage of elderly were dentate but the average number of teeth was low and their status was poor, with very high need for therapeutic and prosthetic treatment.

  12. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  13. [Active aging promotion and education for health].

    PubMed

    Aparicio Alonso, Concepción

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago, the phenomenon of demographic aging started an intense debate about its supposed negatives effects on the economic progress of a population. Health advances and improved living conditions have gradually increased the health level the elderly have, embellishing the initial perspectives; the elderly live more years but, moreover, they have a better quality of life. For the WHO, to favor an active aging process presents a challenge, avoiding incapacities and dependencies, the real causes of the increase in social-health costs. Following the guidelines established by the II World Assembly on Aging, last year our country passed the Action Plan for Elderly People 2003-2007; this plan contemplates as one of its objectives "Promote the autonomy and the full and active participation by the elderly people in the community" and points out that the strategy to achieve this objective consists in "pushing the measures which Promote Health".

  14. [Health status of military men serving on the North Fleet].

    PubMed

    Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Khankevich, Iu R; Ustimenko, L I; Burtsev, N N; Kuz'minov, O V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A; Trofimova, A Iu

    2014-06-01

    Authors analyzed data characterizing health status of military men serving on the North Fleet, peculiarities of changes in category of fitness for military service in 2002-2011. It was found that 75.1% of conscripts fell into first health group, 20.1%--fell into second health group, 4.8%--fell into third health group. Authors gave detailed characteristics of frequent diseases in military men. Authors formulated organizational solutions, ways of improvement of conscripts' health status.

  15. Fluency in Parkinson's disease: disease duration, cognitive status and age.

    PubMed

    Brabo, Natalia Casagrande; Minett, Thais Soares C; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and to characterize the typology of dysfluencies in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), including the variables age, gender, schooling, disease duration, score on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and cognitive status (score on Mini-Mental State Examination). A cross-sectional study of a sample comprising 60 adults matched for gender, age and schooling was conducted. Group I comprised 30 adults with idiopathic PD, and Group II comprised 30 healthy adults. For assessment of fluency of speech, subjects were asked to utter a narrative based on a sequence of drawings and a transcription of 200 fluent syllables was performed to identify speech dysfluencies. PD patients exhibited a higher overall number of dysfluencies in speech with a large number of atypical dysfluencies. Additionally, results showed an influence of the variables cognitive status, disease duration and age on occurrence of dysfluencies. PMID:24863510

  16. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  17. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  18. Oral health status in children and adolescents with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Othman, N A A; Sockalingam, S N M P; Mahyuddin, A

    2015-09-01

    This case-controlled study aimed to evaluate the existing oral health status in children and adolescents with haemophilia. A total of 50 haemophilia patients and 50 matched controls aged seven to 16 years were recruited into the study. Clinical examination was carried out to determine dental caries experience, oral hygiene status and gingival condition in these two groups. Information regarding previous dental history, oral hygiene practices and dietary habits were also obtained. No significant difference was found in mean caries experience in primary and secondary dentitions (P = 0.86 and 0.32) and in Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, P = 0.20) between both groups. However, a significantly higher proportion of haemophilia patients (24%) had better oral hygiene status as compared to the controls (2%, P = 0.004). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in Modified Gingival Index (MGI, P = 0.02) between the two groups with the study group having less gingival inflammation. A total of 88% (n = 44) of the haemophilia patients were registered and received dental treatment in specialist dental clinics. More than half (56%, n = 28) had frequent dental visits and only one-third of the haemophilia patients had history of hospitalization due to oral problems. There was no significant difference in oral hygiene practices and dietary habits between both groups. In general, haemophilia children and adolescents in this study had similar caries experience, a significantly better oral hygiene status and gingival health as compared to healthy controls. The main reason for this is the multidisciplinary approach implemented by medical health-care professionals as primary care provider and the dental team.

  19. Cultural framework, anger expression, and health status in Russian immigrant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.

  20. Smoking, educational status and health inequity in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2006-07-01

    Health related behaviours, especially smoking and tobacco use, are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Smoking leads to acute respiratory diseases, tuberculosis and asthma in younger age groups and non communicable diseases such as chronic lung disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer in middle and older age. We observed an inverse association of educational status with tobacco use (smoking and other forms) in western Indian State of Rajasthan. In successive cross-sectional epidemiological studies- the Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW)- in rural (JHWR; n=3148, men=1982), and urban subjects: JHW-1 (n=2212, men=1415), JHW-2 (n=1124, men=550) and JHW-3 (n=458, men=226), we evaluated various cardiovascular risk factors. The greatest tobacco consumption was observed among the illiterate and low educational status subjects (nil, 1-5, 6-10, >10 yr of formal education) as compared to more literate in men (JHW-R 60, 51, 46 and 36% respectively; JHW-1 44, 52, 30 and 18% JHW-2 54, 43, 29 and 24%; and JHW-3 50, 27, 25 and 25%) as well as women (Mantel Haenzel test, P for trend <0.05). In the illiterate subjects the odds ratios (OR) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) for smoking or tobacco use as compared to the highest educational groups in rural (men OR 2.68, CI 2.02, 3.57; women OR 3.13, CI 1.22, 8.08) as well as larger urban studies- JHW-1 (men OR 2.47, CI 1.70, 3.60; women OR 13.78, CI 3.35, 56.75) and JHW-2 (men OR 3.81; CI 1.90, 7.66; women OR 13.73, CI 1.84, 102.45) were significantly greater (P<0.01). Smoking significantly correlated with prevalence of coronary heart disease and hypertension. Other recent Indian studies and national surveys report similar associations. Health ethicists argue that good education and health lead to true development in an underprivileged society. We propose that improving educational status, a major social determinant of health, can lead to appropriate health related behaviours and prevent the epidemics of non

  1. The Status of Rapid Response Learning in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for an age-related impairment in associative processing under intentional encoding and retrieval conditions, but the status of incidental associative processing has been less clear. Two experiments examined the effects of age on rapid response learning – the incidentally learned stimulus-response association that results in a reduction in priming when a learned response becomes inappropriate for a new task. Specifically, we tested whether priming was equivalently sensitive in both age groups to reversing the task-specific decision cue. Experiment 1 showed that cue inversion reduced priming in both age groups using a speeded inside/outside classification task, and in Experiment 2 cue inversion eliminated priming on an associative version of this task. Thus, the ability to encode an association between a stimulus and its initial task-specific response appears to be preserved in aging. These findings provide an important example of a form of associative processing that is unimpaired in older adults. PMID:20853961

  2. Validation and Impact of Caregivers’ Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior on Children’s Oral Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anne R; Brega, Angela G; Campagna, Elizabeth; Braun, Patricia A; Henderson, William G; Bryant, Lucinda L; Batliner, Terrence S; Quissell, David O; Albino, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to validate oral health knowledge and behavior measures from the Basic Research Factors Questionnaire, developed to capture specific themes contributing to children’s oral health outcomes and influence of caregivers. Methods Data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial (N=992) aimed at reducing dental caries in young children. Participants were American Indian/Alaska Native caregivers with a child aged three to five years enrolled in a Navajo Nation Head Start Center. Caregivers completed the questionnaire at enrollment with concomitant evaluation of children for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Oral health knowledge and behavior outcomes were compared with convergent measures (participant sociodemographic characteristics, oral health attitudes, indicators of oral health status). Results Caregiver oral health knowledge was significantly associated with education, income, oral health behavior, and all but one of the oral health attitude measures. Behavior was significantly associated with several measures of oral health attitudes and all but one measure of oral health status. As the behavior score improved, dmfs declined, child/caregiver overall oral health status improved, and pediatric oral health quality of life improved. Conclusions Questionnaire measures were valid for predicting specific caregiver factors potentially contributing to children’s oral health status. PMID:26892215

  3. Trends in the Health Status of Older Manitobans, 1985 to 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menec, Verena H.; Lix, Lisa; MacWilliam, Leonard R.

    2005-01-01

    Trends in the health status of the entire senior population aged 65 years or older in Manitoba were examined over a 14-year period (1985-1999) using administrative data (about 150,000 individuals). Significant health gains were apparent for a number of important indicators, including acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, and hip fractures,…

  4. Food Decision-Making: Effects of Weight Status and Age.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-09-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed. Behavioral studies show that in particular, poor self-control may have an adverse effect on food choice in children and adults with overweight and obesity. Neuroimaging studies show that overweight and obese individuals have altered neural responses to food in brain areas related to reward, self-control, and interoception. Longitudinal studies across the lifespan will be invaluable to unravel the causal factors driving (changes in) food choice, overconsumption, and weight gain. PMID:27473844

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories in Switzerland: are trajectories diverging as people age?

    PubMed

    Cullati, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Do socioeconomic differences in health status increase as people age, reflecting cumulative advantage or disadvantage in health trajectories? Life course research hypothesises that cumulative advantage/disadvantage (CAD) is an important underlying social process that shape inequalities as people age. The objective of this study is to examine whether health trajectories are diverging as people age across socioeconomic positions (education, employment status and income). In a random sample of 3,665 respondents living in Switzerland (Swiss Household Panel 2004-2011), trajectories of self-rated health, body mass index, depression and medicated functioning were examined with multilevel regression models. The results showed that employment status and income were associated with diverging health trajectories among men; however, only a few associations supported the CAD hypothesis. Education was rarely associated with diverging health trajectories. In conclusion, little evidence was found to support the CAD model.

  6. Irregular breakfast eating and health status among adolescents in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rea-Jeng; Wang, Edward K; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2006-01-01

    Background Regular breakfast eating (RBE) is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle and health status. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relationships among irregular breakfast eating (IRBE), health status, and health promoting behavior (HPB) for Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate a cluster sample of 1609 (7th -12th grade) adolescents located in the metropolitan Tao-Yuan area during the 2005 academic year. The main variables comprised breakfast eating pattern, body weight, and health promoting behaviors. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 1609 participants were studied, 64.1% in junior high school and 35.9% in high school, boys (47.1%) and girls (52.9%) ranging in age from 12–20 years. Of the total participant population, 28.8% were overweight and nearly one quarter (23.6%) reported eating breakfast irregularly during schooldays. The findings indicated that adolescents with RBE had a lower risk of overweight (OR for IRBE vs. RBE = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04), and that the odds of becoming overweight were 51% greater for IRBE than for RBE even after controlling for demographical and HPB variables. IRBE also was a strong indicator for HPB. However, the profile of the high-risk IRBE group was predominantly junior high schoolchildren and/or children living without both parents. Conclusion This study provides valuable information about irregular breakfast eating among adolescents, which is associated with being overweight and with a low frequency of health promoting behavior. School and family health promotion strategies should be used to encourage all adolescents to eat breakfast regularly. PMID:17150112

  7. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Darcy L.; Nathman, Amy C.; Capitanio, John P.; Hsieh, Fushing; Atwill, Edward R.; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank) and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions). In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models) and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status), allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects). Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea) was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also suggests that

  8. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Darcy L.; Nathman, Amy C.; Capitanio, John P.; Hsieh, Fushing; Atwill, Edward R.; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank) and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions). In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models) and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status), allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects). Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea) was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also suggests that

  9. Mental health status of infertile couples based on treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Aminian, Amir Hossein; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Seighal Ardakani, Najmeh; Fallahzadeh, Hosein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed. Results: The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002), anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003). The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7) than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment. Conclusion: Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially. PMID:24639785

  10. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  11. Health status: does it predict choice in further education?

    PubMed Central

    Koivusilta, L; Rimpelä, A; Rimpelä, M

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To study the significance of a young person's health to his or her choice of further education at age 16. DESIGN--A cross sectional population survey SETTING--The whole of Finland. PARTICIPANTS--A representative sample of 2977 Finnish 16 year olds. The response rate was 83%. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The three outcome variables reflected successive steps on the way to educational success: school attendance after the completion of compulsory schooling, the type of school, and school achievement for those at school. Continuing their education and choosing upper secondary school were most typical of young people from upper social classes. Female gender and living with both parents increased the probability of choosing to go on to upper secondary school. Over and above these background variables, some health factors had additional explanatory power. Continuing their education, attending upper secondary schools, and good achievement were typical of those who considered their health to be good. Chronically ill adolescents were more likely to continue their education than the healthy ones. CONCLUSIONS--School imposes great demands on young people, thus revealing differences in personal health resources. Adaptation to the norms of a society in which education is highly valued is related to satisfying health status. In a welfare state that offers equal educational opportunities for everyone, however, chronically ill adolescents can add to their resources for coping through schooling. Health related selection thus works differently for various indicators of health and in various kinds of societies. Social class differences in health in the future may be more dependent on personally experienced health problems than on medically diagnosed diseases. PMID:7798039

  12. Health Status of Older US Workers and Nonworkers, National Health Interview Survey, 1997–2011

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E.; Christ, Sharon; Muennig, Peter; Prado, Guillermo; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Yang, Xuan; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Lee, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many US workers are increasingly delaying retirement from work, which may be leading to an increase in chronic disease at the workplace. We examined the association of older adults’ health status with their employment/occupation and other characteristics. Methods National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2011 were pooled for adults aged 65 or older (n = 83,338; mean age, 74.6 y). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the association of socioeconomic factors and health behaviors with 4 health status measures: 1) self-rated health (fair/poor vs good/very good/excellent); 2) multimorbidity (≤1 vs ≥2 chronic conditions); 3) multiple functional limitations (≤1 vs ≥2); and 4) Health and Activities Limitation Index (HALex) (below vs above 20th percentile). Analyses were stratified by sex and age (young–old vs old–old) where interactions with occupation were significant. Results Employed older adults had better health outcomes than unemployed older adults. Physically demanding occupations had the lowest risk of poor health outcomes, suggesting a stronger healthy worker effect: service workers were at lowest risk of multiple functional limitations (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–0.95); and blue-collar workers were at lowest risk of multimorbidity (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74–0.97) and multiple functional limitation (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72–0.98). Hispanics were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report fair/poor health (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.52–1.73) and lowest HALex quintile (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.13–1.30); however, they were less likely to report multimorbidity (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.73–0.83) or multiple functional limitations (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.77–0.88). Conclusion A strong association exists between employment and health status in older adults beyond what can be explained by socioeconomic factors (eg, education, income) or health behaviors (eg, smoking). Disability

  13. [Internet resources on ageing and health].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Lorenzo, José-Manuel; Barderas-Manchado, Ana; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; González-María, Esther; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The general ageing of the world population at the beginning of the XXI century is an established fact, and in the next few years it will be a topic for debate and of interest to the public and, in particular, among health professionals. The Internet, as an inexhaustible information source of a different kind, could be a useful resource for consulting and updating for these professionals. The main health sciences sources that are available on the Internet are presented and commented upon. These may be useful for those professionals who wish to identify the most relevant information on ageing.

  14. The health status of rural primary schoolchildren in Central Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ng'andu, N H; Nkowane, B M; Watts, T E

    1991-06-01

    In a study of 528 rural primary schoolchildren in Central Zambia, it was found that the health status of the schoolchildren was not good as indicated by inadequate nutrition, a high prevalence of S. haematobium (18%), hookworm (33%), and malaria (43%) infections. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence of undernutrition between girls and boys and there were no significant trends with age. The treatment and control of hookworm disease, urinary schistosomiasis and malaria deserve a high priority in this area. As for malaria, until an international programme on its control can be developed, the acquisition of protective immunity is of paramount importance. This study shows how the use of 'simple' screening procedures can provide information to direct health education and other disease control measures in school health programmes. As the economic situation in Zambia is not good, the best hope for improvement of the children's health lies with environmental improvement in sanitation, water supplies and provision of basic health education. PMID:1711129

  15. The stability of health status measurement (SF-36) in a working population.

    PubMed

    Chern, J Y; Wan, T T; Pyles, M

    2000-01-01

    This study tests the stability of health status measurement (SF-36) in a working population. A total of 4,225 employees from two sectors (one state agency, one private company) enrolled in three health plans at Trigon BlueCross/BlueShield of Virginia. An eight-dimension short-form health survey (SF-36) was first tested on a cross-sectional basis for its validity. Then, a panel study was established to test for the stability of health status instrument over time. Structural equation modeling built on equality constraint conditions was the statistical technique for this study. Data were collected through two-wave mail surveys. Both comprehensive (original eight scales) and parsimonious (revised five scales) models of health status were found fit into the data quite well. Furthermore, the revised parsimonious model was shown highly stable over time. Within a working population aged 18 to 64, people are relatively healthy. Their perception of health issues is reflected mainly on "physical health status," as indicated by physical functionings or role limitations. The high stability of revised health status model warrants the possibility of using a more concise health status instrument for the majority of people in working force.

  16. Health Status and Health Determinants of Older Immigrant Women in Canada: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Sepali; Birpreet, Birpreet; Samuels-Dennis, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing international migration in the context of aging populations makes a comprehensive understanding of older immigrant women's health status and determinants of their health particularly urgent. Using Arksey and O'Malley's framework, we conducted a scoping review to examine the available literature on the health of older immigrant women in Canada. We searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases for the period of 1990 to 2014 for Canadian-based, peer-reviewed studies on the topic. A total of 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles were divided into six areas of focus: physical health; mental health; abuse; health promotion and chronic disease prevention; barriers to healthcare access and utilization; and health beliefs, behaviours, and practices. Our results show that the health of older immigrant women is affected by the interplay of various social determinants of health including the physical and social environment; economic conditions; cultural beliefs; gendered norms; and the healthcare delivery system. Our results also revealed that older immigrant women tend to have more health problems, underutilize preventive services, such as cancer screening, and experience more difficulties in accessing healthcare services. PMID:26273480

  17. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  18. Relationships between Culture and Health Status: A Multi-Site Study of the Older Chinese in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Tsang, Ka Tat; Chappell, Neena; Lai, David C. Y.; Chau, Shirley B. Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between culture and the health status of older Chinese in Canada. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a cross-sectional, randomly selected sample of 2,272 older Chinese between 55 and 101 years of age in seven Canadian cities. Health status was assessed by the number of chronic illnesses,…

  19. Perceived health status and health-promoting behaviors of African-American and White informal caregivers of impaired elders.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Patricia E; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Wykle, May L

    2005-07-01

    Caregiving and its consequences are major concerns for nurses. Many studies have examined health-promoting behaviors in general (Duffy, 1993; Walker, Volkan, Sechrist, & Pender, 1988), but few studies have explored health-promoting behaviors of caregivers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age, gender, race, and length of caregiving on perceived health status and health-promoting behaviors of African-American and White informal caregivers of impaired elders. Data from a larger study was used to examine a conceptual model linking perceived health status and health-promoting behavior. A sample of 136 (n = 136) African-American and 257 (n = 257) White caregivers was recruited from northeastern Ohio through random digit dialing and interviewed face to face. English-speaking caregivers were selected for study who provided unpaid assistance or care for a minimum of five hours a week to an impaired person 60 years of age or older living in the community. The Health-Promoting Behavior Questionnaire, perceived health status, and a demographic profile were used to measure the study variables. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. Findings from this study suggest that the overall fit of the conceptual model was significant, and that moreover, the relationship found between perceived health status and health-promoting behaviors supported Pender's model of health promotion (Pender, 1987). The relationship between perceived health status and health-promoting behaviors has not been documented in prior studies of caregivers, or in studies comparing the two racial groups of African-Americans and Whites. PMID:16255310

  20. Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Forbes, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle function and is a contributing factor for cachexia, bone loss, and frailty. Resistance training produces several physiological adaptations which improve aging musculoskeletal health, such as increased muscle and bone mass and strength. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may further lead to greater physiological benefits. We performed meta-analyses which indicate creatine supplementation combined with resistance training has a positive effect on aging muscle mass and upper body strength compared to resistance training alone. Creatine also shows promise for improving bone mineral density and indices of bone biology. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training could be an effective intervention to improve aging musculoskeletal health. PMID:24190049

  1. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  2. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  3. Income inequality, social capital and self-rated health and dental status in older Japanese.

    PubMed

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2011-11-01

    The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital

  4. Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in Canada: prevalence and associations with six health status indicators

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, C.; Gee, M. E.; Lagacé, C.; Parlor, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have considered the factors independently associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and/or fibromyalgia (FM) or considered the impact of these conditions on health status using population-based data. Methods: We used data from the nationally representative 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 59 101) to describe self-reported health professional-diagnosed CFS and/or FM, and their associations with 6 health status indicators. Results: In 2010, diagnosed CFS and FM are reported by 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%–1.6%) and 1.5% (1.4%–1.7%), respectively, of the Canadian household population aged 12 years and over, with comorbid CFS and FM affecting 0.3% (0.3%–0.4%) of that population. Prevalent CFS and/or FM were more common among women, adults aged 40 years and over, those with lowest income, and those with certain risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. obesity, physical inactivity and smoking). After controlling for differences between the groups, people with CFS and/or FM reported poorer health status than those with neither condition on 5 indicators of health status, but not on the measure of fair/poor mental health. Having both CFS and FM and having multiple comorbid conditions was associated with poorer health status. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of CFS and FM and having other chronic conditions were strongly related to poorer health status and accounted for much of the differences in health status. Understanding factors contributing to improved quality of life in people with CFS and/or FM, particularly in those with both conditions and other comorbidities, may be an important area for future research. PMID:25811400

  5. Deported Mexican migrants: health status and access to care

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943

  6. A theoretical framework of the good health status of Jamaicans: using econometric analysis to model good health status over the life course

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Background: In recent times, the World Health Organization has increasing drawn attention to the pivotal role of social conditions in determining health status. The non-biological factors produced inequalities in health and need to be considered in health development. In spite of this, extensive review of health Caribbean revealed that no study has examined health status over the life course of Jamaicans. With the value of research in public health, this study is timely and will add value to understand the elderly, middle age and young adults in Jamaica. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop models that can be used to examine (or evaluate) health of Jamaicans, elderly, middle age and young adults. Method: The current study used data from a cross-sectional survey which was conducted between July and October 2002. Stratified random probability sampling technique was used to collect the data from 25,018 respondents across the island. The non-response rate for the survey was 29.7% with 20.5% who did not respond to particular questions, 9.0% did not participated in the survey and another 0.2% was rejected due to data cleaning. Logistic regression analyses were used to model health status of Jamaicans, young adults, middle age adults and elderly. The predictive power of the model was tested using Omnibus Test of Model and Hosmer and Lemeshow (24) was used to examine goodness of fit of the model. The correlation matrix was examined in order to ascertain whether autocorrelation (or multi-collinearity) existed between variables. Results: Using logistic regression analysis, eleven variables emerged as statistically significant predictors of current good health Status of Jamaicans (p<0.05). The factors are retirement income (95%CI=0.487-0.958), logged medical expenditure (95% Confidence Interval, CI =0.907-0.993), marital status (Separated or widowed or divorced: 95%CI=0.309-0.464; married: 95%CI=0.495-0.667; Never married), health insurance (95%CI=0.029-0.046), area

  7. Minority Health Status in Adulthood: The Middle Years

    PubMed Central

    LaVeist, Thomas A.; Bowie, Janice V.; Cooley-Quille, Michele

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the racial and ethnic differences in health status during the “middle years” of life. We use data from National Vital Statistics Reports (Hoyert, Kochanek, and Murphy, 1999) to estimate excess mortality among racial and ethnic minority groups for the leading causes of death among adults. Also discussed are the current state of scholarship in minority health and suggestions for future directions for research on racial and ethnic differences in health status. PMID:25372505

  8. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  9. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  10. Sexual health and relationships after age 60.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used phrase describing aging is "60 is the new 40". Although in many aspects of life this may be correct, in discussing sexual health, challenges to maintaining excellent sexual health become more common around age 60. Biological aging challenges physical sexual activity and responsiveness. We commence by briefly surveying the extensive coverage of 'normal' physiological aging. We primarily focus on issues that arise in distinct disease and or pathophysiological states, including gynecological and breast cancer, as well as those associated with partners of men who are either prostate cancer survivors or who have taken therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Regrettably, there is a very modest literature on sexual health and associated possible interventions in older patients in these cohorts. We discuss a variety of interventions and approaches, including those that we have developed and applied in a clinic at our host university, which have generally produced successful outcomes. The extended focus to sexual relationship dynamics in partners of men with either prostate cancer or ED in particular is virtually unexplored, yet is especially timely given the large numbers of women who encounter this situation. Finally, we briefly discuss cross-cultural distinctions in older couples' expectations, which exhibit remarkable variation. PMID:26547237

  11. Effects of Social Capital on General Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayano

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of social capital as a potential factor in understanding the controversial relationship between income inequality and individual health status, arguing a positive, important role for social capital. Most of the health research literature focuses on individual health status and reveals that social capital increases individual health. However, the difficulty in measuring social capital, together with what may be the nearly impossible task of attributing causality, should relegate the concept to a more theoretical role in health research. Nonetheless, social capital receives academic attention as a potentially important factor in health research. This paper finds that the mixed results of empirical research on income inequality and health status remain a problem in the context of defining a stable relationship between socioeconomic status and health status. Clearly, further research is needed to elaborate on the income inequality and health relationship. In addition, focused, rigorous examination of social capital in a health context is needed before health researchers can comfortably introduce it as a concept of influence or significance. PMID:24762345

  12. [Health status of female soldiers serving in the Northern Fleet].

