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Sample records for age height weight

  1. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-06-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. PMID:4027502

  2. [Weight and height local growth charts of Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age)].

    PubMed

    Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13 cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents.

  3. Impact of long-term treatment of methylphenidate on height and weight of school age children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Du, M; Zhuang, S

    2010-08-01

    Stimulant-associated growth deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have long been a concern. We chose 146 school age children diagnosed with ADHD being treated with methylphenidate (MPH) and 29 drug-free ADHD children, and followed them up for 2-4 years. We recorded the changes in height and weight after long-term methylphenidate treatment and analyzed the influence of confounding factors to growth in height, weight, and height velocity. The change of the gap between patients' height and mean height in the methylphenidate group was -1.86+/-0.82 cm ( P<0.001); in controls it was -0.26+/-0.51 cm ( P<0.05). The changes of height standard deviation score (SDS) in the methylphenidate group and controls were -0.14+/-0.23 SD ( P<0.001) and +0.05+/-0.10 SD ( P<0.05), respectively. The differences between the 2 groups were significant ( P<0.001). Both correlation and regression analyses indicated that the duration of treatment contributed significantly to the variance in change of height ( P<0.001). The height velocity was significantly attenuated in the first year. The change of the gap between the patients' weight and weight for height after methylphenidate was -0.14+/-1.25 kg ( P>0.05). From this study, a small but significant deceleration of height velocity has been identified as a long-term side effect of methylphenidate, the magnitude of the height deficit is related to the duration of treatment. Methylphenidate had no significant influence on weight and BMI values.

  4. Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; García, Juan Manuel Fernández; Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Molina, Jose Antonio Moreno; Cosano, Carlos Ruiz; Ortiz, Antonio Jurado

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys). They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years) and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men) were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men) were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197) in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys) refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5%) were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97) and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97) are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is the first study in

  5. Association of diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections with weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 5 to 11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A. M.; Peterson, K. E.; de Souza, A. C.; Orav, E. J.; Hughes, M.; Chen, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The association between infection and growth delay is not well documented in school-age children in developing countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the association between infectious disease and weight and height gains among Bangladeshi children. METHODS: A one-year follow-up study was performed to elucidate the determinants and consequences of physical growth of children under five years of age. The study included 135 households randomly selected from four villages in the Matlab area. RESULTS: The most frequent infections were upper respiratory infections (mean = 4 episodes or 27 days per year) followed by non-dysenteric diarrhoea (mean = 2.3 episodes or 15 days per year) and dysentery (mean = 0.2 episodes or 2 days per year). The number of episodes and their duration decreased significantly with age. Over a 12-month period the mean weight gain was 1.3 kg and the mean increase in height was 2.9 cm. The total number of days when diarrhoea occurred was negatively associated with annual weight gain (regression coefficient beta = -7 g per day, P = 0.02), with adjustment for age, sex, energy and protein intake, and household land ownership. The incidence of diarrhoeal disease was significantly associated with weight gain in intermediate models but only marginally associated with it in the final multivariate model (P = 0.08). Neither the incidence nor the duration of upper respiratory infections was associated with weight gain. Height gain was not significantly associated with the duration or incidence of either category of illness. Diarrhoea was a significant correlate of retarded weight gain among children above preschool age, whereas upper respiratory infections were not. DISCUSSION: Diarrhoeal morbidity slowed growth in children well beyond the weaning age, suggesting that increased attention should be given to the study of the continuous impact of diarrhoea in children aged over 5 years. An understanding of the determinants of

  6. Height and Weight of Children: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Peter V. V.; And Others

    This report contains national estimates based on findings from the Health Examination Survey in 1963-65 on height and weight measurements of children 6- to 11-years-old. A nationwide probability sample of 7,119 children was selected to represent the noninstitutionalized children (about 24 million) in this age group. Height was obtained in stocking…

  7. Do Age and Weight Bearing Films Affect Lateral Joint Space and Fibular Height Measurements in Patients with Discoid Lateral Meniscus?

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Krochak, Ryan; Duarte, Andrew J.; Marchese, Joseph; Pace, James Lee; Broom, Alexander M.; Solomito, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Several radiographic parameters have been associated with discoid lateral meniscus. We sought to determine the effect of age and weight bearing (WB) on radiographic parameters associated with lateral discoid menisci in pediatric patients. Methods: Radiographs of patients with arthroscopically confirmed lateral discoid meniscus were compared to age, side, sex matched individuals with confirmed normal menisci. The radiographs were measured by a pediatric orthopaedic sports medicine attending and two orthopaedic residents for the following parameters: lateral joint space width (LJSW), fibular head height (FHH), width of the distal femur (WDF), tibial spine height (TSH), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (CLTP), and obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (OLTP). The results of this review focus on FHH and LJSW only. Results: 68 knees with discoid lateral menisci with a mean age of 11.6 ± 3.3 (15 WB films) were compared to 67 control knees with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.2 (15 WB films). Results indicated that there were significant differences between the discoid and control groups when comparing LJSW (8.7 ± 2.2 mm discoid compared to 7.6 ± 2.1 mm control p=0.002) and FHH (13.5 ± 4.5 mm discoid compared to 18.6 ± 3.9 mm control p<0.001). Inter-rater reliability was satisfactory for LJSW and FHH (ICC 0.635 and 0.759 respectively). WB films were noted to have better inter-rater reliability compared to NWB films for LJSW (ICC 0.729 vs 0.514 respectively) but reduced inter-rater reliability for FHH (ICC 0.625 vs 0.868 respectively). Subgroup analysis based on age was also done comparing patients under 10 years old, patients between 10-14 years old, and patients over 14 years old. The FHH measurement was significantly decreased (indicative of a high fibular head) in the discoid group in all age groups. However, LJSW was only noted to be significantly different in patients over the age of 14. Conclusion: Increased lateral joint space width and a high

  8. Antenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Relationship with Children’s Weight and Height from Birth up to the Age of 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    JABBARI, Hossein; BAKHSHIAN, Fariba; ASGARI, Mohammad; SATTARI, Mohammadreza; NAGHAVI-BEHZAD, Mohammad; MASHAYEKHI, Simin Ozar

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional is the most important environmental factor influencing pregnancy outcome. While studies showed association between maternal iron-micronutrient deficiencies with pregnancy outcome, data examining impact of micronutrient supplementation on growth rate beyond birth are sparse. Present study examined the relationship between iron and multivitamins supplementation on growth rate of babies up to age of 18 month. Methods: This study was a statistical analysis on data recorded through a routine procedure in health houses from 1994 to 2007. Subjects were selected by a two-stage randomization method and required data extracted from the records. Analyses were performed using STATA 10 software. Results: Data was collected for 3835 pairs of mother-baby. Mothers received 61.7±5.4 and 115.6±53.8 multivitamins and iron tablets, respectively. Analyses showed significant relationship between children’s weight and height at birth with iron supplementation and children’s height at 6, 12 and 18 month with multivitamins supplementation. Conclusions: Mechanisms of these effects are unclear but it is safe to suggest supplementation during pregnancy is necessary. PMID:23967431

  9. Source of Parental Reports of Child Height and Weight During Phone Interviews and Influence on Obesity Prevalence Estimates Among Children Aged 3–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective We compared parental reports of children’s height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. Methods In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3–17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. Results About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (<10 years of age) vs. 6% of older children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available. PMID:23277659

  10. Weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age in children born to mothers with a high intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Lars; Strömberg, Ulf; Hagmar, Lars

    2007-03-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) is through consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea (off the eastern coast). The present study aimed to investigate whether intrauterine exposure for POP may have negative impact on children's weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age, respectively. The study included 174 fishermen's wives from the Swedish east coast who had given birth to an infant with either low (n=55) or normal (n=119) birth weight, and 88 and 206 corresponding women from the Swedish west coast (where the fish is less polluted). Comparisons between the east and west coast cohorts were performed. In addition, blood samples were collected among the east coast women and the concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in plasma was analyzed and estimated for the year of childbirth. There were no significant differences between the east and west coast cohorts regarding weight and height at 4 and 7 years of age. There were, however, significant negative associations between the estimated plasma concentrations of CB-153 during year of childbirth and weight at 4 and 7 years of age, respectively, among the normal birth weight children. The study gives only very weak support for the hypothesized association.

  11. A Bayesian approach to estimate the prevalence of low height-for-age from the prevalence of low weight-for-age.

    PubMed

    Reichenheim, M E; Best, N G

    2000-01-01

    Victora et al. (1998) proposed the use of low weight-for-age prevalence to estimate the prevalence of height-for-age deficit in Brazilian children. This procedure was justified by the need to simplify methods used in the context of community health programs. From the same perspective, the present article broadens this proposal by using a Bayesian approach (based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods) to deal with the imprecision resulting from Victora et al.'s model. In order to avoid invalid estimated prevalence values which can occur with the original linear model, truncation or a logit transformation of the prevalences are suggested. The Bayesian approach is illustrated using a community study as an example. Imprecision arising from methodological complexities in the community study design, such as multi-stage sampling and clustering, is easily handled within the Bayesian framework by introducing a hierarchical or multilevel model structure. Since growth deficit was also evaluated in the community study, the article may also serve to validate the procedure proposed by Victora et al.

  12. Height, weight and body mass index by age and sex in children aged 4 to 6 years in Merida, Mexico, as compared to international references after normalization with LMS.

    PubMed

    Banik, Sudip Datta; Azcorra, Hugo; Valentín, Graciela; Falfán, Ina; Dickinson, Federico

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was done in 2006-2007 of 458 children (218 boys and 240 girls) aged 4 to 6 years (range 4.00 to 6.99 years) in Merida, Mexico. Height (cm) and body weight (kg) were measured to estimate growth; body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated to evaluate nutritional status. Results showed significant sex difference with respect to height, weight, and BMI. Increment of height and weight with age was observed. However, age difference in BMI was not consis- tent. Nutritional status was evaluated using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) classification and BMI cut-off values showed notable rates of overweight (boys 14.41% and girls 17.75%) and obesity (boys 12.43% and girls 7.21%). Anthropometric data of height, weight, and BMI were normalized using LMS methodology and were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) growth reference data. Again, increment of height and weight with age was observed although those were lower in the present study for boys and girls than the corresponding WHO growth reference data. In contrast, mean BMI by age in the present results exceeded WHO reference data, especially above the 85th percentile. Assessment of nutritional status with reference to IOTF and WHO revealed similar trends. PMID:25842750

  13. Weight, height, and relative-reliability indicators as a management tool for reducing age at first breeding and calving of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Cue, R I; Santschi, D E; Lefebvre, D M; Lacroix, R

    2015-03-01

    In Québec first calving occurs on average at 27 mo, whereas the target is 23 to 24.5 mo to maximize herd profitability. The aim of this study was to quantify current and future heifer growth using individual heifer random regressions and to generate indicators (such as heifer weight and height at 15 and 24 mo, average daily gain before and after 15 mo, age at which optimal weight for breeding is attained, i.e., 55% of mature weight, and reliability of the 15- and 24-mo weight predictions) that could be used as a practical on-farm tool. Dairy heifer weight estimated by heart girth circumference and height measured at the withers (from 0 to 27 mo) were obtained from the Valacta database (DHI agency, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) from 1995 to 2012. Indicators were calculated based on the current situation of Holstein (HO), Ayrshire (AY), Jersey (JE), and Brown Swiss (BS) heifer growth in Québec. Heifers with less than 2 records were excluded from the analysis. Mature weights were determined by weight at calving of cows from third or greater lactation for a given breed and were 710 kg for HO, 625 kg for AY, 470 kg for JE, and 670 kg for BS. Estimated weights at 15 and 24 mo were 425 and 627, 334 and 482, 297 and 429, and 379 and 560 kg for HO, AY, JE, and BS, respectively, which are heavy enough for breeding and calving, except for AY. Relative reliabilities of the 15- and 24-mo weight predictions were on average 89 and 60%, respectively, based on measurements up to 15 mo. For HO, AY, JE, and BS, wither heights at 15 and 24 mo were 134 and 143, 125 and 134, 122 and 131, and 130 and 140 cm, respectively. Age at optimal breeding weight was 13.6, 15.5, 12.6, and 14.5 mo for HO, AY, JE, and BS, respectively. These data suggest that it is realistic to expect a first calving at 24 mo for HO, JE, and BS. A growth delay was observed for AY; average daily gain was 655 and 538 g/d before and after 15 mo, respectively. The average daily gain before and after 15 mo was 848

  14. Can Fundal Height Predict Birth Weight or Twins?

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J. L.; Kettner, A.; Burnett, M.; Cheang, M.

    1986-01-01

    To determine how well symphysis fundal height measurements correlated with birth weight, the authors retrospectively reviewed 100 records of pregnancy from a family practice. The sensitivity and specificity of symphysis fundal height in identifying small and large for gestational age babies were determined. While symphysis fundal height measurements correlated well with birth weight, the sensitivity was too low and the number of false positives too high, for symphysis fundal height measurement alone to be clinically useful. On reviewing all twin pregnancies in the same setting, the authors found that symphysis fundal height measurements facilitated early diagnosis of twin gestation. PMID:21274242

  15. Postnatal weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and 5 y and body composition in adolescent boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Botton, Jérémie; Heude, Barbara; Maccario, Jean; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2008-01-01

    Background Rapid weight gain in the first years of life is associated with adult obesity. Whether there are critical windows for this long term effect is unclear. Objective To study anthropometry in adolescence by gender according to weight and height growth velocities at different ages between birth and five years. Design Anthropometric parameters, including fat and fat-free mass by bipodal impedancemetry, were measured in 468 8–17 year old adolescents. We retrospectively collected early infancy data and individually estimated weight and height growth velocities in 69.4% of them using a mathematical model. Associations between birth parameters, growth velocities and anthropometric parameters in adolescence were studied. Results Weight growth velocity at three months was associated with overweight (OR for a 1 SD increase [95% CI]=1.52[1.04–2.22]), fat mass and waist circumference in adolescence in both genders, and with fat-free mass only in boys (r=0.29, P<0.001 versus r=−0.01, ns in girls). Weight growth velocities after 2 years were associated with all anthropometric parameters in adolescence, in both genders. Between 6 months and 2 years, weight growth velocities were significantly associated only with adolescent height in boys; in girls, associations with fat mass in adolescence were weaker. Discussion Our results support the hypothesis of two critical windows in early childhood associated with the later risk of obesity: up to 6 months and from 2 years onwards. The study of the determinants of growth during these two periods is of major importance for the prevention of obesity in adolescence. PMID:18541566

  16. Weight, height, thorax and of menarche in Spanish schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Marin, B; Simon, J

    1975-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the correlation which exists between somatic development, represented by weight, height and thorax, and the age of onset of menarche. The results indicate that girls showing early menarche have a somatic development greater than the mean. It has also been possible to show that the greatest increase in height occurs before the menarche, while the greatest increase in weight coincides with the appearance of the menarche, or occurs shortly afterwards.

  17. Hegira adaptation of the NCHS weight and height charts.

    PubMed

    Osman, M I; Magbool, G; Kaul, K K

    1993-03-01

    The ages of Saudi children are recorded and based on the Hegira calendar. When charted on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) weight and height charts, children will be at disadvantage since the Hegira year is shorter than the Gregorian year. In this paper, centiles for the NCHS reference population are estimated for age in Hegira years from 2-18 for height and weight for both sexes using mathematical interpolation. Charts are prepared for use in hospitals and health centers for children whose ages have been reported based on the Hegira calendar. PMID:17588024

  18. Hegira adaptation of the NCHS weight and height charts.

    PubMed

    Osman, M I; Magbool, G; Kaul, K K

    1993-03-01

    The ages of Saudi children are recorded and based on the Hegira calendar. When charted on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) weight and height charts, children will be at disadvantage since the Hegira year is shorter than the Gregorian year. In this paper, centiles for the NCHS reference population are estimated for age in Hegira years from 2-18 for height and weight for both sexes using mathematical interpolation. Charts are prepared for use in hospitals and health centers for children whose ages have been reported based on the Hegira calendar.

  19. Revisiting the Relationship of Weight and Height in Early Childhood12

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Stephanie A.; Black, Robert E.; Checkley, William

    2012-01-01

    Ponderal and linear growth of children has been widely studied; however, epidemiologic evidence of a relationship between the two is inconsistent. Child undernutrition in the form of low height for age and low weight for height continues to burden the developing world. A downward shift in the distribution of height for age in the first 2 y of life is commonly observed in many developing countries and is usually summarized as the percentage stunted (height for age Z-score <−2). Similar shifts are seen in weight for height; however, weight-for-height shifts are often less extreme, perhaps because weight for height is more tightly biologically controlled. Low height for age and low weight for height in childhood share some common factors, including food insecurity, infectious diseases, and inappropriate feeding practices. Reductions in weight for height, generally seen as a short-term response to inadequate dietary intake or utilization, are thought to precede decreases in height for age; however, given an adequate diet and no further insults, catch-up linear growth can occur. Serial instances of decreased weight for height, however, are thought to limit the degree of catch-up growth attained, contributing to linear growth retardation. Additional research is needed to identify the factors associated with recovery of linear growth after a child experiences decreased weight for height. Although the direct relationship between weight for height and height for age is likely limited, each of these measurements indicates important information about the general health of children and their risk of the development of illness or dying; therefore, eliminating the downward shift of height for age and weight for height in developing countries should be prioritized as a public policy. PMID:22516736

  20. Impact of height and weight on life span.

    PubMed

    Samaras, T T; Storms, L H

    1992-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate one aspect of the entropy theory of aging, which hypothesizes that aging is the result of increasing disorder within the body, and which predicts that increasing mass lowers life span. The first evaluation of the impact of human size on longevity or life span in 1978, which was based on data for decreased groups of athletes and famous people in the USA, suggested that shorter, lighter men live longer than their taller, heavier counterparts. In 1990, a study of 1679 decreased men and women from the general American population supported these findings. In the present study data on the height, weight, and age at death of 373 men were obtained from records at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. Men of height 175.3 cm or less lived an average of 4.95 years longer than those of height over 175.3 cm, while men of height 170.2 cm or less lived 7.46 years longer than those of at least 182.9 cm. An analysis by weight difference revealed a 7.72-year greater longevity for men of weight 63.6 kg or less compared with those of 90.9 kg or more. This corroborates earlier evidence and contradicts the popular notion that taller people are healthier. While short stature due to malnutrition or illness is undesirable, our study suggests that feeding children for maximum growth and physical development may not add to and may indeed be harmful to their long-term health and longevity.

  1. Body weight divided by squared knee height as an alternative to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Weight/height(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. Height, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with height loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with height loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal height or height at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two heights has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate height from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee height (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated height=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current height by their equations. Maximal height cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal height does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-height ratio; weight/height(2); the Quetelet's index. Height is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current height could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with height loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.

  2. Evidence for a secular change in obesity, height, and weight among Navajo Indian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J R; White, L L; Gilbert, T J

    1990-12-01

    A survey measuring heights and weights of 1969 schoolchildren residing on the Navajo Indian Reservation was conducted in 1989. The findings were compared with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference data and with surveys of Navajo children from 1955, 1968, and 1981. Approximately twice as many children exceeded the 95th percentile of weight-for-age (11.2% of girls, 12.5% of boys) than would be expected for the NCHS reference population. The mean weight-for-height z scores exceeded those for the NCHS reference population for all ages in both sexes. Compared with data from 1955, mean heights increased 6.1% among boys and 4.4% among girls whereas mean weights increased 28.8% among boys and 18.7% among girls across all age groups. The data suggest that there has been a secular change in height, weight, and obesity in Navajo Indian children over the past 35 y. PMID:2239793

  3. Older Subjects without Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Fahlman, Lissa; Sangeorzan, Emmeline; Chheda, Nimisha

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, conservatively affects 27 million American adults. While nearly all joints can be affected, knee osteoarthritis is of particular interest as it has the potential to severely limit mobility. Despite its ubiquity, not everyone is affected. Few studies on the characteristics of these persons exist. This descriptive paper examined older subjects without radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA) at age 78, describing their height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Oldest subjects without RKOA at age 78 (n=143) were selected from the parent Clearwater Osteoarthritis Study, conducted from 1988–2009. Recalled weight and height for ages 25 and 45, as well as current weight and height were collected via questionnaire. Current measurements were also taken. BMI was derived. Absence of RKOA was determined using Kellgren-Lawrence criteria. Demographics: mostly female (72%), all Caucasian, better educated than the average US citizen, and more subjects lived with others. At all three life-stages, weights and BMI were lower, while heights were comparable to US 2000 figures. BMI was in the “normal” category at age 25 and in the “overweight” category at age 78. Weight was under reported and height was over reported, but by less than the general population. Both the increase in weight and decrease in height with age were statistically significant. Absence of RKOA appears to be related to lower weights, average heights, and lower BMI, relative to population norms at all three life-stages. These findings also suggest that the relationship may be more complicated. Higher BMI is ubiquitously recognized as a risk factor for RKOA, yet the average BMI of the subjects without RKOA was in the “overweight” category at age 78. A possible explanation may be an “inflated” BMI based on decrease in height, not just increase in weight. PMID:23936744

  4. Correlations for weight, height and two measures of batting performance.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, L; Hines, T M

    1999-04-01

    The hypothesis that heavier baseball players are better batters was examined in two correlational studies of major league baseball players' performance. Neither height nor weight was significantly correlated with batting average. Both variables correlated significantly and positively with the number of home runs hit by American League players in the 1997 season. After partial correlations were computed, only the correlation between weight and number of home runs hit remained significant.