    PubMed

    Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Ustimenko, L I; Miloshevich, Iu R; Volkova, L V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A

    2013-09-01

    Authors analyzed the health status and morbidity among female soldiers serving under the contract in the Northern Fleet, age peculiarities, results of medical in-patient examination and expert assessment, put in medical records in accordance with prophylactic medical examination service and medical examination. Annual data about military troops, morbidity and medical examination among female soldiers in the period 2002-2010 (n-14,5 thousand of people) are included into analysis. 502 medical records of female soldiers approved by military physician board were analyzed. Authors presented statistic data about primary diseases and chronic pathology and considered causes of changing of the category of fitness for military service and its gender peculiarities. Authors suggest changing the recruiting concept for female soldiers and the system of medical in-patient examination.

  13. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p < 0.05). There was also statistically significant and augmentation of indices of body weights of children along with the age (p < 0.05). The highest morbidity rate in children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  14. To evaluate the comparative status of oral health practices, oral hygiene and periodontal status amongst visually impaired and sighted students.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Vyom; Goyal, Chinu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative status of oral health practices, oral hygiene, and periodontal status amongst visually impaired and sighted students. In this study, 142 visually impaired children from a blind school in the age group of 6-18 years were enrolled with a similar number of age and sex matched sighted students studying in different schools of Chandigarh. The outcome variables were oral hygiene practices, oral hygiene status, and periodontal status. The visually impaired had been found to have better oral hygiene practices, a nonsignificant difference of oral hygiene scores but a significantly high value for bleeding scores as compared to sighted students. Age wise comparisons showed that bleeding scores were highly significant in 9-11 years and 12-14 years age group as compared to 6-8 years and 15-18 years age group. It could be related that the increased prevalence of bleeding sites despite of better oral hygiene practices in visually impaired group might be the result of their handicap to visualize plaque. PMID:23451928

  15. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  16. Functional Status and Health Information in Canada: Proposals and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bickenbach, Jerome E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary obstacle to evidence-based health care quality assessment in Canada is reliable data on health encounters and episodes of care. The recent Federal/Provincial Health Accord will enhance health data collection, including standardized functional status information (FSI) for administrative records. Canadian health policy developers also agree that FSI is needed to bridge data gaps since alterations in functional status create the continuity that links all episodes of care and health service utilization. Given Canada's universal, single-payer, health financing structure, the prospects for coherent and systemwide data collection are good. This article describes the Canadian health care from the perspective of health information, and surveys proposals in electronic health technology development, the obstacles that need to be faced, and the prospects of doing so. PMID:12894637

  17. Trends in the Health Status of Medicare Risk Contract Enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Gerald; Zarabozo, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has found Medicare risk contract enrollees to be healthier than beneficiaries in fee-for-service (FFS). Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data were used to examine trends in health and functional status measures among risk contract and FFS enrollees from 1991 to 2004. Risk contract enrollees reported better health and functioning, but the differences tended to narrow over time. Most of the differences in trends were observed for functional status measures and institutionalization; differences in trends for perceived health status and prevalence rates of chronic conditions tended to be small or non-existent. The narrowing of functional and health status differences between the risk contract and FFS populations may have implications for payment policy, as well as implications for the role of private health plans in Medicare. PMID:17427847

  18. Periodontal health status and treatment needs among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ajwani, S; Tervonen, T; Närhi, T O; Ainamo, A

    2001-01-01

    The numbers of dentate elderly are growing rapidly in all industrialized countries, and epidemiological information about their oral health is urgently needed. Our study is part of the population-based Helsinki Ageing Study (HAS), and this paper describes the periodontal health status as well as the need for periodontal treatment among the dentate elderly born in 1904, 1909, and 1914 and living in January, 1989, in Helsinki, Finland (n = 175). The dental examinations were carried out during 1990 and 1991 at the Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki, Finland. The subjects' periodontal health was recorded by the CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs) method. The mean number of remaining teeth was 15.1 among men and 14.0 among women, with the mean number of remaining sextants 3.7 and 3.5, respectively. Healthy periodontal tissues (CPI = 0) were found in 7% of the subjects. Bleeding on probing (CPI = 1) was recorded in 6%, and calculus and/or overhanging margins of restorations (CPI = 2) in 41% of the subjects, as the worst finding. Altogether, 46% of the subjects had deep periodontal pockets, 35% with at least one 4- to 5-mm pocket (CPI = 3), and 11% with at least one > or = 6-mm pocket (CPI = 4). Overall, 93% of the subjects required oral hygiene instruction, 87% scaling and root planing, and 11% complex periodontal treatment. The periodontal treatment need was significantly higher in men than in women; however, no significant differences were observed among the three age cohorts. The need for complex periodontal treatment was unexpectedly low, probably explained by the fact that there were many missing teeth, especially molars, perhaps lost due to poor periodontal health.

  19. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual’s’ human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. Material and Methods: The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers’ mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. Results: The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated

  20. Beyond status: relating status inequality to performance and health in teams.

    PubMed

    Christie, Amy M; Barling, Julian

    2010-09-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status individuals when uncooperative behavior is high. Trajectories of the outcomes across time are also explored. Analyses using multilevel modeling largely support our hypotheses in a sample of National Basketball Association players across six time points from 2000 to 2005.

  1. Immigration, Generational Status and Health Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Edward; Omariba, D. Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immigrants, a fast-growing population in Canada, score below the national average in health literacy, but the reasons behind the low scores are largely unknown. Also, there is a need to understand the long-term impact of immigration by examining health literacy by generational status. Objective: To examine health literacy differentials…

  2. [Oral health status in people 60 years old or older in the municipality of São Paulo (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Rosa, A G; Fernandez, R A; Pinto, V G; Ramos, L R

    1992-06-01

    The oral health status of people aged 60 years or over in S. Paulo in 1989 is discussed. According to data relating to dental caries, periodontal diseases, need and use of prosthesis and prevalence of hard and soft oral tissue pathologies, this study concludes that elder people present a very bad oral health status. The definition of a policy and dental care programs addressed to the aged are recommended.

  3. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  4. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  5. Tuberculosis and aging: a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, S

    2001-10-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's declaration that the spread of tuberculosis is a global emergency and despite the implementation of strong tuberculosis-control initiatives, this highly infectious disease continues to affect all vulnerable populations, including the elderly population (age > or =65 years). Tuberculosis in aging adults remains a clinical and epidemiological challenge. Atypical clinical manifestations of tuberculosis in older persons can result in delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment; thus, unfortunately, higher rates of morbidity and mortality from this treatable infection can occur. Underlying illnesses, age-related diminution in immune function, the increased frequency of adverse drug reactions, and institutionalization can complicate the overall clinical approach to tuberculosis in elderly patients; maintenance of a high index of suspicion for tuberculosis in this vulnerable population is, thus, undoubtedly justifiable.

  6. Health Behaviors and Health Status of At-Risk Latino Students for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Santos, Silvia; Reynosa, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined the behavioral lifestyle patterns and health status of at-risk Latino college students for future diabetes onset in relation to their age, gender, and acculturation status. Participants were 156 Latino (34% male and 66% female) university students who had a first and/or second degree relative afflicted with diabetes. Findings indicated that Latino students exhibit similar lifestyle patterns in terms of dietary intake, physical activity, and drinking and smoking behaviors observed in the general and college population that have been linked to obesity—a particularly problematic risk factor among those who already have a genetic predisposition for diabetes. The reported findings are of importance for the development of culturally-relevant treatment interventions targeting young Latinos in college. PMID:26566366

  7. Infants of Mexican immigrants. Health status of an emerging population.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, S; English, P; Chavez, G

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that infants of Mexican immigrants have favorable birth outcomes despite their high socioeconomic risks. These favorable outcomes have been associated with a protective sociocultural orientation among immigrants. A sample of 708 infants of Mexican origin was assessed to determine whether such health advantages at birth are sustained at 8 to 16 months of age, or alternatively, whether their health deteriorates because of adverse socioeconomic conditions. A a cross-sectional survey was conducted in San Diego County to determine whether the child was healthy or ill (the latter indicating a history of serious infectious disease) and the factors associated with this outcome. Among infants born without serious medical problems, 74% remained healthy. For 26% of the infants, their health status was eroded by social conditions. Factors associated with illness were large households, barriers to care, and maternal characteristics including smoking, pregnancy complications, and employment. Women born in Mexico who were newcomers to the United States and spoke Spanish exclusively were more likely than non-newcomers to have ill children. In this population, one fourth of Latino infants of immigrants were at high risk for serious infectious disease despite using preventive care.

  8. Change in health status in COPD: a seven-year follow-up cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sundh, Josefin; Montgomery, Scott; Hasselgren, Mikael; Kämpe, Mary; Janson, Christer; Ställberg, Björn; Lisspers, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Health status is a prognostic factor included in the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of our study was to examine the associations of clinical factors with change in health status over a 7-year follow-up period. In 2005, 970 randomly selected primary and secondary care patients with a COPD diagnosis completed questionnaires including the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ); and in 2012, 413 completed the CCQ questionnaire again. Linear regression used difference in mean total CCQ score between 2005 and 2012 as the dependent variable. Independent variables were CCQ score at baseline 2005, sex, age, educational level, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, heart disease, diabetes, depression, number of exacerbations in the previous 6 months, dyspnoea (modified Medical Research Council (mMRC)). Health status worsened from mean total CCQ (s.d.) 2.03 (1.26) in 2005 to 2.16 (1.37) in 2012 (P=0.011). In linear regression with adjustment for baseline CCQ; older age, lower education, higher mMRC and BMI below 25 kg/m2 at baseline were associated with worsened health status in 2012. When sex, age and all statistically significant measures were included simultaneously in the analysis of the main study group, higher mMRC and BMI below 25 kg/m2 were were associated with deteriorated health status (P<0.0001). A higher level of dyspnoea and lower weight were associated with worse health status in COPD. Strategies for decreasing dyspnoea and awareness of the possible increased risk of worsening disease in under- and normal-weight COPD patients are clinically important. PMID:27763623

  9. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  10. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Esmaeili, Alirez; Dortaj, Fariborz; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status. PMID:26316753

  11. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.

  12. Oral Health Status of Children with Disability Living in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Gaçe, Eno; Kelmendi, Manola; Fusha, Enika

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out at nine (9) special schools for disabled children in Albania. The aim of the study is to determine the caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of children with different disabilities attending different schools for disabled at Albania. Methods: Participants are grouped according disability Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retarded, Blind, Deaf-Mute and age group (0-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-18 years old children). Caries and oral health status were examined and assessed according WHO 1997 criteria. Results: Overall caries prevalence at permanent dentition for all groups is 85.3% and for primary dentition 72%. The mean deft index is 3.4 ± 3.5(p≤0.029), mean DMFT= 4.9±4.6 (p≤0.001) with significance difference across type of disability (Kruskal-Wallis test) for both dentition. The mean OHI-S of total population is 1.91; there is significant difference across disability type (p≤0.001, Anova test) for OHI-S index. In total 43.2 % have good, 49.4% fair and 7.4% bad oral hygiene. Conclusions: The subjects in this study had a high prevalence of dental caries, poor oral hygiene and need for restorative care. PMID:25685085

  13. The New Mexico aging process study (1979-2003). A longitudinal study of nutrition, health and aging.

    PubMed

    Garry, P J; Wayne, S J; Vellas, B

    2007-01-01

    In 1979, Dr. James S. Goodwin, M.D., assisted by Philip J. Garry, Ph.D., submitted a grant proposal to the United States Public Health Service/ National Institute on Aging (NIA) entitled, "A prospective study of nutrition in the elderly". This study was approved and funded by the NIA beginning in 1979. Initially, approximately 300 men and women over 65 years of age with no known medical illnesses and no prescription medications were selected for this study. The primary purpose of this multi disciplinary study, known in the literature as the New Mexico Aging Process Study (NMAPS), was to examine the role of nutrition and resultant changes in body composition and organ function in relation to the aging process and health status of the elderly. This was accomplished by following prospectively healthy elderly volunteers, obtaining in-depth information about dietary habits, lifestyle, body composition, organ function, cognitive status, vitamin metabolism, genetic markers, and biochemical measures of nutritional status and then examining these data in relationship to age and health status and changes in health status. Some of the specific aims of the study were modified over the course of this longitudinal study because of availability of University of New Mexico School of Medicine faculty with expertise in different areas of aging research. In 1988, Dr. Bruno Vellas from the University Hospital in Toulouse, France became an on-going visiting professor at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. From 1988, until the study was terminated in 2003, Dr. Vellas has collaborated with the faculty involved in the NMAPS on a number of research projects. In this article, we provide information about the studies overall design and briefly describe some of the major finding of the NMAPS.

  14. Assessment of Perceived Health Status in Hypertensive and Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Primary Health Centers in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Hasni, Alya; Al-Sumri, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics on perceived health status in primary health centers in Oman. Methods: In a cross-sectional retrospective study, 450 patients (aged ≥ 18 years) seen at six primary health centers in Wilayat A’ Seeb in the Muscat region, Oman, were selected. Perceived health status of the physical (PSCC) and mental (MSCC) components of quality-of-life were assessed using the 12-item short form health survey (SF-12). The analyses were performed using univariate statistical techniques. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54 ± 12 years and they were mostly female (62%). The presence of both diabetes mellitus and hypertension was associated with lower physical scores compared to those with diabetes alone (p = 0.001) but only marginally lower than those with hypertension alone (p = 0.066). No significant differences were found across the disease groups in mental scores (P = 0.578). Age was negatively correlated (p < 0.001) but male gender (P < 0.001), married (p < 0.001), literate (p < 0.001) and higher income (p = 0.002) were all associated with higher physical scores. Moreover, longer disease duration was associated with lower physical scores (p < 0.001). With regards to the mental status, male (p = 0.005), marriage (P = 0.017) and higher income (p < 0.001) were associated with higher mental scores. Polypharmacy was associated with lower physical (p < 0.001) and mental (p = 0.005) scores. Conclusions: The presence of both diseases was associated with lower physical scores of perceived health status. Health status was also affected by various demographic and clinical characteristics. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the study's limitations. PMID:22174966

  15. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  16. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  17. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  18. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Health: Why Is the Relationship Stronger for Older Children? NBER Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Stabile, Mark

    Case, Lubotsky, and Paxson (2001) show that the well-known relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health exists in childhood and grows more pronounced with age. However, in cross-sectional data, it is difficult to distinguish between two possible explanations. The first is that low-SES children are less able to respond to a given…

  20. Associations between behavior disorders and health status among older adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P W; Janicki, M P; Ladrigan, P; Houser, K; Henderson, C M; Cain, N N

    2003-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of behavior and health status among aging persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD). Behavioral disorders, which often are coincident with functional decline in older persons with I/DD, may be more related to medical morbidity than previously reported. This cross-sectional study examined the association between health status and behavior disorders with increasing age in a cohort of 60,752 adults with I/DD clustered into four adult-age groupings (21-44, 45-59, 60-74, and >74). Age grouping data suggested an association between morbidity and increased likelihood of behavior symptoms in all but the oldest age grouping. The magnitude of the association and trend varied by specific disease across age groupings compared to that found in healthy cohorts. About 25% of the adults with I/DD had psychiatric diagnoses and the frequency of such diagnoses did not decrease with age grouping. These results suggest that adverse health status may increase the likelihood of persistent behavioral disturbances in older persons with I/DD. Moreover, behavioral disorders may be sentinels for occult medical morbidity, which in turn may be responsive to intervention. PMID:14578003

  1. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aaron; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p < 0.001) significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks. PMID:27478639

  2. The third world health status of black American males.

    PubMed Central

    Gadson, Sandra L.

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to their white counterparts, black men in the United States live sicker and die younger. This longstanding phenomenon is sharply reflected in the poor international health status of black males. The NMA president discusses major health issues facing black males and posits a multidimensional strategy for addressing racial disparities in men's health, with a national focus on health promotion and disease prevention, improving healthcare quality and access, and eliminating structural inequities. PMID:16623060

  3. [Offshore ecosystem health status assessment: a review].

    PubMed

    Dai, Ben-lin; Hua, Zu-lin; Mu, Fei-hu; Xu, Ning; He, Yu-long

    2013-04-01

    With the promotion of the concept of sustainable development, the issues of aquatic ecosystem health attract substantial attention, and considerable work has been carried out on the health assessment of waters, e. g. , rivers and lakes. However, the health assessment of offshore ecosystem is still at its exploratory stage. Based on the investigations on the related references at home and abroad, this paper analyzed the concepts of offshore ecosystem health assessment, summarized the main methods for the assessment, the principles for screening related indicators, and the research philosophy, and systematically listed the quantitative indices for the assessment. Aiming at the main existing issues in the researches of offshore ecosystem health, the future research directions about the offshore ecosystem health were suggested. It was considered that the concept and connotation analyses, the screening of assessment indicators, the choice of assessment scale, and the integration of assessment methods should be further strengthened to improve the assessment of offshore ecosystem health.

  4. Perceptions of one African American community about its' health, health status and safety.

    PubMed

    Stringfield, Y N

    2000-01-01

    African Americans remain at the low end of the socio-economic stratum, have less health care access, and have the highest mortality from illnesses. This supports a need for African American nurses to enter African American communities to offer health education/literacy sessions. This project conducted a survey to determine the health status of African Americans living in a select section eight housing area and their perception of their health, health status and safety. Participants identified their health and health status as good. They had a high concern about safety in their neighborhood. Earlier reports from the county and state do not support the respondents' belief about their health or health status. These same reports do support the respondents concern for safety.

  5. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  6. Using Community Health Assessment to Teach and Explore Health Status Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Marianne; Levine, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Community health assessment (CHA) is a useful tool for identifying health status disparities at the community level. Developing the skills of master's level public health students to conduct CHA addresses a number of the Association of Schools of Public Health Core competencies for graduate public health education. Teaching…

  7. Health status in long-term survivors of pediatric craniopharyngiomas.

    PubMed

    Crom, Deborah B; Smith, Daniel; Xiong, Zang; Onar, Arzu; Hudson, Melissa M; Merchant, Thomas E; Morris, E Brannon

    2010-12-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are the third most common pediatric brain tumor and most common pediatric suprasellar tumor. Contemporary treatment of craniopharyngiomas uses limited surgery and radiation in an effort to minimize morbidity, but the long-term health status of patients treated in this fashion has not been well described. The purpose of this study was to analyze the health status of long-term survivors of pediatric craniopharyngioma treated primarily with radiation and conservative surgical resection. Medical records of all long-term survivors of craniopharyngioma treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and then transferred to the long-term follow-up clinic were reviewed. The initial cohort comprised 55 patients. Of these, 51 (93%) were alive at the time of this analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 7.1 years (range, 1.2-17.6 years), and 29 (57%) were male. At the time of analysis, the median survival was 7.6 years (range, 5.0-21.3 years). Diagnosis and treatment included surgical biopsy, resection (n = 50), and radiation therapy (n=48). Only 1 patient received chemotherapy. Polyendocrinopathy was the most common morbidity, with hypothyroidism (96%), adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (84%), and diabetes insipidus (53%) occurring most frequently. Half of the patients were hypogonadal, and 33 (65%) were overweight or obese. The most common neurologic problems included shunt dependence (37%), seizures (28%), and headaches (39%). Psychological and educational deficits were also identified in a significant number of these individuals. Despite efforts to reduce morbidity in these patients, many survivors remain burdened with significant medical complications. In a small percentage of patients, complications may result in death even during extended remission of craniopharyngioma. Because of the broad spectrum or morbidities experienced, survivors of craniopharyngioma continue to benefit from multidisciplinary care. PMID:21207770

  8. Determinants of health and nutritional status of rural Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ene-Obong, H N; Enugu, G I; Uwaegbute, A C

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of socioeconomic and cultural factors on the health and nutritional status of 300 women of childbearing age in two rural farming communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The women were engaged in farming, trading, and teaching. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods. The study involved focus-group discussions (FGDs), interviews using a questionnaire, measurement of food/nutrient intake, assessment of activity patterns, anthropometry, and observations of clinical signs of malnutrition. The better-educated women had higher incomes than those with little or no education. Poor education was mainly attributed to lack of monetary support by parents (34%), marriage while in school (27%), and sex discrimination (21%). The teachers had significantly (p < 0.05) better health status, health and nutrition knowledge, food habits, nutrient intake, and self-concept, and adhered less to detrimental cultural practices. However, none of the women met their iron, riboflavin and niacin requirements. More cases of chronic energy deficiency were observed among the farmers (16%) and traders (13%) than among the teachers (5%). Generally, the women worked long hours with reported working hours (6-7 hours) being lower than the observed working hours (11 hours) for the traders and teachers. Income had a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation with all nutritional variables, except vitamin C, age-at-marriage (r = 0.719), and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.601). Age-at-marriage had a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) and all nutritional variables but was significant (p < 0.05) for protein (r = 0.362), calcium (r = 0.358), iron (r = 0.362), riboflavin (r = 0.364), and vitamin C (r = 0.476). Workload was negatively correlated with protein intake (r = 0.346; p < 0.05). Meal frequencies for more than 70% of the farmers and petty traders and 42% of the teachers were dependent

  9. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (P<0.001). Significant associations were detected between maternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours. PMID:24134959

  10. Rejuvenating health systems for aging communities.

    PubMed

    Paccaud, Fred

    2002-08-01

    Nowadays, about the half of Swiss women die after their 84th birthday. This unprecedented proportion of the population reaching an old age, or even a very old age (25% of women die after 89 years, and 5% after 95 years) is a novel aspect of human demographics, and represents the very last stage of the epidemiological transition, a term coined to describe the transformation of the prevailing health burden in the population, shifting from infectious and communicable pathologies to chronic and degenerative diseases. In developed countries, this epidemiological transition has been well documented during the last century; worldwide, a similar transition is taking place, with some countries still at mid or early stages of transition. A striking aspect of the current transition is its speed. In India, the mean duration of life since 1947 has increased from 32 to 62 years. As a result, India, like many other developing countries, is facing a double burden of disease, i.e., an upsurge of degenerative diseases while the burden from the old agenda (i.e., malaria, tuberculosis) still reaches devastating proportions in the population. This double burden is certainly a crucial problem in developing countries, and probably is the most important health challenge for the coming century. A similar accelerated pace of change is observed with the decline of mortality at old age. Worldwide, the current estimate of centenarians is 100000, i.e., ten time more centenarians than the number estimated in 1960. The downward trend in mortality, which is steeper with increasing age, is now the leading factor to Increase the life expectancy in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, life expectancy increased by 2.5 years between 1971 and 1991; this is equivalent to the increase observed between 1851 and 1961. This accelerated increase will influence public health in two different ways. The first will be the absolute increase in the number of older persons, with a corresponding increase in

  11. Metabolic Health Status and the Obesity Paradox in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feon W; Gao, Xiang; Mitchell, Diane C; Wood, Craig; Rolston, David D K; Still, Christopher D; Jensen, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    The explanation for reduced mortality among older persons with overweight or class I obesity compared to those of desirable weight remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic health status on all-cause mortality in a cohort of advanced age. Adults aged 74 ± 4.7 (mean ± SD) years at baseline (n = 4551) were categorized according to BMI (18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, and ≥35.0 kg/m(2)) and the presence or absence of a metabolically healthy phenotype (i.e., 0 or 1 risk factors based on a modified Adult Treatment Panel III). Metabolically unhealthy was ≥2 risk factors. There were 2294 deaths over a mean 10.9 years of follow up. Relative to metabolically healthy desirable weight, metabolically healthy overweight or class I obesity was not associated with a greater mortality risk (HR 0.90; 95 CI% 0.73-1.13 and HR 0.58; 95 CI% 0.42-0.80, respectively) (P-interaction <0.001). Results remained consistent in rigorous sensitivity analyses. The "obesity paradox" may be partially explained by the inclusion of metabolically healthy overweight and obese older persons, who do not have elevated mortality risk, in population studies of BMI and mortality. PMID:27559852

  12. Health status of the Italian people: gender inequalities. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Sabetta, Tiziana; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Differences between male and female affect diseases onset, evolution and prognosis. In terms of survival, women have a higher life expectancy at birth than men, with strong differences at regional level (the highest values in Trento AP and the lowest in Campania). Smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity and physical activities indicators are analyzed among men and woman. A reduction in smokers and number of smoked cigarettes is observed, especially among men. Men also show a higher number of ex-smokers than woman. Also for alcohol consumption, the prevalence of consumers at risk is higher among men than women. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among men than women, the same as physical activity played continuously and occasionally. Gender differences are also shown in hospitalization rate and mortality rate for ischemic heart disease, affecting men twice more than women. The analysis shows a good health status condition of Italian people, but it is important to be aware that gender is one of essential characteristics in health care field, independently of people age. PMID:27364387

  13. Oral health status of older adults in Kentucky: results from the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Bush, Heather M; Dickens, Noel E; Henry, Robert G; Durham, Lisa; Sallee, Nancy; Skelton, Judith; Stein, Pam S; Cecil, James C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Kentucky Elder Oral Health Survey (KEOHS) was to assess the oral health status of Kentuckians 65 and older. The KEOHS consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a clinical examination. Recruitment occurred from May 2002 through March 2005 of persons aged 65 and older (n = 1,386) whose functional ability was classified by residential setting. Independent elders living in their own homes were designated as "well-elders," those who lived in skilled nursing facilities and who were functionally dependent were designated as "nursing home elders," and those older adults who were considered frail were designated as "homebound elders." Significant associations were found between the functional ability of the elders and demographic characteristics. While elders who were homebound reported the highest rate of barriers to care, dental insurance, affordability, and transportation were consistently reported as barriers for all groups of elders. This study has established the baseline oral health status of older adults in Kentucky and the data show differences that exist for various community living situations.

  14. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  15. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  16. Mental health status of municipal solid waste incinerator workers compared with local government office workers.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Osamu; Ohkuma, Kazuyuki

    2006-10-01

    Recently in Japan dioxin problem of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) became social issue. The news spread all around Japan and induced fear that workers at incinerators would suffer from cancer or other serious illness induced by the exposure to dioxins. Authors were interested in the effect of this stressful event occurred to the workers and intended to evaluate mental health status of MSWI workers compared with office workers. Subjects were male workers from two MSWI plants and a local government office; 20 government office workers who were engaging in health administration and 55 MSWI workers. Subjects were interviewed about their age, educational carrier, and working schedule. POMS and GHQ30 were used to evaluate mood status of subjects. There were differences in mood state between the two occupational groups. POMS showed that Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Fatigue levels were high in the health administration worker group. GHQ30 showed that General Illness, Social Dysfunction, and Anxiety and Dysphoria state were deviated to abnormal in the health administration worker group. General mental health status evaluated by GHQ30 score was also deviated to abnormal in the office worker group. Our results showed that mental health status of health administration workers was less healthy compared with MSWI workers. This meant that the stress of MSWI workers enhanced by the fear that they might have been exposed to dioxin did not exceed the stress the health administration workers usually had suffered from.

  17. Type A-B Behavior and Perceived Health Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozette, Elizabeth J.; Hicks, Robert A.

    Previous research suggests that the mental and physical health of the Type B personality should be better than that of the Type A personality. To test this hypothesis, 81 university students responded to the Glass (1977) version of the Jenkins Activity Survey for college students which assessed perceived health status. The results showed that 54…

  18. Mental health status can reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida

    2014-01-01

    Objective A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. Material and Methods An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren’s syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson’s coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. Results From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with

  19. Blood pressure control and perceived health status in African Americans with subclinical hypertensive heart disease.

    PubMed

    Burla, Michael J; Brody, Aaron M; Ference, Brian A; Flack, John M; Mahn, James J; Marinica, Alexander L; Carroll, Justin A; Nasser, Samar A; Zhang, Shiling; Levy, Phillip D

    2014-05-01

    The role of antihypertensive therapy in reducing the risk of cardiovascular complications such as heart failure is well established, but the effects of different blood pressure goals on patient-perceived health status has not been well defined. We sought to determine if adverse effects on perceived health status will occur with lower blood pressure goals or more intensive antihypertensive therapy. Data were prospectively collected as a part of a single center, randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate standard (Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure-compliant) versus intense (<120/80 mm Hg) blood pressure goals for patients with uncontrolled hypertension and subclinical hypertensive heart disease. Blood pressure management was open label, and health status was measured at 3-month intervals over 1 year of follow-up using the short-form (SF)-36. Mixed linear models were constructed for each of the SF-36 summary scores. One hundred twenty-three (mean age 49.4 ± 8.2; 65% female; 95.1% African American) patients were randomized, 88 of whom completed the protocol. With the exception of a decrease in perceived health transition, health status did not change significantly on repeat measurement. Lower blood pressure goals and more intensive antihypertensive therapy appear to be well tolerated with limited effects on patients' perception of health status.

  20. Health status: types of validity and the index of well-being.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, R M; Bush, J W; Berry, C C

    1976-01-01

    The concept of validity as it applies to measures of health and health status is examined in the context of a set of standard, widely accepted definitions of validity. Criterion validity is shown to be irrelevant to health status measures because of the lack of a single specific, directly observable measure of health for use as a criterion. To overcome this problem, the Index of Well-being has been constructed to fulfill the definition of content validity by including all levels of function and symptom/problem complexes, a clearly defined relation to the death state, and consumer ratings of the relative desirability of the function levels. Data from a two-wave household interview survey provide convergent evidence of construct validity by demonstrating an expected positive correlation of the Index of Well-being with self-rated well-being and expected negative correlations with age, number of chronic medical conditions, number of reported symptoms or problems, number of physician contacts, and dysfunctional status. Discriminant evidence of construct validity is demonstrated by predicted differences in correlation between concurrent Index of Well-being scores and self-assessed overall health status, and between the Index of Well-being scores and self-rated well-being on different days. A simple method of estimating a currently usable comprehensive population index of health status, the Weighted Life Expectancy, is described. PMID:1030700

  1. Serum-haptoglobin concentration in Danish slaughter pigs of different health status.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik Hagbard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Jensen, Charlotte Sonne; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2002-08-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with 617 finishing pigs aged 10-25 weeks in 11 commercial herds of different health statuses as defined by the Danish monitoring program for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) herds. A standard clinical examination was performed and a blood sample was obtained from each pig for determination of haptoglobin concentration in serum. Pigs aged 10-14, 15-19 and 20-25 weeks in conventional herds had higher haptoglobin concentrations than high-health SPF (SPF-x) pigs of the same age. There was no significant difference between SPF-x pigs of different ages. Conventional pigs aged 15-19 and 20-25 weeks had higher haptoglobin concentrations than conventional pigs aged 10-14 weeks. Herd influenced the haptoglobin concentration. Lame pigs and pigs with tail or ear bite had elevated haptoglobin concentrations. No significant effect of respiratory symptoms or umbilical hernia was found. PMID:12163249

  2. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    PubMed

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media. PMID:22642049

  3. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health.

  4. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health. PMID:23384080

  5. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

    2001-06-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

  6. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie‐Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health. PMID:23384080

  7. The health status of women in the world-system.

    PubMed

    Dyches, H; Rushing, B

    1993-01-01

    The health status of women is examined within the context of a global political economy. The authors present a beginning attempt to model some key macrolevel processes linked to the health of women. In particular, a structural modeling technique known as LVPLS (or "soft modeling") is used to empirically test one recent formulation of world-system theory. The findings give added emphasis to the importance of the larger economic forces that affect women's health. PMID:8500952

  8. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status. PMID:22841799

  9. Profiles of Risk: Maternal Health, Socioeconomic Status, and Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Landale, Nancy S.

    2013-01-01

    Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and children’s health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Interview Surveys in 2007 and 2008 (N = 7,361) to evaluate the joint implications of maternal health and socioeconomic disadvantage for youth. Analyses revealed that maternal health problems were present in a substantial minority of families, clustered meaningfully with other risk factors, and had serious implications for children’s health. These findings support the development of health policies and interventions aimed at families. PMID:23794751

  10. [Social inequality, combined risk factors and self-assessed health status--analyses using the German microcensus 2009].

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Schmidtke, K

    2013-03-01

    Based on the micro-census 2009 this study investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and a combination of the risk factors smoking behaviour and overweight and furthermore the relation between those risk factor combinations and health status. Based on a multinomial logistic regression it is shown that the combined risk factors are strongly related to socio-economic status. Age standardised conditional means show, furthermore, that the relationship between the combination of smoking behaviour and overweight and health status is moderately negative.

  11. [Social inequality, combined risk factors and self-assessed health status--analyses using the German microcensus 2009].

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Schmidtke, K

    2013-03-01

    Based on the micro-census 2009 this study investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and a combination of the risk factors smoking behaviour and overweight and furthermore the relation between those risk factor combinations and health status. Based on a multinomial logistic regression it is shown that the combined risk factors are strongly related to socio-economic status. Age standardised conditional means show, furthermore, that the relationship between the combination of smoking behaviour and overweight and health status is moderately negative. PMID:23172600

  12. Self-perceived social status and health in older Hong Kong Chinese women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Woo, J; Lynn, H; Leung, J; Wong, S Y

    2008-01-01

    Economic and social factors are determinants of health, as are psychosocial factors. The present study compared self-perceived social status and its relation to health, health related quality of life and lifestyle in older women with men, adjusting for age, education level and maximum lifetime income. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 4,000 men and women aged 65 years and over in a community in the North Eastern part of Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region in China. Participants were asked to rate their community status, education, income and occupation, on two ladders, each with ten rungs. The distributions of the two ladder scores differed, showing that although participants may not have been ranked highly in terms of money, education and job respectability, they may have ranked their community standing highly. Women and older participants tended to rank their community standing highly in spite of lower ratings in the objective measures. A social gradient in self-perceived social status, independent of objective socioeconomic measures, was noted for physical performance and health-related quality of life, rather than related to presence of specific chronic diseases or lifestyle. However, the different ratings of the two ladders suggested that mechanisms by which the gradient operates may differ between women and men. Further studies are needed to explore the health and psychosocial consequences of the gender difference in self-rated social status. PMID:19042217

  13. [Is it possible to reduce health inequalities in old age?].

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Pierre; Herrmann, François; Zekry, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of prospective data collected between 1984 and 2008 by the CERN medical team (European Centre of Nuclear Research, Geneva) concerning 2040 former employees who were retired or had died stimulated our interest on the impact of inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, employment, lifestyle and classical risk factors on health and life expectancy. Such inequalities explain differences in life expectancy, potentially reaching several decades, between rich and poor countries (France vs Swaziland), but also within a given country (USA), a given city (Glasgow) or even a given enterprise (CERN) where all employees have the same level of healthcare insurance and access to treatment. Classical cardiovascular and neurovascular risk factors (smoking, arterial hypertension and lipid disorders) interact with socioeconomic status, intelligence, education, emotions and job responsibility/complexity, precipitating or preventing cardiovascular events. The same is true of dementia, for which midlife risk factors (obesity, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia) should be considered in the psychosocioeconomic context, which influences cognitive reserves and thus affects the risk and severity of dementia in old age. Thus, in addition to lifestyle and classical risk factors, socioeconomic status appears as a major health determinant, by imposing behaviors and habits and by determining access to healthcare. PMID:23259343

  14. Toward a utility theory foundation for health status index models.

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, G W

    1976-01-01

    The axioms of utility theory are restated in terms of health outcomes, and some additional assumptions, consistent with the assumptions implicit in health status index models, are adduced to develop a consistent theory of the utility of health states. On the basis of the axioms and specific assumptions, techniques for measuring the health utility functions of individuals are described, and it is shown how these axioms and assumptions may be used to determine the utility to the individual of health programs that will affect him in various ways. PMID:1025050

  15. Kinematics, ages, and evolutionary status of UV Ceti stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, A.; Allen, C.; Herrera, M. A.; Cordero, G.; Lavalley, C.

    1996-04-01

    The kinematic properties of 93 UV Ceti stars of the solar neighborhood are studied, based on a list of flares within 25 pc of the Sun (π>=0.04"). With updated values for their distances, proper motions and radial velocities, space velocity dispersions are calculated for these stars. It is found that the total velocity dispersion of the flare stars (σ=30+/-3km/s) is similar to that of the F5 V stars from the same catalogue, for which the conventionally estimated mean age is about 3x10^9^yr. Membership of the flare stars to some well-identified kinematic groups and superclusters is studied. A number of flares are identified as members of the Hyades, Sirius or Pleiades groups. The velocity dispersions found for the nearby flare stars and the membership of some of them to young kinematic groups indicate that they belong to the young disk population. The evolutionary status of the UV Ceti stars is discussed on the basis of these results. It is concluded that they do not differ significantly from the flash stars and that, indeed, they may be identified with the older remnants of the flash population of galactic clusters long ago disrupted. A small number (7) of UV Ceti stars have kinematics corresponding to thick disk or halo population. Their long-lived chromospheric activity is interpreted as due to coalescence of old short-period binaries. The question of the age of Proxima Centauri is examined in the context of our results, and found to be compatible with the ages of Alpha Centauri A and B.

  16. Home Health Care With Telemonitoring Improves Health Status for Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Elizabeth; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Struk, Cynthia J.; DiCarlo, Christina M.; Kikano, George; Piña, Ileana L.; Boxer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Home telemonitoring can augment home health care services during a patient's transition from hospital to home. Home health care agencies commonly use telemonitors for patients with heart failure although studies have shown mixed results in the use of telemonitors to reduce rehospitalizations. This randomized trial investigated if older patients with heart failure admitted to home health care following a hospitalization would have a reduction in rehospitalizations and improved health status if they received telemonitoring. Patients were followed up to 180 days post-discharge from home health care services. Results showed no difference in the time to rehospitalizations or emergency visits between those who received a telemonitoring vs. usual care. Older heart failure patients who received telemonitoring had better health status by home health care discharge than those who received usual care. Therefore for older adults with heart failure telemonitoring may be important adjunct to home health care services to improve health status. PMID:23438509

  17. Health Status of Homeless and Marginally Housed Users of Mental Health Self-Help Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Steven P.; Gomory, Tomi; Silverman, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the health status of 310 homeless and marginally housed people to determine the usefulness of mental health self-help agencies (SHAs) in addressing their physical health needs. Findings indicated that frequencies of health problems among respondents were similar to those of other homeless or marginally housed groups and that the study…

  18. Associations between Self-medication, Health Literacy, and Self-perceived Health Status: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Aziz; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Shafaeei, Yousef; Mohebi, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the frequency of self-medication has been well-documented in the public health literature, but no study has examined the relationship between health literacy and self-medication yet. This study was aimed to investigating the relationship between health literacy and self-medication in a community-based study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 924 adults to survey association between health literacy and self-medication among peoples in Ardabil city in 2014 who were selected using a multi-stage random sampling method. Health literacy was measured by the test of functional health literacy in adults and general health status was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and self-reported self-medication (overall, sedative, antibiotic and herbal) in last 3 months was assessed. All statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 18 and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age and weight of respondents were 37 years and 74.7 kg, respectively. The prevalence of self-medication was 61.6%, and the percentage of self-administering antibiotics, sedative, and herbal medicines were 40%, 54.4%, and 59.1% in the last 3 months, respectively. Significant relationship was found between of total health literacy and general health status with self-medication. The prevalence of self-medication among participants with poor and very poor self-rated physical and mental health was significantly higher than other participants (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-medication had a significant relationship with health literacy and health status. Therefore, the design and implementation of training programs are necessary to increase the perception on the risk of self-medication. PMID:26288710

  19. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  20. Psychological Perspectives on Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127

  1. Tribes in Karnataka: Status of health research

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Subarna; Hegde, Harsha V.; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Upadhya, Vinayak; Kholkute, Sanjiva D.

    2015-01-01

    The south Indian State of Karnataka, once part of several kingdoms and princely states of repute in the Deccan peninsula, is rich in its historic, cultural and anthropological heritage. The State is the home to 42,48,987 tribal people, of whom 50,870 belong to the primitive group. Although these people represent only 6.95 per cent of the population of the State, there are as many as 50 different tribes notified by the Government of India, living in Karnataka, of which 14 tribes including two primitive ones, are primarily natives of this State. Extreme poverty and neglect over generations have left them in poor state of health and nutrition. Unfortunately, despite efforts from the Government and non-Governmental organizations alike, literature that is available to assess the state of health of these tribes of the region remains scanty. It is however, interesting to note that most of these tribes who had been original natives of the forests of the Western Ghats have been privy to an enormous amount of knowledge about various medicinal plants and their use in traditional/folklore medicine and these practices have been the subject matter of various scientific studies. This article is an attempt to list and map the various tribes of the State of Karnataka and review the studies carried out on the health of these ethnic groups, and the information obtained about the traditional health practices from these people. PMID:26139788

  2. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status.

    PubMed

    Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.

  3. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license. PMID:27505020

  4. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status.

    PubMed

    Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license. PMID:27505020

  5. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1977.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Fisher, C R

    1979-01-01

    This report of health care spending in fiscal year 1977 reveals that of the $142.6 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1977, 29 percent was spent for those aged 65 or older, 59 percent for those aged 19-64, and 13 percent for those below age 19. The average health bill reached $1,745 for the aged, $661 for the intermediate age group, and $253 for the young. Public funds financed 67 percent of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 61 percent. More than two-thirds of the health expenses of the young and 71 percent of the expenses of those aged 19-64 were paid by private sources. Third-party payments met 68 percent of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:107600

  6. Enrollee health status under Medicare risk contracts: an analysis of mortality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, G; Lubitz, J; Rabey, E

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies comparing the health status of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled under HMO risk contracts to that of Medicare beneficiaries in fee-for-service (FFS) have generally focused on demonstration projects conducted before 1985. This study examines mortality rates in 1987 for approximately 1 million aged Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in 108 HMOs. We estimated adjusted mortality ratios (AMR) for each HMO and across all HMOs, by dividing the actual number of deaths among HMO enrollees by the "expected" number of deaths. The expected number of deaths was based on death rates among local FFS populations, adjusting for age, sex, Medicaid buy-in status, and institutional status. The AMR for all HMO enrollees pooled together was 0.80. For persons newly enrolled in 1987, the AMR was 0.69; in general, AMRs were higher for beneficiaries who had been enrolled for longer periods of time. Among individual HMOs, none exhibited an AMR substantially above 1.00. Regression analysis indicated lower AMRs for staff model HMOs than for either IPA or group models. Low mortality among Medicare HMO enrollees is consistent with favorable selection or with improvements in the health status of enrollees due to better access or quality of care in HMOs. In either case, health status differences between HMO enrollees and FFS beneficiaries have implications for the appropriateness of Medicare's Adjusted Average Per Capita Cost (AAPCC) payment formula for HMOs. PMID:2061054

  7. Health habits in relation to aging.

    PubMed

    McGlone, F B; Kick, E

    1978-11-01

    A review of the literature and a study of 52 patients of the 80+ age group confirmed the premise that good health habits have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of life. Not all persons can live beyond 80, but those who do can lead a better life if they live properly. A profile of these 52 subjects aged 80 or older revealed that they were of average size or thin, and of a happy temperament; they ate well and regularly, slept adequately, avoided excessive amounts of alcohol, did not smoke, used drugs sparingly, and led an active life, physically and mentally. Also, it was apparent that the rugged elderly can withstand the impact of a major illness or a surgical operation with associated anesthesia. The following factors are important for longevity: 1) pick the right grandparents, 2) keep active physically and mentally, 3) eat properly, 4) stay thin, 5) drink alcohol moderately if at all, and 6) do not smoke. PMID:701699

  8. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes.

  9. HEAT WAVES, AGING, AND HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Craighead, Daniel H.; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review is based on a President’s Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review is to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth’s average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature, as well as prolonged physical activity in hot environments, creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal due to increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increases the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  10. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026). We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010). Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months. PMID:27007683

  11. CHANGING HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH EXPECTANCIES AMONG OLDER ADULTS IN CHINA: GENDER DIFFERENCES FROM 1992 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Dupre, Matthew E; Warner, David F; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies document improvements in health status and health expectancies among older adults over time. However, most evidence is from developed nations and gender differences in health trends are often inconsistent. It remains unknown whether changes in health in developing countries resemble Western trends or whether patterns of health improvement are unique to the country’s epidemiologic transition and gender norms. Using two nationally representative samples of non-institutionalized adults in China ages 65 and older, this study investigates gender differences in the improvements in disability, chronic disease prevalence, and self-rated health from 1992 to 2002. Results from multivariate logistic regression models show that all three indicators of health improved over the 10-year period, with the largest improvement in self-rated health. With the exception of disability, the health of women improved more than men. Using Sullivan’s decomposition methods, we also show that active life expectancy, disease-free life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy increased over this decade and were patterned differently according to gender. Overall, the findings demonstrate that China experienced broad health-improvements during its early stages of the epidemiologic transition and that these changes were not uniform by gender. We discuss the public health implications of the findings in the context of China’s rapidly aging population. PMID:19394120

  12. [Nutritional status of students according to sex and age. Metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile, 1986-1987].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Olivares, M; Ivanovic, R

    1990-08-01

    A representative sample of 4509 schoolers from elementary and high schools in the Metropolitan area of Santiago was randomly chosen and their nutritional status analyzed by anthropometric measurements. Percentages of weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were evaluated according to WHO tables. Undernutrition (low W/A) was diagnosed in 31% of males and 28% of females, obesity (increased W/H) in 9% of males and 17% of females and overweight in 18% and 22%, respectively. Undernutrition increased while obesity decreased with age. To a large extent, differences found in nutritional status could be explained by mild growth failure which existed in 27% of males and 28% of females. Therefore, W/H better expresses the nutritional status of these schoolers. The high prevalence of obesity and overweight is a serious health problem demanding preventive measures in order to avoid complications in later life. PMID:2152235

  13. [Nutritional status of students according to sex and age. Metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile, 1986-1987].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Olivares, M; Ivanovic, R

    1990-08-01

    A representative sample of 4509 schoolers from elementary and high schools in the Metropolitan area of Santiago was randomly chosen and their nutritional status analyzed by anthropometric measurements. Percentages of weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were evaluated according to WHO tables. Undernutrition (low W/A) was diagnosed in 31% of males and 28% of females, obesity (increased W/H) in 9% of males and 17% of females and overweight in 18% and 22%, respectively. Undernutrition increased while obesity decreased with age. To a large extent, differences found in nutritional status could be explained by mild growth failure which existed in 27% of males and 28% of females. Therefore, W/H better expresses the nutritional status of these schoolers. The high prevalence of obesity and overweight is a serious health problem demanding preventive measures in order to avoid complications in later life.

  14. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  15. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation.

  16. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation. PMID:19819601

  17. No exit? The effect of health status on dissatisfaction and disenrollment from health plans.

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, M; Druss, B; Thomas, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the implications of serious and chronic health problems on the willingness of enrollees to switch health plans if they are dissatisfied with their current arrangements. DATA SOURCE: A large (20,283 respondents) survey of employees of three national corporations committed to the model of managed competition, with substantial enrollment in four types of health plans: fee-for-service, prepaid group practice, independent practice associations, and point-of-service plans. STUDY DESIGN: A set of logistic regression models are estimated to determine the probability of disenrollment, if dissatisfied, controlling for the influence on satisfaction and disenrollment of age, race, education, family income and size, gender, marital status, mental health status, pregnancy, duration of employment and enrollment in the plan, number of alternative plans, and HMO penetration in the local market. Separate coefficients are estimated for enrollees with and without significant physical health problems. Additional models are estimated to test for the influence of selection effects as well as alternative measures of dissatisfaction and health problems. DATA COLLECTION: Data were collected through a mailed survey with a response rate of 63.5 percent; comparisons to a subsample administered by telephone showed few differences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In group/staff model HMOs and point-of-service plans, only 12-17 percent of the chronically ill enrollees who were so dissatisfied when surveyed that they intended to disenroll actually left their plan in the next open enrollment period. This compared to 25-29 percent of the healthy enrollees in these same plans, who reported this level of dissatisfaction and 58-63 percent of the enrollees under fee-for-service insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Switching plans appears to be significantly limited for enrollees with serious health problems, the very enrollees who will be best informed about the ability of their health plan to provide

  18. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Results: Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all P< 0.05) were significantly lowered for obese when compared to normal weight participants. In contrast, the mean scores for each HRQOL domain in motor ability category were not significant. No significant interaction was apparent when examining HRQOL scores, BMAT variables and weight status. Conclusion: Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children. PMID:23113200

  19. Marital status, family ties, and self-rated health among elders in South India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mutran, Elizabeth J; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sarma, P Sankara

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. We hypothesized that (a) widowhood would be associated with poorer self-rated health, (b) number of kin ties would be positively associated with self-rated health, (c) economic and emotional support from kin would improve outcomes, and (d) these associations would be stronger among women than among men. Results of logistic regression techniques supported the first hypothesis and partially supported the third. With regard to the second hypothesis, the presence of specific kin rather than the number of each type of family member was important. For the fourth hypothesis, results suggest that men and women in this sample have broadly similar associations between widowhood and self-rated health. For women however, controlling for socioeconomic status did not weaken the association between widowhood and self-rated health, suggesting the symbolic/cultural importance of this status. In general, these findings suggest that theories on the importance of marital status and kin ties for older adults' self-rated health, which were developed and tested in Western societies, need to be refined for Asian societies, where the nature of marriage and widowhood are different.

  20. The health status of young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Paul Mulye, Tina; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Young adults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes--including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use--peaking during the young adult years. The contextual factors shaping health status and access to care in young adulthood differ significantly from the context of adolescence. This article synthesizes national data to present a health profile of young adults, reviewing social indicators that describe the context of young adulthood and presenting measures of health status. We examine mortality, morbidity, risky behaviors, and health care access and utilization, identifying the most significant gender and racial/ethnic disparities. The article also identifies limitations of existing data and offers suggestions for future research and health monitoring in this area. We conclude with a discussion of current efforts to address the health and well-being of young adults and argue for creating a national health agenda for young adults that includes research, programs and policies to address health issues during this period of the lifespan.