  5. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section 1037.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and...

  6. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section 1037.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and...

  7. 40 CFR 1037.140 - Curb weight and roof height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Curb weight and roof height. 1037.140 Section 1037.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Emission Standards and...

  8. Parent-Reported Height and Weight as Sources of Bias in Survey Estimates of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Weden, Margaret M.; Brownell, Peter B.; Rendall, Michael S.; Lau, Christopher; Fernandes, Meenakshi; Nazarov, Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Parental reporting of height and weight was evaluated for US children aged 2–13 years. The prevalence of obesity (defined as a body mass index value (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) in the 95th percentile or higher) and its height and weight components were compared in child supplements of 2 nationally representative surveys: the 1996–2008 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (NLSY79-Child) and the 1997 Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID-CDS). Sociodemographic differences in parent reporting error were analyzed. Error was largest for children aged 2–5 years. Underreporting of height, not overreporting of weight, generated a strong upward bias in obesity prevalence at those ages. Frequencies of parent-reported heights below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (Atlanta, Georgia) first percentile were implausibly high at 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.3, 19.0) in the NLSY79-Child and 20.6% (95% CI: 16.0, 26.3) in the PSID-CDS. They were highest among low-income children at 33.2% (95% CI: 22.4, 46.1) in the PSID-CDS and 26.2% (95% CI: 20.2, 33.2) in the NLSY79-Child. Bias in the reporting of obesity decreased with children's age and reversed direction at ages 12–13 years. Underreporting of weight increased with age, and underreporting of height decreased with age. We recommend caution to researchers who use parent-reported heights, especially for very young children, and offer practical solutions for survey data collection and research on child obesity. PMID:23785115

  9. [Method of determining body thickness from weight and height].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-20

    With attention given to the fact that information on weight and height is available in advance from electronic medical charts, we devised a method for determining body thickness on the basis of a simple calculation. The formula is as follows: body thickness=weight(a) x height(b) xf. In order to obtain body thickness from the above formula, it is necessary to determine optimal factors of a, b, and f. Therefore, the formula is modified to give f=body thickness/weight(a) x height(b). Then, a multiplier of a with b is changed to determine a combination in which f is varied to the smallest extent. Every site of the body is checked to find that an optimal multiplier of a with b is weight(0.6) x height(-0.8). This multiplier is applicable to all sites of the body. Then, f is given as a median of 15 to 74 cases in which calculation is made for each case based on the formula of weight(0.6) x height(-0.8) and the body thickness. A difference between calculation values and measured values is equivalent to the variation of f in which the median is given as 100%. The variation of f at all sites of the body is 3% to 11% in terms of average absolute deviation. The calculation difference is obtained by the formula of body thickness x average absolute deviation. Where the calculation difference is within the above range, clinical practices will be influenced to a small extent. Thus, this study will provide an effective method for determining body thickness.

  10. Evaluation of Bias in Estimates of Early Childhood Obesity From Parent-Reported Heights and Weights

    PubMed Central

    Weden, Margaret M.; Lau, Christopher; Brownell, Peter; Nazarov, Zafar; Fernandes, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated bias in estimated obesity prevalence owing to error in parental reporting. We also evaluated bias mitigation through application of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s biologically implausible value (BIV) cutoffs. Methods. We simulated obesity prevalence of children aged 2 to 5 years in 2 panel surveys after counterfactually substituting parameters estimated from 1999–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for prevalence of extreme height and weight and for proportions obese in extreme height or weight categories. Results. Heights reported below the first and fifth height-for-age percentiles explained between one half and two thirds, respectively, of total bias in obesity prevalence. Bias was reduced by one tenth when excluding cases with height-for-age and weight-for-age BIVs and by one fifth when excluding cases with body mass–index-for-age BIVs. Applying BIVs, however, resulted in incorrect exclusion of nonnegligible proportions of obese children. Conclusions. Correcting the reporting of children’s heights in the first percentile alone may reduce overestimation of early childhood obesity prevalence in surveys with parental reporting by one half to two thirds. Excluding BIVs has limited effectiveness in mitigating this bias. PMID:24832432

  11. Sex differences in fetal growth responses to maternal height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in fetal growth have been reported, but how this happens remains to be described. It is unknown if fetal growth rates, a reflection of genetic and environmental factors, express sexually dimorphic sensitivity to the mother herself. This analysis investigated homogeneity of male and female growth responses to maternal height and weight. The study sample included 3495 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies followed longitudinally. Analytic models regressed fetal and neonatal weight on tertiles of maternal height and weight, and modification by sex was investigated (n=1814 males, n=1681 females) with birth gestational age, maternal parity and smoking as covariates. Sex modified the effects of maternal height and weight on fetal growth rates and birth weight. Among boys, tallest maternal height influenced fetal weight growth prior to 18 gestational weeks of age (p=0.006), pre-pregnancy maternal weight and BMI subsequently had influence (p<0.001); this was not found among girls. Additionally, interaction terms between sex, maternal height, and maternal weight identified that males were more sensitive to maternal weight among shorter mothers (p=0.003), and more responsive to maternal height among lighter mothers (p<=0.03), compared to females. Likewise, neonatal birth weight dimorphism varied by maternal phenotype. A male advantage of 60 grams occurred among neonates of the shortest and lightest mothers (p=0.08), compared to 150 and 191 grams among short and heavy mothers, and tall and light weight mothers, respectively (p=0.01). Sex differences in response to maternal size are underappreciated sources of variation in fetal growth studies and may reflect differential growth strategies. PMID:19950190

  12. Secular trends in height and weight among children and adolescents of the Seychelles, 1956–2006

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Madeleine, George; Romain, Sarah; Gabriel, Anne; Bovet, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Background Height of individuals has long been considered as a significant index of nutrition and health of a population; still, there is little information regarding the trends of height and weight among developing or transitional countries. We assessed the secular trends in height and weight in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing island state in the Indian Ocean (African region). Methods Height and weight were measured in all students of all schools in four selected school grades (kindergarten, 4th, 7th and 10th grades) for the periods 1998–9 (6391 children) and 2005–6 (8582 children). Data for 1956–7 was extracted from a previously published report. Results At age 15.5 years, boys/girls were on average 10/13 cm taller and 15/9 kg heavier in 2005–6 than in 1956–7. Height increased in boys/girls by 1.62/0.93 cm/decade between 1956–7 and 1998–9 and by 1.14/1.82 cm/decade between 1998–9 and 2005–6. For weight, the linear increase in boys/girls was 1.38/1.10 kg/decade between 1956–7 and 1998–9 and 2.21/2.50 kg/decade between 1998–9 and 2005–6. Overall, the relative increase in weight between 1956–7 and 2005–6 was 5-fold higher than the relative increase in height. Conclusion Height and weight increased markedly over time in children aged <16 years in the Seychelles, consistent with large changes in socio-economic and nutritional indicators in the considered 50-year interval. The markedly steeper increase in weight than height over time is consistent with an epidemic of overweight and obesity. PMID:18489755

  13. Health, Height, Height Shrinkage, and SES at Older Ages: Evidence from China†

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Ridder, Geert; Strauss, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we build on the literature that examines associations between height and health outcomes of the elderly. We investigate the associations of height shrinkage at older ages with socioeconomic status, finding that height shrinkage for both men and women is negatively associated with better schooling, current urban residence, and household per capita expenditures. We then investigate the relationships between pre-shrinkage height, height shrinkage, and a rich set of health outcomes of older respondents, finding that height shrinkage is positively associated with poor health outcomes across a variety of outcomes, being especially strong for cognition outcomes. PMID:26594311

  14. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in psychiatrically ill US Armed Forces personnel

    PubMed Central

    WYATT, R. J.; HENTER, I. D.; MOJTABAI, R.; BARTKO, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In both psychiatrically ill and psychiatrically healthy adults, the connection between health and individuals’ height and weight has long been examined. Specifically, research on the idea that individuals with certain body types were prone to particular psychiatric diseases has been explored sporadically for centuries. The hypothesis that psychiatrically ill individuals were shorter and weighed less than psychiatrically healthy counterparts would correspond with the neurodevelopmental model of psychiatric disease. Method To evaluate possible links between psychiatric illness and physique, the height, weight and BMI of 7514 patients and 85 940 controls were compared. All subjects were part of the National Collaborative Study of Early Psychosis and Suicide (NCSEPS). Patients were US military active duty personnel hospitalized for either bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or schizophrenia and controls were psychiatrically-healthy US military active duty personnel matched for date of entry into the service. Results No consistent differences in height, weight or BMI were found between patients and controls, or between patient groups. Some weak ANOVA differences were found between age at the time of entering active duty and weight, as well as BMI, but not height. Conclusions Unlike most previous studies that have looked at the links between height and psychiatric illness, this study of the NCSEPS cohort found that, at entry into the US Armed Forces, there were no consistent decreases in height for patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia compared with a large control group. Furthermore, there were no consistent differences for weight or BMI. PMID:12622316

  15. Secular changes in body height and weight of Portuguese boys over one century.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2008-01-01

    This study examines secular changes in attained height and weight in student boys from a military boarding school (Colégio Militar) in Lisbon, Portugal. Data for 1899-1906, 1929-1936, 1961-1966, and 1999-2006 obtained from the archives and medical files of the Colégio Militar were used in this study. In a century Portuguese boys increased in height by 10.5 cm at age 10 to 19.1 cm at age 14, at a mean increase of 1.54 cm per decade. The gain in weight was between 8.7 and 18.9 kg for 10- and 14-year-old boys, respectively, at a mean increase of 1.54 kg per decade. In the same period, age at peak height and weight velocity advanced approximately 2 years, showing an acceleration of developmental tempo. However, most of the real gain in height and weight and the decrease in pubertal age occurred after 1961-1966. This mirrors major improvements in social and economic conditions that initiated in Portugal in the 1960s, and then by political events in the 1970s that promoted further progress.

  16. Height, weight, and entry earnings of female graduates in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hung-Lin

    2014-03-01

    Using a data set of Taiwanese female graduates in 2006, this study finds that height and earnings are positively correlated for full-time workers. However, it is not because tall individuals went to better colleges or received better grades (cognitive ability), not because they are gifted with superior physical strength or because they have participated in more extracurricular activities (non-cognitive ability), and not because they work in a highly paid occupation. We find that statistical discrimination (or perceptual bias) is most likely to play a role in determining the entry earnings of female graduates. In addition, we find that an estimator of the height premium for females is downward-biased if weight is omitted from the model.

  17. Height, weight, and entry earnings of female graduates in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hung-Lin

    2014-03-01

    Using a data set of Taiwanese female graduates in 2006, this study finds that height and earnings are positively correlated for full-time workers. However, it is not because tall individuals went to better colleges or received better grades (cognitive ability), not because they are gifted with superior physical strength or because they have participated in more extracurricular activities (non-cognitive ability), and not because they work in a highly paid occupation. We find that statistical discrimination (or perceptual bias) is most likely to play a role in determining the entry earnings of female graduates. In addition, we find that an estimator of the height premium for females is downward-biased if weight is omitted from the model. PMID:24462485

  18. Validation of self-reported height and weight in fifth-grade Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun

    2013-08-01

    Height and weight are important indicators to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI); measuring height and weight directly is the most exact method to get this information. However, it is ineffective in terms of cost and time on large population samples. The aim of our study was to investigate the validity of self-reported height and weight data compared to our measured data in Korean children to predict obese status. Four hundred twenty-two fifth-grade (mean age 10.5 ± 0.5 years) children who had self-reported and measured height and weight data were final subjects for this study. Overweight/obese was defined as a BMI of or above the 85th percentile of the gender-specific BMI for age in the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts or a BMI of 25 or higher (underweight : < 5th, normal : ≥ 5th to < 85th, overweight : ≥ 85th to < 95th). The differences between self-reported and measured data were tested using paired t-test. Differences based on overweight/obese status were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear trends. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa were tested to examine agreements between the self-reported and measured data. Although measured and self-reported height, weight and BMI were significantly different and children tended to overreport their height and underreport their weight, the correlation between the two methods of height, weight and BMI were high (r = 0.956, 0.969, 0.932, respectively; all P < 0.001), and both genders reported their overweight/non-overweight status accurately (Cohen's kappa = 0.792, P < 0.001). Although there were differences between the self-reported and our measured methods, the self-reported weight and height was valid enough to classify overweight/obesity status correctly, especially in non-overweight/obese children. Due to bigger underestimation of weight and overestimation of height in obese children, however, we need to be aware that the self-reported anthropometric data were less accurate in overweight

  19. Short- and long-run associations between birth weight and children's height.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Aditi; Fink, Günther; Berkman, Lisa F; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Much evidence suggests that the 1000 days spanning from conception to children's second birthdays are critical for physical development. Whether influence of the exposures occurring during this window lasts later in life is unclear. Our study investigates changes in associations between birth weight and height, one measure of physical development, over different life-stages and whether greater household wealth promotes better growth for low birth weight (LBW) children. Using longitudinal data from Young Lives, we analyzed associations between birth weight and physical growth and examined differences across ages and by household wealth for 3999 children from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. At 6-18 months, LBW children had 0.53-SD (Standard error [SE]: 0.08) lower HAZ. Over time, the gap between normal and LBW children narrowed significantly to 0.21-SD (SE: 0.05) and 0.24-SD (SE: 0.05) at 4-5 years and 7-8 years, respectively. Prenatal experiences are most salient in establishing the greatest height deficits within the first year. Although disparities in height are reduced in the first year, height differences at age 4-5 years remain at 7-8 years of age. Even among wealthier families, there was no recovery in height for LBW children during the first year and no catch-up growth for these children in later childhood. These findings suggest that prenatal conditions, reflected in birth weight, are more important in setting height trajectories in comparison to postnatal factors, which do not help children recover fully from early growth deficits.

  20. Final Height and Cardiometabolic Outcomes in Young Adults with Very Low Birth Weight (<1500 g)

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ryosuke; Maekawa, Masato; Genma, Rieko; Shirai, Kenji; Ohki, Shigeru; Morita, Hiroshi; Suda, Takafumi; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Individuals with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) are known to be predisposed to both short final height and cardiometabolic disorders. However, associations between final height and cardiometabolic outcomes including glucose metabolism in VLBW individuals in young adulthood are not fully investigated. Methods We investigated glucose metabolism and other cardiometabolic outcomes such as lipid profiles, blood pressure, renal function, urinary albumin, and thyroid function in young adults with VLBW born between 1980 and 1990. Short stature was defined as a final height <10th percentile. Glucose intolerance [diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG)] was determined using 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests. Associations between final height and cardiometabolic outcomes were examined using logistic or multiple linear regression. Results A total of 628 VLBW individuals were screened and 111 young adults with VLBW (19–30 years) participated in the study. Of the participants, 40 subjects (36%) had short stature with a final height <10th percentile. Eight subjects (7.2%) had glucose intolerance (1, diabetes; 6, IGT; 1, IFG). Short stature was correlated with glucose intolerance (odds ratio 11.1; 95% CI 1.92, 99.7; P = 0.006). Final height was inversely associated with the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance, HOMA-β, insulinogenic index, and total/LDL-cholesterol. The associations of final height with insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles remained after adjustment for target height and age at puberty onset. Conclusions Shorter final height was associated with less favorable metabolic profiles in young adults with VLBW, and may be partly mediated by reduced insulin sensitivity. These associations were independent of target height or age at puberty onset. PMID:25397968

  1. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  2. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  3. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  4. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  5. Beyond height and weight: a programme of school nurse assessed skinfold measurements from white British and South Asian origin children aged 4–5 years within the Born in Bradford cohort study

    PubMed Central

    West, Jane; Santorelli, Gillian; Lennon, Laura; O'Connell, Kathy; Corkett, John; Wright, John; Brierley, Shirley; Whincup, Peter; Cameron, Noel; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the feasibility, reliability and additional information gained from collecting additional body fatness measures (beyond height and weight) from UK reception year children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Bradford, UK. Participants 2458 reception year children participating in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. Main outcome measures The feasibility and reliability of subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and differences in adiposity between ethnic groups. Results Of those children who were matched to their school, 91% had a subscapular skinfold measurement and 92% had a triceps skinfold measurement recorded. Reliability was generally over 90% for all measurers and both measurements. Pakistani children were slightly taller but weighed less and had lower triceps skinfold thickness (mean difference −1.8 mm, 95% CI −2.1 to −1.4 mm) but higher subscapular (mean difference 0.1 mm, 95% CI −0.1 to 0.4 mm) than white British children. Conclusions We have shown that it is feasible for school nurses to collect skinfold measurements in a similar way to the height and weight measurements collected from reception year children for the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and that these measurements are reliable. It is important for healthcare practice to acknowledge ethnic-specific risk and these additional measurements can provide important information to examine population-level risk in populations with large proportions of South Asian children. PMID:26610758

  6. [Understanding the low prevalence of weight-for-height deficit in lower-income Brazilian children: correlations among anthropometric values].

    PubMed

    Post, C L; Victora, C G; Barros, A J

    2000-01-01

    The sample for this study consisted of 386 children from six to 59 months of age. The objective was to study the association between wasting and abdominal circumference. Thirteen anthropometric measurements were taken: weight, height or length, crown-rump length, 4 circumferences, 4 skin fold thicknesses, and 2 breadths. Muscle, fat, and total upper arm areas and leg length were calculated. Indices of body proportionality were obtained by dividing the anthropometric variables by height. Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height deficits were 25.9%, 14.4%, and 3.5%, respectively. The smallest and lightest children were those with the highest abdominal circumferences divided by height. According to this study, abdominal circumference for Brazilian children without height-for-age deficit is, on average, 1.2 cm larger than for US children. Using this as a basis, the study calculated that prevalence of weight-for-height deficit would increase from 3.5% to 7.0% by increasing 2 cm in the abdominal circumference. The low prevalence of wasting and the high prevalence of stunting as indicated by several Brazilian studies could be explained partially by larger mean abdominal circumference values.

  7. Assessing Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity through Self-Reports of Height and Weight by High School Students in Taipei, Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Lee, Ching-Mei; Miao, Nae-Fang

    2004-01-01

    This study compared consistency of age- and gender-specific self-reported height and weight and calculated body mass index among a sample of high school students in Taipei County, Taiwan to reference values for Taiwanese school-aged youth obtained through national studies. Taipei high school students provided self-reports of height and weight that…

  8. Agreement between routine and research measurement of infant height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, M; Santorelli, G; Fairley, L; Petherick, E S; Bhopal, R; Lawlor, D A; Tilling, K; Howe, L D; Farrar, D; Cameron, N; Mohammed, M; Wright, J

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, routine data relating to growth of infants are collected as a means of tracking health and illness up to school age. These have potential to be used in research. For health monitoring and research, data should be accurate and reliable. This study aimed to determine the agreement between length/height and weight measurements from routine infant records and researcher-collected data. Methods Height/length and weight at ages 6, 12 and 24 months from the longitudinal UK birth cohort (born in Bradford; n=836–1280) were compared with routine data collected by health visitors within 2 months of the research data (n=104–573 for different comparisons). Data were age adjusted and compared using Bland Altman plots. Results There was agreement between data sources, albeit weaker for height than for weight. Routine data tended to underestimate length/height at 6 months (0.5 cm (95% CI −4.0 to 4.9)) and overestimate it at 12 (−0.3 cm (95% CI −0.5 to 4.0)) and 24 months (0.3 cm (95% CI −4.0 to 3.4)). Routine data slightly overestimated weight at all three ages (range −0.04 kg (95% CI −1.2 to 0.9) to −0.04 (95% CI −0.7 to 0.6)). Limits of agreement were wide, particularly for height. Differences were generally random, although routine data tended to underestimate length in taller infants and underestimate weight in lighter infants. Conclusions Routine data can provide an accurate and feasible method of data collection for research, though wide limits of agreement between data sources may be observed. Differences could be due to methodological issues; but may relate to variability in clinical practice. Continued provision of appropriate training and assessment is essential for health professionals responsible for collecting routine data. PMID:25266076

  9. Obesity and medicare expenditure: accounting for age-related height loss.

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Nneka C; Stuart, Bruce; Zuckerman, Ilene H; Sorkin, John D

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and Medicare expenditure for adults 65-years and older and determine whether this relationship changes after accounting for misclassification due to age-related height loss. Using a cross sectional study design, the relationship between BMI and fee-for-service Medicare expenditure was examined among beneficiaries who completed the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) in 2002, were not enrolled in Medicare Health Maintenance Organization, had a self-reported height and weight, and were 65 and older (n = 7,706). Subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese (obese I), and severely obese (obese II/III). To adjust BMI for the artifactual increase associated with age-related height loss, the reported height was transformed by adding the sex-specific age-associated height loss to the reported height in MCBS. The main outcome variable was total Medicare expenditure. There was a significant U-shaped pattern between unadjusted BMI and Medicare expenditure: underweight $4,581 (P < 0.0003), normal weight $3,744 (P < 0.0000), overweight $3,115 (reference), obese I $3,686 (P < 0.0039), and obese II/III $4,386 (P < 0.0000). This pattern persisted after accounting for height loss: underweight $4,640 (P < 0.0000), normal weight $3,451 (P < 0.0507), overweight $3,165 (reference), obese I $3,915 (P < 0.0010), and obese II/III $4,385 (P < 0.0004) compared to overweight. In older adults, minimal cost is not found at "normal" BMI, but rather in overweight subjects with higher spending in the obese and underweight categories. Adjusting for loss-of-height with aging had little affect on cost estimates.