  1. The health status of minority populations in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Nickens, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed. PMID:1877226

  2. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ≥18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753-10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869-13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309-1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  3. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ≥18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753–10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869–13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309–1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  4. Psychosocial Health Status of Persons Seeking Treatment for Exposure to Libby Amphibole Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Clarann; Hill, Wade G.; Winters, Charlene A.; Kuntz, Sandra W.; Rowse, Kimberly; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, Brad; Cudney, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted to describe the psychosocial health status of persons seeking health care for exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Health indicators including depression, stress, acceptance of illness, and satisfaction with access and financial aspects of care were obtained via electronic and paper-pencil survey. The exposure pathway and demographic data were gleaned from the health record. Of the 386 participants, more than one-third (34.5%) demonstrated significant levels of psychological distress. The oldest group of women had the lowest levels of depression and stress and the highest acceptance of illness. Gender, age, and satisfaction with financial resources were significantly related to depression, stress, and acceptance of illness. Satisfaction with access to care was significant only for stress. No differences in depression, stress, and acceptance of illness were found based on residence, exposure pathway, or insurance status. PMID:22007326

  5. Health Status and Coping Strategies among Older Parent-Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in an Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an…

  6. Young adults with hemophilia in the U.S.: demographics, comorbidities, and health status.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Randall; Baker, Judith; Riske, Brenda; Ullman, Megan; Niu, Xiaoli; Norton, Kristi; Lou, Mimi; Nichol, Michael B

    2015-12-01

    Improvements in hemophilia care over the last several decades might lead to expectations of a near-normal quality of life for young adults with hemophilia. However, few published reports specifically examine health status indicators in this population. To remedy this knowledge gap, we examined the impact of hemophilia on physical and social functioning and quality of life among a national US cohort of 141 young men with hemophilia aged 18-34 years of age who received care at 10 geographically diverse, federally funded hemophilia treatment centers in 11 states between 2005 and 2013 and enrolled in the Hemophilia Utilization Group Studies. Indicators studied included educational achievement, employment status, insurance, health-related quality of life, and prevalence of the following comorbidities: pain, range of motion limitation, overweight/obesity, and viral status. The cohort was analyzed to compare those aged 18-24 to those aged 25-34 years. When compared to the general US adult population, this nationally representative cohort of young US adults with hemophilia experienced significant health and social burdens: more liver disease, joint damage, joint pain, and unemployment as well as lower high-school graduation rates. Nearly half were overweight or obese. Conversely, this cohort had higher levels of health insurance and equivalent mental health scores. While attention has typically focused on newborns, children, adolescents, and increasingly, on older persons with hemophilia, our findings suggest that a specific focus on young adults is warranted to determine the most effective interventions to improve health and functioning for this apparently vulnerable age group. PMID:26619192

  7. International Students: A Comparison of Health Status and Physical Health before and after Coming to the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…

  8. Respiratory health status of the roadside school children at Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Roychowdhury, A; Alam, Jane; Kundu, S

    2005-07-01

    School students in metro cities are often exposed to vehicle exhausts as their schools are situated mostly on the high traffic roadside. Acute exposure to automobile exhaust is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and may decrease and impair lung function in children. The lung functioning performance of the city school children was compared with rural school children where there is no pollution and automobile exhausts. In Kolkata, two schools for boys (n = 210) and two schools for girls (n = 200) and in rural area one school for boys (n = 99) and the other school for girls (n = 95) were investigated. City schools are situated on the main roadside, nearer to the traffic junction. The detail histories about health status of children, if they have any subjective feelings of health related problems during the school hours or after returning from the school, and the family histories were taken by questionnaire method. The pulmonary function tests (PFT) were carried out by Spirometric method by Spirovit-Sp-10 and Wright's Peak flow meter. The mean PFT values of the students found in the normal range. Boys were having higher values compared to the girls in both city and rural schools. Lung volumes and flow rates were significantly higher in rural students. Symptomatic changes like breathlessness, cough and other problems (sneezing, eye irritation, running nose etc.) among city schoolboys found 13%, 7% and 15% and in girls found 12%, 6% and 7% respectively. In symoptomatic students, mean PFT values were significantly lowered compared to non-symptomatic. PFT values were presented in relation to age and height. It has been found that a number of city school students are having different types of respiratory symptoms. Long-term effect of exposure into such environment may develop lung functional impairments. PMID:16841459

  9. Evaluation of quality of life (QoL) of students of the University of Third Age (U3A) on the basis of socio-demographic factors and health status.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Ciemnoczołowski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    In times of the modern global societies, concern for QoL is a priority for gerontology, being an interdisciplinary field. The aim of this study was to assess the QoL of students of the U3A based on socio-demographic factors, subjectively reported diseases and/or discomfort, and well-being. The study comprised 257 students of the U3A in Poland, located in the city of Bydgoszcz. The study group consisted of 237 women and 20 men at an average age of 64.54 ± 6.01 years. The vast majority of the study group were married individuals and individuals with a secondary education. Just over half of the group stated that they are in good health and have no afflictions. All of the respondents were fully mobile. The QoL was assessed using the Polish version of the WHOQOL-Bref and the geriatric depression screening (GDS) scale. The QoL in its different areas balanced out at a medium level (average range: 13.30-13.87). The level of education of the U3A students proved to have a significant relation ith the environmental domain of QoL. No significant influence of age, gender, or marital statues on the QoL of the U3A students was found. A significant relation between subjectively reported diseases and/or discomfort with the QoL was demonstrated in the physical domain. Nearly 75% of the respondents showed no signs of depressive moods. The occurrence of depression indeed disrupted the QoL in all the studied domains, although least in the physical domain. Elderly individuals participating in permanent education display, in the face of progressive senile involution, average and at the same time stable parameters of QoL in all areas of functioning, which can be considered satisfactory, given this phase of life. The level of QoL of the U3A students significantly denotes the level of education of respondents, existing illnesses and afflictions, and the presents of depression.

  10. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  11. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1976.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Mueller, M S; Fisher, C R

    1977-08-01

    Of the $120.4 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1976, 29% was spent for those aged 65 or older, 15% for those under age 19, and the remaining 56% for those aged 19-64. The average health bill reached $1,521 for the aged, $547 for the intermediate age group, and $249 for the young. Public funds financed 68% of the health expenses of the aged with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 59%. Private sources paid 74% of the health expenses of the young and 70% of the expenses of those aged 19-64. Third-party payments met 65% of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:408934

  12. Comparing racial and immigrant health status and health care access in later life in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Prus, Steven G; Tfaily, Rania; Lin, Zhiqiu

    2010-09-01

    Little comparative research exists on health experiences and conditions of minority groups in Canada and the United States, despite both countries having a racially diverse population with a significant proportion of immigrants. This article explores race and immigrant disparities in health and health care access across the two countries. The study focus was on middle and old age given the change and increasing diversity in health and health care policy, such as Medicare. Logistic regression analysis of data from the 2002-2003 Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health shows that the joint effect of race and nativity on health outcomes - health differences between native and foreign-born Whites and non-Whites - is largely insignificant in Canada but considerable in the U.S. Non-White native and foreign-born Americans within both 45-to-64 and 65-and-over age groups experience significant disadvantage in health status and access to care, irrespective of health insurance coverage, demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors.

  13. Attraction to psychotherapy: influences of therapist status and therapist-patient age similarity.

    PubMed

    Lasky, R G; Salomone, P R

    1977-04-01

    Therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status were examined in relation to interpersonal attraction in the psychotherapy dyad. Psychiatric inpatients who comprised three age groupings were assigned randomly to one of four audiovisual treatments that depicted a dyadic psychotherapy situation (N = 60). For each treatment, therapist age and status were differentially presented on color slides with the same accompanying audiotape. Results indicated that age similarity was significantly (p less than .05) more relevant for the younger patients, whereas therapist status had greater significance for older patients. There were several significant interactions that concerned therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status effects on psychotherapeutic attraction. These results suggest that therapist-patient matching on age and/or therapist status should be considered carefully as a potential influence on therapeutic outcome. PMID:858795

  14. Socioeconomic status and children's health: evidence from a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-04-01

    There has been a growing empirical literature on the relationship between household socioeconomic status (SES) and children's health, and in particular, whether this SES gradient is constant or varies in strength across different life stages. Much of this literature focuses on the developed countries and less evidence has been presented for developing countries. Using Vietnam's rich National Health Survey (2001-02) and appropriate multilevel modeling this study empirically assesses the SES gradient in health and whether it varies in strength across different life stages of children aged 15 and younger (N = 45,448). The results for the interaction terms between the natural logarithm of household consumption and age groups indicate no evidence of a steeper health gradient for older children. However, health-consumption gradients are found to be sensitive to the functional form of the regression model as well as the model specification. The results for the interaction terms between consumption expenditure quintiles and age groups indicate that gradients vary in strength across ages. Not only are children from the poorest households worse off, compared to those from the richest households, but this relative disadvantage is greater among the 0-3 year olds. The inclusion of parental health status in the regression model weakens the gradients for all age groups as does the inclusion of household sources of drinking water. However, poorer children are still relatively worse off, specially the 0-3 year olds. This suggests that absolute deprivation may help explain the relative health disadvantage of younger children. Better measures of poverty alleviation are hence needed to improve children's health in a low-income country such as Vietnam.

  15. The effect of relationship status on health with dynamic health and persistent relationships.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Jennifer L; Averett, Susan L

    2014-07-01

    The dynamic evolution of health and persistent relationship status pose econometric challenges to disentangling the causal effect of relationships on health from the selection effect of health on relationship choice. Using a new econometric strategy we find that marriage is not universally better for health. Rather, cohabitation benefits the health of men and women over 45, being never married is no worse for health, and only divorce marginally harms the health of younger men. We find strong evidence that unobservable health-related factors can confound estimates. Our method can be applied to other research questions with dynamic dependent and multivariate endogenous variables.

  16. Social contact, socioeconomic status, and the health status of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z H; Rudkin, L

    2000-04-01

    We tested the applicability of the stress buffering hypothesis in a developing country setting with data from the Senior Sample of the Malaysian Family Life Survey-2. Using ordered logistic regression methods, we examined whether having daily contact with adult children moderates the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES; conceptualized as a chronic stressor) on self-assessed health status. We found that low SES is associated with poorer health for all three ethnic groups--Malay, Chinese, and Indian. Further, for Malays and Chinese, we found that the negative effects of low SES on health tend to be stronger for older people with less frequent contact with adult children than for those who have daily contact. These results provide general support for the buffering model and suggest that, as found in developed countries, active intergenerational relationships in developing country settings may have protective effects on the health of older people experiencing chronic stressors.

  17. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  18. Comparison of Health Status and Health Behaviors between Female Graduate and Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Irfan, Syed; Barton, Barbara; Vancour, Michele; Breny, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Graduate females represent a substantial and growing proportion of the college student population, yet health promotion research and programming has traditionally focused on undergraduates. This study compared health status and health behaviors of female graduate and undergraduate students at a public university in the northeastern U.S.…

  19. Mental health status among Japanese medical students: a cross-sectional survey of 20 universities.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.

  20. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  1. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  2. Multidimensional Profiles of Health Status: An Application of the Grade of Membership Model to the World Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Alessandra; Minicuci, Nadia; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2009-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted the World Health Survey (WHS) between 2002 and 2004 in 70 countries to provide cross-population comparable data on health, health-related outcomes and risk factors. The aim of this study was to apply Grade of Membership (GoM) modelling as a means to condense extensive health information from the WHS into a set of easily understandable health profiles and to assign the degree to which an individual belongs to each profile. Principal Findings This paper described the application of the GoM models to summarize population health status using World Health Survey data. Grade of Membership analysis is a flexible, non-parametric, multivariate method, used to calculate health profiles from WHS self-reported health state and health conditions. The WHS dataset was divided into four country economic categories based on the World Bank economic groupings (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income economies) for separate GoM analysis. Three main health profiles were produced for each of the four areas: I. Robust; II. Intermediate; III. Frail; moreover population health, wealth and inequalities are defined for countries in each economic area as a means to put the health results into perspective. Conclusions These analyses have provided a robust method to better understand health profiles and the components which can help to identify healthy and non-healthy individuals. The obtained profiles have described concrete levels of health and have clearly delineated characteristics of healthy and non-healthy respondents. The GoM results provided both a useable way of summarising complex individual health information and a selection of intermediate determinants which can be targeted for interventions to improve health. As populations' age, and with limited budgets for additional costs for health care and social services, applying the GoM methods may assist with identifying higher risk profiles for decision-making and resource

  3. Oral health status and the epidemiologic paradox within latino immigrant groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the United States census, there are 28 categories that define “Hispanic/Latinos.” This paper compares differences in oral health status between Mexican immigrants and other Latino immigrant groups. Methods Derived from a community-based sample (N = 240) in Los Angeles, this cross-sectional study uses an interview covering demographic and behavioral measures, and an intraoral examination using NIDCR epidemiologic criteria. Descriptive, bivariate analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted to examine the determinants that are associated with the Oral Health Status Index (OHSI). Results Mexican immigrants had a significantly higher OHSI (p < .05) compared to other Latinos. The multilinear regression showed that both age and gender (p < .05), percentage of untreated decayed teeth (p < .001), number of replaced missing teeth (p < .001), and attachment loss (p < .001) were significant. Conclusions Compared with the other Latino immigrants in our sample, Mexican immigrants have significantly better oral health status. This confirms the epidemiologic paradox previously found in comparisons of Mexicans with whites and African Americans. In this case of oral health status the paradox also occurs between Mexicans and other Latinos. Therefore, when conducting oral health studies of Latinos, more consideration needs to be given to differences within Latino subgroups, such as their country of origin and their unique ethnic and cultural characteristics. PMID:22958726

  4. Associations of grandparental schooling with adult grandchildren's health status, smoking, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lê-Scherban, Félice; Diez Roux, Ana V; Li, Yun; Morgenstern, Hal

    2014-09-01

    Despite persistent schooling-related health disparities in the United States, little is known about the multigenerational effects of schooling on adult health. As expected lifespans increase, direct influences of grandparental schooling on grandchildren's health may become increasingly important. We used multigenerational data spanning 41 years from a national sample of US families to investigate associations of grandparents' educational attainment with global health status, smoking, and obesity in their grandchildren who were aged 25-55 years in 2009. We estimated total effects of grandparental schooling and, by using marginal structural models, we estimated controlled direct effects that were independent of parents' and participants' schooling. Among whites, lower levels of grandparental schooling were monotonically associated with poor health status, current smoking, and obesity in adult grandchildren. There was also evidence suggesting direct effects, which was stronger for poor health status among participants whose highest-educated grandparent lived in the same state. Among blacks, the only association suggesting a total or direct effect of grandparental schooling was for smoking. Despite the relative imprecision of our estimates and possible residual bias, these results suggest that higher levels of grandparental schooling may benefit the health of grandchildren in adulthood, especially among whites. Furthermore, part of those apparent effects, especially for obesity, may not be mediated by parents' and grandchildren's schooling.

  5. The concept of race and health status in America.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D R; Lavizzo-Mourey, R; Warren, R C

    1994-01-01

    Race is an unscientific, societally constructed taxonomy that is based on an ideology that views some human population groups as inherently superior to others on the basis of external physical characteristics or geographic origin. The concept of race is socially meaningful but of limited biological significance. Racial or ethnic variations in health status result primarily from variations among races in exposure or vulnerability to behavioral, psychosocial, material, and environmental risk factors and resources. Additional data that capture the specific factors that contribute to group differences in disease must be collected. However, reductions in racial disparities in health will ultimately require change in the larger societal institutions and structures that determine exposure to pathogenic conditions. More attention needs to be given to the ways that racism, in its multiple forms, affects health status. Socio-economic status is a central determinant of health status, overlaps the concept of race, but is not equivalent to race. Inadequate attention has been given to the range of variation in social, cultural, and health characteristics within and between racial or ethnic minority populations. There is a growing emphasis, both within and without the Federal Government, on the collection of racial or ethnic identifiers in health data systems, but noncoverage of the Asian and Pacific Islander population, Native Americans, and subgroups of the Hispanic population is still a major problem. However, for all racial or ethnic groups, we need not only more data but better data. We must be more active in directly measuring the health-related aspects of belonging to these social categories. PMID:8303011

  6. The concept of race and health status in America.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Lavizzo-Mourey, R; Warren, R C

    1994-01-01

    Race is an unscientific, societally constructed taxonomy that is based on an ideology that views some human population groups as inherently superior to others on the basis of external physical characteristics or geographic origin. The concept of race is socially meaningful but of limited biological significance. Racial or ethnic variations in health status result primarily from variations among races in exposure or vulnerability to behavioral, psychosocial, material, and environmental risk factors and resources. Additional data that capture the specific factors that contribute to group differences in disease must be collected. However, reductions in racial disparities in health will ultimately require change in the larger societal institutions and structures that determine exposure to pathogenic conditions. More attention needs to be given to the ways that racism, in its multiple forms, affects health status. Socio-economic status is a central determinant of health status, overlaps the concept of race, but is not equivalent to race. Inadequate attention has been given to the range of variation in social, cultural, and health characteristics within and between racial or ethnic minority populations. There is a growing emphasis, both within and without the Federal Government, on the collection of racial or ethnic identifiers in health data systems, but noncoverage of the Asian and Pacific Islander population, Native Americans, and subgroups of the Hispanic population is still a major problem. However, for all racial or ethnic groups, we need not only more data but better data. We must be more active in directly measuring the health-related aspects of belonging to these social categories.

  7. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants.

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Spitznagel, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress and impaired quality of health. To better document these effects, this study examined the relationship between deportation concern and emotional and physical well-being among a group of Latino immigrants in a midwestern city. One-hundred-forty-three persons were recruited through community sources. Fifty-six participants (39%) expressed concern with seeking services for fear of deportation, while 87 did not endorse this concern. Measures of emotional distress, Hispanic immigrant stress and subjective health status were administered. Results indicate that Latino immigrants with concerns about deportation are at heightened risk of experiencing negative emotional and health states (particularly anger), Hispanic immigrant stress associated with extrafamilial factors and substandard health status. Findings inform policymakers of culturally relevant stressors of undocumented Latino immigrants that help to create and perpetuate the health and mental health disparities of this group. PMID:17987916

  8. [Gerodontology consultation in geriatric facilities: general health status (I)].

    PubMed

    Katsoulis, Joannis; Huber, Sandra; Mericske-Stern, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Dental undertreatment is often seen in the older population. This is particularly true for the elderly living in nursing homes and geriatric hospitals. The progression of chronic diseases results in loss of their independence. They rely on daily support and care due to physical or mental impairment. The visit of a dentist in private praxis becomes difficult or impossible and is a logistic problem. These elderly patients are often not aware of oral and dental problems or these are not addressed. The geriatric hospital Bern, Ziegler, has integrated dental care in the concept of physical rehabilitation of geriatric patients. A total of 139 patients received dental treatment in the years 2005/2006. Their mean age was 83 years, but the segment with > 85 years of age amounted to 46%. The general health examinations reveald multiple and complex disorders. The ASA classification (American Society of Anesthesiologists, Physical Status Classification System) was applied and resulted in 15% = P2 (mild systemic disease, no functional limitation), 47% = P3 (severe systemic disease, definite functional limitations) and 38% = P4 (severe systemic disease, constant threat to life). Eighty-seven of the patients exhibited 3 or more chronic diseases with a prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, musculoskelettal disorders and dementia. Overall the differences between men and women were small, but broncho-pulmonary dieseases were significantly more frequent in women, while men were more often diagnosed with dementia and depression. Verbal communication was limited or not possible with 60% of the patients due to cognitive impairment or aphasia after a stroke. Although the objective treatment need is high, providing dentistry for frail and geriatric patients is characterized by risks due to poor general health conditions, difficulties in communication, limitations in feasibility and lack of adequate aftercare. In order to prevent the problem of undertreatment, elderly independently living

  9. On Gold Diggers: Status Gain or Loss in Age Heterogamous Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardo, Felix M.; And Others

    The term "gold digger" is often applied to women and to the younger spouse in marriages with unconventional age diffferences. While this follows the view that women derive their class position from their husbands, the status gain or loss in age heterogamous studies has not been empirically tested. To examine status gain or loss in these marriages,…

  10. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  11. Mis-reporting, previous health status and health status of family may seriously bias the association between food patterns and disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Food pattern analyses are popular tools in the study of associations between diet and health. However, there is a need for further evaluation of this methodology. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between food pattern groups (FPG) and existing health, and to identify factors influencing this relationship. Methods The inhabitants of Västerbotten County in northern Sweden are invited to health check-ups when they turn 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. The present study includes data collected from almost 60,000 individuals between 1992 and 2005. Associations between FPG (established using K-means cluster analyses) and health were analyzed separately in men and women. Results The health status of the participants and their close family and reporting accuracy differed significantly between men and women and among FPG. Crude regression analyses, with the high fat FPG as reference, showed increased risks for several health outcomes for all other FPGs in both sexes. However, when limiting analysis to individuals without previous ill-health and with adequate energy intake reports, most of the risks instead showed a trend towards protective effects. Conclusions Food pattern classifications reflect both eating habits and other own and family health related factors, a finding important to remember and to adjust for before singling out the diet as a primary cause for present and future health problems. Appropriate exclusions are suggested to avoid biases and attenuated associations in nutrition epidemiology. PMID:21034501

  12. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1) * min(-1)) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  13. Influence of weaning method on health status and rumen development in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Roth, B A; Keil, N M; Gygax, L; Hillmann, E

    2009-02-01

    In the artificial rearing of dairy calves, the same feeding plan is applied to all animals during the milk-feeding period, with individual differences attributable to development or health status rarely considered. The aim of this study was 1) to analyze whether the parameters of feeding behavior automatically recorded by a feeding computer and weight gain are suitable for predicting the health status and rumen development of male dairy calves, and 2) to compare a conventional weaning method (end of milk provision at 12 wk of age, n = 23 calves) with a concentrate-dependent weaning method (with reduction in the milk amount depending on the consumption of concentrate, n = 24). The health status of each animal was evaluated daily by a scoring list (health score), and body temperature was measured automatically during each milk intake. In addition, the number of veterinary treatments per calf was recorded. Rumen development was assessed by measuring rumen papillae in 8 rumen areas after slaughter (n = 24, half of each treatment group). During the milk-feeding period, body temperature was elevated (>/=39.5 degrees C) on 40.8 and 43.2% of all days for calves on the concentrate-dependent weaning method and the conventional weaning method, respectively. Hay and concentrate intake (but not milk intake) and weight gain were clearly affected by health status. In addition, health score and the probability of being treated by a veterinarian were significantly related to decreases in concentrate consumption. During the milk-feeding period, increased body temperature, an increased number of veterinary treatments, and decreases in milk consumption were all associated with reduced weight gain. Calves on the concentrate-dependent weaning method were weaned at an average age of 76 d, which was significantly shorter than the age at the end of milk provision for conventionally fed calves (84 d). Weight gain and health status did not differ between treatment groups. Weight gain was

  14. Total Salivary Anti-oxidant Levels, Dental Development and Oral Health Status in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gunjalli, Gururaj; Kumar, K Naveen; Jain, Swapnil Kumar; Reddy, Satheesh Kumar; Shavi, Girish R; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to assess the total antioxidant levels, dental development, and oral health status in childhood obesity. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 children aged 6-12 years consisting of both genders from different school along Coastal Karnataka, India were part of the study and were categorized into obese/overweight, and normal children based on body mass index for age and sex. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels determined by phosphomolybidic acid and spectrophotometric method were considered. Oral hygiene index-simplified, modified gingival index and dentition status index were used to analyze oral health status. Dental development was assessed using a clinical method and correlated with standard chronology of human dentition. Results: Levels of the total salivary antioxidants were increased in the study group which is very highly significant when compared with control group, oral health status in both the study group and control group was good. Number of children in study group showing accelerated dental development is relatively less when compared with control group, but is not statistically significant. Conclusion: Salivary TAC was significantly high in overweight and obese children than their normal counterparts. Prevalence of dental caries was high in obese/overweight children when compared to normal children. PMID:25214735

  15. The black aged: implications for mental health care.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1982-01-01

    Some of the problems associated with providing quality mental health care for aged blacks are discussed. It is postulated that treatment should be used selectively, not in terms of simplistic formulas or part-truths about aged blacks, but on the bases of clinical indications in differential diagnosis. The essence of improved mental health for blacks, regardless of sex or age, entails an unrelenting struggle by mental health professionals toward the removal of all vestiges of racism.

  16. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  17. Socioeconomic status. The relationship with health and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Calixto, Omar-Javier; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hierarchical social classification associated with different outcomes in health and disease. The most important factors influencing SES are income, educational level, occupational class, social class, and ancestry. These factors are closely related to each other as they present certain dependent interactions. Since there is a need to improve the understanding of the concept of SES and the ways it affects health and disease, we review herein the tools currently available to evaluate SES and its relationship with health and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24418307

  18. Socioeconomic status. The relationship with health and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Calixto, Omar-Javier; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hierarchical social classification associated with different outcomes in health and disease. The most important factors influencing SES are income, educational level, occupational class, social class, and ancestry. These factors are closely related to each other as they present certain dependent interactions. Since there is a need to improve the understanding of the concept of SES and the ways it affects health and disease, we review herein the tools currently available to evaluate SES and its relationship with health and autoimmune diseases.

  19. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  20. Death education within health education: current status, future directions.

    PubMed

    Crase, D

    1981-12-01

    A national survey was conducted among 205 university level divisions/departments of health education to determine the current status of death education courses within the health education field. Forty-nine college and university health educators currently teaching the course returned usable instruments. Death education receives the same credit, utilizes similar grading systems and is generally managed much like other academic courses. Since the discipline is in its infancy and many teachers are relatively unprepared, respondents called for greater quality control and improved professional preparation. Several concerns accompanying the growth of death education were identified.