  10. The determinants of misreporting weight and height: The role of social norms.

    PubMed

    Gil, Joan; Mora, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Given the lack of availability of measured anthropometric data for the whole of Spain, this paper combines data from the 2006 Catalan Health and Health Examination Surveys to compute the size of weight and height self-reporting biases. The underlying determinants of these biases are then analyzed, placing special emphasis on the role played by social norms. Our findings show that social norms regarding "ideal" weight (proxied by the average weight of a reference group based on gender and age) tend to affect the self-reporting weight (relative) bias. This finding suggests that the more satisfied individuals feel with their own body image the less prone they are to under-report their weight, although this effect is contingent upon the definition of social norms and the correction of endogeneity. However, we found no evidence of a similar impact caused by the social norms governing height. The relationship found between the measured and self-reported anthropometric data was applied to the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) so as to correct the self-reported information contained in it. After correcting for self-reporting errors, both the BMI and the prevalence of obesity were found to be significantly underestimated, with instances of misreporting being more prevalent among women.

  11. Validation of self-reported weights and heights in the avoiding diabetes after pregnancy trial (ADAPT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials that test the effectiveness of mobile health-based weight loss programs are attractive to participants, funders, and researchers because of the low implementation cost, minimal participant burden, and the ability to recruit participants from longer distances. Collecting weight data from geographically dispersed participants is a challenge. Relying on participant self-report is one approach to data collection, but epidemiologic studies indicate that self-reported anthropometric data may be inaccurate. Methods We provided women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of postpartum weight loss after gestational diabetes with a digital scale and training to collect and report weight via a web-based survey. To validate self-reported weights and heights, we visited 30 randomly selected women in their homes, with a reference scale and stadiometer, a mean of 34 days after the self-report. We ran linear regression models to identify characteristics that were associated with underreporting or overreporting of anthropometric measures. Results Of the 30 women we visited, 11 women (37%) were assigned to the weight loss intervention group and 19 women (63%) were in the control group. Mean age was 38.5 years (SD 4.5). The overall mean difference between participants’ self-reported weights and the weights obtained at their home visit was 0.70 kg (+1.92). Women assigned to the intervention group underreported their weight in comparison with the control group by 1.29 kg (95% CI −2.52, −0.06). The overall difference in collected to self-reported height was −0.56 cm (±1.91). No characteristics were associated with underreporting or overreporting of height. Conclusions Our research suggests that by providing a digital scale and developing a weight collection protocol, researchers can train women to collect and record their own study weights with reasonable validity. To achieve the level of validity required for clinical

  12. The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Zumoff, B

    1992-12-01

    The measurement called desirable body weight (DBW) was derived by actuaries to indicate that weight which is associated with the lowest mortality. Percent deviation from DBW has become a standard measure of fatness. A different obesity index, body mass index (BMI), is weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Many workers consider both measures inferior to the measurement of body fat content (BFC). We compared the three measures of fatness in 40 men aged 18-50 and 48 women aged 21-47, ranging from nonobese to extremely obese. Total BFC was determined by isotope dilution of 3H-labeled water. DBWs used were those listed in the US Air Force Examination Manual of 1971; these approximate the midpoint of the range of medium-frame values in the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables, but have the advantage of providing a single value for each height. We found nearly perfect correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between BMI and percent deviation from DBW in both men and women ranging from 14% below to 305% above DBW. Correlations between percent deviation from DBW and total BFC were extremely high: 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.94 (p < 0.001) for the women, essentially the same as correlations between BMI and BFC, which were 0.96 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the women. It appears that the two technically simple weight-height indices, BMI and percent deviation from DBW, give just as accurate a measurement of fatness as the technically complex measurement of total BFC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1460187

  13. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa12

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. Objective: We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. Methods: We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Results: Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, −1.31 cm (95% CI: −2.32, −0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [−0.56 cm (95% CI: −1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Conclusions: Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults. PMID:27335138

  14. Comparison of Self-Reported and Measured Height and Weight in Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Susan L.; Whetstone, Lauren M.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Owen, Lynda J.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationships between self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of eighth-grade students. The study population consisted of eighth-grade students in eastern North Carolina who completed a cross-sectional survey, self-reported their height and weight, and had their…

  15. Height and Weight of Southeast Asian Preschool Children in Northern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Kathryn G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Anthropometric data were obtained from 526 Southeast Asian preschool children during 1980-84. Mean weights and heights were substantially below the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 50th percentile, but rates of weight and height gain were similar to reference values, indicating adequate growth after arrival in the United States.…

  16. Is School-Based Height and Weight Screening of Elementary Students Private and Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Skay, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends school-based body mass index (BMI) screening as an obesity prevention strategy. While school nurses have provided height/weight screening for years, little has been published describing measurement reliability or process. This study evaluated the reliability of height/weight measures collected by school nurses…

  17. Geoid height versus age for symmetric spreading ridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, D.; Schubert, G.

    1980-01-01

    Geoid height-age relations have been extracted from Geos 3 altimeter data for large areas in the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, southeast Indian, and southeast Pacific oceans. Except for the southeast Pacific area, geoid height decreases approximately linearly with the age of the ocean floor for ages less than about 80 m.y. in agreement with the prediction of an isostatically compensated thermal boundary layer model (Haxby and Turcotte, 1978). The geoid-age data for 0 to 80 m.y. are consistent with constant slopes of -0.094 + or - -0.131 + or - 0.041, and -0.149 + or - 0.028 m/m.y. for the South Atlantic, southeast Indian, and North Atlantic regions, respectively. For ages greater than 80 m.y. the geoid-age relation for the North Atlantic is nearly flat, indicating a reduction in the rate of boundary layer thickening with age. The uncertainties in the geoid slope-age estimates are positively correlated with spreading velocity.

  18. [A survey on weight and height of children (1 month-7 years) and plotting of growth curves (1 month-18 years) in Taiwan, 1987-1988].

    PubMed

    Hsiao, R L; Miau, T S; Lu, C C; Tsai, C H; Lin, M T; Wu, C C; Lin, M H; Lin, S P; Lin, W H; Liu, C T

    1990-01-01

    From July 1987 to December 1988, 19,625 children in Taiwan were measured for their body weights and heights. They were 9,564 boys and 10,061 girls and were seen either in a well baby clinic of a large community hospital or in the local kindergartens. We divided these children into 64 groups according to their sex and ages. The mean values and standard deviation of body weight and height were tried to correlate with those from children of school age reported for 1987 by the Ministry of Education. Furthermore, body weight and height growth curves were drawn for these children, aged from 1 month to 18 years.

  19. Height, weight and body mass index of girls and boys in a rural school in Punjab India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All the students at this Bhagat Puran Singh Memorial School in Punjab, India were educated about the importance of caloric intake and physical activity. Body weight and height were recorded once a month for 12 consecutive months for 632 students, age 8-23 years (7584 observations). For US and Euro...

  20. Two method measurement for adolescent obesity epidemiology: Reducing the bias in self report of height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Keith M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Dalton, Madeline A.; Langeloh, Gail; Peterson, Karen E.; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite validation studies demonstrating substantial bias, epidemiologic studies typically use self-reported height and weight as primary measures of body mass index due to feasibility and resource limitations. Purpose To demonstrate a method for calculating accurate and precise estimates that use body mass index when objectively measuring height and weight in a full sample is not feasible. Methods As part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1,840 adolescents (aged 12–18) self-reported their height and weight during telephone surveys. Height and weight was measured for 407 of these adolescents. Sex specific, age-adjusted obesity status was calculated from self-reported and from measured height and weight. Prevalence and predictors of obesity were estimated using 1) self-reported data, 2) measured data, and 3) multiple imputation (of measured data). Results Among adolescents with self-reported and measured data, the obesity prevalence was lower when using self-report compared to actual measurements (p < 0.001). The obesity prevalence from multiple imputation (20%) was much closer to estimates based solely on measured data (20%) compared to estimates based solely on self-reported data (12%), indicating improved accuracy. In multivariate models, estimates of predictors of obesity were more accurate and approximately as precise (similar confidence intervals) as estimates based solely on self-reported data. Conclusions The two-method measurement design offers researchers a technique to reduce the bias typically inherent in self-reported height and weight without needing to collect measurements on the full sample. This technique enhances the ability to detect real, statistically significant differences, while minimizing the need for additional resources. PMID:23684216

  1. A study of the influence of body weight and height on military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Pirlot, M

    1990-08-01

    The weights and heights of 1,880 male military parachutists were recorded, and landing injury rates were calculated according to the weights and heights of the jumpers. Only the weight significantly influenced the injury rate. The set of data (weight, injury rate) are best fitted with a parabola of the form: y = 43.14 - 1.22x + 0.01x2. The concept of the maximal operating weight of a parachute is discussed with its implications for medical standards and for jumps with extra equipment. PMID:2119025

  2. Agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight and body mass index in old age—a longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Anna K.; Hassing, Linda B.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: self-reported body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight is a widely used measure of adiposity in epidemiological research. Knowledge about the accuracy of these measures in late life is scarce. Objective: the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and changes in accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight in late life. Design: a longitudinal population-based study with five times of follow-up was conducted. Participants: seven hundred seventy-four community-living men and women, aged 40–88 at baseline (mean age 63.9), included in The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Methods: participants self-reported their height and weight in a questionnaire, and height and weight were measured by experienced research nurses at an in-person testing five times during a 20-year period. BMI was calculated as weight (kilogramme)/height (metre)2. Results: latent growth curve modelling showed an increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured values over time for height (0.038 cm/year) and BMI (0.016 kg/m2/year), but not for weight. Conclusions: there is a very small increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI with ageing, which probably would not affect the results when self-reported BMI is used as a continuous variable in longitudinal studies. PMID:20453247

  3. Growth patterns of height and weight among three groups of Samoan preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Bindon, J R; Zansky, S M

    1986-01-01

    The Samoan population affords an excellent opportunity to study the influences of modernization and migration on growth. Moreover, since Samoan adults in some settings have very high rates of obesity, the childhood precursors to obesity can be studied among Samoans. This study reports the results of a survey of 786 Samoan children between 5.5 and 11.5 years of age living in traditional, modern or migrant situations. It was found that the children from Western Samoa (traditional) were significantly shorter, lighter and lighter for height than their counterparts in American Samoa (modern) and Hawaii (migrant). The major influence on height and weight appears to be modernization (Western versus American Samoa), with migration (American Samoa versus Hawaii) playing only a small incremental role (significant only for weight among boys). The influences of modernization are likely to be exerted through changes in diet and activity among the children. Modernization and migration are associated with obesity among Samoan adults, and this pattern also seems to be established in preadolescents.

  4. Effects of Stimulants on Height and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Morley, Christopher P.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews existing literature on the effects of stimulant medications on the growth of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It concludes that treatment with stimulants in childhood results in moderate growth deficit in height and weight.

  5. [Body height, body weight and body mass index of German military recruits. Historical retrospect and current status].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, U; Zellner, K; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Lüdde, R; Eisele, R; Hebebrand, J

    2001-09-01

    Surveys of conscripts give a chance to pursue the somatic development and the nourishment situation of young men over long times. At the beginning a historical view is given of the organization and methodological basis of medical examinations of German recruits since the introduction of the general conscription at the beginning of the 19th century. Secular changes of the body height are sketched out for selected regions of Germany until the middle of the 20th century. Data of the body weight hardly exist for this time. Until now the greatest continuous documentation of data for body height and body weight is available for West Germany since 1957 and for East Germany between 1973 and the reunion in 1989. The body height of German conscripts has nearly permanently increased since 1957 and reached in 1994 a maximum with 180.0 cm. In general East German conscripts have body height data which are smaller on an average than those of West German conscripts. But in the last years a catch-up in body height could be seen. The body weight of German conscripts also shows an increase apart from some short-time exceptions. The data of West German conscripts are also higher than those of the East German conscripts. Until the reunion the West-East-differences could partly be due to the different mustering age. But the differences also continue in the nineties despite the now identical mustering age. The Body Mass Index (BMI) of the German conscripts (calculated from the average values of body height and body weight) is characterized by increments in the last years. This indicates greater changes in body weight than in body height. The BMI also shows marked West-East-differences. There is no uniform tendency in differences between urban and country side regions for body height and body weight. On the other hand until now differences between selected professional groups are existing. Especially the over-proportional increase of the number of conscripts in the higher body-weight

  6. Height, weight, body composition, and waist circumference references for 7- to 17-year-old children from rural Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; Baxter-Jones, A; Souza, M; Santos, D; Maia, J

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to develop references of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat for rural Portuguese children and adolescents and (2) to compare these results with other international references. The sample comprised 3094 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from Vouzela, a central region in Portugal. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and body fat were measured. Centile curves were constructed using the LMS method. The Vouzela sample showed similar height median values compared to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) percentile curves but greater values for weight and BMI. Percent body fat 50th percentile was greater in Vouzela children and adolescents compared to their international peers, except for boys aged 8-12 years. Boys' waist circumference median values were similar to those from the USA, whilst girls were similar until 12 years of age, after which the differences increased with age. The percentile curves constructed provide population specific references for growth and body composition of children and adolescents from rural Portugal. It is expected that they will be a useful tool for clinical and public health settings in rural Portugal.

  7. Don’t Always Believe What You Are Told: A Comparison of Self-Reported with Measured Weight and Height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-reported weight and height are often used for eligibility screening in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials. However, prior studies suggest that individuals give biased reports of their weight and height. Our purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported weight and height and calculated ...

  8. Body mass index relates weight to height differently in women and older adults: serial cross-sectional surveys in England (1992–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Sperrin, Matthew; Marshall, Alan D.; Higgins, Vanessa; Renehan, Andrew G.; Buchan, Iain E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) tends to be higher among shorter adults, especially women. The dependence of BMI–height correlation on age and calendar time may inform us about temporal determinants of BMI. Methods Series of cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey for England, 1992–2011. We study the Benn Index, which is the coefficient in a regression of log(weight) on log(height). This is adjusted for age, gender and calendar time, allowing for non-linear terms and interactions. Results By height quartile, mean BMI decreased with increasing height, more so in women than in men (P < 0.001). The decrease in mean BMI in the tallest compared with the shortest height quartile was 0.77 in men (95% CI 0.69, 0.86) and 1.98 in women (95% CI 1.89, 2.08). Regression analysis of log(weight) on log(height) revealed that the inverse association between BMI and height was more pronounced in older adults and stronger in women than in men, with little change over calendar time. Conclusions Unlike early childhood, where taller children tend to have higher BMI, adults, especially women and older people, show an inverse BMI–height association. BMI is a heterogeneous measure of weight-for-height; height may be an important and complex determinant of BMI trajectory over the life course. PMID:26036702

  9. Circumference-estimated percent body fat vs. weight-height indices: relationships to physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Conway, T L; Cronan, T A; Peterson, K A

    1989-05-01

    This study examined whether percent body fat estimated from a simple circumference technique was more strongly associated with physical fitness than commonly used weight-height indices. Participants included 5,710 Navy men and 477 Navy women. Physical fitness measures included a 1.5-mile run, sit-ups test, sit-reach flexibility test, and an average fitness score. Circumference-estimated percent body fat was more strongly correlated with physical fitness than were any of the weight-height indices. Although the overall pattern of associations was similar for men and women, correlations were stronger for men. Circumference-estimated percent body fat may be more strongly associated with physical fitness because it assesses actual body fat more reliably than weight-height indices.

  10. Correlational study of speakers' heights, weights, body surface areas, and speaking fundamental frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lass, N J

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship among speakers' heights, weights, body surface areas, and speaking fundamental frequencies. The recordings of 30 speakers' readings of a standard prose passage were analyzed by means of the Fundamental Frequency Indicator (FFI) to obtain their speaking fundamental frequency characteristics. The speakers' heights and weights were obtained by means of standard measurement procuedures, and their body surface areas were calculated. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, computed separately for men and women, indicated that speakers' heights, weights, and body surface areas were not significantly correlated with their speaking fundamental frequencies; female speakers showed a slight negative correlation while male speakers showed a low, positive trend. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  12. The low prevalence of weight-for-height deficits in Brazilian children is related to body proportions.

    PubMed

    Post, C L; Victora, C G

    2001-04-01

    Compared with children from other regions, Latin American children living in poverty have much lower prevalences of weight-for-height deficits than would be expected given the observed rates of stunting. This study was aimed at investigating whether variations in body proportions, particularly abdominal circumference, could explain this paradoxical finding. In a cross-sectional study, children aged 12-35 mo (n = 197) were studied in Southern Brazil. Half of these children were from a high socioeconomic status (SES) group whose growth closely resembled that of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference; the other half were from low income families. The following 11 anthropometric measurements were collected: weight, height, sitting height/crown-rump length, head, chest, upper arm and abdominal circumference, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds. These measures were compared between the two groups of children and with values for North American children [mostly from Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II)]. For nearly all measures, low SES Brazilian children tended to be smaller than both high SES and North American children. However, when body proportionality was assessed by dividing the measurements by the child's height, these differences tended to disappear or even to change direction, as was the case for head, chest and abdominal circumferences. Mean abdominal circumference was virtually identical between low and high SES children, and the former had larger abdomens for a given height. Despite slight differences in measuring techniques, Brazilian children had larger abdomens than North Americans. These findings may explain in part why deprived Latin American children have higher weights for their height compared with the NCHS/WHO reference.

  13. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  14. Establishing the Baseline Height and Weight Status of New Hampshire Head Start Children, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, David D.; Flynn, Regina T.; Martin, Nancy R.; Anderson, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    We report on a standardized survey of height and weight status of children attending the New Hampshire Head Start Program during the 2007-2008 school year. Baseline prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are needed for obesity prevention activities and intervention. We selected a random one-stage cluster sample and screened 629 children…

  15. Comparisons of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, and Red Poll-sired cows for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters.

  16. Simple traits among diaspore weight/number, plant height and ability of vegetative propagation.

    PubMed

    Šerá, Božena

    2008-12-01

    Several expected correlations among followed internal plant traits were confirmed using the dataset of 492 herbaceous species from the temporal zone of Central Europe. Average diaspore weight (seed mass), reproductive capacity of population (number of produced diaspores), species height, and ability of lateral spread were the plant traits considered. The evident correlations were confirmed among all investigated traits: (i) The reproductive capacity of population negatively correlated with diaspore weight, plant height, and vegetative propagation. The diaspore weight and their number are closely correlated and co-adapted. (ii) Bigger plant species produce bigger diaspores. These trends are obvious at the inter- and intra-family levels. (iii) Larger plant species showed higher ability to vegetative propagation.

  17. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  18. Early life height and weight production functions with endogenous energy and protein inputs.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Esteban; Wang, Fan; Behrman, Jere R; Cunha, Flavio; Hoddinott, John; Maluccio, John A; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-09-01

    We examine effects of protein and energy intakes on height and weight growth for children between 6 and 24 months old in Guatemala and the Philippines. Using instrumental variables to control for endogeneity and estimating multiple specifications, we find that protein intake plays an important and positive role in height and weight growth in the 6-24 month period. Energy from other macronutrients, however, does not have a robust relation with these two anthropometric measures. Our estimates indicate that in contexts with substantial child undernutrition, increases in protein-rich food intake in the first 24 months can have important growth effects, which previous studies indicate are related significantly to a range of outcomes over the life cycle.

  19. Early life height and weight production functions with endogenous energy and protein inputs.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Esteban; Wang, Fan; Behrman, Jere R; Cunha, Flavio; Hoddinott, John; Maluccio, John A; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-09-01

    We examine effects of protein and energy intakes on height and weight growth for children between 6 and 24 months old in Guatemala and the Philippines. Using instrumental variables to control for endogeneity and estimating multiple specifications, we find that protein intake plays an important and positive role in height and weight growth in the 6-24 month period. Energy from other macronutrients, however, does not have a robust relation with these two anthropometric measures. Our estimates indicate that in contexts with substantial child undernutrition, increases in protein-rich food intake in the first 24 months can have important growth effects, which previous studies indicate are related significantly to a range of outcomes over the life cycle. PMID:27026217

  20. International renal-cell cancer study. III. Role of weight, height, physical activity, and use of amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Mellemgaard, A; Lindblad, P; Schlehofer, B; Bergström, R; Mandel, J S; McCredie, M; McLaughlin, J K; Niwa, S; Odaka, N; Pommer, W

    1995-01-27

    Although numerous studies have identified obesity or high relative weight as a risk factor for renal-cell cancer in women, the degree to which this effect is present in men remains unclear. A multicenter population-based case-control study concerning incident cases of histologically verified renal-cell cancer (n = 1,732) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 2,309) was conducted in Australia, Denmark, Germany (2 centers), Sweden and the United States. Relative weight was estimated by the body mass index, and the association between this factor and other factors, such as height, physical activity and use of amphetamines, was measured by the relative risk estimated in logistic regression models. Body mass index was found to be a risk factor among women and, to a lesser extent, among men. A 3-fold increased risk (RR = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.3-5.7) was observed for women with a relative weight in the top 5% compared with those in the lowest quartile. Rate of weight change (estimated as weight change per annum in kilograms) appeared to be an independent risk factor among women but not among men. Physical activity and height were unrelated to risk of renal-cell cancer regardless of level of BMI, while use of amphetamines was associated with an increased risk among men, although no dose or duration effect was seen. Our findings verify the link between high relative weight and risk of renal-cell cancer, particularly among women. The mechanism that underlies this association is, however, still unclear, although the rate of weight change may play a role.

  1. VHA Corporate Data Warehouse height and weight data: opportunities and challenges for health services research.

    PubMed

    Noël, Polly Hitchcock; Copeland, Laurel A; Perrin, Ruth A; Lancaster, A Elizabeth; Pugh, Mary Jo; Wang, Chen-Pin; Bollinger, Mary J; Hazuda, Helen P

    2010-01-01

    Within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), anthropometric measurements entered into the electronic medical record are stored in local information systems, the national Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW), and in some regional data warehouses. This article describes efforts to examine the quality of weight and height data within the CDW and to compare CDW data with data from warehouses maintained by several of VHA's regional groupings of healthcare facilities (Veterans Integrated Service Networks [VISNs]). We found significantly fewer recorded heights than weights in both the CDW and VISN data sources. In spite of occasional anomalies, the concordance in the number and value of records in the CDW and the VISN warehouses was generally 97% to 99% or greater. Implausible variation in same-day and same-year heights and weights was noted, suggesting measurement or data-entry errors. Our work suggests that the CDW, over time and through validation, has become a generally reliable source of anthropometric data. Researchers should assess the reliability of data contained within any source and apply strategies to minimize the impact of data errors appropriate to their study population.

  2. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries123

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline HD; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. Objective: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. Design: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from −0.6 (Brazil) to −2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3–0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: −0.3 (Brazil) to −1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. Conclusions: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. PMID:25008854

  3. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI1234

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height2), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. Objectives: The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). Design: We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αXβ) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Results: Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P < 0.05). Nationally representative powers for BW were (NHANES/KNHANES) 2.12 ± 0.05/2.11 ± 0.06 for men and 2.02 ± 0.04/1.99 ± 0.06 for women and for WC were 0.66 ± 0.03/0.67 ± 0.05 for men and 0.61 ± 0.04/0.56 ± 0.05 for women. Conclusions: Adult BW scales to height with a power of ∼2 across the 8 sex and race/ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a

  4. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature weight and height at puberty

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturing amongst breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fit to the nonlinear function: BW = f(t) = A – Bek(age) where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determi...

  5. Comparison of ideal body weight equations and published height-weight tables with body mass index tables for healthy adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhumika; Sucher, Kathryn; Hollenbeck, Clarie B

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the ideal body weight (IBW) formulas and published height-weight tables for healthy adults in the United States with the body mass index (BMI) of 22 kg/m2, which is associated with lowest mortality. There are numerous formulas and published height-weight tables available to determine IBW, but there are no published studies comparing the validity of formulas with each other or comparing formulas with BMIs. Data from height-weight tables, weight for specific heights determined by IBW formulas, and weight for BMIs of 20, 22, 25, and 30 kg/m2 at different heights were plotted for both men and women. Slopes based on a range of heights were determined for each formula using relational database software. The value for each slope obtained by linear regression was compared with the BMIs to determine which fit best with BMI of 22 kg/m2. Most height-weight tables and formulas predicted IBWs within the range of BMI of 20-25 kg/m2. However, for shorter heights the formulas were closer to BMI 20 kg/m2 and for taller heights, were closer to BMI 25 kg/m2. Height-weight tables' slopes were closer to the BMI slopes than formula slopes. Robinson's formula appears to be the best equation for calculating desirable/healthy weights in men; however, no formula predicted close to a BMI of 22 kg/m2 for women. Thus, in practice it might be more useful to use BMI ranges instead of IBW formulas for men and women.

  6. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer. Methods 13,572 women (50 to 69 years) in the Copenhagen mammography screening program (1991 through 2001) with childhood anthropometric measurements in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register were followed for breast cancer until 2010. With logistic and Cox regression models, we investigated associations among birth weight, height, and BMI at ages 7 to 13 years with MD (mixed/dense or fatty) and breast cancer, respectively. Results 8,194 (60.4%) women had mixed/dense breasts, and 716 (5.3%) developed breast cancer. Childhood BMI was significantly inversely related to having mixed/dense breasts at all ages, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72) at age 7 to 0.56 (0.53 to 0.58) at age 13, per one-unit increase in z-score. No statistically significant associations were detected between birth weight and MD, height and MD, or birth weight and breast cancer risk. BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer, with hazard ratios of 0.91 (0.83 to 0.99) at age 7 and 0.92 (0.84 to 1.00) at age 13, whereas height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (age 7, 1.06 (0.98 to 1.14) and age 13, 1.08 (1.00 to 1.16)). After additional adjustment for MD, associations of BMI with breast cancer diminished (age 7, 0.97 (0.88 to 1.06) and age 13, 1.01 (0.93 to 1.11)), but remained with height (age 7, 1.06 (0.99 to 1.15) and age 13, 1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)). Conclusions Among women 50 years and older, childhood body fatness was inversely associated with the breast cancer risk, possibly via a mechanism mediated by MD, at least partially. Childhood tallness was

  7. Applications of BMI or BSI: Differences and Revisions According to Age and Height

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Otto W. B.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Zaum, Stephan; Shreeve, Walton W.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Validation of body-mass relationships requires a careful statistical analysis of data of normal weight individuals. BMI (ratio between body mass and square of body height) and BSI values (ratio between mass and cube of body height) have been calculated for 99 persons with ages between 1 day and 76 years. These BMI or BSI values have been used for least squares fits yielding mean BMI or BSI values, their variances (providing precision), and average deviations of individual BMI/BSI values from the BMI/BSI means. The latter allows limits to over- and underweight. For adults we found mean values of BSI of 12.36 and confirmed 21.7 for the mean BMI; but the BSI was 1.4 times more precise than the BMI. For children shorter than 1.3 m and younger than 8 years we found the BMI average of 15.9 and over-/underweight limits of 17.4/14.4 being significantly smaller than and incompatible with the recommended BMI values. PMID:20975773

  8. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations on actual weight, adjusted weight, hip height, and condition score of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-06-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated in three composite populations in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in 1-yr-old and from 2- through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old beef cows. Traits included actual weight, weight adjusted to a common condition score, hip height, and condition score. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed group (parental breed and composite) effects were significant for all traits analyzed. The effects of heterosis were generally important (P less than .05) for all traits in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in the three composite populations. Generally, the magnitude of heterosis observed at 1 yr of age did not differ from that observed in cows from 2 through greater than or equal to 7 yr old. Adjusting weight to a common condition score resulted in an average reduction of heterosis effects on actual weight by approximately one-fourth. Thus, approximately one-fourth of the effects of heterosis on weight result from heterosis effects on condition score. Generally, retained heterosis in the F3 generation of either 1-yr-old or from 2-through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old cows of the three composite populations did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation based on retained heterozygosity for the traits analyzed. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis for weight, hip height, and condition score of cows of these age classes is the result of dominance effects of genes.

  9. Measuring the accuracy of self-reported height and weight in a community-based sample of young people

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-reported anthropometric data are commonly used to estimate prevalence of obesity in population and community-based studies. We aim to: 1) Determine whether survey participants are able and willing to self-report height and weight; 2) Assess the accuracy of self-reported compared to measured anthropometric data in a community-based sample of young people. Methods Participants (16–29 years) of a behaviour survey, recruited at a Melbourne music festival (January 2011), were asked to self-report height and weight; researchers independently weighed and measured a sub-sample. Body Mass Index was calculated and overweight/obesity classified as ≥25kg/m2. Differences between measured and self-reported values were assessed using paired t-test/Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Accurate report of height and weight were defined as <2cm and <2kg difference between self-report and measured values, respectively. Agreement between classification of overweight/obesity by self-report and measured values was assessed using McNemar’s test. Results Of 1405 survey participants, 82% of males and 72% of females self-reported their height and weight. Among 67 participants who were also independently measured, self-reported height and weight were significantly less than measured height (p=0.01) and weight (p<0.01) among females, but no differences were detected among males. Overall, 52% accurately self-reported height, 30% under-reported, and 18% over-reported; 34% accurately self-reported weight, 52% under-reported and 13% over-reported. More females (70%) than males (35%) under-reported weight (p=0.01). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 33% based on self-report data and 39% based on measured data (p=0.16). Conclusions Self-reported measurements may underestimate weight but accurately identified overweight/obesity in the majority of this sample of young people. PMID:23170838

  10. Associations of postnatal weight and length/height gain with wheeze, asthma and atopy: The PROBIT Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma L; Fraser, Abigail; Martin, Richard M.; Kramer, Michael S.; Oken, Emily; Patel, Rita; Tilling, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesised that postnatal weight and length/height gain are variously related to wheeze, asthma and atopy, however supporting evidence is limited and inconsistent. Methods Weights and lengths/heights of 12,171 term-infants were measured from birth to 12 months and at 6.5 years, and extracted from polyclinic records prospectively obtained between 12 and 60 months. Atopic phenotypes were ascertained at 6.5 years with the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire and skin-prick tests. Logistic regression models investigated whether rates of weight and length/height gain from infancy to mid-childhood were associated with atopy phenotypes that have occurred ever or in the last 12 months. Results After controlling for confounders and prior weight and length/height gain, all weight gain variables except birthweight were positively associated with ever having wheezed (p<0.1). A one SD increase in weight gain rate between 0–3 months was associated with a 12% increase (2%–23%) in allergic rhinitis ever. No other consistent patterns of association were found for weight gain or length/height gain rate between 0–60 months with atopic outcomes at 6.5 years. In contrast, all atopy outcomes except for ever having asthma were associated with current weight and height, even after controlling for prior growth. Conclusion Current height and weight are more strongly associated with the development of atopic phenotypes in childhood than patterns of infant and early childhood growth, which may well reflect reverse causality (atopy effects on growth) or residual confounding by an unknown common cause of growth and atopy. PMID:23374010

  11. Weight Estimation Tool for Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Limited-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Importance A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. Objective To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries. Design This was a retrospective observational study. Data were collected in 560 nutritional surveys during 1992–2006 using a modified Expanded Program of Immunization two-stage cluster sample design. Setting Locations with high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. Participants A total of 453,990 children met inclusion criteria (age 6–59 months; weight ≤ 25 kg; MUAC 80–200 mm) and exclusion criteria (bilateral pitting edema; biologically implausible weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) values). Exposures Weight was estimated using Broselow Tape, Hong Kong formula, and database MUAC alone, height alone, and height and MUAC combined. Main Outcomes and Measures Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight, proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% and ± 10% of true weight, weighted Kappa statistic, and Bland-Altman bias were reported as measures of tool accuracy. Standard deviation of mean percentage difference and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reported as measures of tool precision. Results Database height was a more accurate and precise predictor of weight compared to Broselow Tape 2007 [B], Broselow Tape 2011 [A], and MUAC. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight was +0.49% (SD = 10

  12. Child health in Peru: importance of regional variation and community effects on children's height and weight.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-12-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics. The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas. PMID:18198688

  13. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  14. Effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate on height and weight in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following up to four years of treatment.

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Yoldi-Petri, María Eugenia; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Zardoya-Santos, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    There is some controversy concerning \\the potential negative influence of methylphenidate on growth. The authors reviewed clinical records of 187 patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder under treatment with methylphenidate. The patients' weight, height, and body mass index were measured at diagnosis and during 4 years of follow-up. The dose of methylphenidate was gradually increased up to 1.31 ± 0.2 mg/kg/d. At diagnosis, mean weight value was lower than mean weight expected for age by 0.697 kg. This difference increased to 4.274 kg (at 30 months of treatment), although it subsequently decreased to 1.588 kg (at 48 months of treatment). Mean value of height was lower than expected mean height for age by 0.42 cm at diagnosis. This difference increased to 2.69 cm (at 30 months of treatment), but it subsequently decreased to 0.83 cm (at 48 months of treatment). The relationship between nutritional status and the negative effects on the height curve in those patients would require nutritional optimization to return anthropometric variables to normal.

  15. Historical trends in height, weight, and body mass: data from U.S. Major League Baseball players, 1869-1983.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Krueger, Patrick M; Rogers, Richard G

    2008-12-01

    We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players - a select, healthy population - to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later.

  16. Evolution of weight and height of children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Murilo Bertazzo; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho, Sírio; Beani, Lilian; Moscardini, Airton Camacho; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the height and weight development of children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgery with the goal of determining when they reach the threshold of normal development and whether there are differences between patients with developmental pattern below the level of normality preoperatively (z-score<-2 for the analyzed parameter) in comparison to the total group of cardiac patients. Methods We prospectively followed up 27 children undergoing operation into five time periods: preoperatively and at four subsequent outpatient appointments: 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and 12th month after hospital discharge. The anthropometric parameters used were median z-score (MZ), weight (WAZ), height (HAZ), subscapular skinfold (SSFAZ), upper arm circumference (UAC) and triceps skinfold (TSFAZ). The evolution assessment of the parameters was performed by analysis of variance and comparison with the general normal population from unpaired t test, both in the total group of cardiac patients, and in subgroups with preoperative parameters below the normal level (Zm<-2). Results In the total group there was no significant evolution of MZ of all parameters. WAZ was statistically lower than the normal population until the 1st month of follow-up (P=0.028); HAZ only preoperatively (P=0.044), SSFAZ in the first month (P=0.015) and at 12th month (P=0.038), UAC and TSFAZ were always statistically equal to the general population. In patients whose development was below the level of normality, there were important variation of WAZ (P=0.002), HAZ (P=0.001) and UAC (P=0.031) after the operation, and the WAZ was lower than the normal population until the 3rd month (P=0.015); HAZ and UAC, until the first month (P=0.024 and P=0.039 respectively), SSFAZ, up to the 12th month (P=0.005), the TSFAZ only preoperatively (P=0.011). Conclusion The operation promoted the return to normalcy for those with heart disease in general within up to three months, but for the group of

  17. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Ali; Sadighi, Jila; Farzadi, Faranak; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Ansari, Mariam; Sajadian, Akram; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Haghighat, Shahpar; Harirchi, Iraj

    2008-01-01

    Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC) were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004). Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index. PMID:18826621

  18. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18 kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness.

  19. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. PMID:26996222

  20. Maternal height and age: risk factors for cephalopelvic disproportion in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Tsu, V D

    1992-10-01

    Maternal age and stature are among several factors used to screen pregnant women for potential risk of labour complications. In a population-based case-control study in Harare, Zimbabwe, multivariate analysis was carried out to evaluate the importance of maternal age and height as risk factors for cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD). Using data abstracted from the medical records of 203 women with operative deliveries due to CPD and 299 women with normal unassisted vaginal deliveries, multiple logistic regression models were developed. Although maternal age < 18 years was not a significant risk factor in this study (perhaps because there were few women in this age group), advanced maternal age (> or = 35 years) was associated with a relative risk of 2.7 compared to women 20-34, after adjusting for other demographic and obstetric factors. Maternal height < 160 cm was associated with a twofold increased risk of CPD as compared to taller women.

  1. Distance, Weight, Height, Area and Temperature Percepts of School Children. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. XII. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Malcolm D.; Jones, Orville E.

    It is essential in communicative situations for teachers and students to have comparable percepts. A paucity of information is available on the percepts held by children regarding quantities and intervals of distance, height, weight, time, temperature and volume or on improvement (if any) that occurs as children mature. Teachers cannot be…

  2. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-20

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass.

  3. Evaluation of between- and within-breed variation in measures of weight-age relationships.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Kaps, M; Cundiff, L V; Ferrell, C L

    1991-08-01

    Variation between- and within-breeds was evaluated for accretion of weight from birth to 7 yr of age and hip height at 7 yr for 1,577 cows sired by Angus, Brahman, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Maine Anjou, Pinzgauer, Sahiwal, Simmental, South Devon, and Tarentaise and from either Angus or Hereford dams. Parameters from Wt = A (1 - Be-kt) were estimated by nonlinear regressions and provided estimates of mature body weight (A) and rate of weight accretion relative to change in age (k) for each cow. Actual weight at birth, linear adjusted weights at 200, 365, and 500 d of age, ratios of these weights to mature weight, and height at the hip at 7 yr were analyzed. Beyond 20 mo, weights were adjusted to a constant condition score within breed of sire. Variance and covariance components were derived for breed (sigma 2 b), sires within breed (sigma 2 s), and progeny within sire (sigma 2 w). For all traits, the sigma 2 b estimate of genetic variance ranged from two to four times greater than the variance component for sigma 2 s. Between-breed heritabilities were .91 +/- .27 and .54 +/- .17 for A and k, respectively. Estimates of within-breed heritability for these two traits were .61 +/- .11 and .27 +/- .09. Estimates, both between- and within-breed, of the genetic correlation between A and k were moderate to large and negative; those between A and weights at 200, 365, and 500 d and height at maturity were large and positive. Selection for immediate change in measures of growth would be most effective among breeds. Sufficient direct genetic variation exists between breeds to enhance breed improvement of growth characters through breed substitution. Greater opportunity to alter the shape of the growth curve exists through selection for within-breed selection than through breed substitution. PMID:1894547

  4. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. Results All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. PMID:26955278

  5. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school…

  6. Poor Diet Reflected in Height, Weight of Low-Income Hispanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Among 152 low-income Mexican American mothers and 350 children in San Jose (California) and rural Tulare County, about half of mothers and 14% of children were overweight. Nine percent of rural children and 17% of urban children were unusually short. Maternal obesity was related to acculturation factors, whereas child height was related to…

  7. Geoid height-age relation from Seasat altimeter profiles across the Mendocino Fracture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Schubert, G.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-eight Seasat altimeter profiles crossing the Mendocino Fracture Zone are used together with seafloor ages determined from magnetic lineations to estimate the change in oceanic geoid height with age, between ages of 15 and 135 m.y. An unbiased estimate of the overall geoid offset along each profile is determined from a least-squares fit of the along-track derivative of the geoid to the geoid slope predicted from a simple two-layer gravitational edge effect model. Uncertainties based upon the statistical properties of each profile are also determined. A geoid slope-age relation is constructed by normalizing the geoid offsets and uncertainties by the age offsets. The results are in agreement with geoid slope-age relations determined from symmetrically spreading ridges (Sandwell and Schubert, 1980). However, the fracture zone estimates have smaller uncertainties and show less scatter. A comparison of these results with the geoid slope-age prediction of the boundary layer cooling model shows that the thermal structure begins to deviate from this model at an early age (20-40 m.y.). A plate cooling model with a thickness of 125 km is most compatible with the geoid slope-age estimates, although significant deviations occur; these may indicate that the lithospheric thermal structure is not entirely age dependent.

  8. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  9. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  10. Corrective Equations to Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among U.S. Adults: NHANES 1999-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Estimating obesity prevalence using self-reported height and weight is an economic and effective method and is often used in national surveys. However, self-reporting of height and weight can involve misreporting of those variables and has been found to be associated to the size of the individual. This study investigated the biases in…

  11. Using weight-for-age for predicting wasted children in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kien, Agatha Tanya Nguti; Fokunang, Charles Ntungwen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The equipment for taking body weights (scales) are more frequently used in Cameroon health centres than measuring boards for heights. Even when the later exist there are some difficulties inherent in their qualities; thus the height measurement is not always available or accurate. Our objective for this study was to construct statistical models for predicting wasting from weight-for-age. Methods 3742 children aged 0 to 59 months were enrolled in a cross-sectional household survey (2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)) covering the entire Cameroon national territory. Results There were highly significant association between underweight and wasting. For all discriminant statistical methods used, the test error rates (using an independent testing sample) were less than 5%; the Area Under Curve (AUC) using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) was 0.86. Conclusion The study showed that weight-for-age can be used for accurately classifying a child whose wasting status is unknown. The result is useful in Cameroon as too often the height measurements may not be feasible, thus the need for estimating wasted children. This study provides baseline information that will help to design a preliminary pivotal study on an immediate nutrition intervention for acute undernutrition. Its complications that could lead to morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced or set up a management control strategy that will go a long way in reducing the cost of health care in Cameroon. PMID:23717712

  12. Intra- and intergenerational social mobility in relation to height, weight and body mass index in a British national cohort.