  1. Medical innovation and age-specific trends in health care utilization: findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert; Wouterse, Bram; Slobbe, Laurentius C J; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Polder, Johan J

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization is expected to rise in the coming decades. Not only will the aggregate need for health care grow by changing demographics, so too will per capita utilization. It has been suggested that trends in health care utilization may be age-specific. In this paper, age-specific trends in health care utilization are presented for different health care sectors in the Netherlands, for the period 1981-2009. For the hospital sector we also explore the link between these trends and the state of medical technology. Using aggregated data from a Dutch health survey and a nationwide hospital register, regression analysis was used to examine age-specific trends in the probability of utilizing health care. To determine the influence of medical technology, the growth in age-specific probabilities of hospital care was regressed on the number of medical patents while adjusting for confounders related to demographics, health status, supply and institutional factors. The findings suggest that for most health care sectors, the trend in the probability of health care utilization is highest for ages 65 and up. Larger advances in medical technology are found to be significantly associated with a higher growth of hospitalization probability, particularly for the higher ages. Age-specific trends will raise questions on the sustainability of intergenerational solidarity in health care, as solidarity will not only be strained by the ageing population, but also might find itself under additional pressure as the gap in health care utilization between elderly and non-elderly grows over time. For hospital care utilization, this process might well be accelerated by advances in medical technology.

  2. Sex and Age Differences in Global Pain Status Among Patients Using Opioids Long Term for Chronic Noncancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kathleen; Dublin, Sascha; Thielke, Stephen; Merrill, Joseph O.; Shortreed, Susan M.; Campbell, Cynthia; Von Korff, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The use of chronic opioid therapy (COT) has risen dramatically in recent years, especially among women. However, little is known about factors influencing overall pain and function (global pain status) among COT users. Characterizing the typical experiences of COT patients by age–sex group could help clinicians and patients better weigh the risks and benefits of COT. Thus, we sought to characterize global pain status among COT users in community practice by age and sex. Methods: Telephone survey of 2,163 health plan members aged 21–80 years using COT. We assessed average/usual pain (0–10 scale); pain-related interference (0–10); activity limitation days, last 3 months; and pain impact, last 2 weeks (0–11). Status on each indicator was classified as low (better pain/function), moderate, or high (worse pain/function). Global pain status was categorized as favorable if 2–4 indicators were low and 0–1 was high and unfavorable if 2–4 indicators were high and 0–1 was low. Results: Among female COT patients, 15% (vs. 26% of males) had favorable global pain status and 59% (vs. 42% of males) had unfavorable status. Under age 65 years, women fared more poorly than men on every indicator. Among 65- to 80-year-olds, women and men had similar global pain status. Conclusions: Although pain and function among COT users vary considerably, only one in five reported low pain levels and high levels of function. Young and middle-aged women seem to be at particularly high risk for unfavorable global pain status. More research is needed about how to best manage pain in this group. PMID:26153668

  3. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Health Service Utilization Related to a New Measure of Health Literacy FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently-used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. Methods The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. Results The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants’ health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. Conclusion The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually-related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. Practice Implications: FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. PMID:24856447

  4. Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Self-assessed Oral Health Status: An Internet Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Seitaro; Kojima, Yuki; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Yoshino, Koichi; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Satou, Ryouichi; Takahashi, Naoko; Tazaki, Masakazu; Kamijo, Hideyuki; Sugihara, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study based on a cross-sectional internet survey was to investigate the relationship between risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and self-assessed oral health status. The participants, who comprised individuals registered with an online research company, were required to complete a self-reported questionnaire. Those answering in the affirmative to both of the following two questions were placed in the OSA-risk group, while those answering in the negative were assigned to the control group: 'Have other people noticed pauses in your breathing while you are sleeping?' and 'Do you feel excessively sleepy during the daytime?'. A total of 493 were included in the OSA-risk group and 2,560 in the control group. Among the total 3,053 respondents, the highest prevalence for OSA risk in men was in the 50-59-year age range, although this tended to level off after age 60 years. No such trend was observed in women, however. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between risk of OSA and self-assessed oral health status. Significant correlations were observed with the following parameters: difficulty in opening mouth (odds ratio [OR]: 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.647-4.311), dry mouth (OR: 2.11; CI: 1.544-2.876), bad breath (OR: 1.69; CI: 1.309-2.186), gingival bleeding (OR: 1.48; CI: 1.134-1.932), and gingival swelling (OR: 1.44; CI: 1.046-1.981). These results suggest a relationship between risk of OSA and self-assessed oral health status, indicating that treating OSA might improve oral health status. Further study is needed to demonstrate a causal relationship between OSA and self-assessed oral health status, however. PMID:27665695

  5. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  6. Poorer general health status in children is associated with being overweight or obese in Hawai'i: findings from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Kristen; Hayes, Donald K; Iwaishi, Louise K; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is a widespread national issue that affects the health and well-being of millions of people; particular attention has been focused on the burden among children. The National Survey of Children's Health data from 2007 was used to examine the relationship of child health status and unhealthy weight (overweight/obese defined as body mass index in ≥ 85 th percentile) among 874 children aged 10 to 17 years of age in Hawai'i. In particular, the parentally reported child's general health status was assessed comparing those with a poorer health status (defined as "good/fair/poor") to those with a better one (defined as "excellent/very good"). Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis examined risk for overweight/obese with child's general health status, accounting for gender, race, and socioeconomic factors. More children with a poorer health status (46.5%; 95%CI=33.2-60.2) were overweight/obese compared to those of better health status (25.8%; 95%CI=21.9-30.2). Estimates of overweight/obese were high in Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (38.6%; 95%CI: 28.9-49.4), multiracial (30.9%; 95%CI=24.2-38.6) children, and children whose parents had less than 12 years education (56.8%; 95%CI=32.8-78.0). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed a 2.92 (95%CI=1.52-5.61) greater odds for overweight/obese status in children with a poorer health status compared to those of better health status after accounting for age, race, gender, and parental education. Gender, race, and parental education were also significant factors associated with overweight/obese in the final adjusted model. It is important that children that are overweight or obese receive appropriate health screenings including assessments of general health status. Children in high risk socioeconomic groups should be a particular focus of prevention efforts to promote health equity and provide opportunities for children to reach their potential.

  7. Health Status of People Undergoing Foreclosure in the Philadelphia Region

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the health status of people undergoing mortgage foreclosure in the Philadelphia region to determine if there was a relationship between foreclosure and health. Methods. Participants were recruited in partnership with a mortgage counseling agency. Participants' health status and health care use were compared with a community sample from the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. We used publicly filed foreclosure records to assess response bias. Results. Of the 250 people recruited, 36.7% met screening criteria for major depression. The foreclosure sample was significantly more likely than the community sample to not have insurance coverage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49, 3.48) and to not have filled a prescription because of cost in the preceding year (AOR = 3.44; 95% CI = 2.45, 4.83). Approximately 9% of the participants reported that their own or a family member's medical condition was the primary reason they were undergoing foreclosure. More than a quarter of those in foreclosure (27.7%) stated that they owed money to medical creditors. Conclusions. Foreclosure affects already-vulnerable populations. Public health practitioners may be able to leverage current efforts to connect homeowners with mortgage counseling agencies to improve health care access. PMID:19696373

  8. Health and aging of urban American Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although half of the American Indian population resides off the reservation, mostly in the western states, research on the health of urban American Indians remains sparse. American Indians living in urban areas are not eligible for the federally mandated health care provided by the Indian Health Service and receive health care services in a variety of settings. This population is at high risk for many health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Social, cultural, and economic barriers that impede access to health care for this group, particularly for elders living in an urban setting, could be reduced if physicians improved their understanding of and communication with American Indian patients. PMID:1413770

  9. A Study on Perception and Usage Status on Health Functional Foods in Women according to Menopause Status

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heesook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to provide a reference base for suggesting proper guidelines for the health of the people by analyzing perception and intake pattern on health functional foods and by identifying needs in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a self-administered survey in women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a university hospital between July and August, 2014. The survey questionnaire consisted of 8 items on general characteristics, 4 items on awareness on health functional foods, and 16 items on usage status. Results Of all 133 women with ages ranging between 19 to 67 years, postmenopausal women were 57 accounting for 42.9% of all subjects. Mean age was 55.4 ± 6.2 and menopausal age was 49.6 ± 4.3 in the postmenopause group. Mean age was 38.7 ± 9.0 in the postmenopause group. With respect to components of health functional foods, 76.3% of women answered "important" in the postmenopause group, significantly higher than 49.1% in the postmenopause group (P < 0.01). In regard to price, those who answered "important" accounted for the largest percentage in the premenopausal group at 56.6%, and those who answered "moderately important" accounted for 57.9% in the postmenopausal women. A significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Development of products reflecting consumer needs can be considered. It is important to foster an environment allowing individuals to choose right health functional foods and further studies are warranted. PMID:27152310

  10. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health. PMID:26458119

  11. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health.

  12. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J.; Wang, Duolao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors. Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P < 0.001) and 65.7% (82.0% in men vs 49.1% in women, P < 0.001) of the participants had intermediate and poor cardiovascular health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P < 0.001 for trend). Participants fulfilled, on average, 4.4 (95% confidence interval: 4.2–4.7) of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health. The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly

  13. Multiple Chronic Health Conditions and Their Link with Labour Force Participation and Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Deborah J.; Callander, Emily J.; Shrestha, Rupendra N.; Passey, Megan E.; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To assess the labour force participation and quantify the economic status of older Australian workers with multiple health conditions. Background Many older people suffer from multiple health conditions. While multiple morbidities have been highlighted as an important research topic, there has been limited research in this area to date, particularly on the economic status of those with multiple morbidities. Methods Cross sectional analysis of Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model of Australians aged 45 to 64 years. Results People with one chronic health condition had 0.59 times the odds of being employed compared to those with no condition (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.71), and those with four or more conditions had 0.14 times the odds of being employed compared to those with no condition (OR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.18). People with one condition received a weekly income 32% lower than those with no health condition, paid 49 % less tax, and received 37% more in government transfer payments; those with four or more conditions received a weekly income 94% lower, paid 97% less in tax and received over 2,000% more in government transfer payments per week than those with no condition. Conclusion While having a chronic health condition is associated with lower labour force participation and poorer economic status, having multiple conditions compounds the affect – with these people being far less likely to be employed and having drastically lower incomes. PMID:24223887

  14. Subjective socioeconomic status and health in cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Präg, Patrick; Mills, Melinda C; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Research has established a robust association between subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes, which holds over and above the associations between objective markers of SES and health. Furthermore, comparative research on health inequalities has shown considerable variation in the relationship between different objective markers of SES and health across countries. Drawing on data from 29 countries, we present the first cross-national study on the subjective SES-health relationship. For two health outcomes, namely self-rated health (SRH) and psychological wellbeing, we are able to confirm that subjective SES is related to health in all countries under study, even when income, education, and occupational prestige are accounted for. Furthermore, we document considerable variation in the strength of the subjective SES-health association across countries. This variation however is largely independent of country differences in income inequality and country affluence. The health benefits of a high subjective SES appear to be slightly larger in more affluent countries, but only for SRH, not for psychological wellbeing.

  15. Current Status of Sexual Health and Rights Indicators in Iran: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali; Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health and rights indicators provide essential tools for monitoring the status of individuals’ sexual health and its rights, in various countries. This paper discusses sexual health and rights indicators in Iran. The indicators under study are derived from similar indicators developed by Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Center for Women, for the 15th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development monitoring project. Four HIV-related and three other indicators, including legal age of marriage, median age of women at marriage, and status of violence against women (VAW) were examined in this study. Iran has made several achievements in combating HIV/AIDS, with the focus on injectable drug users, and has countered a series of challenges in the determination of VAW prevalence, the increase of high risk behavior in adolescents, and sexual education for this group. The most important message of this paper is that special attention to challenging issues in Iranian individuals’ sexual health could promote their current status. PMID:26328067

  16. Current Status of Sexual Health and Rights Indicators in Iran: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali; Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Sexual health and rights indicators provide essential tools for monitoring the status of individuals' sexual health and its rights, in various countries. This paper discusses sexual health and rights indicators in Iran. The indicators under study are derived from similar indicators developed by Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Center for Women, for the 15th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development monitoring project. Four HIV-related and three other indicators, including legal age of marriage, median age of women at marriage, and status of violence against women (VAW) were examined in this study. Iran has made several achievements in combating HIV/AIDS, with the focus on injectable drug users, and has countered a series of challenges in the determination of VAW prevalence, the increase of high risk behavior in adolescents, and sexual education for this group. The most important message of this paper is that special attention to challenging issues in Iranian individuals' sexual health could promote their current status. PMID:26328067

  17. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  18. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  19. Dental Health Status of HIV-Positive Patients and Related Variables in Southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saravani, Shirin; Nosrat Zehi, Tahereh; Kadeh, Hamideh; Mir, Sarvar

    2016-01-01

    Background Different factors can be responsible for the increased prevalence of dental caries and missing teeth in HIV-positive patients. Objectives This study evaluates dental health status and its relationship with social, behavioral, and medical factors in HIV-positive patients under the coverage of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in Southeast Iran. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, the dental health status of 119 HIV-positive patients was assessed in accordance with WHO indices and included decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). A questionnaire on different social, behavioral, and medical variables was filled out for every case and the relationship and correlation of the variables to dental health status were investigated using One-way ANOVA, the Kruskal Wallis test, the t-test, the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, and Pearson correlation. Results The mean value of DMFT index was 11.87 ± 8.08, where the mean values of decayed and missing teeth were 8.42 ± 5.44 and 3.43 ± 4.07, respectively. DMFT index, decayed, and missing teeth correlated only with age (P < 0.0001, P = 0.009, P < 0.0001) and duration of HIV involvement (P = 0.004, P = 0.031, P = 0.007). Conclusions The dental health status of HIV-positive patients in this region was almost inappropriate. Most social, behavioral, and medical factors had no influence on dental health; only a correlation between dental health, age, and duration of HIV involvement was observed. PMID:27622173

  20. Oral health status, knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli-Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Khorsand, Afshin; Yaghobee, Siamak; Rokn, Amirreza; Jalali, Mohammad; Masudi, Sima; Rahimi, Hamed; Kabir, Ali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients about their oral health status. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 150 CVD patients that collected by a self-administered questionnaire consists of demographic characteristics and KAP. Oral health indicators calculated based on the results of oral examination by an expert dentist. RESULTS CVD patients had an overall moderate level of knowledge and attitude, but their practice was lower than moderate. There were important associations between knowledge scores with gender, education, residential area and financial status, between attitude scores with education and residential area, and between practice scores with education and financial status. There were no associations between KAP and age, marital status or job. Significant positive correlations were found between KAP components. Significant negative correlations were found between oral hygiene index with knowledge and practice. CONCLUSION The practice of heart disease patients about their oral health was poor, and declares that increasing awareness and attitude may not promote practice. Efficient programs are needed to promote oral health practice of adult populations in special groups. PMID:27114731

  1. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  2. Parent- Versus Child-Reported Functional Health Status After the Fontan Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Linda M.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Newburger, Jane W.; Lu, Minmin; Pemberton, Victoria L.; McGrath, Ellen A.; Atz, Andrew M.; Xu, Mingfen; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Servedio, Darlene; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to compare perceptions of functional health status between children who had undergone a Fontan procedure and their parents. METHODS Fontan procedure survivors 10 to 18 years of age were included in the study if the child completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the parent completed the parent form to assess the child’s functional health status. Comparisons were made between raw domain scores for the parent- and child-completed CHQs. RESULTS Between March 2003 and April 2004, 1078 Fontan survivors were screened. Of the 546 eligible and consented patients, 354 were 10 –18 years of age and 328 parent/child pairs completed the CHQs. Parents reported significantly lower scores (worse functioning) for their children than the children reported for themselves in the domains of physical functioning (P < .01), impact on school or activities from emotional and behavioral problems (P < .01), impact on school or activities from physical health issues (P<.01), general behavior (P < .01), mental health (P < .01), self-esteem (P < .01), and general health perceptions (P<.01). No significant differences were noted for the domains of bodily pain, family cohesiveness, or family activities. For the physical functioning domain, factors contributing to lower scores for parent versus child reports included pulmonary artery anomalies and fenestration at the time of the Fontan operation. Lower parent-reported scores also were associated with more noncardiac health problems in the child. CONCLUSIONS Parents’ perceptions of the functional health status of their children after the Fontan procedure were worse than the children’s perceptions. PMID:19841109

  3. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. Results: In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as “Edentulous” (15.2%), “Class 1 = Unfavorable” (13.7%), “Class 2 = Somewhat favorable” (10.4%), and “Class 3 = Favorable” (60.7%). Using “Class 3 = Favorable” as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. Conclusion: The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico. PMID:24596632

  4. Neighborhood Age Structure and its Implications for Health

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Age structure at the neighborhood level is rarely considered in contextual studies of health. However, age structure can play a critical role in shaping community life, the availability of resources, and the opportunities for social engagement—all factors that, research suggests, have direct and indirect effects on health. Age structure can be theorized as a compositional effect and as a contextual effect. In addition, the dynamic nature of age structure and the utility of a life course perspective as applied to neighborhood effects research merits attention. Four Chicago neighborhoods are summarized to illustrate how age structure varies across small space, suggesting that neighborhood age structure should be considered a key structural covariate in contextual research on health. Considering age structure implies incorporating not only meaningful cut points for important age groups (e.g., proportion 65 years and over) but attention to the shape of the distribution as well. PMID:16865558

  5. Worse Health Status and Higher Incidence of Health Disorders in Rhesus Negative Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Dammann, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus-positive and Rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. The biological function of the RhD molecule is unknown. Its structure suggests that the molecular complex with RhD protein transports NH3 or CO2 molecules across the erythrocyte cell membrane. Some data indicate that RhD positive and RhD negative subjects differ in their tolerance to certain biological factors, including, Toxoplasma infection, aging and fatique. Present cross sectional study performed on 3,130 subjects) showed that Rhesus negative subjects differed in many indices of their health status, including incidences of many disorders. Rhesus negative subjects reported to have more frequent allergic, digestive, heart, hematological, immunity, mental health, and neurological problems. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for, for example, by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26495842

  6. Patterns and Predictors of Growth in Divorced Fathers' Health Status and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    DeGarmo, David S.; Reid, John B.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Knutson, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Health status and substance use trajectories are described over 18 months for a county sample of 230 divorced fathers of young children aged 4 to 11. One third of the sample was clinically depressed. Health problems, drinking, and hard drug use were stable over time for the sample, whereas depression, smoking, and marijuana use exhibited overall mean reductions. Variance components revealed significant individual differences in average levels and trajectories for health and substance use outcomes. Controlling for fathers' antisociality, negative life events, and social support, fathering identity predicted reductions in health-related problems and marijuana use. Father involvement reduced drinking and marijuana use. Antisociality was the strongest risk factor for health and substance use outcomes. Implications for application of a generative fathering perspective in practice and preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:19477763

  7. Health Status and Health Dynamics in an Empirical Model of Expected Longevity*

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Ni, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Expected longevity is an important factor influencing older individuals’ decisions such as consumption, savings, purchase of life insurance and annuities, claiming of Social Security benefits, and labor supply. It has also been shown to be a good predictor of actual longevity, which in turn is highly correlated with health status. A relatively new literature on health investments under uncertainty, which builds upon the seminal work by Grossman (1972), has directly linked longevity with characteristics, behaviors, and decisions by utility maximizing agents. Our empirical model can be understood within that theoretical framework as estimating a production function of longevity. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we directly incorporate health dynamics in explaining the variation in expected longevities, and compare two alternative measures of health dynamics: the self-reported health change, and the computed health change based on self-reports of health status. In 38% of the reports in our sample, computed health changes are inconsistent with the direct report on health changes over time. And another 15% of the sample can suffer from information losses if computed changes are used to assess changes in actual health. These potentially serious problems raise doubts regarding the use and interpretation of the computed health changes and even the lagged measures of self-reported health as controls for health dynamics in a variety of empirical settings. Our empirical results, controlling for both subjective and objective measures of health status and unobserved heterogeneity in reporting, suggest that self-reported health changes are a preferred measure of health dynamics. PMID:18187217

  8. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  9. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition. PMID:26339168

  10. Self-rated Subjective Health Status Is Strongly Associated with Sociodemographic Factors, Lifestyle, Nutrient Intakes, and Biochemical Indices, but Not Smoking Status: KNHANES 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-09-01

    Despite advertised health warnings regarding the deadly hazards of smoking, many people have not heeded recommendations to quit smoking. We examined factors that affect self-rated subjective health status (SRH) scores among lifestyle, nutrient intake and biochemical parameters, and the association of SRH scores and smoking status in a large Korean adult population. Adjusted odd ratios for SRH were calculated for smoking status, selected biochemical data, and food and nutrient intake obtained using the 24-hr recall method after covariate adjustment in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (27,534 men and women aged ≥ 20 yr). Age, sex, income, education, drinking, exercise and stress levels were associated with SRH scores, regardless of smoking status (P < 0.001). Interestingly, people in any smoking status groups considered the well-known indicators for metabolic diseases (HDL cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in the circulation), and the intake of fiber, total vitamins A, and vitamin C as indicators of SRH. Especially in current smokers, higher intake of nutritious food groups such as grains (OR = 1.227), vegetables (OR = 1.944), and milk (OR = 2.26) significantly increased the adjusted odds ratio of SRH. However, smoking status was not associated with SRH scores. In conclusion, SRH is affected by the indices related to health but not smoking status in Korean adults. The development of a new indicator of the direct adverse effects of smoking at regular health check-ups might be required to modulate the SRH in smokers and a nutritional education should not include the possible attenuation of adverse effects of smoking by good nutrition.

  11. Age at First Birth and Fathers' Subsequent Health: Evidence From Sibling and Twin Models

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 540 siblings and twins from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, this study examines the relationship between the age at which men become biological fathers and their subsequent health. The analysis includes both between-family models that treat brothers as independent observations and within-family models that account for unobserved genetic and early-life environmental endowments shared by brothers within families. Findings indicate that age at first birth has a positive, linear effect on men's health, and this relationship is not explained by the confounding influences of unobserved early-life characteristics. However, the effect of age at first birth on fathers' health is explained by men's socioeconomic and family statuses. Whereas most research linking birth timing to specific diseases focuses narrowly on biological mechanisms among mothers, this study demonstrates the importance of reproductive decisions for men's health and well-being. PMID:19477723

  12. Do Early-Life Conditions Predict Functional Health Status in Adulthood? The Case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree. PMID:21074924

  13. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  14. Validation of an Algorithm to Estimate Gestational Age in Electronic Health Plan Databases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Andrade, Susan E.; Cooper, William O.; Davis, Robert L.; Dublin, Sascha; Hammad, Tarek A.; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Pinheiro, Simone P.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Scott, Pamela E.; Smith, David H.; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katie; Johnson, Karin E.; Toh, Sengwee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate an algorithm that uses delivery date and diagnosis codes to define gestational age at birth in electronic health plan databases. Methods Using data from 225,384 live born deliveries among women aged 15–45 years in 2001–2007 within 8 of the 11 health plans participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program, we compared 1) the algorithm-derived gestational age versus the “gold-standard” gestational age obtained from the infant birth certificate files; and 2) the prenatal exposure status of two antidepressants (fluoxetine and sertraline) and two antibiotics (amoxicillin and azithromycin) as determined by the algorithm-derived versus the gold-standard gestational age. Results The mean algorithm-derived gestational age at birth was lower than the mean obtained from the birth certificate files among singleton deliveries (267.9 versus 273.5 days) but not among multiple-gestation deliveries (253.9 versus 252.6 days). The algorithm-derived prenatal exposure to the antidepressants had a sensitivity and a positive predictive value (PPV) of ≥95%, and a specificity and a negative predictive value (NPV) of almost 100%. Sensitivity and PPV were both ≥90%, and specificity and NPV were both >99% for the antibiotics. Conclusions A gestational age algorithm based upon electronic health plan data correctly classified medication exposure status in most live born deliveries, but misclassification may be higher for drugs typically used for short durations. PMID:23335117

  15. Retaining the experts. Aging nurses in mental health.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    The aging of the nursing workforce has contributed to the critical shortage of nurses. There is a consistent pattern of nurses leaving hospital settings as they age and leaving the workforce entirely after age 50. Few data are available on how this may affect quality of care in mental health services in the future. Research is needed to better understand the relationship between workplace variables and older workers' health, safety, and satisfaction, so that aging nurses in mental health may extend their working life and continue sharing their expertise that has been developed over many years. PMID:20102128

  16. Quality of life and health status in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van der Steeg, A F W; De Vries, J; Roukema, J A

    2004-12-01

    Quality of life is of increasing importance in clinical oncology studies. When analysing publications concerning quality of life in breast cancer, however, the majority of the articles appear to study health status and not quality of life. Therefore five recommendations were formulated to apply reading a 'quality of life' article. With the use of these recommendations an article can be evaluated and the clinical significance can be assessed. PMID:15522550

  17. Certification programs for eHealth--status quo.

    PubMed

    Urbauer, Philipp; Herzog, Juliane; Pohn, Birgit; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The skills of the workforce are a core factor for the quality of healthcare systems. On top of the basic education, postgraduate training is an important factor for continuously maintaining as well as improving the workforce qualification level. Advanced training often provides certification of the acquired skills. This paper analyses the status quo of international certification programs in the sector of eHealth (EU, US, Global). It uses available literature and observations from international educational expert's workgroups. It identifies gaps regarding certifications in eHealth and suggests steps for solutions. Despite little attention to legal and financial eHealth related content in certification programs in the EU as well as a low degree of harmonization of international certifications in general, there are strong activities especially in the international scope towards personal certification programs in eHealth. Major changes are to be expected within the coming years. PMID:24825699

  18. Certification programs for eHealth--status quo.

    PubMed

    Urbauer, Philipp; Herzog, Juliane; Pohn, Birgit; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The skills of the workforce are a core factor for the quality of healthcare systems. On top of the basic education, postgraduate training is an important factor for continuously maintaining as well as improving the workforce qualification level. Advanced training often provides certification of the acquired skills. This paper analyses the status quo of international certification programs in the sector of eHealth (EU, US, Global). It uses available literature and observations from international educational expert's workgroups. It identifies gaps regarding certifications in eHealth and suggests steps for solutions. Despite little attention to legal and financial eHealth related content in certification programs in the EU as well as a low degree of harmonization of international certifications in general, there are strong activities especially in the international scope towards personal certification programs in eHealth. Major changes are to be expected within the coming years.