    PubMed

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2011-09-01

    Using a sample of 2090 father and son pairs, the extent of intra- and inter-generational social mobility (migration between social classes) was examined over a 42-year period in a British cohort in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). The mean height difference between the highest and lowest social class decreased from about 4 cm in the fathers' generation to about 3 cm in the sons' generation, indicating a decline in heterogeneity in height between classes. For fathers downward intra-generational social mobility ranged between 11% and 18% while between 16% and 26% were upwardly mobile; for sons 15% were downwardly mobile and 21% upwardly mobile. On average downwardly mobile fathers were shorter by between 0.1 cm and 0.7 cm while upwardly mobile fathers were taller by, on average, 0.6 cm to 1.7 cm. For sons, the downwardly mobile were on average 0.7 cm shorter and the upwardly mobile 0.8 cm taller. For weight and BMI there were no consistent relationships with intra-generational mobility in either the fathers' or sons' generations. Inter-generationally, between 18% and 19% of sons were downwardly mobile and between 39% and 40% were upwardly mobile; the downwardly mobile were shorter by about 0.9 cm and the upwardly taller by between 0.6 cm and 1.2 cm. Sons with higher BMI were more likely to be inter-generationally downwardly mobile.

  13. Path analysis of family resemblance with temporal trends: applications to height, weight, and Quetelet index in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Province, M A; Rao, D C

    1985-01-01

    A multifactorial model incorporating temporal trends in its parameters is discussed. The model is a generalization of the tau model of Rice et al. in which the parameters are assumed to be specific functions of time. A special case of this model is fit to data on height, weight, and Quetelet index in 1,067 nuclear families to demonstrate the utility of the approach. The results indicate that there is considerable temporal variation in family resemblance over time for all three traits. For height and Quetelet index, both the transmissibility, comparable to heritability, and residual sibling environmental correlation show temporal changes, while for weight, only the latter exhibits significant trends. Trends were not found in the marital correlation for any of the traits, and only limited evidence was found for trends in the maternal transmission parameter for height. This provides an objective method for evaluating the nature and sources of temporal trends in family resemblance, which can easily be incorporated into the framework of any model-based approach. PMID:3976658

  14. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time. PMID:19721903

  15. No evidence of carbon limitation with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes limited with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain limitation in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain limitation is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C limitation. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C limitation is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. δ13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277

  16. Ethnic Differences in Body Mass Index, Weight and Height Among School Children in the North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Veghari, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity are common health problems among adolescents. This study was set up to evaluate these problems and certain socio-demographic-related factors among three ethnic groups as represented by primary school children in northern Iran in 2010. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study performed on 7433 students (Fars-native=3268, Turkman=2852, Sisstani=1313) from 112 schools in urban and rural areas. The schools and students were chosen by cluster and stratified sampling. The data were collected by interviewers for all samples throughout the study. Overweight and obesity were identified on the basis of the BMI cut-off Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) values (in excess of the 85th and 95th percentiles, respectively). SPSS 16.0 software for Windows was used for the analysis. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that weight, height and BMI increased by 2.70 kg, 4.62 cm and 0.42 kgm−2, respectively, in boys (p=0.001) and 3.12 kg, 5.19 cm and 0.52 kgm−2, respectively, in girls (p=0.001) for each year increase in age. In total, overweight was identified in 8.4% of those studied, while obesity was common in 14.1% of students. The rates of overweight and obesity were significantly different among all three ethnic groups (p=0.001). These rates were higher among the Fars-native individuals and lower among the Sisstani individuals as compared with the other groups. Logistic regression analyses showed that the risk of overweight and obesity was 2.104 (1.769–2.502, CI: 95%)-fold greater in the Fars-native as compared with the Sisstanish ethnic group and 2.297 (1.911–2.761, CI 95)-fold greater in the good economic group as compared with the poor economic group. Conclusion: One out of seven primary school children in northern Iran suffers from obesity and overweight, although the rates differed among the three ethnic groups examined. This study emphasizes the importance of public health

  17. Food Decision-Making: Effects of Weight Status and Age.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-09-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed. Behavioral studies show that in particular, poor self-control may have an adverse effect on food choice in children and adults with overweight and obesity. Neuroimaging studies show that overweight and obese individuals have altered neural responses to food in brain areas related to reward, self-control, and interoception. Longitudinal studies across the lifespan will be invaluable to unravel the causal factors driving (changes in) food choice, overconsumption, and weight gain. PMID:27473844

  18. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  19. Do weight categories prevent athletes from relative age effect?

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether weight categories prevent young athletes from being exposed to a relative age effect. The dates of birth of all French female (n = 727) and male (n = 5440) amateur boxers who participated in the 2010-2011 season were collected from the federation database. The dates of birth of all French male professional boxers (n = 354) were also collected. The results show an absence of a relative age effect among French female and male amateur boxers. The results also show an absence of this phenomenon among French male professional boxers. The male 18-18+ age category reveal an inverse relative age effect. This inverse relative age effect might be interpreted as the result of a strategic adaptation from relatively younger children who shift from one sport to another where there are weight categories in order to ensure fair competition. The results of this study suggest that the weight category system is a possible solution within the relative age effect phenomenon.

  20. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  1. Anatomy of the larynx and pharynx: effects of age, gender and height revealed by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Y; Saitoh, E; Okada, S; Kagaya, H; Shibata, S; Baba, M; Onogi, K; Hashimoto, S; Katada, K; Wattanapan, P; Palmer, J B

    2015-09-01

    Although oropharyngeal and laryngeal structures are essential for swallowing, the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy is not well understood, due in part to limitations of available measuring techniques. This study uses 3D images acquired by 320-row area detector computed tomography ('320-ADCT'), to measure the pharynx and larynx and to investigate the effects of age, gender and height. Fifty-four healthy volunteers (30 male, 24 female, 23-77 years) underwent one single-phase volume scan (0.35 s) with 320-ADCT during resting tidal breathing. Six measurements of the pharynx and two of larynx were performed. Bivariate statistical methods were used to analyse the effects of gender, age and height on these measurements. Length and volume were significantly larger for men than for women for every measurement (P < 0.05) and increased with height (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was performed to understand the interactions of gender, height and age. Gender, height and age each had significant effects on certain values. The volume of the larynx and hypopharynx was significantly affected by height and age. The length of pharynx was associated with gender and age. Length of the vocal folds and distance from the valleculae to the vocal folds were significantly affected by gender (P < 0.05). These results suggest that age, gender and height have independent and interacting effects on the morphology of the pharynx and larynx. Three-dimensional imaging and morphometrics using 320-ADCT are powerful tools for efficiently and reliably observing and measuring the pharynx and larynx.

  2. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  3. Study of Height Reduction of Sn99Cu1/Cu Solder Joints as a Result of Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Liu, Changqing; Wu, Yiping; An, Bing; Zhou, Longzao

    2015-11-01

    Sn99Cu1/Cu solder joints were investigated after isothermal aging at 175°C for different lengths of time under vacuum conditions. The results revealed height reduction of the solder of approximately 1.2 μm after aging for 1132.5 h. This was primarily attributed to growth of a layer of interfacial intermetallic compounds. The reduction was measured by use of a copper block containing a recess filled with solder, which was reflowed then polished flat. Height reduction of the solder joint during aging was found to obey the parabolic law Δ h = -0.031√ t, and was in excellent agreement with theoretical calculation.

  4. Secular trends in social class differences of height, weight and BMI of boys from two schools in Lisbon, Portugal (1910-2000).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Caninas, Madalena

    2010-03-01

    Data on the physical growth of children can provide useful information about the temporal changes in the economic conditions of the society in which they live and the extent of social inequalities within that society as well. Several studies have documented secular changes in the physical growth of children or of adult height, but seldom have the socioeconomic differences in secular trend been reported. The aim of this study is to examine differences in the secular trend of height, weight and BMI of 10-16-year-old boys enrolled in two schools of opposite socioeconomic makeup in Lisbon, Portugal, in the early and late 20th century. The samples from the upper-middle class come from the Colégio Militar, a military boarding school, and the lower-class samples come from the Casa Pia de Lisboa, a residential school for underprivileged boys. While boys from both schools show an approximate increase of 13.6cm in height, 13.5kg in weight and 2.4kg/m(2) in BMI, the Casa Pia students were shorter and lighter than their Colégio Militar counterparts throughout the 90-year period. Social class differences in mean height, weight and BMI tend to be greater in 1910 than in 2000, but results are statistically significant for height alone. When the two periods are taken together, Colégio Militar boys differ from their Casa Pia counterparts by approximately 6.4cm in height, 4.8kg in weight and 0.4kg/m(2) in BMI. Both samples show a considerable increase in height, weight and BMI but class differences in height, weight and BMI decreased slightly if at all, throughout the 90-year period. This suggests that socioeconomic disparities are persistent, having diminished only slightly since the early 20th century.

  5. Relationships of tree height and diameter at breast height revisited: analyses of stem growth using 20-year data of an even-aged Chamaecyparis obtusa stand.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Akihiro; Miyaura, Tomiyasu; Torii, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Stem diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H) are commonly used measures of tree growth. We examined patterns of height growth and diameter growth along a stem using a 20-year record of an even-aged hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.) stand. In the region of the stem below the crown (except for the butt swell), diameter growth rates (ΔD) at different heights tended to increase slightly from breast height upwards. This increasing trend was pronounced in suppressed trees, but not as much as the variation in ΔD among individual trees. Hence, ΔD below the crown can be regarded as generally being represented by the DBH growth rate (ΔDBH) of a tree. Accordingly, the growth rate of the stem cross-sectional area increased along the stem upwards in suppressed trees, but decreased in dominant trees. The stem diameter just below the crown base (D(CB)), the square of which is an index of the amount of leaves on a tree, was an important factor affecting ΔDBH. D(CB) also had a strong positive relationship with crown length. Hence, long-term changes in the D(CB) of a tree were associated with long-term changes in crown length, determined by the balance between the height growth rate (ΔH) and the rising rate of the crown base (ΔH(CB)). Within the crown, ΔD's were generally greater than the rates below the crown. Even dying trees (ΔD ≈ 0 below the crown) maintained ΔD > 0 within the crown and ΔH > 0 until about 5 years before death. This growth within the crown may be related to the need to produce new leaves to compensate for leaves lost owing to the longevity of the lower crown. These results explain the different time trajectories in DBH-H relationships among individual trees, and also the long-term changes in the DBH-H relationships. The view that a rise in the crown base is strongly related to leaf turnover helps to interpret DBH-H relationships.

  6. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppönen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jørgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M.T.; Tönjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Körner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Mònica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widén, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, André G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood1. Previous genome-wide association studies identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes, and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits2. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study (up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of genome-wide significant loci to seven, accounting for a similar proportion of variance to maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes; ADRB1 with adult blood pressure; and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism. PMID:23202124

  7. Measuring the bias, precision, accuracy, and validity of self-reported height and weight in assessing overweight and obesity status among adolescents using a surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding bias, precision, and accuracy in adolescent self-reported height and weight across demographic subpopulations is lacking. The bias, precision, and accuracy of adolescent self-reported height and weight across subpopulations were examined using a large, diverse and representative sample of adolescents. A second objective was to develop correction equations for self-reported height and weight to provide more accurate estimates of body mass index (BMI) and weight status. Methods A total of 24,221 students from 8th and 11th grade in Texas participated in the School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) surveillance system in years 2000–2002 and 2004–2005. To assess bias, the differences between the self-reported and objective measures, for height and weight were estimated. To assess precision and accuracy, the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was used. BMI was estimated for self-reported and objective measures. The prevalence of students’ weight status was estimated using self-reported and objective measures; absolute (bias) and relative error (relative bias) were assessed subsequently. Correction equations for sex and race/ethnicity subpopulations were developed to estimate objective measures of height, weight and BMI from self-reported measures using weighted linear regression. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of weight status classification using self-reported measures and correction equations are assessed by sex and grade. Results Students in 8th- and 11th-grade overestimated their height from 0.68cm (White girls) to 2.02 cm (African-American boys), and underestimated their weight from 0.4 kg (Hispanic girls) to 0.98 kg (African-American girls). The differences in self-reported versus objectively-measured height and weight resulted in underestimation of BMI ranging from -0.23 kg/m2 (White boys) to -0.7 kg/m2 (African-American girls). The sensitivity of self-reported measures to classify weight

  8. Influence of Perceived Height, Masculinity, and Age on Each Other and on Perceptions of Dominance in Male Faces.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined the individual effects of facial cues to height, masculinity, and age on interpersonal interactions and partner preferences. We know much less about the influence of these traits on each other. We, therefore, examined how facial cues to height, masculinity, and age influence perceptions of each other and found significant overlap. This suggests that studies investigating the effects of one of these traits in isolation may need to account for the influence of the other two traits. Additionally, there is inconsistent evidence on how each of these three facial traits affects dominance. We, therefore, investigated how varying such traits influences perceptions of dominance in male faces. We found that increases in perceived height, masculinity, and age (up to 35 years) all increased facial dominance. Our results may reflect perceptual generalizations from sex differences as men are on average taller, more dominant, and age faster than women. Furthermore, we found that the influences of height and age on perceptions of dominance are mediated by masculinity. These results give us a better understanding of the facial characteristics that convey the appearance of dominance, a trait that is linked to a wealth of real-world outcomes. PMID:26562897

  9. Influence of Perceived Height, Masculinity, and Age on Each Other and on Perceptions of Dominance in Male Faces.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined the individual effects of facial cues to height, masculinity, and age on interpersonal interactions and partner preferences. We know much less about the influence of these traits on each other. We, therefore, examined how facial cues to height, masculinity, and age influence perceptions of each other and found significant overlap. This suggests that studies investigating the effects of one of these traits in isolation may need to account for the influence of the other two traits. Additionally, there is inconsistent evidence on how each of these three facial traits affects dominance. We, therefore, investigated how varying such traits influences perceptions of dominance in male faces. We found that increases in perceived height, masculinity, and age (up to 35 years) all increased facial dominance. Our results may reflect perceptual generalizations from sex differences as men are on average taller, more dominant, and age faster than women. Furthermore, we found that the influences of height and age on perceptions of dominance are mediated by masculinity. These results give us a better understanding of the facial characteristics that convey the appearance of dominance, a trait that is linked to a wealth of real-world outcomes.

  10. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Jon M.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Richardson, Liana J.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objectives We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference—as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2)—were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37% vs. 29%) and central obesity (47% vs. 38%) was higher in Add Health than in NHANES while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality. PMID:26146486

  11. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    PubMed

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life.

  12. Very low birth weight infants: effects of brain growth during infancy on intelligence quotient at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1986-02-01

    To evaluate the role of postnatal growth on IQ at 3 years of age, 139 appropriate for gestational age, very low birth weight infants (less than 1.5 kg) born in 1977 and 1978 were studied at 40 weeks (term), and at 8, 20, and 33 months (corrected) of age. Weight, height, and head circumference were measured at each age, neurologic status was measured at 20 months, and Stanford Binet IQ at 33 months. Multiple regression analysis revealed that head circumference at 8 months of age is the best growth predictor of IQ at 3 years of age. Path analysis was performed to measure the effects of biologic and social factors measured earlier in life on IQ at 3 years. These factors explained 43% of the variance in IQ at 3 years of age. Head circumference at 8 months had a direct effect on IQ at 3 years, controlling for all other variables in the model. Neonatal risk had an indirect effect via head circumference. Neurologic impairment had direct and indirect (via head circumference) effects; race and socioeconomic status had direct effects on IQ but no effects on growth at 8 months of age. Thus, brain growth at 8 months significantly influenced 3 year IQ at 3 years of age among very low birth weight infants, even when medical and sociodemographic variables were controlled.

  13. Should we adjust for gestational age when analysing birth weights? The use of z-scores revisited.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, Ilse; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Bacquer, Dirk; Verstraelen, Hans; Gerris, Jan; De Sutter, Petra; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-08-01

    Birth weight is the single most important risk indicator for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity, which has led to the idiom that 'every ounce counts'. Birth weight in turn, however, tends to vary widely across populations as a result of differential fetal growth velocity with such demographic factors as ethnicity, maternal and paternal height and altitude of residence. Accordingly, it has been acknowledged that the appraisal of birth weight should rely on its position relative to the birth weight distribution of the background population. This is commonly done by standardizing birth weight through its deviation from the population mean in the given gestational age stratum, as can be obtained from population-customized birth weight nomograms. This issue was recently revisited in 'Human Reproduction' through a plea for reporting birth weight as z-scores. In this article, we argue that adjustment for factors, such as gestational age, which may lie on the causal pathway from exposures present at the time of conception [e.g. single-embryo transfer (SET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET)] to birth weight, may induce bias, regardless of whether the adjustment happens via stratification, regression or through the use of z-scores.

  14. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. Study design Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother–child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. Results Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. Conclusion Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23477997

  15. Influence of Maternal Height and Weight on Low Birth Weight: A Cross-Sectional Study in Poor Communities of Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Revilane Parente de Alencar; Florêncio, Telma Maria Toledo; Benedito Silva, Ana Amelia; Sesso, Ricardo; Cavalcante, Jairo Calado; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with an increased risk of mortality, adverse metabolic conditions, and long-term chronic morbidities. The relationship between LWB and short maternal stature coupled with nutritional status was investigated in poor communities. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based study involving 2226 mother-child pairs was conducted during the period 2009-2010 in shantytowns of Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Associations between LBW and maternal sociodemographics, stature and nutritional status were investigated. The outcome variable was birth weight (< 2500g and ≥ 2500g). The independent variables were the age, income, educational background, stature and nutritional status (eutrophic, underweight, overweight and obese) of the mother. The frequency of LBW was 10%. Short-statured mothers (1st quartile of stature ≤ 152cm) showed a tendency of increased risk of LBW children compared to mothers in the 4th quartile of stature (>160.4cm) (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.09, p = 0.078). Children from short-statured mothers weighed an average of 125g less than those from taller mothers (3.18±0.56kg vs. 3.30±0.58kg, respectively p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that short stature, age < 20y (OR: 3.05, 95% CI:1.44 - 6.47) or were underweight (OR: 2.26, 95% CI:0.92 - 5.95) increased the risk of LBW, while overweight (OR: 0.38, 95% CI:0.16 - 0.95) and obesity (OR: 0.39, 95% CI:0.11 - 1.31) had lower risk for LBW. In taller mothers, lower income and underweight were associated with LBW (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.07 - 3.29 and 2.85, 95% CI:1.09 - 7.47, respectively), and obese mothers showed a trend of increased risk of LBW (OR: 1.66, 95% CI:0.84 - 3.25). Conclusions/Significance Overweight was found to have a protective effect in short-statured mothers, indicating that a surplus of energy may diminish the risk of LBW. Short-statured younger mothers, but not taller ones, showed higher risk of LBW. The mother being

  16. The face-time continuum: lifespan changes in facial width-to-height ratio impact aging-associated perceptions.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Eric; Leitner, Jordan B; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2014-12-01

    Aging influences how a person is perceived on multiple dimensions (e.g., physical power). Here we examined how facial structure informs these evolving social perceptions. Recent work examining young adults' faces has revealed the impact of the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) on perceived traits, such that individuals with taller, thinner faces are perceived to be less aggressive, less physically powerful, and friendlier. These perceptions are similar to those stereotypically associated with older adults. Examining whether fWHR might contribute to these changing perceptions over the life span, we found that age provides a shifting context through which fWHR differentially impacts aging-related social perceptions (Study 1). In addition, archival analyses (Study 2) established that fWHR decreases across age, and a subsequent study found that fWHR mediated the relationship between target age and multiple aging-related perceptions (Study 3). The findings provide evidence that fWHR decreases across age and influences stereotypical perceptions that change with age. PMID:25278108

  17. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Fujikoshi, Y; Funamoto, S; Schull, W J

    1994-10-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed.

  19. Barrier height distribution and dipolar relaxation in metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions with molecular insulator: Ageing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadjie-Djomkam, A. B.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Godet, C.