  19. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying.

  20. Quality of life and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients in a Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Syed, Emdadul H; Poudel, Krishna C; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Ahsan, Habibul; Jimba, Masamine

    2012-09-01

    Contamination of groundwater by inorganic arsenic is one of the major public-health problems in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted (a) to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients and (b) to identify the factors associated with the QOL. Of 1,456 individuals, 521 (35.78%) were selected as case and control participants, using a systematic random-sampling method. The selection criteria for cases (n=259) included presence of at least one of the following: melanosis, leucomelanosis on at least 10% of the body, or keratosis on the hands or feet. Control (nonpatient) participants (n=262) were selected from the same villages by matching age (±5 years) and gender. The Bangladeshi version of the WHOQOL-BREF was used for assessing the QOL, and the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ) was used for assessing the general mental health status. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the WHOQOL-BREF and SRQ scores between the patients and the non-patients were compared. The mean scores of QOL were significantly lower in the patients than those in the non-patients of both the sexes. Moreover, the mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients (mean score for males=8.4 and females=10.3) showed greater disturbances than those of the non-patients (mean score for males=5.2 and females=6.1) of both the sexes. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that the factors potentially contributing to the lower QOL scores included: being an arsenic-affected patient, having lower age, and having lower annual income. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the QOL and mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients were significantly lower than those of the non-patients in Bangladesh. Appropriate interventions are necessary to improve the well-being of the patients.

  1. Symmetry of the face in old age reflects childhood social status.

    PubMed

    Hope, David; Bates, Timothy; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-03-01

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with a range of lifecourse outcomes is robust, but the causes of these associations are not well understood. Research on the developmental origins of health and disease has led to the hypothesis that early developmental disturbance might permanently affect the lifecourse, accounting for some of the burden of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease. Here we assessed developmental disturbance using bodily and facial symmetry and examined its association with socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood, and attained status at midlife. Symmetry was measured at ages 83 (facial symmetry) and 87 (bodily symmetry) in a sample of 292 individuals from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921). Structural equation models indicated that poorer SES during early development was significantly associated with lower facial symmetry (standardized path coefficient -.25, p=.03). By contrast, midlife SES was not significantly associated with symmetry. The relationship was stronger in men (-.44, p=.03) than in women (-.12, p=.37), and the effect sizes were significantly different in magnitude (p=.004). These findings suggest that SES in early life (but not later in life) is associated with developmental disturbances. Facial symmetry appears to provide an effective record of early perturbations, whereas bodily symmetry seems relatively imperturbable. As bodily and facial symmetries were sensitive to different influences, they should not be treated as interchangeable. However, markers of childhood disturbance remain many decades later, suggesting that early development may account in part for associations between SES and health through the lifecourse. Future research should clarify which elements of the environment cause these perturbations.

  2. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Negeri, Keneni Gutema; Halemariam, Damen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000) in the region. Conclusion Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27103844

  3. Ageing Jewish Holocaust survivors: anxieties in dealing with health professionals.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H I; Joffe, C F; Brodaty, H

    1996-11-01

    Jewish Holocaust survivors who emigrated to Australia after World War II are ageing and having more frequent contact with health services. Health professionals often lack the knowledge, training, skill or personal assurance to deal with the effects of massive trauma. Increased awareness of and sensitivity to older Holocaust survivors can lessen their anxieties and, potentially, improve treatment outcome. Such experience may form a useful lesson for health professionals in dealing with refugees from other atrocities as they age.

  4. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. PMID:22845631

  5. Socioeconomic and health status of electronics workers employed in organized industry.

    PubMed

    Mathur, N; Gupta, B N; Rastogi, S K; Mahendra, P N; Pangtey, B S; Husain, T; Bharti, R S

    1993-02-01

    To study their socioeconomic and health status, 1,770 workers in the organized electronics industry in India were surveyed. Mean age of the workers employed in this industry was 32.5 +/- 6.01 years. The average per capita income/month was Rupees 333, indicating a higher socioeconomic status, compared with the status of the national population, as well as compared with their counterparts in the unorganized sectors. Respiratory symptoms and impairment rates were significantly higher in workers exposed to soldering fumes. The high prevalence of congested or inflamed throat was also related to chemical exposure specially among solderers and workers exposed to metal oxides. The ocular symptoms and signs were also related to chemical exposure. Musculoskeletal disorders were related to erratic ergonomic postures.

  6. Race and self assessed health status: the role of socioeconomic factors in the USA.

    PubMed Central

    Ren, X S; Amick, B C

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative odds ratios and to ascertain the relative contribution of each socioeconomic covariate in explaining racial disparities in self assessed health status (for example, global health perceptions and functional limitations of daily activities). DESIGN: National representative data from the 1987-88 national survey of families and households, a multistage, stratified probability sample of non-institutionalised American adults age 19 and older, were used. Logistic regression models enabled a multistage building strategy to be used in the analyses. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The study included three racial groups: whites (n = 9419), blacks (n = 2391), and Hispanics (n = 1004). While face to face interviews were carried out with each respondent, some portions of the interview were self administered to collect sensitive information. MAIN RESULTS: Compared with whites, blacks and Hispanics were more likely to assess health as poor and report having functional limitations of daily activities. Socioeconomic factors tended to play a different role in explaining racial disparities in self assessed health status. In global health, education tended to play a significant role in accounting for health disparities between whites and Hispanics. In functional limitations, none of the covariates explained racial differences for blacks, whereas for Hispanics, education and marital status explained racial differences. CONCLUSIONS: The debate over whether race is a proxy for socioeconomic conditions or race influences health independent of socioeconomic factors depends on the measure of health and racial group included in the study. Future studies should examine separately the differential impacts of various socioeconomic factors on varying domains of health. Images PMID:8935457

  7. Stress at work and mental health status among female hospital workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estryn-Behar, M; Kaminski, M; Peigne, E; Bonnet, N; Vaichere, E; Gozlan, C; Azoulay, S; Giorgi, M

    1990-01-01

    Relations between working conditions and mental health status of female hospital workers were studied in a sample of 1505 women: 43% were nurses, 32% auxiliaries, and 7% ancillary staff; 13% were other qualified health care staff, mainly head nurses; 5% had occupations other than direct health care; 63% worked on the morning, 20% on the afternoon, and 17% on the night shift. Data were collected at the annual routine medical visit by the occupational health practitioner, using self administered questionnaires and clinical assessments. Five health indicators were considered: a high score to the general health questionnaire (GHQ); fatigue; sleep impairment; use of antidepressants, sleeping pills, or sedatives; and diagnosis of psychiatric morbidity at clinical assessment. Four indices of stress at work were defined: job stress, mental load, insufficiency in internal training and discussion, and strain caused by schedule. The analysis was conducted by multiple logistic regression, controlling for type of occupation, shift, number of years of work in hospital, daily travel time to work, age, marital status, number of children, and wish to move house. Sleep impairment was mostly linked to shift and strain due to schedule. For all other indicators of mental health impairment and especially high GHQ scores, the adjusted odds ratios increased significantly with the levels of job stress, mental load, and strain due to schedule. This evidence of association between work involving an excessive cumulation of stress factors and mental wellbeing should be considered in interventions aimed at improving the working conditions of hospital workers. PMID:2310704

  8. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for health care claim status transaction... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1402 Standards for health care claim status transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the...

  9. 45 CFR 162.1403 - Operating rules for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operating rules for health care claim status... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1403 Operating rules for health care claim status transaction. On and after January 1, 2013, the Secretary...

  10. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for health care claim status transaction... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1402 Standards for health care claim status transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the...

  11. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health...

  12. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for health care claim status transaction... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1402 Standards for health care claim status transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the...

  13. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health...

  14. 45 CFR 162.1403 - Operating rules for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operating rules for health care claim status... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1403 Operating rules for health care claim status transaction. On and after January 1, 2013, the Secretary...

  15. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health...

  16. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health...

  17. 8 CFR 1245.14 - Adjustment of status of certain health care workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RESIDENCE § 1245.14 Adjustment of status of certain health care workers. An alien applying for adjustment of status to perform labor in a health care occupation as described in 8 CFR 1212.15(c) must present... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment of status of certain health...

  18. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for health care claim status transaction... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1402 Standards for health care claim status transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the...

  19. 45 CFR 162.1403 - Operating rules for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operating rules for health care claim status... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1403 Operating rules for health care claim status transaction. On and after January 1, 2013, the Secretary...

  20. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for health care claim status transaction... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1402 Standards for health care claim status transaction. The Secretary adopts the following standards for the...

  1. 45 CFR 162.1403 - Operating rules for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operating rules for health care claim status... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Claim Status § 162.1403 Operating rules for health care claim status transaction. On and after January 1, 2013, the Secretary...

  2. [The stomatologic status of people of elderly and senile age].

    PubMed

    Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatov, S V; Soldatova, L N; Zaborovskiĭ, K A; Ryzhak, G A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the data of epidemiological inspection of 1000 persons of average, elderly and senile age. Prevalence and intensity of a current of the basic stomatologic diseases (caries, pathology of a paradont and a mucous membrane of an oral cavity, a temporal-mandibular joint and chewing muscles) have been studied. Indicators of need of people of various age groups in tooth prosthetics are established. Level of rendering the stomatologic help is defined to be insufficient in groups of people of elderly and senile age. Recommendations aimed at improvement of stomatologic help to people of elderly and senile age are made. PMID:21510091

  3. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  4. Consideration of forgiveness to enhance the health status of older male prisoners confronting spiritual, social, or emotional vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Alex J; Randall, G Kevin; Merten, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Participants in this study included 261 men, aged 45 and older, residing within state-managed correctional facilities in Oklahoma. Path analysis was used to examine an integrated mediation model. Spiritual ambivalence, loneliness, and depressive affect had direct negative associations with forgiveness, controlling for age, race, education, and type of crime. Forgiveness also maintained a direct positive association with perceived health status, whereas depressive affect maintained a direct negative association with perceived health status. In addition, a significant indirect effect of depressive affect on perceived health through forgiveness emerged. Overall, the model explained 38% of the variance in forgiveness and 23% in perceived health. Greater spiritual ambivalence, loneliness, and depressive affect diminish forgiveness among older male prisoners, yet higher levels of forgiveness, are associated with greater perceived health. PMID:25332306

  5. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  6. Dental visits, dental health status and need for dental treatment in a Danish industrial population.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the utilization of dental services, the distribution of dental diseases and treatment needs in a Danish industrial population. The study covered the male population at a Danish shipyard, and a sample of 988 workers and clerical and managerial staff was drawn by stratified random sampling. 841 persons were interviewed regarding dental visits and attitudes towards dental health services and data on dental health and treatment needs were collected. 61% of the participants aged 15-64 years made regular dental visits at least once a year. The percentages of regular visitors varied according to age and occupation, from 68 to 82% among clerical staff to 34 to 51% among workers. The mean DMF-T increased from 16.6 in the age group 15-24 to 27.0 among the 55-64-year-olds. Untreated dental decay was predominant among workers and persons never seeing a dentist, whereas there were more filled teeth and fewer missing teeth among staff and regular visitors. The periodontal status was less satisfactory in the older age groups and among workers, and most denture wearers were found in the age group 35-64 and among workers. Concordant to the findings on dental health status, dental treatment needs due to caries and periodontal disease as well as prosthetic treatment needs varied according to age, occupation and dental visits. More radical treatment types were needed in the older age groups, among workers and non-regular visitors. The present study seems to indicate that dental diseases in the adult Danish population are not under control.

  7. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  8. Status Report #1 on School-Age Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues and trends in school-age care. Topics discussed include (1) the population that needs care; (2) the providers of care; (3) challenges to providing care that relate to facility space, funding, affordability, staffing, and competition among providers; and (4) the future of school-age care. (HOD)

  9. Oral health status of older adults in Arizona: results from the Arizona Elder Study.

    PubMed

    Berg, R; Berkey, D B; Tang, J M; Baine, C; Altman, D S

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare oral health status of independent community-dwelling elders with those using long-term-care services. Clinical examinations and self-reported sociodemographic data were collected for 2927 older adults living independently, using home-care services, or living in nursing facilities. Mean age of dentate participants (n = 2021) was 72.2 years (range, 50-103 years); mean number of teeth, 18.16; mean DFS, 28.86; and mean RCI, 15.23. In multivariate analyses, receiving home-care services or living in a nursing facility was significantly predictive of poorer oral health status with respect to both coronal and root caries. This was also true for ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic-white. We concluded that, in a large, multi-ethnic sample, direct comparisons highlight significant unmet treatment need among users of long-term-care services, compared with independent older adults living in the same communities.

  10. Health, Height, Height Shrinkage, and SES at Older Ages: Evidence from China†

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Ridder, Geert; Strauss, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we build on the literature that examines associations between height and health outcomes of the elderly. We investigate the associations of height shrinkage at older ages with socioeconomic status, finding that height shrinkage for both men and women is negatively associated with better schooling, current urban residence, and household per capita expenditures. We then investigate the relationships between pre-shrinkage height, height shrinkage, and a rich set of health outcomes of older respondents, finding that height shrinkage is positively associated with poor health outcomes across a variety of outcomes, being especially strong for cognition outcomes. PMID:26594311

  11. Men's role in women's antenatal health status: evidence from rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Reza, Md Shahin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities.

  12. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be

  13. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-03-19

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral

  14. [Lifestyle and health status of homeless people around Shibuya Station, Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, S; Minowa, M

    1999-09-01

    The number of homeless people in Tokyo is estimated to be 3,200-3,300. While studies on the health status of homeless people, including illness, injury and deaths have been previously reported, most of these reports concern the homeless who resided in housing facilities for the homeless or who admitted to hospitals. We undertook a comparison of lifestyle and health status between homeless people and people who live in houses (as a control group). Health status was also analyzed for differences among homeless people. Subjects were asked by questionnaire regarding their age, the length of being homeless, former and present employment, sleeping condition, food, whether they have friends or not, the amount of smoking per day, and Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF36). As objective findings, measurement of blood pressure and blood testing were also performed. Fifty-three homeless people, 49 male, 4 female, average age 52, from the areas around Shibuya station and Yoyogi park, were enrolled. While 98% of the homeless people had previous employment, 73% were not working when the study was performed. Compared with control group, the homeless had fewer meals per day, fewer friends, excessive smoking, greater history of gastro-duodenal ulcer and injury, greater limitation due to physical problems, and higher general mental health as measured by SF36. The diastolic blood pressure of the homeless was higher than that of the control. The blood testing showed higher white blood cell counts and platelet counts. It was suggested that changes in the social structures were largely influential in causing life, and that access to health care was limited because of financial and social barriers. Further studies with more samples, survey of social volunteers involved in care of homeless and qualitative data would be necessary to find and develop better support system for the homeless.

  15. Role of Health Insurance Status in Interfacility Transfers of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael J; Kripalani, Sunil; Zhu, Yuwei; Storrow, Alan B; Wang, Thomas J; Speroff, Theodore; Munoz, Daniel; Dittus, Robert S; Harrell, Frank E; Self, Wesley H

    2016-08-01

    Lack of health insurance is associated with interfacility transfer from emergency departments for several nonemergent conditions, but its association with transfers for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which requires timely definitive care for optimal outcomes, is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether insurance status is a predictor of interfacility transfer for emergency department visits with STEMI. We analyzed data from the 2006 to 2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample examining all emergency department visits for patients age 18 years and older with a diagnosis of STEMI and a disposition of interfacility transfer or hospitalization at the same institution. For emergency department visits with STEMI, our multivariate logistic regression model included emergency department disposition status (interfacility transfer vs hospitalization at the same institution) as the primary outcome, and insurance status (none vs any [including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance]) as the primary exposure. We found that among 1,377,827 emergency department STEMI visits, including 249,294 (18.1%) transfers, patients without health insurance (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7) were more likely to be transferred than those with insurance. Lack of health insurance status was also an independent risk factor for transfer compared with each subcategory of health insurance, including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance. In conclusion, among patients presenting to United States emergency departments with STEMI, lack of insurance was an independent predictor of interfacility transfer. In conclusion, because interfacility transfer is associated with longer delays to definitive STEMI therapy than treatment at the same facility, lack of health insurance may lead to important health disparities among patients with STEMI.

  16. Role of Health Insurance Status in Interfacility Transfers of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael J; Kripalani, Sunil; Zhu, Yuwei; Storrow, Alan B; Wang, Thomas J; Speroff, Theodore; Munoz, Daniel; Dittus, Robert S; Harrell, Frank E; Self, Wesley H

    2016-08-01

    Lack of health insurance is associated with interfacility transfer from emergency departments for several nonemergent conditions, but its association with transfers for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which requires timely definitive care for optimal outcomes, is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether insurance status is a predictor of interfacility transfer for emergency department visits with STEMI. We analyzed data from the 2006 to 2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample examining all emergency department visits for patients age 18 years and older with a diagnosis of STEMI and a disposition of interfacility transfer or hospitalization at the same institution. For emergency department visits with STEMI, our multivariate logistic regression model included emergency department disposition status (interfacility transfer vs hospitalization at the same institution) as the primary outcome, and insurance status (none vs any [including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance]) as the primary exposure. We found that among 1,377,827 emergency department STEMI visits, including 249,294 (18.1%) transfers, patients without health insurance (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.7) were more likely to be transferred than those with insurance. Lack of health insurance status was also an independent risk factor for transfer compared with each subcategory of health insurance, including Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance. In conclusion, among patients presenting to United States emergency departments with STEMI, lack of insurance was an independent predictor of interfacility transfer. In conclusion, because interfacility transfer is associated with longer delays to definitive STEMI therapy than treatment at the same facility, lack of health insurance may lead to important health disparities among patients with STEMI. PMID:27282834

  17. Equity and efficiency in health status and health services utilization: a household perspective.

    PubMed

    Sirageldin, I; Diop, F

    1991-01-01

    Health economists examine the existing pattern of disease, the initial distributional structure of public policies, and the behavioral response of households in allocating resources towards health promoting activities to understand the health consequences of public fiscal and income policies. They hope that this analysis will guide health policymakers to minimize differentials in health service utilization and health outcomes. The household production of health serves as the general framework. The analysis reveals that the demand for health and the demand for health services depend on the organization of government fiscal and distribution policies. Further the demand for health services hinges on its own price as well as on the prices of other inputs including nutrition and environmental sanitation. The government basically subsidizes these inputs, but it does not equally distribute the subsidies. For people with the lower subsidy on other health inputs, the health benefit from using health services tend to be lower. Thus the fact that these households have a low demand for health and low use of health services may indicate a rational decision which reveals low perceived productivity of these inputs. Therefore policymakers should include the effect of public subsidies when examining the effect of public policies on health status. These policies may include structural adjustment or cost recovery schemes. In fact, as evidenced in a case study in the Ivory Coast, structural adjustments did not affect the rural poor and urban poor, but instead adversely affected middle class urban households. Hence policymakers should not limit their examinations to traditional income groups. PMID:12285361

  18. Men's health status during pregnancy and early fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Ferketich, S L; Mercer, R T

    1989-06-01

    The findings in this study of 147 men agreed with earlier research that health status declines over the first 8 months of fatherhood. The study extends previous work in that causes of this decline were tested. Empirical respecified models predicting health perception during pregnancy, early postpartum 1, 4, and 8 months were able to predict from 20 to 60% of the variance. These models were substantively more powerful than the hypothesized theoretical model that was tested, which explained from 12 to 38% of the variance. At all time periods there was a link between negative life events and a direct or indirect predictor of health perception. Other variables that consistently entered the models with either direct or indirect links were self-esteem, mastery, and either depression or anxiety. The empirical respecified models showed moderate to strong predictive power and provide a base for future model testing and subsequent intervention studies.

  19. Variations Among Medicare Beneficiaries Living in Different Settings: Demographics, Health Status, and Service Use.

    PubMed

    Degenholtz, Howard B; Park, Mijung; Kang, Yihuang; Nadash, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Older people with complex health issues and needs for functional support are increasingly living in different types of residential care environments as alternatives to nursing homes. This study aims to compare the demographics and health-care expenditures of Medicare beneficiaries by the setting in which they live: nursing homes, residential care settings, and at home using data from the 2002 to 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Study (MCBS), a nationally representative survey of the Medicare population. All Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older who participated in the fall MCBS interview (years 2002-2010) and were alive for the full year (N = 83,507) were included in the sample. We found that there is a gradient in health status, physical and cognitive functioning, and health-care use and spending across settings. Minority elderly are overrepresented in facilities and underrepresented in alternative living settings.

  20. Age as a Criterion for Setting Priorities in Health Care? A Survey of the German Public View

    PubMed Central

    Diederich, Adele; Winkelhage, Jeannette; Wirsik, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Although the German health care system has budget constraints similar to many other countries worldwide, a discussion on prioritization has not gained the attention of the public yet. To probe the acceptance of priority setting in medicine, a quantitative survey representative for the German public (n = 2031) was conducted. Here we focus on the results for age, a highly disputed criterion for prioritizing medical services. This criterion was investigated using different types of questionnaire items, from abstract age-related questions to health care scenarios, and discrete choice settings, all performed within the same sample. Several explanatory variables were included to account for differences in preference; in particular, interviewee's own age but also his or her sex, socioeconomic status, and health status. There is little evidence that the German public accepts age as a criterion to prioritize health care services. PMID:21904600

  1. [Self-reported health status among students in Scandinavia].

    PubMed

    Due, P; Holstein, B E; Marklund, U

    1991-01-01

    The article reports data from the WHO cross-national study on health behaviour in schoolchildren. A sample of 11,774 children aged 11, 13 and 15 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden answered a questionnaire on social situation, health, health behaviour and lifestyle. Self assessed health is reported excellent among approximately two thirds of the Swedish children, half the Danish children, one third of the Finnish children and one fifth of the Norwegian children. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden self-assessed health is better among boys than girls. The most frequent symptom reported by the children is feeling low. Approximately half the children have experienced this condition at least once during the last week. Difficulties in getting to sleep, head ache, and feeling nervous are symptoms experienced by approximately one third of the children at least once a week. Smaller proportions of the children have experienced stomach-ache, back pain, bad temper and feeling dizzy. There are minor variations between countries and between age groups, but in almost all age groups in all countries more girls than boys report these symptoms. Approximately every fourth pupil have used medication against headache, stomach-ache and coughs during the last month. More girls than boys have used these medications, less pupils in Denmark than in the other countries. Very small proportions have used medication against nervousness and difficulties to getting to sleep.

  2. Health status recovery at one year in children injured in a road accident: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Batailler, Pierre; Hours, Martine; Maza, Maud; Charnay, Pierrette; Tardy, Hélène; Tournier, Charlène; Javouhey, Etienne

    2014-10-01

    Despite the frequency of traumatic injuries due to road accidents and potential importance of identifying children at risk of impaired recovery one year after a road accident, there is a lack of data on long-term recovery of health status, except in children with severe traumatic brain injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate predictive factors of recovery in children one year after road traffic injuries. The prospective cohort study was composed of children aged <16 years, admitted to public or private sector hospitals in the Rhône administrative area of France following a road accident. Recovery of health status one year after the accident and information concerning quality of life and the consequences of the accident for the child or family 1 year after the accident were collected by questionnaire, usually completed by the parents. Victims were in majority male (64.6%) and had mild or moderate injuries (81.9% with Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (M-AIS) <3). One year after the accident, 75.0% of the mild-to-moderate and 34.8% of the severe cases estimated health status as fully recovered. After adjustment, severity score (M-AIS≥3) and lower limb injury (AIS>1) were associated with incomplete recovery of health status: weighted odds ratio (ORw), 4.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.3-14.6] and ORw, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.9-21.7], respectively. Recovery status correlated significantly with quality of life physical scores (r=0.46), especially body pain (r=0.48) and role/social-physical (r=0.50) and, to a lesser extent, quality of life psychosocial scores (r=0.21). In a cohort of children injured in a road accident, those with high injury severity score and those with lower limb injuries are less likely to recover full health status by 1 year. Impaired health status was associated with a lower physical quality of life score at 1 year.

  3. Parental perception of oral health status of children in mainstream and special education classrooms.

    PubMed

    Butani, Yogita; Gansky, Stuart A; Weintraub, Jane A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare parental perceptions of oral health status and access to dental services by children in 34 special education and 16 mainstream public elementary school classes in San Mateo County, California. A self-administered parental survey was utilized and included questions about demographics, oral health, and dental utilization. The overall response rate was 58.8%. After adjusting for age and gender of the child, compared to mainstream, parents of students in special education classes were significantly more likely to report their children to have worse oral health (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.54, 3.67), be lacking a past year dental visit (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.01, 3.84), and have missed school days due to dental reasons (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.55, 4.17). Both groups rated their children's oral health inferior to the overall health rating (p < .001). The authors concluded that disparities exist between the two groups in parental perceptions of their children's oral health status and dental service utilization.

  4. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages.

  5. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  6. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    PubMed Central

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  7. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320

  8. Correlates of Sense of Control among Older Korean-American Immigrants: Financial Status, Physical Health Constraints, and Environmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Responding to the need for more research on minority older populations, the present study assessed sense of control among older Korean-American immigrants. The association of sense of control with financial status, physical health constraints, and environmental challenges was examined with a sample of 230 older Korean-Americans (M[age] = 69.8,…

  9. Carer Reports of Health Status among Adults with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities in Taiwan Living at Home and in Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, K.-Y.; Hsieh, K.; Heller, T.; Davidson, P. W.; Janicki, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the health status of a cohort of adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities (I/DD) residing in family homes or institutions in Taiwan and to examine whether morbidity varied with age, sex, existing diagnosis [Down syndrome (DS), seizures, cerebral palsy (CP), intellectual disability…

  10. Relationships between health status, depression and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pei-Jung; Chiou, Chii-Jun; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among health state, depression, and cognitive functions of institutionalized male veterans. A cross-sectional and correlation research design with a cluster sampling was conducted. A total of 223 veterans who were above 65 years old, with no psychiatric disorders and no organic brain lesions were recruited from two veterans' institutions in Southern Taiwan. The researcher interviewed them one-on-one using structural questionnaires, including demographic data, health status, Taiwan Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results of this study were as follows: (1) Veterans who were able to read, were married, had good dietary habits, avoided over-oiled and high-fat food to keep healthy, took exercise at least 30 min each time, and had static leisure activities had significant differences in cognitive functions. (2) Cognitive functions were significantly negatively correlated with age and depression, whereas positively correlated with education level, the number of children and perceived health status. (3) Depression, literacy, education level and age were the four predictors of cognitive functions, accounting for 29% of the variance. The findings of this study provide a reference to caregivers and health care professionals for home care, clinical practice and cohort study in the future.

  11. Risky health-related behaviours among school-aged adolescents: a rational 'consumer' choice?

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jane E K

    2016-05-01

    Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism. PMID:25781521

  12. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  13. The Perceived Socioeconomic Status Is an Important Factor of Health Recovery for Victims of Occupational Accidents in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. PMID:26839467

  14. The Perceived Socioeconomic Status Is an Important Factor of Health Recovery for Victims of Occupational Accidents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. PMID:26839467

  15. Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, M; Bergin, I L; Bassis, C M; Hashway, S A; Chai, D; Bell, J D

    2015-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems.

  16. Educational attainment and self-rated health status among single mothers in rural Alabama.

    PubMed

    Zekeri, Andrew A

    2013-08-01

    Using previous data from a random sample of 300 single mothers from rural Alabama, multiple regression analysis indicated that food insecurity and employment status had a modest effect on self-rated health status, while educational attainment and income had the greatest effect. These variables explained 29% of the variance in health status. Social and economic policies that affect educational attainment and income distribution may have important consequences for health status in these rural areas.

  17. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium.

  18. [Health behaviour and health status of nursing staff--a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Tracogna, U; Klewer, J; Kugler, J

    2002-07-01

    Presently around 1.1 million nurses are employed in the German health care system. Due to increased workload and staff reduction, studies on the health behaviour and health condition of nursing staff are increasingly important. Hence we reviewed the literature on health behaviour and health condition of nursing staff. Articles available in Medline and Embase from 1978 to 2000 were included, focussing on smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, eating habits, body-mass index, dental health status, risk behaviour in traffic, workload, burnout syndrome, sports and recreation, job satisfaction, subjective health status, subjective complaints, vaccinations and quality of life. Health behaviour was divided in unhealthy and healthy behaviour. It became obvious that most of the studies focussed on investigation of unhealthy behaviour, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse and poor eating habits. Health promotion was mainly seen as avoiding these unhealthy habits. Only in current studies definitions of health promoting behaviour were developed as a part of a comprehensive life-style.

  19. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age. PMID:26691789

  20. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age.

  1. [Health status and health needs assessment--state of the art of the public health practice in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Vuletić, Silvije; Sogorić, Selma; Malatestinić, Dulija; Bozicević, Ivana

    2010-12-01

    Public health practice performance is measured through its three core functions, i.e. assessment, policy development and assurance. We describe the existing health status and health care needs assessment practices in the Republic of Croatia. Health care needs assessment in Croatia includes mortality and morbidity information available through vital records but does not include community input (opinion and attitude) and participation. Health needs are not analyzed in order to determine the causes of health problems. Analysis of health needs of the population groups at highest risk also does not exist. Resources assessment is not part of the process, so we do not know how adequate the existing health resources are. In the Croatian health care system practice, the assessment function is limited through the almost exclusive use of the routine health and demographic statistics. Academic public health has introduced other kinds of more participative, subgroups oriented, qualitative methodologies but in daily routine, these methods are hardly used. Since health needs assessment is one of the core public health functions, in the future its practice has to be reoriented from pure monitoring towards identifying and solving community health problems. Partnership with community has to be a cornerstone for more efficient health needs assessment practice. In the light of previous statement, we present and discuss new trends in the assessment practice in Croatia, i.e. revision of routine health data collection, ways of performing intervention aimed health surveys, naturalistic approach in health needs assessment, and health needs research of population groups at highest risk.

  2. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force.

  3. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    PubMed

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  4. Gender difference in health and its determinants in the old-aged population in India.

    PubMed

    Dhak, Biplab

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the gender differential in health and its socioeconomic and demographic determinants in the old-age population of India based on the National Sample Survey 60th round data collected in 2004. As in developed countries, older women in India report poorer self-reported health and experience greater immobility compared with men. Stepwise logistic regression analysis shows that the gender differential in health is linked to various socioeconomic and demographic variables and that the gender gap could be narrowed with appropriate policy intervention. Specifically, paying special attention towards improving the socioeconomic status of widowed/separated women could attenuate a substantial portion of the observed gender gap in the health of the old-age population. PMID:19563694

  5. Socioeconomic status and health in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali

    2009-06-01

    There is growing interest in the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health. Individual SES has been shown to be closely related to mortality, morbidity, health-related behavior and access to health care services in Western countries. Whether the same set of social determinants accounts for higher rates of mortality or morbidity in Japan is questionable, because over the past decade the magnitude of the social stratification within the society has increased due to economic and social circumstances. SES must be interpreted within the economic, social, demographic and cultural contexts of a specific country. In this report we discuss the impact of individuals' socioeconomic position on health in Japan with regard to educational attainment, occupational gradient/class, income level, and unemployment. This review is based mainly on papers indexed in Medline/PubMed between 1990 and 2007. We find that socioeconomic differences in mortality, morbidity and risk factors are not uniformly small in Japan. The majority of papers investigate the relationship between education, occupational class and health, but low income and unemployment are not examined sufficiently in Japan. The results also indicate that different socioeconomic contexts and inequality contribute to the mortality, morbidity, and biological and behavioral risk factors in Japan, although the pattern and direction of the relationships may not necessarily be the same in terms of size, pattern, distribution, magnitude and impact as in Western countries. In particular, the association between higher occupational status and lower mortality, as well as higher educational attainment and either mortality or morbidity, is not as strongly expressed among the Japanese. Japan is still one of the healthiest and most egalitarian nations in the world, and social inequalities within the population are less expressed. However, the magnitude of the social stratification has started to increase, and this is an alarming

  6. Race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in research on child health.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tina L; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    An extensive literature documents the existence of pervasive and persistent child health, development, and health care disparities by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). Disparities experienced during childhood can result in a wide variety of health and health care outcomes, including adult morbidity and mortality, indicating that it is crucial to examine the influence of disparities across the life course. Studies often collect data on the race, ethnicity, and SES of research participants to be used as covariates or explanatory factors. In the past, these variables have often been assumed to exert their effects through individual or genetically determined biologic mechanisms. However, it is now widely accepted that these variables have important social dimensions that influence health. SES, a multidimensional construct, interacts with and confounds analyses of race and ethnicity. Because SES, race, and ethnicity are often difficult to measure accurately, leading to the potential for misattribution of causality, thoughtful consideration should be given to appropriate measurement, analysis, and interpretation of such factors. Scientists who study child and adolescent health and development should understand the multiple measures used to assess race, ethnicity, and SES, including their validity and shortcomings and potential confounding of race and ethnicity with SES. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that research on eliminating health and health care disparities related to race, ethnicity, and SES be a priority. Data on race, ethnicity, and SES should be collected in research on child health to improve their definitions and increase understanding of how these factors and their complex interrelationships affect child health. Furthermore, the AAP believes that researchers should consider both biological and social mechanisms of action of race, ethnicity, and SES as they relate to the aims and hypothesis of the specific area of

  7. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  8. Health Status and Behavioral Risk Factors in Older Adult Mexicans and Mexican Immigrants to the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Escarce, Jose; Leng, Mei; Morales, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the “salmon-bias” hypothesis, which posits that Mexicans in the U.S. return to Mexico due to poor health, as an explanation for the Hispanic health paradox in which Hispanics in the United States are healthier than might be expected from their socioeconomic status. Method Sample includes Mexicans age 50 or above living in the U.S. and Mexico from the 2003 Mexican Health and Aging Study and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study. Logistic regressions examine whether non-migrants or return migrants have different odds than immigrants of reporting a health outcome. Results The “salmon-bias” hypothesis holds for select health outcomes. However, non-migrants and return migrants have better health outcomes than immigrants on a variety of indicators. Discussion Overall, the results of this study do not support the salmon bias hypothesis; other explanations for the paradox could be explored. PMID:23264441

  9. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  10. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was

  11. Self-reported health status of vietnamese and non-Hispanic white older adults in california.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara; Tan, Angela L; Hays, Ron D; Mangione, Carol M; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2008-08-01

    Vietnamese Americans are a rapidly growing minority group in the United States, yet little is known about their health status. Chronic medical conditions and self-rated health of older Vietnamese Americans were compared with those of non-Hispanic white adults living in California using the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys (CHISs). The CHIS employed a random-digit-dial telephone survey, and its sample is representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The sample included 359 Vietnamese and 25,177 non-Hispanic white adults aged 55 and older. Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white adults were compared in terms of limitations in activities of daily living, chronic medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, asthma), mental health care, and self-reported health, adjusting for age, sex, and education. Vietnamese were more likely than white participants to report needing help for mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-3.1) but less likely to have had their medical providers discuss their mental health problems with them (aOR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1-0.5). In addition, Vietnamese participants reported significantly worse health than white adults on five of eight domains of the Medical Outcomes Survery 12-item Short Form survey (P<.006). Clinicians caring for older Vietnamese individuals should be aware of the high risk for mental health needs in this population and should initiate discussions about mental health with their patients. Further research is needed to better understand why older Vietnamese Americans are at higher risk for worse self-reported health than older white adults.

  12. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41–60-year-old age group than in the 18–40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  13. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41-60-year-old age group than in the 18-40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women.

  14. Health and sexual status in an urban gay enclave: an application of the stress process model.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam Isaiah

    2008-12-01

    In this article, I apply the stress process model as a framework to understand sexual sociality and its impact on health among urban gay men in a large North American gay enclave. Data consisting of in-depth interviews with 70 gay men coupled with three years of fieldwork demonstrate a sexual status order that privileges caucasian, middle-class men in their twenties and early thirties, and that disadvantages black and Asian men, men over 40 years of age, and poor men. Men with low sexual status faced significant stressors in the form of avoidance from others, stigmatization, and rejection. These stressors, in turn, taxed personal resources, including self-esteem, sense of social support, and sense of control, and they also negatively affected emotional states in the form of depression and anxiety. Finally, some low status men were unable to consistently negotiate condom use as a consequence of a history of field stressors and diminished personal resources. The results suggest that more work on sexual status structures and their connection to health is needed, both within gay enclaves and across a broader spectrum of sexual subcultures.

  15. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41-60-year-old age group than in the 18-40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  16. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  17. Assessment of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Status among Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes of Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rohit; Gautam, Nalam Radhika; Kumar, P Mahesh; Kadhiresan, R; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Suyog

    2015-01-01

    Background: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the dental caries and periodontal disease status of elderly residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 599 elderly people residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India using cluster sampling methodology. The clinical findings were recorded using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) to assess periodontal status as per community periodontal index, loss of attachment, WHO dentition status, and treatment needs. Results: In the present study, the caries prevalence among dentate subjects was found among 41.9% of the dentate subjects and the mean decayed, missed, and filled teeth was found to be 8.28 ± 4.779 with the mean number of decayed being 1.51. In the dentate population, 0% had healthy periodontal tissue, 0.26% had bleeding, and 24.5% had calculus, 52.1% had shallow pockets and 23.1% had deep pockets as their highest score and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the current study, 37.9% inmates were completely edentulous. This study also showed that as age advanced the prevalence increased from 23.1% to 55.4%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The oral health status of elderly people was found to be poor. Hence, it is concluded from this study that tooth loss is higher among the geriatric group residing in old age homes and is associated with many demographic and behavioral risk indicators. PMID:26464541

  18. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  19. Relations among Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Predictors of Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Kimberly D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Goldstein, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study simultaneously examined predictors of phonological awareness within the framework of 2 theories: the phonological distinctness hypothesis and the lexical restructuring model. Additionally, age as a moderator of the relations between predictor variables and phonological awareness was examined. Method: This cross-sectional…

  20. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Dry mouth: aging and oral health.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, Mahvash

    2002-10-01

    Dry mouth is a common complaint among older adults, and the aging process is erroneously considered by many to be the primary cause. The subjective complaint of dry mouth (xerostomia) is not always associated with objective evidence of a reduced saliva flow rate (salivary gland hypofunction). Moreover, there are patients who have reduced saliva flow rates and are asymptomatic. Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are associated with sundry oral and systemic complications and affect the quality of an individual's life. This article includes the common causes of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction and addresses the common complications of and routine therapeutic modalities available for these conditions in the elderly.

  2. Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

  3. Health Consequences of Long-Term Injection Heroin Use Among Aging Mexican American Men

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Luis R.; Kaplan, Charles; Valdez, Avelardo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Research on the health consequences of long-term injection drug use (IDU) is limited. This article examines these consequences among aging, male Mexican American injecting heroin users. Concern for this group is crucial, given its health disparities and the association of IDU with disease transmission. Method Aging, male Mexican American IDUs (N = 227) were recruited through intensive outreach. Participants self-reported health status, medical and substance use history, and completed behavioral and psychometric health scales. Results are compared to Hispanic national samples. Results Participants had significantly poorer self-rated health and negative health conditions. Selected medical conditions not associated with the heroin-use lifestyle (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, arthritis) were lower relative to the comparison samples. Discussion This population has a complex profile of health consequences linked to a heroin-using lifestyle. The study concludes that routine screening of infectious diseases and medical and behavioral conditions among aging substance using populations may contribute to reducing Hispanic health disparities. PMID:21451118

  4. Evaluating the Relationship of Dental Fear with Dental Health Status and Awareness

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental fear is one of the most common problems in dentistry, for both the patient and for the dentist. This issue can have an important effect on an individual’s dental health. Aim The aim of this paper was to report on the prevalence of dental anxiety and to explore if high levels of anxiety are associated with sociodemographic factors, oral health status, and level of oral health awareness. Materials and Methods The sample for this cross-sectional study included 294 patients (154 males and 140 females). All participants filled out a Dental Fear Survey (DFS) to evaluate their level of dental fear. Gender, age, education level, socioeconomic status and oral health awareness were also noted. Oral health behaviors and oral health awareness levels were investigated using seven questions. Also, the periodontal status of all participants was evaluated using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Differences between different subgroups were tested using the chi-square test. Results There was a statistically significant difference between the DFS groups with regard to sociodemographic data. Women had significantly higher scores than men, and young patients had significantly higher scores than others. Patients with low education levels and low socioeconomic status had high DFS scores. Periodontal status was better in groups that had scores in the low and moderate ranges compared to groups that had high scores on the DFS. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups of DFS and CPITN (p<0.05). Patients with low and moderate levels of DFS answered the oral health knowledge questions correctly. There was a statistically significant difference between the DFS groups based on correct answers to the oral health knowledge questions (p<0.05). Conclusion The elimination of dental fear is very important and should be treated according to a patient-centered assessment. These individuals were informed about the dental treatment

  5. Evaluating the Relationship of Dental Fear with Dental Health Status and Awareness

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental fear is one of the most common problems in dentistry, for both the patient and for the dentist. This issue can have an important effect on an individual’s dental health. Aim The aim of this paper was to report on the prevalence of dental anxiety and to explore if high levels of anxiety are associated with sociodemographic factors, oral health status, and level of oral health awareness. Materials and Methods The sample for this cross-sectional study included 294 patients (154 males and 140 females). All participants filled out a Dental Fear Survey (DFS) to evaluate their level of dental fear. Gender, age, education level, socioeconomic status and oral health awareness were also noted. Oral health behaviors and oral health awareness levels were investigated using seven questions. Also, the periodontal status of all participants was evaluated using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Differences between different subgroups were tested using the chi-square test. Results There was a statistically significant difference between the DFS groups with regard to sociodemographic data. Women had significantly higher scores than men, and young patients had significantly higher scores than others. Patients with low education levels and low socioeconomic status had high DFS scores. Periodontal status was better in groups that had scores in the low and moderate ranges compared to groups that had high scores on the DFS. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups of DFS and CPITN (p<0.05). Patients with low and moderate levels of DFS answered the oral health knowledge questions correctly. There was a statistically significant difference between the DFS groups based on correct answers to the oral health knowledge questions (p<0.05). Conclusion The elimination of dental fear is very important and should be treated according to a patient-centered assessment. These individuals were informed about the dental treatment

  6. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  7. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  8. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  9. [Health status hygienic assessment of primary military education establishment pupils].

    PubMed

    Avshits, I V; Shirinskiĭ, V A

    2010-01-01

    During a comprehensive study, the investigators have made a hygienic assessment of an academic process and the actual nutrition of military school pupils, revealed the specific features of functioning of the body's major systems in adolescents at a closed primary military education establishment, studied the body's adaptive reactions to a combination of factors during study, and hygienically evaluated the pupils' health. Their health has been shown to improve at a closed education establishment according to the basic parameters of the body's functional status and nonspecific resistance, physical development. Specific recommendations are proposed to correct daily diets for pupils of primary military education establishments in order to bring the actual nutrition of cadets in compliance with the standard physiological requirements for this group of pupils.

  10. Social and psychological resources associated with health status in a representative sample of adults affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p < 0.001), extreme fear during the hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.

  11. The health status burden of people with fibromyalgia: a review of studies that assessed health status with the SF-36 or the SF-12

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, D L; Dukes, E M

    2008-01-01

    Objective The current review describes how the health status profile of people with fibromyalgia (FM) compares to that of people in the general population and patients with other health conditions. Methods A review of 37 studies of FM that measured health status with the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) or the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Results Studies performed worldwide showed that FM groups were significantly more impaired than people in the general population on all eight health status domains assessed. These domains include physical functioning, role functioning difficulties caused by physical problems, bodily pain, general health, vitality (energy vs. fatigue), social functioning, role functioning difficulties caused by emotional problems and mental health. FM groups had mental health summary scores that fell 1 standard deviation (SD) below the general population mean, and physical health summary scores that fell 2 SD below the general population mean. FM groups also had a poorer overall health status compared to those with other specific pain conditions. FM groups had similar or significantly lower (poorer) physical and mental health status scores compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, myofacial pain syndrome, primary Sjögren's syndrome and others. FM groups scored significantly lower than the pain condition groups mentioned above on domains of bodily pain and vitality. Health status impairments in pain and vitality are consistent with core features of FM. Conclusions People with FM had an overall health status burden that was greater in magnitude compared to people with other specific pain conditions that are widely accepted as impairing. Review Criteria Studies in this review were identified through a search of electronic databases (MEDLINE: 1990–2006; EMBASE: 1990–2006). Search terms included: ‘fibromyalgia’, ‘health status’,

  12. [Examination of rearing standards and health status in turkeys in Germany].

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Ellerich, Ruth; Böhme, Julia; Cramer, Kerstin; DellaVolpe, Angelique; Mitterer-Istyagin, Heike; Ludewig, Martina; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Schuster, Ernst; Berk, Jutta; Aldehoff, Dietmar; Fulhorst, Dietmar; Kruse, Wolfgang; Dressel, Annette; Noack, Ulrich; Bartels, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of a cooperative research project, sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection in Germany (BMELV), turkey health as well as numerous aspects of animal welfare in various intensive commercial farms with varying rearing forms were examined. For this purpose extensive documentation of flock management and health status information was conducted over the past two years at the farms. Additional information was ascertained from the carcasses at the slaughterhouse. The first results of this study, which look at flock management, will be presented here. Upon reviewing the questionnaires, it is clear that on one hand almost all farmers orientate there stocking rate upon the allowed limits, on the other hand, however, when considering national general requirements, which are very important parameters thatargely influence animal health (i. e. litter quality and care of sick/injured animals) farmer compliance lacks. Especially the litter quality, which, among other parameters, plays a very important role in food pad health, proved to be unsatisfactory. Unfortunately, no instruments are available that measure the litter quality, yet. The status of footpad health was a major problem in all the rearing systems. However, the prevalence of epithelial necrosis and deep skin lesions varied immensely among different flocks of the same age. PMID:19681400

  13. An analysis of the health status of the United Arab Emirates: the ‘Big 4’ public health issues

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Tom; Aw, Tar-Ching; Handysides, Daniel G.; Ali, Raghib; Blair, Iain; Grivna, Michal; Shah, Syed M.; Sheek-Hussein, Mohamud; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Sharif, Amer A.; El-Obaid, Yusra

    2013-01-01

    Background The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a rapidly developing country composed of a multinational population with varying educational backgrounds, religious beliefs, and cultural practices, which pose a challenge for population-based public health strategies. A number of public health issues significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in the UAE. This article summarises the findings of a panel of medical and public health specialists from UAE University and various government health agencies commissioned to report on the health status of the UAE population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to retrieve peer-reviewed articles on health in the UAE, and unpublished data were provided by government health authorities and local hospitals. Results The panel reviewed and evaluated all available evidence to list and rank (1=highest priority) the top four main public health issues: 1) Cardiovascular disease accounted for more than 25% of deaths in 2010; 2) Injury caused 17% of mortality for all age groups in 2010; 3) Cancer accounted for 10% of all deaths in 2010, and the incidence of all cancers is projected to double by 2020; and 4) Respiratory disorders were the second most common non-fatal condition in 2010. Conclusion The major public health challenges posed by certain personal (e.g. ethnicity, family history), lifestyle, occupational, and environmental factors associated with the development of chronic disease are not isolated to the UAE; rather, they form part of a global health problem, which requires international collaboration and action. Future research should focus on population-based public health interventions that target the factors associated with the development of various chronic diseases. PMID:23394856

  14. Social and Mental Health Needs of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Lennie-Marie

    1983-01-01

    The United States Commissioner on Aging describes challenges posed by the increasing size of the older adult population, outlines gaps in knowledge regarding aging and the elderly, and calls for greater collaboration between the elderly and existing mental health networks. (AOS)

  15. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  16. Whole Body Vibration Exposures and Health Status among Professional Truck Drivers: A Cross-sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Zigman, Monica; Aulck, Lovenoor S; Ibbotson, Jennifer A; Dennerlein, Jack T; Johnson, Peter W

    2016-10-01

    Many professional truck drivers suffer from low back pain (LBP) which is thought to be associated with exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize general health, regional body pain and WBV exposures, (ii) evaluate the associations between different WBV parameters and health outcomes, and (iii) determine whether there were factors which affect a truck driver's WBV exposures. This study analyzed WBV exposures from 96 long-haul truck drivers over their regular work shift (6-15h) per International Standards Organization (ISO) 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV standards. This study also evaluated regional body pain (10-point scale), low back disability (the Oswestry Disability Index), and physical and mental health (the Short Form 12-item Health Survey). The results demonstrated that the daily vector sum WBV exposures [A(8), VDV(8) and Sed(8)] were above action limits while the predominant z-axis exposures were below action limits. Among all the musculoskeletal outcomes, LBP was the most prevalent (72.5%) with average LBP score of 2.9 (SD: 2.0). The SF-12 health scores demonstrated that truck drivers in general had lower physical health status than the general US population (P's < 0.04) and that physical health status decreased as WBV exposures increased (P = 0.03). In addition, the correlations between the WBV measures and health outcomes indicated that A(8) exposure measures had a stronger link to musculoskeletal (LBP) and other health outcomes than the VDV(8) and Sed(8) measures. Finally, seat manufacturer and seat age were two factors which had a strong influence on WBV exposures.