    2012-12-01

    Electrical transport through molecular monolayers being very sensitive to disorder effects, admittance and current density characteristics of Hg//C12H25 - n Si junctions incorporating covalently bonded n-alkyl molecular layers, were investigated at low temperature (150-300 K), in the as-grafted state and after ageing at the ambient. This comparison reveals local oxidation effects both at the submicron scale in the effective barrier height distribution and at the molecular scale in the dipolar relaxation. In the bias range dominated by thermionic emission and modified by the tunnel barrier (TB) attenuation, exp(-β0dT), where dT is the thickness of the molecular tunnel barrier and β0 is the inverse attenuation length at zero applied bias, some excess current is attributed to a distribution of low barrier height patches. Complementary methods are used to analyze the current density J(V, T) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor tunnel diodes. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of barrier heights centered at qΦB provides an analytical expression of the effective barrier height, qΦEFF(T)=qΦB+(kT)β0dT-(qδΦ)2/2kT; this allows fitting of the distribution standard deviation δΦ and tunnel parameter (β0dT) over a wide temperature range. In a more realistic modeling including the voltage dependence of barrier height and circular patch area, the so-called "pinch-off" effect is described by a distribution of parameter γ =3(ΔPRP2/4)1/3, which combines interface potential modulation and patch area variations. An arbitrary distribution of γ values, fitted to low-temperature J(V) data, is equally well described by Gaussian or exponential functions. Ageing in air also increases the interface oxidation of Si substrate and affects the density of localized states near mid gap, which typically rises to the high 1011 eV-1 cm-2 range, as compared with DS < 1011 eV-1 cm-2 in the as-grafted state. The bias-independent relaxation observed near 1 kHz at low temperature

  20. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  1. Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Gain Among Reproductive Age Women with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Michelle; Ainalem, Abinnet; Qiu, Chunfang; Peterlin, B. Lee; Aurora, Sheena K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between migraine and pre-gravid obesity; and to assess the risk of adult weight gain among women with history of a pediatric diagnosis of migraine. Background Obesity, comorbid with pain disorders including migraine, shares common pathophysiological characteristics including systemic inflammation, and derangements in adipose-tissue derived cytokines. Despite biochemical and epidemiological commonalities, obesity-migraine associations have been inconsistently observed. Methods A cohort of 3,733 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained participants’ self-reported history of physician-diagnosed migraine and collected self-reported information about pre-gravid weight, adult height and net weight change from age 18 to the 3-monthsperiodpriorto pregnancy. Using pre-gravid body mass index, we categorized participants as follows: lean (<18.5 kg/m2); normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2); overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), obese (30–34.9 kg/m2), severely obese (35–39.9 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m2). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After adjusting for confounders, relative to normal weight women, obese women had a 1.48-fold increased odds of migraine(OR=1.48; 95%CI 1.12–1.96). Severely obese (OR=2.07; 95%CI 1.27–3.39) and morbidly obese (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.60–4.70) had the highest odds of migraines. Women with a history of diagnosed pediatric migraine had a 1.67-fold higher odds of gaining ≥10.0 kg above their weight at age 18, as compared with non-migraineurs (OR=1.67; 95%CI 1.13–2.47). Conclusion These data support earlier observations of migraine-obesity association among women, and extend the literature to include evidence of adult weight gain among women with a history of pediatric migraine. PMID:21269300

  2. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea, Cactaceae) age-height relationships and growth: the development of a general growth curve.

    PubMed

    Drezner, Taly Dawn

    2003-06-01

    Because the growth rate of saguaros varies across different environments, past studies on saguaro population structure required extensive data collection (often over many decades) followed by site-specific analysis to estimate age at the sampled locale. However, when height-growth data from different populations are compared, the overall shape of the growth curves is similar. In this study, a formula was developed to establish saguaro age-height relationships (using stepwise regression) that can be applied to any saguaro population and only requires a site-specific factor to adjust the curve to the local growth rate. This adjustment factor can be established more efficiently and requires less data than the full analyses required for previous studies. Saguaro National Park East (SNP-E) was used as the baseline factor, set to 1.0. Results yielded a factor of 0.743 for SNP West. When the formula was applied to 10-yr interval data from Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (OPCNM) in Arizona, USA, this location had a factor of 0.617 (relative to SNP-E). With this formula and relatively little field sampling, the age of any individual saguaro (whether the individual was sampled or not) in any population can be estimated. PMID:21659186

  3. Influence of age, temperature, sex, height and diazepam on vibration perception.

    PubMed

    Meh, D; Denislic, M

    1995-12-01

    Vibration perception was quantitatively examined in 92 healthy volunteers (46 females, 36 males, aged 10-71 years). Vibration perception thresholds, vibration disappearance thresholds and vibration thresholds were assessed at the second metacarpal bone, styloid process of ulna, lateral epicondyle of humerus, first phalanx of the big toe, first metatarsal bone, medial malleolus and proximal part of the tibia bilaterally. Vibration sensitivity was found to be age-dependent. Under the age of 60, the correlation was linear. Vibration thresholds depended on body site but they were not related to sex or body side. Temperature and diazepam affect the perception of vibration considerably. Small interindividual variability was found in measurements repeated in 3 consecutive days, after 4 weeks and after a year.

  4. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  5. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  6. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  7. Age and height distribution of holocene transgressive deposits in eastern North Island, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ota, Y.; Berryman, K.R.; Hull, A.G.; Miyauchi, T.; Iso, N.

    1988-01-01

    Holocene transgressive deposits are frequently exposed near the present-day coastline of the study area along eastern North Island, New Zealand. They occur in sites of former estuaries that were filled during the postglacial rise in sea level. We present one hundred radiocarbon dates of Holocene transgressive deposits from the study area, ranging in age from ca. 10,000 to 5500 yr B.P. Relative sea level curves up to ca. 6000 yr B.P. were reconstructed for six locations. The curves have similar slopes prior to about 7000 yr B.P., indicating that sea level rise was much more rapid than any tectonic uplift at that time. The postglacial rise in sea level in New Zealand is considered, in general, to have culminated at about 6500 yr B.P. but the upper limit ages of transgressive deposits in our study area vary from ca. 5500 to 7000 yr B.P. At sites where the uplift rate is high the postglacial transgression culminated rather earlier than ca. 6500 yr B.P., and at sites where there is subsidence or there is very low uplift the culmination is later than ca. 6500 yr B.P. Nine of fourteen dates from fossil trees in growth position, that grew in and were buried by estuarine silt, cluster in the age range ca. 8000-8400 yr B.P. These data support the view that there was a minor regression or stillstand in the eustatic sea level rise at that time. Eleven tectonic subregions are recognized in the study area on the basis of average uplift rate. Most of these subregions coincide with those established from the number and ages of younger Holocene marine terraces of probable coseismic origin. ?? 1988.

  8. Derivation of an Age and Weight Handicap for the 5K Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.; Laubach, Lloyd L.

    2007-01-01

    The adverse effect of increasing age and/or body weight on distance run performance has been well documented. Accordingly, nearly all five kilometer (5K) road races employ age categories and, sometimes, a heavier body weight classification. Problems with such conventions include small numbers of runners within older age categories and the…

  9. Using child age or weight in selecting type of in-vehicle restraint: implications for promotion and design.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert W G; Hutchinson, T Paul; Edwards, Sally A

    2007-01-01

    A survey of motor vehicle child restraint use found around 28% of children under the age of six using weight-inappropriate restraints. Many parents did not know when a child was likely to outgrow a booster seat nor the weight of their child, but they did know the child's age. Anthropometric data show that, if advice on restraint transition, given solely in terms of age (6 months, 4 years, 8 years) were followed in Australia, incorrect restraint selection would occur in 5% of children under the age of six. Further analysis suggests how rewriting the Standard could reduce this number. We present an argument for placing age-based transitions at the heart of the strategy to improve child restraint compliance. This may be superior to one based on the child's weight or other anthropometric measurement. Our argument may be summarized as follows: 1 Age-based rules for selecting child restraints are simple, require less information to be retained, and might be more natural criteria for parents. They might have a greater chance of being adopted as norms, and of encouraging good peer cues. Anthropometric rules, on the other hand, assume that parents know the current dimensions of their children and have the tools at their disposal to measure these dimensions. 2 The consequences of age-based promotion for the proportion of children in a restraint suitable for their weight can be estimated for alternative regulatory frameworks. We will report such Calculations below and show that this rate can potentially be very high. The rate would be even higher if child restraint design standards were drafted with age-based transitions in mind. Age-based transitions imply restraint specifications (weight and height limits) that can be determined from anthropometric survey data. 3 Such standards would necessarily imply overlapping anthropometric ranges for the different types of restraint. However, we emphasize that these overlaps would exist to facilitate age-based transitions, not to

  10. Molecular mapping and characterization of genes governing time to flowering, seed weight, and plant height in an intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    PubMed

    Jamalabadi, Javad Ghorbani; Saidi, Abbas; Karami, Ezzat; Kharkesh, Mehrab; Talebi, Reza

    2013-06-01

    Drought is the major constraint to chickpea productivity worldwide. Utilizing early flowering genotypes and larger seed size have been suggested as strategies for breeding in drought zones. Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential markers linked to days-to-flowering, 100-seed weight, and plant height in a chickpea intraspecific F(2:3) population derived from the cross ILC3279 × ICCV2. A closely linked marker (TA117) on linkage group LG3 was identified for the days-to-flowering trait, explaining 33% of the variation. In relation to plant height, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) was located in LG3, close to the Ts5 marker, that explained 29% of phenotypic variation. A QTL for 100-seed weight located in LG4, close to TA176, explained 51% of variation. The identification of a locus linked both to high 100-seed weight and days-to-flowering may account for the correlation observed between these traits in this and other breeding attempts.

  11. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  12. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    PubMed

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  13. Blood pressure percentiles by age and height for non-overweight Chinese children and adolescents: analysis of the china health and nutrition surveys 1991–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important health problem in China and raised blood pressure in children may lead to future hypertension. Accordingly we aimed to provide a reference blood pressure table for age, gender and height in Chinese children. Methods A reference sample of subjects was drawn from the Chinese Health and National Survey 1999–2009 aged 7–17 years after excluding overweight and obese children, the 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)are presented corrected for height and age by gender. These values are compared with existing Chinese and US recommendations. Results Results for the 50th, 90th and 95th percentile of SBP and DBP for 6245 boys and 5707 girls were presented by age and height percentiles. These observations were lower than existing Chinese recommendations before 13 years of age at median heightbut went higher in those >13 years old. At same age and height, SBP levels of American children were overall higher than Chinese counterparts from this study by average 9–10 mm Hg, but DBP did not show overall or significant difference. Conclusions The first height-specific blood pressure reference values are proposed for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years. These are lower than existing US reference values and current Chinese cutoffs. PMID:24274040

  14. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  15. The relationship between weight, age, and average daily gain to show performance of Georgia 4-H and Future Farmers of America (FFA) commercial dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    London, M L; Bernard, J K; Froetschel, M A; Bertrand, J K; Graves, W M

    2012-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine the relationship between dairy heifer growth and placing in the show ring. In the first study, 1,744 commercial dairy heifers (all breeds and crossbred animals) were evaluated to determine effects of growth on placing within Georgia Commercial Dairy Heifer Shows from 2007 to 2010. Birth weights were determined using breed birth weight averages, with crossbreeds being the average of 2 parent breeds. Average daily gains (ADG) were calculated and heifers were given rankings based on placing in show and for age and weight. Data was analyzed using the Spearman correlation calculations in the SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Age and ADG were inversely correlated (r=-0.89). Mean ADG for all heifers was determined to be 0.65 kg, below National Research Council recommendations of 0.7 to 0.8 kg. No strong relationship (r=-0.07) was observed between ADG and placing. Heavier heifers within a class showed a small positive relationship (r=0.10) with placing. For study 2, 238 heifers shown at the 2010 Georgia Junior National Livestock Show (Perry, GA) were measured and evaluated for ADG, placing, body weight, age, withers height, hip height, hip width, and jaw width. Height at withers had a moderate relationship (r=0.42) with placing, followed by hip height (r=0.32). A positive relationship (r=0.65) was observed between withers height and hip height. The correlation between weight and placing was determined (r=0.11). Age and ADG had a strong inverse relationship (r=-0.87). Study 3 evaluated 1,489 Holstein heifers shown from 2007 to 2010. Data was analyzed using the Penn State Growth Monitor Spreadsheet Curves. In total, 63.75% did not meet Penn State recommendations for body weight gain. Performance and physical features associated with age indicates that commercial dairy heifers are underfed. The effects of heat stress and high feed costs also play a role. This has economic implications because these animals will likely

  16. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  17. Birth weight and smoking during pregnancy--effect modification by maternal age.

    PubMed

    Fox, S H; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R

    1994-05-15

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an important, avoidable factor associated with low birth weight. Maternal age is also associated with variations in birth weight. Using birth certificate data from all 347,650 singleton births for which maternal age and birth weight were recorded during 1984-1988 in Washington State, this study investigated birth weight and smoking during pregnancy (yes/no) for mothers of different ages. In multiple linear regressions adjusted for race, marital status, parity, adequacy of prenatal care, and urban/rural residence, the decrement in mean birth weight associated with smoking grew steadily from 117 g for the youngest mothers (age less than 16 years) to 376 g for the oldest (age 40 years or more). Similarly, the adjusted relative risk of having a low weight birth (less than 2,500 g) for smokers compared with nonsmokers was lowest for mothers aged 16-17 years, at 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.68), and increased steadily to 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.77-3.90) for mothers aged 40 or more. This result suggests that the effect of exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy is modified by advancing maternal age. Further research using data that more precisely measure the exposure (cigarettes per day, years smoked) could help further clarify this issue and better address the public health question of whether smoking cessation programs ought to focus limited resources more selectively toward pregnant smokers in particular age groups. PMID:8178780

  18. Measures of placental growth in relation to birth weight and gestational age.

    PubMed

    Salafia, Carolyn M; Maas, Elizabeth; Thorp, John M; Eucker, Barbara; Pezzullo, John C; Savitz, David A

    2005-11-15

    Fetal growth depends in part on placental growth. The authors tested placental measures derived from digital images for reliability and to evaluate their association with birth weight and gestational age. A total of 628 women recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a prospective cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina between 2002 and 2004, delivered singleton liveborn infants after 24 completed weeks' gestation. Novel chorionic plate morphometric parameters captured off digital images of the gross placenta were analyzed as estimators of gestational age and birth weight. Without acknowledgment to placental weight, digitally obtained lateral chorionic plate growth measures accounted for 17 percent of gestational age variance and 35 percent of birth weight variance, overall. Chorionic plate measures accounted for 10 percent of birth weight variance beyond that accounted for by placental weight alone. Among preterm births, 34 percent of gestational age variance and 63 percent of birth weight variance were accounted for by lateral chorionic plate growth measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the novel digital measures ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. Reliable digital measures of lateral chorionic plate growth estimate birth weight variance more strongly than gestational age, project variance that is not accounted for by placental weight, and project these outcomes to a greater degree in preterm births than at term.

  19. Age and gender correlation of gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Leversha, Jodi; McKeough, Glen; Myrteza, Adriana; Skjellrup-Wakefiled, Hannah; Welsh, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine if mandibular parameters (gonial angle, bigonial width and ramus height) measured from panoramic radiographs, can be used to determine a correlation with an individual’s age and gender in dentate subjects in Far North Queensland. Material and Methods The study utilised 2699 randomly selected panoramic radiographs of patients between the ages of 19-69 years, from which 220 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each panoramic radiograph was analysed and the above three parameters recorded and measured. These values were collated into appropriate age and gender groups and subjected to statistical analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.1±14.41, with males being shown to have a statistically significant larger ramus height and bigonial width than females (P<0.0001 for both). Females, on the other hand, were shown to have a significantly larger gonial angle than males (P<0.0002). General trends revealed gonial angle to increase with age, whilst bigonial width and ramus height were shown to decrease with age. Conclusions The assessment of mandibular morphology through radiographic measurements may be useful in estimating an individual’s age and gender when comparing to a known population standard. Key words:Bigonial width, gonial angle, panoramic radiograph, ramus height. PMID:26855706

  20. Secular trend of the age at menarche of Japanese girls with special regard to the secular acceleration of the age at peak height velocity.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, H; Kouchi, M

    1981-12-01

    An attempt is made to clarify the special characteristics of the secular trend of the menarchial age in Japan. The relationships with the precocious appearance of the age at peak high velocity, another exemplification of the maturity acceleration, is also reviewed. This research on menarche was conducted in 1979-1980 on 284 school girls born between 1961 and 1966. The girls were healthy, of middle socioeconomic class, and grew up and lived in Tokyo and its outskirts. A questionnaire was given to each subject who was requested to answer after referring to her diary, mother's or sister's records, or any other writing about her menarche. If none of these was available, they were asked to provide an event which occurred soon before or after the menarche. The arithmetic mean of the age at menarche was 12.40 years with a range of 9.63 to 15.44 years. In 1958 research was conducted on the menarche of 309 girls in the same school, and the mean menarchial age was reported to be 13.27 years with a range of 10.83 to 16.92 years. The rate of acceleration during these 21 years was 4.4 months/decade. Mean menarchial ages obtained in 157 studies ever reported in Japan were plotted against the year of publication. No definite tendency was apparent until a gradual change toward earlier menstruation began in about 1920. In the next 20 years the average decreased from 15.0 to 14.2 years of age. The rate of decrease during the 1920-1940 period was about 4 months/decade. Due to World War 2, a retardation of menarche began in 1941 and reached a peak of about 15.0 years of age in 1950-1952, after which the trend changed into one of rapid acceleration. It is believed that the age at peak height velocity (PHV) is highly correlated with menarche age. The correlation coefficient is reported to be 0.71 by Nicholson and Hanly (1953), 0.93 by Deming (1957) and 0.77 by the author's of this study based on the present subjects. Thus it can be reasonably assumed that the secular trend of menarche

  1. Dietary protein intake is associated with body mass index and weight up to 5 y of age in a prospective cohort of twins12

    PubMed Central

    Pimpin, Laura; Jebb, Susan; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few large epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of postweaning protein intake in excess weight and adiposity of young children, despite children in the United Kingdom consistently consuming protein in excess of their physiologic requirements. Objective: We investigated whether a higher proportion of protein intake from energy beyond weaning is associated with greater weight gain, higher body mass index (BMI), and risk of overweight or obesity in children up to 5 y of age. Design: Participants were 2154 twins from the Gemini cohort. Dietary intake was collected by using a 3-d diet diary when the children had a mean age of 21 mo. Weight and height were collected every 3 mo, from birth to 5 y. Longitudinal models investigated associations of protein intake with BMI, weight, and height, with adjustment for age at diet diary, sex, total energy intake, birth weight/length, and rate of prior growth and clustering within families. Logistic regression investigated protein intake in relation to the odds of overweight or obesity at 3 and 5 y of age. Results: A total of 2154 children had a mean ± SD of 5.7 ± 3.2 weight and height measurements up to 5 y. Total energy from protein was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.043; 95% CI: 0.011, 0.075) and weight (β = 0.052; 95% CI: 0.031, 0.074) but not height (β = 0.088; 95% CI: −0.038, 0.213) between 21 mo and 5 y. Substituting percentage energy from fat or carbohydrate for percentage energy from protein was associated with decreases in BMI and weight. Protein intake was associated with a trend in increased odds of overweight or obesity at 3 y (OR = 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.22, P = 0.075), but the effect was not statistically significant at 5 y. Conclusion: A higher proportion of energy from protein during the complementary feeding stage is associated with greater increases in weight and BMI in early childhood in this large cohort of United Kingdom children. PMID:26718416

  2. Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: A study of the CODATwins project

    PubMed Central

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    A trend towards greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the CODATwins project and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from age 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Likewise, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes. PMID:26337138

  3. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  4. Relationship between age of dam with calving ease and birth weight of Simmental calves.

    PubMed

    Burfening, P J

    1988-04-01

    Records from 123,656 Simmental calves (75% and 88% Simmental) were used to study the effect of age of dam on calving ease and birth weight. Calving ease was scored from 1 to 4 (1 = unassisted, 2 to 4 = various levels of assistance). Scores were recorded so that the percentage of assisted births could be calculated. Mean percentage of assisted births and birth weights for each age of dam in months, sex and Simmental percentage subclass were subjected to statistical analysis. Although sex and Simmental percentage occasionally interacted with age of dam for percentage of assisted births, in general, as age of dam increased the percentage of assisted births decreased in dams normally classified as 2-yr-olds (21 mo to 33 mo of age), whereas birth weight remained fairly constant. These results suggest that including age of dam in months in the mixed-model equations for sire evaluation for calving ease could improve the accuracy of these procedures.