  17. Life Styling for the Promotion of Health While Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gloria R.

    Classes on lifestyling for the promotion of health for the elderly were offered to a senior citizens' group in a community center setting. The objectives of the sessions were: (1) to teach the importance of health maintenance and primary prevention throughout the aging process; (2) to disseminate information relative to diet, exercise, and stress…

  18. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  19. Religiosity dimensions and subjective health status in Greek students.

    PubMed

    Kioulos, K T; Bergiannaki, J D; Glaros, A; Vassiliadou, M; Alexandri, Z; Papadimitriou, G

    2015-01-01

    The quest for existential meaning constitutes a universal phenomenon traditionally manifested in official religions (religiosity) or personal modes of transcendence (spirituality). Religiosity and spirituality have been found to be associated with a variety of mental health and illness parameters. In the last decades there is an increasing number of publications with interesting results on the relationship between religiosity and mental health, both on a theoretical and a clinical level. Recent research suggests the presence of clinically important interactions between religious beliefs and mental health, although the exact nature of the associations remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate subjective health status in relation to specific dimensions of religiosity and spirituality in Greek students; 202 students of the faculty of Theology of the University of Athens were interviewed using the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), which assesses the dimensions of "daily spiritual experiences", "meaning", "values/beliefs", "forgiveness", "private religious practices", "religious/spiritual coping", "religious support", "religious/ spiritual history", "commitment", "organizational religiousness", and "religious preferences". Subjective health status was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which examines four areas of health in the following sub-scales: (a) somatic symptoms, (b) anxiety and insomnia, (c) social dysfunction and (d) severe depression. Pearson correlations coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of GHQ-28 subscales with religiosity dimensions. High scores in each dimension of BMMRS corresponded to a low level of religiosity. The dimension of "daily spiritual experiences" was positively correlated with the subscales of anxiety/ insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression, while the dimension of "values/beliefs" with social

  20. Religiosity dimensions and subjective health status in Greek students.

    PubMed

    Kioulos, K T; Bergiannaki, J D; Glaros, A; Vassiliadou, M; Alexandri, Z; Papadimitriou, G

    2015-01-01

    The quest for existential meaning constitutes a universal phenomenon traditionally manifested in official religions (religiosity) or personal modes of transcendence (spirituality). Religiosity and spirituality have been found to be associated with a variety of mental health and illness parameters. In the last decades there is an increasing number of publications with interesting results on the relationship between religiosity and mental health, both on a theoretical and a clinical level. Recent research suggests the presence of clinically important interactions between religious beliefs and mental health, although the exact nature of the associations remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate subjective health status in relation to specific dimensions of religiosity and spirituality in Greek students; 202 students of the faculty of Theology of the University of Athens were interviewed using the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), which assesses the dimensions of "daily spiritual experiences", "meaning", "values/beliefs", "forgiveness", "private religious practices", "religious/spiritual coping", "religious support", "religious/ spiritual history", "commitment", "organizational religiousness", and "religious preferences". Subjective health status was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which examines four areas of health in the following sub-scales: (a) somatic symptoms, (b) anxiety and insomnia, (c) social dysfunction and (d) severe depression. Pearson correlations coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of GHQ-28 subscales with religiosity dimensions. High scores in each dimension of BMMRS corresponded to a low level of religiosity. The dimension of "daily spiritual experiences" was positively correlated with the subscales of anxiety/ insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression, while the dimension of "values/beliefs" with social

  1. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  2. The oral health status of recent immigrants and refugees in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ghiabi, Edmond; Matthews, Debora C; Brillant, Martha Smith

    2014-02-01

    There are no published reports on the oral health status of adult immigrants and refugees in Canada. An oral health interview and clinical oral examination were conducted on 45 recent immigrants and 41 recent Bhutanese refugees, aged 18-67, in Nova Scotia, Canada. Over half (53%) of the immigrants and 85% of the refugees had untreated decay. Most (89% of immigrants; 98% of refugees) had moderate to severe gingivitis and the majority (73% of immigrants; 85% of refugees) had moderate to severe periodontitis. Despite these, 64% of immigrants and 49% of refugees rated their oral health as good, very good or excellent, and most believed they did not need fillings or periodontal treatment. Oral disease among the study sample was higher than the Canadian average and there was a striking discrepancy between self-reported and clinically determined need for dental care.

  3. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health.

  4. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  5. The effects of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on access and health status of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Likwang; Yip, Winnie; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Lee, Shyh-Dye; Chiu, Ya-Ling; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2007-03-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program (NHI), established in 1995, on improving elderly access to care and health status. Further, we estimate the extent to which NHI reduces gaps in access and health across income groups. Using data from a longitudinal survey, we adopt a difference-in-difference methodology to estimate the causal effect of Taiwan's NHI. Our results show that Taiwan's NHI has significantly increased utilization of both outpatient and inpatient care among the elderly, and such effects were more salient for people in the low- or middle-income groups. Our findings also reveal that although Taiwan's NHI greatly increased the utilization of both outpatient and inpatient services, this increased utilization of health services did not reduce mortality or lead to better self-perceived general health status for Taiwanese elderly. Measures more sensitive than mortality and self-perceived general health may be necessary for discerning the health effects of NHI. Alternatively, the lack of NHI effects on health may reflect other quality and efficiency problems inherent in the system not yet addressed by NHI. PMID:16929478

  6. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  7. Measurement of socioeconomic status in health disparities research.

    PubMed Central

    Shavers, Vickie L.

    2007-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is frequently implicated as a contributor to the disparate health observed among racial/ ethnic minorities, women and elderly populations. Findings from studies that examine the role of SES and health disparities, however, have provided inconsistent results. This is due in part to the: 1) lack of precision and reliability of measures; 2) difficulty with the collection of individual SES data; 3) the dynamic nature of SES over a lifetime; 4) the classification of women, children, retired and unemployed persons; 5) lack of or poor correlation between individual SES measures; and 6) and inaccurate or misleading interpretation of study results. Choosing the best variable or approach for measuring SES is dependent in part on its relevance to the population and outcomes under study. Many of the commonly used compositional and contextual SES measures are limited in terms of their usefulness for examining the effect of SES on outcomes in analyses of data that include population subgroups known to experience health disparities. This article describes SES measures, strengths and limitations of specific approaches and methodological issues related to the analysis and interpretation of studies that examine SES and health disparities. PMID:17913111

  8. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.

  9. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India. PMID:27044147

  10. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time.

  11. Examining the Impact of Maternal Health, Race, and Socioeconomic Status on Daughter's Self-Rated Health Over Three Decades.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rowan, Kathleen; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Oakes, J Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the role of mother's health and socioeconomic status on daughter's self-rated health using data spanning three decades from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women (N = 1,848 matched mother-daughter pairs; 1,201 White and 647 African American). Using nested growth curve models, we investigated whether mother's self-rated health affected the daughter's self-rated health and whether socioeconomic status mediated this relationship. Mother's health significantly influenced daughters' self-rated health, but the findings were mediated by mother's socioeconomic status. African American daughters reported lower self-rated health and experienced more decline over time compared with White daughters, accounting for mother's and daughter's covariates. Our findings reveal maternal health and resources as a significant predictor of daughters' self-rated health and confirm the role of socioeconomic status and racial disparities over time. PMID:26668178

  12. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ≥ 35

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, João Paulo; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional) with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36); health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD), Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001), with chronic disease (p < 0.0001), who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01), who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence) and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over health attitudes and

  13. Health, functioning and disability in older adults – current status and future implications

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aging is a dynamic process with trends in health status of older adults varying over time due to a range of factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality among older adults over the past two decades in order to determine patterns of ageing across the world. We found some evidence for compression of morbidity, i.e., less amount of time spent in worse health, when: a) studies were of a good quality based on evaluation criteria scores; b) a disability- or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; c) studies were longitudinal or; d) studies were conducted in the United States and some other high income countries. Many studies reported evidence to the contrary, i.e., for an expansion of morbidity but with different methods these are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys present a similar picture. However, there are considerable variations across countries in patterns of limitations in functioning and within countries over time with no discernible explanations. Data from low income countries is very sparse and efforts to collect information on the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world is urgently required. Studies focussing on refining measurement with a core set of domains of functioning and studying the impacts of these evolving patterns on the health care system and their economic implications are needed. PMID:25468158

  14. Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage and Health Status Among Farmworkers, Sonoma County, California, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Jenny; Hill, Jana; Katz, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Sonoma County Farmworker Health Survey (FHS) was conducted to describe the health and well-being of adult farmworkers in Sonoma County, California, and to identify preventable health disparities for this population. Methods From September 2013 through January 2014, venue-based and convenience sampling were used to survey 293 farmworkers aged 18 years or older. The questions included self-rated general health, diabetes and hypertension, and body mass index. To identify disparities between surveyed farmworkers and Sonoma County residents overall, age-adjusted prevalence estimates were developed by using indirect standardization to the adult (≥18 years) Sonoma County sample from the California Health Interview Survey for 2011–2012. Results Surveyed farmworkers were mostly male (91%) and Latino or Hispanic (95%), and 54% had an educational attainment of 8th grade or less. Most (81%) farmworkers reported their families earned less than $30,000 in 2012. After adjusting for age, 30% of farmworkers had US-based health insurance as compared with the 86% of Sonoma County adults in 2011–2012 (P < .001), and 15% of farmworkers reported ever being diagnosed with diabetes after adjusting for age as compared with 5% of Sonoma County adults (P = .002). After adjusting for age, 44% of farmworkers reported poor or fair health in general as compared with 13% of Sonoma County adults (P < .001). Conclusion We identified significant health disparities between Sonoma County farmworkers and Sonoma County adults overall. Additional research and new health policies are necessary to eliminate these health disparities and to facilitate farmworker access to the health care system. PMID:27032988

  15. Hydrocarbon status of soils under different ages of oil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    Modifications of the hydrocarbon status (HCS) of soils at the stages of the injection input of oil pollutants and the subsequent self-purification of the soil layer from technogenesis products have been revealed in studies conducted on an oil field. Comparison with the HCS of background soils has been performed. Changes in the composition and concentration of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hydrocarbon gases have been established. The HCS of a freshly contaminated soil is characterized by the predominance of butane (the highest component) in the gaseous phase, an abrupt increase in the concentration of second-kind bitumoids, and a 100-fold increase in the content of PAHs compared to the background soil. In the old contaminated soil, free and fixed methane becomes the predominant gas; the content of bitumoids in the upper soil horizons is lower than in the freshly contaminated soils by two orders of magnitude but higher than in the background soil by an order of magnitude; the PAH composition in the soil with old residual contamination remains slightly more diverse than in the background soil.

  16. Global aging: implications for women and women's health.

    PubMed

    Tabloski, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    The world's older population has been growing for centuries; however, the pace of this growth is accelerating rapidly. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by 2030, more than 60 countries will have 2 million or more older people. Population aging represents a "success story," with increasing numbers of people worldwide enjoying additional years of life. However, the sustained increase in numbers of older people (usually defined as persons over the age of 65) poses many challenges to policy makers and health care providers around the world. As the world population ages, we are just beginning to understand the social, economic, and political implications of the "age wave." The majority of older people are women, thus the implications of population changes for women and women's health are astounding. Nurses can take a national and world leadership role to adequately address the health care needs of increasing numbers of older women. PMID:15495709

  17. A sociological approach to ageing, technology and health.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Kelly; Loe, Meika

    2010-02-01

    Abstract This special monograph issue builds on sociology of health and illness scholarship and expands the analytical lens to examine how old people, healthcare professionals, and technology designers create, use, and modify science and technology to negotiate and define health and illness. Far from passive consumers, elders are technogenarians, creatively utilising and adapting technological artefacts such as walking aids and medications to fit their needs. This publication adds theoretical and empirical depth to our understanding of the multiple and overlapping socio-historical contexts surrounding ageing bodies and ageing enterprises, including the biomedicalisation of ageing that includes the rise of anti-ageing or longevity medicine; and the rise of gerontechnology industries and professions -- fields that largely accept the ageing body as a given. This collection sociologically investigates how and where these two trends overlap and diverge in relation to a global context of ageing and ageism, and calls for further scholarship in this area. Combining science and technology studies and sociology of health and illness frameworks together provides an empirical basis from which to analyse technogenarians in action, as well as the stakeholders and institutions involved in the ageing, health, and technology matrix.

  18. Association between nutritional status and dental caries in permanent dentition among primary schoolchildren aged 12-14 years, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Narksawat, Kulaya; Tonmukayakul, Utsana; Boonthum, Angsana

    2009-03-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition and identified oral hygiene indicators among older children aged 12-14 years in primary schools in Thailand. The study was comprised of 862 schoolchildren from five provinces representing five regions of Thailand, from both rural and urban areas, including Bangkok. The dental hygeine status was assessed by evaluating for decayed teeth, missing teeth due to decay, and filled teeth index (DMFT index). Weight and height were measured to evaluate the nutritional status; hygiene practices assessed by interview. The results show a negative relationship between nutritional status and the DMFT index, which increased when the nutritional status decreased (Spearman's rho correlation = -0.140, p < 0.001). The results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed normal weight and thin schoolchildren were more likely to have a DMFT of at least 1 by 1.94 times (OR = 1.94; 95%CI = 1.25-3.00, p = 0.004) and 2.22 times (OR = 2.22; 95%CI = 1.20-4.09, p = 0.001), respectively, compared to overweight and obese children. Normal and thin schoolchildren had a higher risk for dental caries than overweight and obese children aged 12-14 years in Thailand. School health promotion activities should emphasize eating habit improvement in order to reduce the incidence of caries.

  19. [Theories on aging and health: what do aging and old age mean and what constitutes a good life in old age?].

    PubMed

    Wurm, S; Wiest, M; Tesch-Römer, C

    2010-05-01

    The present paper starts by introducing different perspectives of the aging process and includes biological, psychological, and sociological theories in its scope. The article addresses the issue of when "old age" begins and why a distinction is made between the third and fourth age. With increasing age, it becomes more and more difficult to differentiate between health-related losses due to illnesses or to aging. However, this can be important with respect to health behavior and health care. Having the best possible health in old age is an important factor for a good life in old age. Over their whole lives, from childhood to old age, people can actively contribute to their health in old age. But health is not the sole criterion for a good life in old age. Having interests and aims are just as important as being integrated in a social network. In old age, people often differ greatly and this is why there is such variety in what people consider to constitute a good life for themselves in old age.

  20. Cardiovascular Health Status by Occupational Group - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Shockey, Taylor M; Sussell, Aaron L; Odom, Erika C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for one of every three deaths in the United States, making it the leading cause of mortality in the country (1). The American Heart Association established seven ideal cardiovascular health behaviors or modifiable factors to improve CVD outcomes in the United States. These cardiovascular health metrics (CHMs) are 1) not smoking, 2) being physically active, 3) having normal blood pressure, 4) having normal blood glucose, 5) being of normal weight, 6) having normal cholesterol levels, and 7) eating a healthy diet (2). Meeting six or all seven CHMs is associated with a lower risk for all-cause, CVD, and ischemic heart disease mortalities compared with the risk to persons who meet none or only one CHM (3). Fewer than 2% of U.S. adults meet all seven of the American Heart Association's CHMs (4). Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality account for an estimated annual $120 billion in lost productivity in the workplace; thus, workplaces are viable settings for effective health promotion programs (5). With over 130 million employed persons in the United States, accounting for about 55% of all U.S. adults, the working population is an important demographic group to evaluate with regard to cardiovascular health status. To determine if an association between occupation and CHM score exists, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) industry and occupation module, which was implemented in 21 states. Among all occupational groups, community and social services employees (14.6%), transportation and material moving employees (14.3%), and architecture and engineering employees (11.6%) had the highest adjusted prevalence of meeting two or fewer CHMs. Transportation and material moving employees also had the highest prevalence of "not ideal" ("0" [i.e., no CHMs met]) scores for three of the seven CHMs: physical activity (54.1%), blood pressure (31.9%), and weight (body mass index [BMI]; 75.5%). Disparities

  1. Assessing health status and outcomes in a geriatric day hospital.

    PubMed

    Fowler, R W; Congdon, P; Hamilton, S

    2000-11-01

    The study objective was to assess the feasibility and usefulness of recommended outcome measures in older people attending a geriatric day hospital for multidisciplinary assessment and rehabilitation. We used the 'Short Form 36' (SF36) questionnaire which had been proposed as a suitable outcome tool for the elderly, as well as standard assessment scales (eg Barthel index). These were administered by interviewers at the start of day hospital attendance and repeated by postal survey three and six months later. Change in overall health status was rated by the clinical team. The study took place in a geriatric day unit based in a support hospital, specialising in assessment and rehabilitation of older people. Participants were older people referred directly from the community, or following an inpatient day, whose assessment indicated a need for multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Stroke and musculo-skeletal disorders were the commonest underlying conditions. There was a high incidence of non-completion on SF36 questions relating to physical and mental function. Subsequent interviews showed that patients found some questions irrelevant. Floor effects were common. In contrast, the standard scales were invariably fully completed. Compared with local population survey data, respondents had low baseline scores on all SF36 dimensions. Differences over time were probably explained by varying methods of administration. In spite of a clinical perception of improved health status during day hospital attendance, both standard and SF36 scores showed overall deterioration. Two conclusions could be drawn from this study. 1. Measures of physical and mental disability and quality of life gave lower results than expected and continued declining over a six month period, even when the clinical team felt that the patient had improved. 2. Administration of SF36 by an interviewer is essential to obtain meaningful results in older people with poor physical health, which should be interpreted

  2. Aging, health, and identity in Ecuador's indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos A

    2014-12-01

    Middle-income countries like Ecuador are in the process of demographic and epidemiological transitions, and their populations are aging. The challenges associated with providing services to growing numbers of citizens who experience the inevitable deterioration associated with aging are mirrored by the manner in which aging is perceived in a culturally heterogeneous society. This paper presents the results of qualitative research conducted among older men and women in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian highlands in order to investigate the perceptions regarding the ability of family and community networks to provide adequate and appropriate support for older persons in the context of their perceptions of health, health care, and aging. The principal findings are that: (i) perceptions of aging are shaped by chronic illness, fatigue, deteriorating sensory capacities, and vulnerability to accidents; (ii) barriers to health care are exacerbated among aging members of indigenous communities, although in some cases they can be addressed through traditional alternatives; (iii) the sense of identity shifts as aging people are increasingly unable to work the land and participate in community activities; and (iv) family and community support networks for older adults are not as strong as is generally thought. These findings represent the context within which issues related aging in a culturally heterogeneous society can be best understood and addressed.

  3. Identifying health insurance predictors and the main reported reasons for being uninsured among US immigrants by legal authorization status.

    PubMed

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Jie; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A; Ortega, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies differences in health insurance predictors and investigates the main reported reasons for lacking health insurance coverage between short-stayed (≤ 10 years) and long-stayed (>10 years) US immigrant adults to parse the possible consequences of the Affordable Care Act among immigrants by length of stay and documentation status. Foreign-born adults (18-64 years of age) from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey are the study population. Health insurance coverage predictors and the main reasons for being uninsured are compared across cohorts and by documentation status. A logistic-regression two-part multivariate model is used to adjust for confounding factors. The analyses determine that legal status is a strong health insurance predictor, particularly among long-stayed undocumented immigrants. Immigration status is the main reported reason for lacking health insurance. Although long-stayed documented immigrants are likely to benefit from the Affordable Care Act implementation, undocumented immigrants and short-stayed documented immigrants may encounter difficulties getting health insurance coverage.

  4. Urban–rural disparities of child health and nutritional status in China from 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Fang, Hai; Zhao, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes urban–rural disparities of China’s child health and nutritional status using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1989 to 2006. We investigate degrees of health and nutritional disparities between urban and rural children in China as well as how such disparities have changed during the period 1989–2006. The results show that on average urban children have 0.29 higher height-for-age z-scores and 0.19 greater weight-for-age z-scores than rural children. Urban children are approximately 40% less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.62; p < 0.01) or underweight (OR = 0.62; p < 0.05) during the period 1989–2006. We also find that the urban–rural health and nutritional disparities have been declining significantly from 1989 to 2006. Both urban and rural children have increased consumption of high protein and fat foods from 1989 to 2006, but the urban–rural difference decreased over time. Moreover, the urban–rural gap in child preventive health care access was also reduced during this period. PMID:22608863

  5. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  6. Assessment of oral health status and treatment needs of Santhal tribes of Dhanbad District, Jharkhand

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Tripathi, Ranjan Mani; Dileep, C. L.; Trehan, Megha; Malhotra, Shitanshu; Singh, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: India has an assortment of tribal population living in isolated pockets, and the Santhals are numerically predominant in Jharkhand. This study was aimed at assessing the oral health status and treatment needs of Santhals residing in Dhanbad, Jharkhand. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 921 Santhals of Topchanchi Block was conducted. A modified World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was utilized and examined according to the WHO methodology (1997). The recorded data was statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15. Results: Based on the occupation, it was seen that 620 (67.3%) participants practiced agriculture and 206 (22.4%) worked as laborers. The mean decayed missing filled tooth (score was 3.56 ± 1.93 in 2–5-year-old participants. In the higher age groups of 35–44 and 65–74 years, the scores were 5.21 ± 2.34 and 7.42 ± 4.29, respectively. Participants with bleeding gums were predominantly seen in the age group of 35–44 years (0.91 ± 0.08). Approximately 138 (54.1%) participants had a loss of attachment of 4–5 mm in the 35–44 year age group. In the 13–15-year-old age group, 0.14 ± 0.05 teeth needed two surfaces fillings. A total of 118 (12.8%) participants needed one-unit prosthesis in the upper jaw. Conclusion: This study showed that a majority of Santhal tribals used twigs to routinely clean their teeth. Poor oral hygiene and periodontal status was seen among the tribes. PMID:27583222

  7. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries. PMID:26816664

  8. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries.

  9. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries. PMID:26816664

  10. Disentangling race and socioeconomic status: a key to understanding health inequalities.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, Thomas A

    2005-06-01

    This article addresses one of the most vexing problems facing health disparities researchers, the confounding of race and socioeconomic status. This article does the following: (1) it outlines the magnitude of confounding between race and socioeconomic status; (2) it demonstrates problems caused by this confounding; (3) it examines the degree to which race disparities are a function of socioeconomic status; and (4) it discusses considerations for advancing research on health disparities after accounting for the confounding of race and socioeconomic status.

  11. The image of health status and quality of life in a Caribbean society

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; McGrowder, Donovan A.; Charles, Christopher A.D.; Francis, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health is defined as the presence or absence of illness. This conceptualization of health status is dominant in health treatment and in fashioning the health care system. However, very little research has been done on how Jamaicans view health status and quality of life (QoL). Aims: This article seeks to understand how Jamaicans conceptualize health status and QoL because definitional content has implications for their health. Material and Methods: The current study utilized two national cross-sectional probability surveys from the Centre for Leadership and Governance (CLG) which looked at QoL among other variables and the Jamaican Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC) which measured living standards including health status. The sample in both surveys was 8,120 participants. Results: The majority of the respondents in the CLG (54%) and the JSLC (82.2%) surveys reported good health status. There was a strong statistical relationship between area of residence and health status (P < 0.0001) unlike the relationship between area of residence and quality of life (P < 0.137). The respondents dichotomized health status and QoL and a significant relationship was found between both variables (P < 0.0001). The respondents’ dichotomization of health status and QoL is explained by the significant relationship between health status and self reported illness (P < 0.0001) where respondents view health status as the absence or presence of illness, excluding QoL. Conclusion: Health status means the presence or absence of illness and excludes QoL which is not in keeping with previous findings. This distinction is culturally determined. PMID:22624140

  12. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  13. Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... or federal policy. More Health News on: Cancer Health Disparities Health Insurance Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Health Disparities Health Insurance About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  14. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  15. Internet use and looking up information online in adults with epilepsy varies by epilepsy status--2013 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Us Centers For Disease Control And Prevention Epilepsy Program

    2016-01-01

    We estimated US national prevalences of Internet use and looking up health information online among adults with epilepsy and those without, overall (age-standardized) and by three age groups (18-44, 45-59, and ≥60years) using the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. Results showed that both overall and across all age groups, a significantly lower percentage of adults with active epilepsy reported using the Internet compared with that of adults without epilepsy. However, among Internet users, the percentage of looking up health information online did not differ by epilepsy status or age. Ensuring access to the Internet and encouraging use of quality, secure, and easy-to-access resources and e-tools might help adults with epilepsy to optimize their self-management and improve their quality of life.

  16. Towards age-friendly hospitals and health services.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed rationale for an age-friendly hospital (or health service) and propose our framework in detail. In a rapidly aging society, development of policies and programs to optimize people's wellbeing and function as they age is an urgent issue. Most older persons extensively use health care. Unfortunately, current practices are unfriendly and may even add risks to the older person. Health-promotion interventions delivered in clinical settings and management of admissions have been shown to be associated with better outcomes. We developed Taiwan's Framework of Age-Friendly Hospitals to address the responsibility of health-care organizations and provide systematic guidan