  5. The Relationship Between Birth Weight, Gestational Age and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)-Contaminated Public Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Lynda A.; Nolan, John M.; Shofer, Frances S.; Rodway, Nancy V.; Emmett, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have examined the associations between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) levels in cord blood and maternal plasma with lowered birth weight and gestational age in humans; however, no study has examined these effects in a population of known high PFOA exposure. Residents drinking PFOA-contaminated water from the Little Hocking Water Association (LHWA) in Washington County, Ohio have serum PFOA levels approximately 80 times those in the general U.S. population. Objectives To compare birth weights and gestational ages of neonates born to mothers residing in zip codes with water service provided completely, partially or not at all by the LHWA. Methods Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed on singleton neonatal birth weight data supplied by the Ohio Department of Health to examine the associations between LHWA water service category (used as a surrogate for PFOA exposure) with mean birth weight, mean gestational age, the likelihood of low birth weight (<2500 grams), and the likelihood of preterm birth (<37 completed weeks of gestation). All models were adjusted for maternal age, gestational age, sex, race and population-level socioeconomic status. Results The incidence of low birth weight, preterm birth, mean birth weight and mean gestational age of neonates did not significantly differ among water service categories. Conclusion Markedly elevated PFOA exposure, as categorized by water service category, is not associated with increased risk of lowered birth weight or gestational age. This study does not confirm earlier findings of an association between PFOA and lowered birth weight observed at normal population levels. PMID:19049861

  6. Median ages at stages of sexual maturity and excess weight in school children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to estimate the median ages at specific stages of sexual maturity stratified by excess weight in boys and girls. Materials and method This was a cross-sectional study made in 2007 in Florianopolis, Brazil, with 2,339 schoolchildren between 8 to 14 years of age (1,107 boys) selected at random in two steps (by region and type of school). The schoolchildren were divided into: i) those with excess weight and ii) those without excess weight, according to the WHO 2007 cut-off points for gender and age. Sexual maturity was self-evaluated by the subjects according to the Tanner sexual development stages, and utilizing median ages for the genitalia, breasts, and pubic hair stages. Results In the boys with excess weight, precocity was observed in the stages 4 for genitals and pubic hair and 2 for pubic hair, with the values for excess and normal weight. The median ages at the beginning of puberty (stage 2–sexual development) for boys and girls in Florianopolis were 10.8 and 10.3 years, respectively. Conclusion Excess weight is associated with lower median ages in the sexual maturity stages in boys and girls and that it should be taken into account when evaluating sexual maturity in children and adolescents. PMID:24139334

  7. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  8. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  9. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE PAGES

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  10. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  11. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  12. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Age 30, Birth Weight, Accelerated Growth during Infancy and Breastfeeding: A Birth Cohort Study in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Rogério da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) at age 30 and birth characteristics, growth during infancy, and breastfeeding duration, among subjects who have been prospectively followed since birth. Methods and Results In 1982, all births in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and those children (n = 5,914) whose families lived in the urban area of the city have been followed and evaluated at several time points. The cohort participants were evaluated in 2012–13, and IMT was measured at the posterior wall of the right and left common carotid arteries in longitudinal planes using ultrasound imaging. We obtained valid IMT measurements for 3,188 individuals. Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at age 2 years, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at age 4, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 4 years, WAZ at age 4 and relative conditional weight at 4 years were positively associated with IMT, even after controlling for confounding variables. The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WAZ at age 2 (compared to those with a <–1 s.d.) was 3.62 μm (95% CI 0.86 to 6.38). The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WHZ at 4 (in relation to <–1 s.d) was 3.83 μm (95% CI 0.24 to 7.42). For HAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient for ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.19 μm (95% CI 1.14 to 7.25). For WAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.28 μm (95% CI 1.59 to 6.97). The beta-coefficient associated with conditional weight gain at age 2–4 was 1.26 μm (95% CI 0.49 to 2.02). Conclusion IMT at age 30 was positively associated with WAZ at age 2 years, WHZ at age 4, HAZ at age 4, WAZ at age 4 and conditional weight gain at age 4 years. PMID:25611747

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (<38 weeks) with full-term infants (38 and 42 weeks) of normal birth weight (32.500g), low birth weight (< 2.500g) and very low birth weight (<1.500g), in order to evaluate if premature birth and low birth weight would affect tooth eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  14. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  15. Serum Trans Fatty Acids Are Not Associated with Weight Gain or Linear Growth in School-Age Children123

    PubMed Central

    Baylin, Ana; Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Animal and human adult studies indicate that long-term intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) may be associated with weight gain. High intake of fast foods and snacks, which are rich in TFAs, is linked to overweight status among school-age children. However, the specific effects of TFAs in this population are unknown. Objective: We examined whether serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of intake, are associated with faster weight gain and linear growth during school years. Methods: We quantified TFAs by GLC in serum samples of 668 children aged 5–12 y at the time of recruitment into an ongoing cohort study performed in Bogota (Colombia) since 2006. Serum proportions of trans palmitoleic acid (16:1t), trans oleic acid (18:1t), trans linoleic acid (18:2t), and total TFAs were used as biomarkers of intake. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 mo. Body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZs) and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) were calculated with the use of the WHO reference. We estimated mean changes in BAZs and HAZs over follow-up according to quartiles of each TFA at baseline by using mixed-effects regression models with restricted cubic splines. Results: Proportions of trans palmitoleic acid, trans oleic acid, trans linoleic acid, and total TFAs (mean ± SD, % of total serum FAs), were 0.22 ± 0.06, 0.91 ± 0.37, 0.96 ± 0.27, and 2.10 ± 0.59, respectively. Serum TFAs were not associated with changes in BAZs and HAZs after adjusting for sex, baseline age, and socioeconomic status. In a subgroup analysis by sex, serum trans palmitoleic acid was positively associated with the estimated change in HAZs from ages 6 to 14 y in boys (with use of the first quartile as the reference, differences in HAZs for trans palmitoleic acid quartiles were 0.73, 0.53, and 0.70, P-trend = 0.03). Conclusions: Proportions of serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of TFA intake, were not associated with weight gain in children aged 6–14 y in low- and middle

  16. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project.

    PubMed

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes. PMID:26337138

  17. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    PubMed Central

    Angrisani, Rosanna M. Giaffredo; Bautzer, Ana Paula D.; Matas, Carla Gentile; de Azevedo, Marisa Frasson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) in preterm (PT) and term (T) newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I) than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups. PMID:24473955

  18. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. PMID:24720565

  19. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance.

  20. Predictive ability of waist-to-height in relation to adiposity in children is not improved with age and sex-specific values.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Grant, Andrea M; Taylor, Barry J; Goulding, Ailsa

    2011-05-01

    A waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥0.5 indicates increased health risk in children and adults. However, because of residual correlation between WHtR and height in children, dividing waist circumference by height to the power of one may be insufficient to correctly adjust for height during growth. This study aimed to determine whether age and sex-specific exponents which properly adjust for height affect the predictive ability of WHtR to correctly discriminate between children with differing fat distribution. Total and regional body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 778 (49% male) children and adolescents. WHtR was calculated as waist/height(1) (WHtR(a)), and using two published age and sex-specific exponents for height (WHtR(b)) (1) (WHtR(c)) (2), and compared with various DXA indexes of body composition using receiver operating curve analysis. 15% of males and 17% of females had a WHtR(a) ≥0.5, with corresponding figures of 8% and 27% for WHtR(b), and 23% and 17% for WHtR(c). WHtR(a) was significantly different from WHtR(b) (males only, P < 0.001) but not WHtR(c) (P = 0.121). Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for WHtR(a) were significantly higher than AUCs for WHtR(b) or WHtR(c) in relation to DXA-measured body composition (AUCs ≥0.89 for WHtR(a) compared with AUCs of 0.71-0.84 for WHtR(b) and WHtR(c)). Simply dividing waist circumference by height (WHtR(a)) correctly discriminates between children and adolescents with low and high levels of total and central fat at least 90% of the time. Keeping your waist circumference to less than half your height provides an effective screening index of body composition during growth.

  1. The Correlation between Age, Body Weight and Testicular Parameters in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Raised in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da LUZ, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, André Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antônio Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  2. The correlation between age, body weight and testicular parameters in Murrah buffalo bulls raised in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; Santos, Paulo Ramos da Silva; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Jorge, André Mendes; de Assis Neto, Antônio Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  3. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models

  4. Characterization of age-associated changes in peripheral organ and brain region weights in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lessard-Beaudoin, Mélissa; Laroche, Mélissa; Demers, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guillaume; Graham, Rona K

    2015-03-01

    In order to further understand age-related physiological changes and to have in depth reference values for C57BL/6 mice, we undertook a study to assess the effects of aging on peripheral organ weights, and brain region weights in wild type C57BL/6 male mice. Peripheral organs, body and brain region weights were collected from young (3-4 months), mid (12 months), old (23-28 months) and very old (>30 months) mice. Significant increases are observed with aging in body, liver, heart, kidney and spleen organ weights. A decrease in organ weight is observed with aging in liver and kidney only in the very old mice. In contrast, testes weight decreases with age. Within the brain, hippocampi, striata and olfactory bulbs weight decreases with age. These data further our knowledge of the anatomical and biological changes that occur with aging and provide reference values for physiological-based pharmacokinetic studies in C57BL/6 mice.

  5. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  6. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  7. Effects of age on recovery of body weight following REM sleep deprivation of rats.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Stewart, Craig V

    2006-01-30

    Chronically enforced rapid eye (paradoxical) movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to a host of pathologies, of which hyperphagia and loss of body weight are among the most readily observed. In recent years, the etiology of many REM-SD-associated pathologies have been elucidated, but one unexplored area is whether age affects outcomes. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 2, 6, and 12 months of age were REM sleep-deprived with the platform (flowerpot) method for 10-12 days. Two-month-old rats resided on 7-cm platforms, while 10-cm platforms were used for 6- and 12-month-old rats; rats on 15-cm platforms served as tank controls (TCs). Daily changes in food consumption (g/kg(0.67)) and body weight (g) during baseline, REM-SD or TCs, and post-experiment recovery in home cages were determined. Compared to TCs, REM-SD resulted in higher food intake and decreases in body weight. When returned to home cages, food intake rapidly declined to baseline levels. Of primary interest was that rates of body weight gain during recovery differed between the age groups. Two-month-old rats rapidly restored body weight to pre-REM-SD mass within 5 days; 6-month-old rats were extrapolated by linear regression to have taken about 10 days, and for 12-month-old rats, the estimate was about 35 days. The observation that restoration of body weight following its loss during REM-SD may be age-dependent is in general agreement with the literature on aging effects on how mammals respond to stress. PMID:16243367

  8. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  9. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBW<2500), very low birth weight (VLBW<1500), extremely low birth weight (ELBW<1500) infants are at high risk for growth failure that result in delayed development. Africa is a continent that presents high rates of children born with LBW, VLBW and ELBW particularly sub-Saharan Africa. To review the existing literature that explores the repercussions of LBW, VLBW and ELBW on growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality in African children aged 0-5 years old. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles using Academic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  10. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Results: Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all P< 0.05) were significantly lowered for obese when compared to normal weight participants. In contrast, the mean scores for each HRQOL domain in motor ability category were not significant. No significant interaction was apparent when examining HRQOL scores, BMAT variables and weight status. Conclusion: Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children. PMID:23113200

  11. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  12. Eating attitudes and body shape perceptions among elite rowers: effects of age, gender and weight category.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Waite, J

    1996-03-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and weight category upon measures associated with eating disorders. Elite rowers (N = 124) participating in the 1994 Great Britain National Squad trials, completed the Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Subjects were grouped according to whether they competed in the Lightweight (Female: < 59 kg, N = 31; Male: < 72.5 kg, N = 31) or Heavyweight (Female: N = 31; Male: N = 31) category. Results revealed significantly higher EAT and BSQ scores among the Lightweight group, 16.2% of whom showed EAT scores above the threshold associated with eating disorders. Females showed significantly higher BSQ scores than males. The interaction effect was significant for BSQ, indicating a much greater increase in scores from heavyweight to lightweight for females than for males. EAT and BSQ scores were inversely correlated with age. These results suggest that the risk of eating disorders among elite rowers is mediated by age, gender and weight category.

  13. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  14. Predictors of early school age outcomes in very low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Schatschneider, C; Hack, M

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of outcome in very low birth weight (< 1500 g) children. The very low birth weight sample consisted of 68 children weighing less than 750 g at birth and 65 children weighing 750 to 1499 g at birth who had been matched to the less than 750 g birth weight children in terms of hospital of birth, age, sex, and race. Mean ages for these two groups were 6.7 and 6.9 years, respectively. Outcomes were measured in terms of tests of cognitive function, neuropsychological abilities, and academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of child behavior and school performance. A weighted sum of the number of major neonatal medical complications (Neonatal Risk Index) provided a composite measure of biological risk. Social risks were also assessed. Results indicated that the Neonatal Risk Index was the most consistent predictor of outcomes. Even after taking social risks into account, neonatal risk predicted overall cognitive ability and other achievement, neuropsychological, and behavior outcomes. Individual neonatal complications that predicted outcomes included severe cerebral ultrasonographic abnormality, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, and apnea of prematurity. Research and therapy to prevent or reduce neonatal complications and amelioration of social risks are of critical importance in improving outcomes of very low birth weight.

  15. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter. PMID:27356998

  16. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter.

  17. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific.

  18. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific. PMID:21265835

  19. The relation between components of adult height and intimal-medial thickness in middle age: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Davey Smith, George; Chambless, Lloyd; Szklo, Moyses

    2006-07-15

    The authors aimed to investigate the relation between components of adult height (leg and trunk length) and atherosclerosis in middle age, using data from 12,254 participants (aged 44-65 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Intimal-medial thickness (IMT) as measured by B-mode ultrasound was the outcome, and exposures were trunk and leg lengths as estimated (using sitting height and the difference between sitting and standing height) at the first study examination in 1987-1989. The mean IMT was 0.73 (standard deviation, 0.17) mm. Greater leg length was associated with lower IMT, with the largest difference being for Black men (a 0.045 (95% confidence interval: 0.023, 0.068)-mm lower IMT per 10-cm higher leg length). Greater trunk length was associated with higher IMT, with the largest difference being for White men (a 0.024 (95% confidence interval: 0.005, 0.044)-mm higher IMT per 10-cm higher trunk length). Although the effect sizes were small, leg length was inversely associated with atherosclerosis, consistent with the results of other studies with cardiovascular disease outcomes.

  20. Age Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Weight and Shape Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Spanos, Alexia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown important developmental shifts in genetic and environmental influences for disordered eating. However, little research has examined age differences for weight/shape concerns, two key components of eating disorders. The goal of the present study was to investigate these age differences in pre-adolescent, adolescent, young adult, and mid-adult twins. Method Participants included 2,618 female twins (ages of 10-41 years) from three large twin registries. Shape and weight concerns were assessed with the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire. Results Genetic influences were modest in pre-adolescent twins, but significant from early-adolescence through middle adulthood. Shared environmental factors showed the opposite pattern, with the largest shared environmental contributions occurring in the youngest age group. Nonshared environmental effects remained relatively constant across age. Discussion Findings highlight the importance of age differences in genetic and environmental influences. Possible mechanisms include gene × environment interactions and biological changes associated with key developmental stages. PMID:19950189

  1. School-age consequences of birth weight less than 750 g: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Hack, M

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in perinatal care have led to the survival of increasing numbers of children born at the lower limits of viability. Children with very low birth weight (LBW; less than 1,500 g, 3 lb 5 oz) have been studied extensively. Findings document poorer outcomes relative to normal birth weight term-born controls in neurologic and health status, cognitive-neuropsychological skills, school performance, academic achievement, and behavior. This report reviews current knowledge regarding LBW children, with special emphasis on outcomes for children with birth weight less than 750 g (1 lb 10 oz). Results from an ongoing longitudinal study suggest a gradient of sequelae, with poorer outcomes in less than 750 g birth weight children compared to both 750 g to 1,499 g birth weight children and term-born controls. Children with less than 750 g birth weight fail to catch up with their peers over time and may even be at risk for age-related increases in sequelae. Outcomes are highly variable but related to neonatal medical complications of prematurity and social risk factors. Further research is needed to understand the etiology and neuropathological basis of sequelae, the long-term developmental implications of LBW, and treatment needs.

  2. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  3. Do socioeconomic factors shape weight and obesity trajectories over the transition from midlife to old age? Results from the French GAZEL cohort study123

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Stringhini, Silvia; Kivimaki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi; Guéguen, Alice; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Nabi, Hermann; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a contemporary epidemic that does not affect all age groups and sections of society equally. Objective: The objective was to examine socioeconomic differences in trajectories of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and obesity between the ages of 45 and 65 y. Design: A total of 13,297 men and 4532 women from the French GAZEL (Gaz de France Electricité de France) cohort study reported their height in 1990 and their weight annually over the subsequent 18 y. Changes in BMI and obesity between ages 45 and 49 y, 50 and 54 y, 55 and 59 y, and 60 and 65 y as a function of education and occupational position (at age 35 y) were modeled by using linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations. Results: BMI and obesity rates increased between the ages of 45 and 65 y. In men, BMI was higher in unskilled workers than in managers at age 45 y; this difference in BMI increased from 0.82 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.99) at 45 y to 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.27) at 65 y. Men with a primary school education compared with those with a high school degree at age 45 y had a 0.75 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.00) higher BMI, and this difference increased to 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03,1.62) at age 65 y. Obesity rates were 3.35% and 7.68% at age 45 y and 9.52% and 18.10% at age 65 y in managers and unskilled workers, respectively; the difference in obesity increased by 4.25% (95% CI: 1.87, 6.52). A similar trend was observed in women. Conclusions: Weight continues to increase in the transition between midlife and old age; this increase is greater in lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:20484455

  4. Relation of cord blood thyroxine and thyrotropin levels to gestational age and birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Prato, F S; Reese, L; Tevaarwerk, G J; Mackenzie, R; Hurst, C J

    1980-01-01

    A program of screening cord blood for evidence of primary neonatal hypothyroidism was implemented in a general hospital. In 13 months 3456 newborns were screened: the thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured in cord blood samples, and when the T4 level was below 8.0 micrograms/dl thyrotropin was also assayed in the sample. The two-tier program was effective. One hypothyroid newborn was detected and treated. More boys than girls had T4 levels below 8.0 micrograms/dl (9.7% v. 4.7%). The T4 level correlated with birth weight slightly better in the boys (r = 0.28 v. 0.21), and in the boys this correlation was stronger when the birth weight was lower. Regression analysis of the data for 54 sets of twins indicated that the T4 level was more strongly related to gestational age than to birth weight. PMID:7192594

  5. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 158

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarafrazi, Neda; Hughes, Jeffery P.; Borrud, Lori; Burt, Vicki; Paulose-Ram, Ryne

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem associated with many adverse health outcomes in adulthood. During 2011-2012, nearly 17% of children and adolescents were obese. Weight status misperception occurs when the child's perception of their weight status differs from their actual weight status based on measured height and weight.…

  6. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ≥60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2

  7. Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.

    2008-01-01

    Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

  8. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  9. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  10. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L.; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001–2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9–10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  11. The effect of very low birth weight and social risk on neurocognitive abilities at school age.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Breslau, N; Aram, D; Weissman, B; Klein, N; Borawski-Clark, E

    1992-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that very low birth weight (VLBW < 1.5 kg) children would have significantly poorer neurocognitive abilities at school age than would normal birth weight full-term age mates, that differences would persist after control for neurologic impairment and social risk, and that VLBW would interact with social risk. Two hundred forty-nine VLBW children and a randomly selected sample of 363 normal birth weight age mates born 1977 through 1979 were tested at 8 years. A neurologic examination and tests of intelligence, language, speech, reading, mathematics, spelling, visual and fine motor abilities, and behavior were performed. Twenty-four (10%) VLBW had a major neurologic abnormality compared with none of the controls. VLBW had significantly poorer scores on all tests, with the exception of speech and the total behavior score. These differences persisted among VLBW children without major neurologic abnormality, with the exception of social competence, reading, and spelling. Even normal IQ, neurologically normal VLBW had significantly poorer scores than did controls in expressive language, memory, visuomotor, and fine motor function, and measures of hyperactivity. When social risk was controlled in multiple regression analyses, VLBW still had an adverse effect on all outcome measures with the exception of speech. Social risk was, however, the major determinant of outcome. We found an interaction between VLBW and social risk only in verbal IQ and in the opposite direction than hypothesized.

  12. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  13. Development of gene-based markers for use in construction of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genetic linkage map and identification of QTLs associated with seed weight and plant height.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shefali; Kumar, Tapan; Verma, Subodh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-11-01

    Seed weight and plant height are important agronomic traits and contribute to seed yield. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs underlying these traits using an intra-specific mapping population of chickpea. A F11 population of 177 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between SBD377 (100-seed weight--48 g and plant height--53 cm) and BGD112 (100-seed weight--15 g and plant height--65 cm) was used. A total of 367 novel EST-derived functional markers were developed which included 187 EST-SSRs, 130 potential intron polymorphisms (PIPs) and 50 expressed sequence tag polymorphisms (ESTPs). Along with these, 590 previously published markers including 385 EST-based markers and 205 genomic SSRs were utilized. Of the 957 markers tested for analysis of parental polymorphism between the two parents of the mapping population, 135 (14.64%) were found to be polymorphic. Of these, 131 polymorphic markers could be mapped to the 8 linkage groups. The linkage map had a total length of 1140.54 cM with an average marker density of 8.7 cM. The map was further used for QTL identification using composite interval mapping method (CIM). Two QTLs each for seed weight, qSW-1 and qSW-2 (explaining 11.54 and 19.24% of phenotypic variance, respectively) and plant height, qPH-1 and qPH-2 (explaining 13.98 and 12.17% of phenotypic variance, respectively) were detected. The novel set of genic markers, the intra-specific linkage map and the QTLs identified in the present study will serve as valuable genomic resources in improving the chickpea seed yield using marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies.

  14. Recovery of birth weight z-score within two years of diagnosis is positively associated with pulmonary status at age six years in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, HuiChuan J.; Shoff, Suzanne M.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We recently reported that 60% of newly diagnosed CF children who had pancreatic insufficiency (PI) responded to treatment initiation and achieved catch-up weight gain to a level comparable to their birth weight Z-score within 2 years of diagnosis (“responders”), while the remaining 40% failed to do so (“non-responders”). The present study examined the impact of this early weight recovery on subsequent growth pattern and pulmonary status at age 6 years. Patients and Methods Sixty-three children with CF who had PI but no meconium ileus, and were enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, were studied. “Responders” were defined by a recovery of weight Z-score comparable to that at birth within 2 years of diagnosis. During ages 2–6, growth was evaluated with the combination of height and body mass index. Pulmonary status was evaluated by symptoms, spirometry, quantitative chest radiography and respiratory microbiology. Results The majority (71%) of the responders maintained their early weight recovery through age 6 years while only 32% of the non-responders achieved substantial growth improvement during age 2 to 6 years. Proportionately fewer responders reported cough symptoms (10% daytime cough, p =0.02; 22% nighttime cough, p=0.05) compared to non-responders (41% daytime cough, 45% nighttime cough) at age 6. Percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1) at age 6 was 11% higher in responders (99.5 ± 13.9%) compared to non-responders (88.3 ± 18.5%), p = 0.015. Responders had significantly better Brasfield (20.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.01) and Wisconsin chest radiographic scores (8.3 ± 3.3, p = 0.04) compared to non-responders (Brasfield 18.9 ± 1.8, Wisconsin 12.3 ± 8.3). Respiratory microbiology was not significantly different. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the positive association between responder and %FEV1 at age 6 years remained statistically significant after controlling for infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphlococcus

  15. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37 weeks, including the categories < 32 and 32–36 weeks), term births (37–41) and postterm births (42 weeks or more). Trends in birth weight affected the prevalence of births < 1500 g, 1500–2499 g, 2500–3999 g, and 4000 g or more. Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend < 0.0001). Some categories increased even more: specifically preterm birth < 32 weeks increased 32.3% for singletons and 50.6% for multiple births (p for trend 0.0001). The overall rate of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) increased from 4.6% to 5.3%. This variation was not statistically significant for singletons (p for trend = 0.06), but specific analyses exhibited an important increase in the category weighing <1500 g (42%) similar to that observed in multiple births (43%). Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid

  16. Maternal insulin sensitivity during pregnancy predicts infant weight gain and adiposity at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill K; Odrobina, Ewa; Yin, Junlang; Hanley, Anthony J; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2010-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fetal environmental exposures impact on future development of obesity. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationships between (i) maternal insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance status in pregnancy and (ii) early infant weight gain and adiposity in the first year of life. In this prospective cohort study, 301 women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing for assessment of glucose tolerance status and insulin sensitivity (IS(OGTT)) in pregnancy. Their infants underwent anthropometric assessment at 12 months of age, including determination of weight gain in the first year of life and sum of skinfold thickness (SFT), a measure of infant adiposity. Infant weight gain and sum of SFT at 12 months did not differ according to maternal glucose tolerance status. On univariate analyses, weight gain from 0 to 12 months and sum of SFT were negatively associated with maternal IS(OGTT) during pregnancy. On multiple linear regression analysis, negative independent predictors of weight gain from 0 to 12 months were maternal IS(OGTT) during pregnancy (t = -2.73; P = 0.007), infant female gender (t = -3.16; P = 0.002), and parental education (t = -1.98; P = 0.05), whereas white ethnicity was a positive independent predictor (t = 2.68; P = 0.008). Maternal IS(OGTT) (t = -2.7; P = 0.008) and parental education (t = -2.58; P = 0.01) were independent negative predictors of sum of SFT at 12 months. Independent of maternal glucose tolerance status, maternal insulin resistance during pregnancy is associated with increased infant weight gain and adiposity over the first year of life. Further longitudinal study to evaluate obesity in this group of children will increase our understanding of the contribution of the intrauterine environment to their long-term health.

  17. Growth of very low birth weight infants at 12 months corrected age in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mariana G; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this article is to describe growth of very low birth weight infants born in southern Brazil. All infants weighing < or =1500 g were followed up until 12 months corrected age (CA). Growth was recorded at 40 weeks, 6 and 12 months CA. Catch up was considered if the measures were > or =-2 SD of World Health Organization growth charts for weight and length; and of National Center for Health Statistics for head circumference. One hundred and ninety three infants born were followed up for the study. At 40 weeks CA, 57.8% patients achieved catch-up in weight and 50.9% in length. At 6 months CA, 82.2% achieved catch-up for weight and length and at 1 year CA, 92% achieved catch-up in weight and 86.9% in length. Catch-up in head circumference was achieved for 93.4%, 85.9% and 85% patients at 40 weeks, 6 months and 12 months CA, respectively. At 12 months CA, no catch-up in weight, length and head circumference was related to higher SNAPPE-II (P = 0.046) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) (P = 0.003); longer time to achieve full enteral nutrition at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (P = 0.037), lower maternal education (P = 0.018) and PVL (P = 0,003); higher SNAPPE-II (P = 0,004), PVL (P = 0.005) and longer time to achieve full enteral nutrition at the NICU (P = 0.044), respectively. In conclusion, PVL and higher SNAPPE-II were important factors to catch-up delay. Catch-up growth was high at 12 months CA.

  18. A bootstrapping method to assess the influence of age, obesity, gender, and gait speed on probability of tripping as a function of obstacle height.

    PubMed

    Garman, Christina Rossi; Franck, Christopher T; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2015-04-13

    Tripping is a common mechanism for inducing falls. The purpose of this study was to present a method that determines the probability of tripping over an unseen obstacle while avoiding the ambiguous situation wherein median minimum foot clearance (MFC) and MFC interquartile range concurrently increase or decrease, and determines how the probability of tripping varies with potential obstacle height. The method was used to investigate the effects of age, obesity, gender, and gait speed on the probability of tripping. MFC was measured while 80 participants walked along a 10-m walkway at self-selected and hurried gait speeds. The method was able to characterize the probability of tripping as a function of obstacle height, and identify effects of age, obesity, gender, and gait speed. More specifically, the probability of tripping was higher among older adults, higher among obese adults, higher among females, and higher at the slower self-selected speed. Many of these results were not found, or clear, from the more common approach on characterizing likelihood of tripping based on MFC measures of central tendency and variability.

  19. One Small Step for a Man: Estimation of Gender, Age and Height from Recordings of One Step by a Single Inertial Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Qaiser; Vögele, Anna; Krüger, Björn; Weber, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A number of previous works have shown that information about a subject is encoded in sparse kinematic information, such as the one revealed by so-called point light walkers. With the work at hand, we extend these results to classifications of soft biometrics from inertial sensor recordings at a single body location from a single step. We recorded accelerations and angular velocities of 26 subjects using integrated measurement units (IMUs) attached at four locations (chest, lower back, right wrist and left ankle) when performing standardized gait tasks. The collected data were segmented into individual walking steps. We trained random forest classifiers in order to estimate soft biometrics (gender, age and height). We applied two different validation methods to the process, 10-fold cross-validation and subject-wise cross-validation. For all three classification tasks, we achieve high accuracy values for all four sensor locations. From these results, we can conclude that the data of a single walking step (6D: accelerations and angular velocities) allow for a robust estimation of the gender, height and age of a person. PMID:26703601

  20. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  1. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID

  2. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001) in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001). Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  3. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  4. Visuo-postural adaptation during the acquisition of a visually guided weight-shifting task: age-related differences in global and local dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hatzitaki, Vassilia; Konstadakos, Stylianos

    2007-10-01

    The effects of aging on the acquisition of a novel visuo-postural coordination task were addressed at two levels: (a) changes in the intersegmental coordination (local dynamics) (b) changes in the coupling of postural sway to the visual driving stimulus (global dynamics). Twelve elderly (age: 71.2 +/- 6.4 years; height: 169.3 +/- 3.8 cm; mass: 72.4 +/- 6.1 kg) and 12 young women (age: 27.1 +/- 4.9 years; height: 178.3 +/- 2.9 cm; mass: 56.7 +/- 4.1 kg) practiced a visually guided Weight-Shifting (WS) task while standing on a dual force platform. The participants were asked to keep the vertical force applied by each limb within a +/-30% force boundary that was visually specified by a target sine-wave signal. Practice consisted of three blocks of five trials performed in 1-day, followed by a block of five trials performed 24 h later. Ground reaction forces and segment (shank, pelvis, and upper trunk) angular kinematics were synchronously sampled through an A/D acquisition board and further analyzed employing spectral and coherence analysis. Elderly women had longer WS cycles, lower response gain, and higher within-trial variability, suggesting a weaker coupling between the visual stimulus and the response force. Spectral analysis of the ground reaction forces confirmed that regardless of age, visuo-postural coupling improved with practice. However, the recruitment of local degrees of freedom was different between the two age groups. With practice, young performers increased peak coherence between the pelvis and the upper trunk and reduced peak power of segment oscillations in the pitch direction. On the other hand, elderly women decreased active upper trunk rotation while shifting control to the lower limb. It is suggested that different functional coordination solutions are possible for attaining the same overall task goal. These solutions are determined by age-related constraints in the physiological systems supporting postural control.

  5. The effect of age, weight, and lifestyle factors on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound: the ESOPO study.

    PubMed

    Adami, Silvano; Giannini, Sandro; Giorgino, Ruben; Isaia, GianCarlo; Maggi, Stefania; Sinigaglia, Luigi; Filipponi, Paolo; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Di Munno, Ombretta

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques have been shown to be as good as bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in predicting fracture risk: QUS technique could increase substantially the accessibility to a reliable bone osteoporosis risk evaluation, but little is know regarding the relationship of QUS to risk factors that have been found to predict DXA-BMD values and this is even more true in men. We studied 6,811 postmenopausal women 40 to 80 years of age and 4,981 men 60-80 years of age representative of the general population of all regions of Italy. All participants were questioned on lifestyle habits and on their medical history. After a physical examination "bone stiffness" (called here for simplicity, stiffness), which is derived from the values of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sounds (SoS) was measured by a heel QUS device (Achilles apparatus, Lunar, Madison, USA). The most common recognized determinants of bone mass (either categorical or continuous variables) were modeled with stiffness by multiple regression analysis or ANOVA. Stiffness was strongly related to age and weight. After adjusting for these variables, the women who had taken hormone replacement therapy for more than a year had significantly higher stiffness values. The difference versus nonusers remained significant for up to 20 years-since-menopause (YSM). This effect was so strong that for further analysis these women were excluded. By multivariate analysis, stiffness was then found to be significantly related to recalled body weight at 25 years of age, actual and past cigarettes smoked per day, and dairy calcium intake. Stiffness was also associated with a number of categorial factors adjusted for age, weight, and YSM: prior ovariectomy, history of more than 2 months confined to bed, outdoor physical activity, smoking, chronic use of any drug, and past corticosteroid use. All these categorial and continuous variables predicted

  6. Influences of player nationality, playing position, and height on relative age effects at women's under-17 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young male soccer players who are born early in a cohort are overrepresented on elite soccer teams. Selection advantages such as this have been termed 'relative age effects' (RAEs). Few studies have examined RAEs in elite women's youth soccer. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of RAEs in the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) U-17 Women's World Cup competition and their link to playing positions. In the entire cohort of 672 players, we found significant RAEs in the geographical zones of Europe and North and Central America, no RAEs in the zones of Asia, Oceania, and South America, and significant inverse RAEs in the zone of Africa. Additionally, significant RAEs were found for goalkeepers and defenders from Europe and North and Central America. Inverse RAEs occurred for African goalkeepers, defenders, and strikers. Goalkeepers of all zones were significantly taller than players of all other playing positions. The results of this study show that remarkable RAEs do exist at elite women's youth soccer. Similar to men's soccer, there is a bias toward the inclusion of relatively older players, and a link between RAEs and playing positions.

  7. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rachel Gick; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2,500 g) infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III) was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8). The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9) compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2). Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001) and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. PMID:23917653

  8. Age-related differences in mucosal barrier function and morphology of the small intestine in low and normal birth weight piglets.

    PubMed

    Huygelen, V; De Vos, M; Willemen, S; Fransen, E; Casteleyn, C; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the mucosal maturation of the small intestine is altered in low birth weight piglets, pairs of naturally suckled low birth weight (LBW, n = 20) and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 20) littermate piglets were selected and sampled after 0, 3, 10, and 28 d of suckling. In vivo intestinal permeability was evaluated via a lactulose-mannitol absorption test. Other indirect measurements for mucosal barrier functioning included sampling for histology and immunohistochemistry (intestinal trefoil factor [ITF]), measuring intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity, and immunoblotting for occludin, caspase-3, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The lactulose-mannitol ratio did not differ between NBW and LBW piglets, but a significant increase in this ratio was observed in 28-d-old piglets (P = 0.001). Small intestinal villus height did not differ with age (P = 0.02) or birth weight (P = 0.20). In contrast, villus width (P = 0.02) and crypt depth (P < 0.05) increased gradually with age, but no birth-weight-related differences were observed. LBW piglets had significantly (P = 0.03) more ITF immunoreactive positive cells per villus area compared to NBW piglets, whereas no age (P = 0.82) or region-related (P = 0.13) differences could be observed. The activity of IAP in the small intestine was higher in newborn piglets compared to the older piglets. No significant differences in cell proliferation in the small intestine was observed (P = 0.47) between NBW and LBW piglets; the highest proliferation was seen in piglets of 28 d of age (P = 0.01). Newborn piglets had significantly fewer apoptotic cells, whereas more apoptotic cells were seen in piglets of 10 d of age (P < 0.01). In conclusion, birth weight did not affect the parameters related to intestinal barrier function investigated in this study, suggesting that the mucosal barrier function is not altered in LBW piglets. Nevertheless, these results confirm that the mucosal barrier function

  9. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height

    PubMed Central

    Steiber, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17–90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006–2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men’s and women’s 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a ‘weak grip’. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65–69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80–90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a ‘critically weak grip’ that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value. PMID:27701433

  10. Children who were very low birth weight: development and academic achievement at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N K; Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1989-02-01

    Children born at very low birth weights (VLBW) (less than or equal to 1500 g) who were beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care are reaching middle childhood, and their school achievement can be evaluated. We compared 65 9-year-old children born in 1976, who were very low birth weight and who were free of neurological impairment, with 65 children of normal birth weight who had been matched for race, sex, age, and social class on measures of IQ, cognitive, visuo-motor, and fine motor abilities, and academic achievement. VLBW children scored significantly lower than controls on the WISC-R, Bender-Gestalt, Purdue Pegboard, subtests from the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities Battery, and reading and mathematics (math) achievement. Exploratory analysis of a subset of 43 VLBW and matched controls with IQ scores greater than or equal to 85 yielded a similar trend, except that, on achievement tests, differences were significant only in math. Further analyses revealed that the differential in math achievement between VLBW and control children is not fully attributable to differences in IQ.

  11. Effect of backpack position on foot weight distribution of school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung; Kim, Chang Ju; Oh, Duck-Won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of backpack position on foot weight distribution of standing school-aged children. [Subjects] Thirty school-aged children volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects randomly performed four types of carrying a backpack: no backpack (condition-1), carrying a backpack at C7 (condition-2), carrying a backpack at 10 cm below C7 (condition-3), and carrying a backpack at 20 cm below C7 (condition-4). [Results] Statistically significant differences were noted in the anterior and posterior pressure values, and in the anterior-to-posterior ratio, among the four conditions (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis indicated that the pressure value of condition-4 was significantly lower in the anterior foot region and higher in the posterior foot region than in condition-2 and condition-3. In addition, the anterior-to-posterior ratio was lower in condition-4 than in condition-2 and condition-3. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that carrying a backpack in a higher position, with fastening of the shoulder strap, may be more favorable for normalizing the foot weight distribution. PMID:25931722

  12. The influence of age and weight status on cardiac autonomic control in healthy children: a review.

    PubMed

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Fisher, J P

    2014-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses can provide a non-invasive evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity. How autonomic control normally develops in childhood and how this is affected by obesity remain incompletely understood. In this review we examine the evidence that childhood age and weight status influence autonomic control of the heart as assessed using HRV. Electronic databases (Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies examining HRV in healthy children from birth to 18 years who adhered to the Task Force (1996) guidelines. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven examined childhood age and HRV. A reduction in 24-hour LF:HF was reported from birth to infancy (1 year), while overall HRV (SDNN) showed a marked and progressive increase. From infancy to early-to-late childhood (from 12 months to 15 years) LF:HF ratio was reported to decline further albeit at a slower rate, while RMSSD and SDNN increased. Twenty studies examined the effects of weight status and body composition on HRV. In a majority of studies, obese children exhibited reductions in RMSSD (n = 8/13), pNN50% (n = 7/9) and HF power (n = 14/18), no difference was reported for LF (n = 10/18), while LF:HF ratio was elevated (n = 10/15). HRV changes during childhood are consistent with a marked and progressive increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity relative to sympathetic activity. Obesity disrupts the normal maturation of cardiac autonomic control.

  13. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares. PMID:9078493

  14. Effect of backpack position on foot weight distribution of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung; Kim, Chang Ju; Oh, Duck-Won

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of backpack position on foot weight distribution of standing school-aged children. [Subjects] Thirty school-aged children volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects randomly performed four types of carrying a backpack: no backpack (condition-1), carrying a backpack at C7 (condition-2), carrying a backpack at 10 cm below C7 (condition-3), and carrying a backpack at 20 cm below C7 (condition-4). [Results] Statistically significant differences were noted in the anterior and posterior pressure values, and in the anterior-to-posterior ratio, among the four conditions (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis indicated that the pressure value of condition-4 was significantly lower in the anterior foot region and higher in the posterior foot region than in condition-2 and condition-3. In addition, the anterior-to-posterior ratio was lower in condition-4 than in condition-2 and condition-3. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that carrying a backpack in a higher position, with fastening of the shoulder strap, may be more favorable for normalizing the foot weight distribution. PMID:25931722

  15. Effects of Smoking and Preeclampsia on Birth Weight for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Harland, Kari K.; Saftlas, Audrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A counterintuitive interaction between smoking during pregnancy and preeclampsia on birth weight for gestational age (BWGA) outcomes was recently reported. In this report, we examine the relationship between these factors in a well-documented study population with exposure data on trimester of maternal smoking. Methods Preeclamptic (n=238), gestational hypertensive (n=219), and normotensive women (n=342) were selected from live-births to nulliparous Iowa women. Disease status was verified by medical chart review, and smoking exposure was assessed by self-report. Fetal growth was assessed as z-score of birth weight for gestational age (BWGA). Multiple linear regression was used to test for the association of maternal smoking and preeclampsia with BWGA z-score. Results There was no interaction between smoking with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension on fetal growth. BWGA z-scores were significantly lower among women with preeclampsia and those who smoked any time during pregnancy (β=−0.33, p=<0.0001 and β=−0.25, p=0.05) compared to normotensive and non-smoking women, respectively. Infants of women with gestational hypertension were comparable in size to infants born to normotensive women. Conclusions Women who developed preeclampsia and those who smoked during pregnancy delivered infants that were significantly smaller than infants of women who did not develop preeclampsia and non-smoking women, respectively. PMID:24893615

  16. The Combined Influence of Molecular Weight and Temperature on the Aging and Viscoelastic Response of a Glassy Thermoplastic Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC-SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of five materials of different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have higher creep compliance and creep rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of M (bar) (sub w) 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly. The short-term creep compliance data were used in association with Struik's effective time theory to predict the long-term creep compliance behavior for the different molecular weights. At long timescales, physical aging serves to significantly decrease the creep compliance and creep rate of all the materials tested.

  17. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  18. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. Results: The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = −0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = −0.318) (PV= 0.003). Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI. PMID:24554988

  19. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  20. Effect of aging and drug-induced weight reduction on rat vascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Feletou, M; Moreau, N; Boulanger, M; Duhault, J

    1993-01-01

    We determined the effects of D-fenfluramine treatment on the changes in vascular reactivity induced by aging. Nine- and 49-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (a strain known to develop hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance during the aging process) were treated for 3 weeks either with D-fenfluramine 2.5 mg/kg twice daily orally or with vehicle. The rats were then exsanguinated and the abdominal aorta was carefully removed, cut into rings, and suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording. Control old rats (vehicle) had a significantly lower glucose infusion rate (an index of insulin resistance), and higher blood pressure (BP), glycemia, and insulinemia than young rats. The D-fenfluramine treatment in the aged animals produced a significant decrease in insulinemia and body weight. In aorta from the older treated and nontreated animals, the contraction to alpha-adrenergic stimulation and to the thromboxane analogue U46619 was significantly reduced as compared with that in young animals, but the response to KCl was unaffected. In contrast, in the old nontreated rats, the aorta was hyperresponsive to serotonin. D-Fenfluramine abolished this hyperreactivity. The response to beta-adrenergic stimulation and to forskolin was inhibited in the older animals but was not influenced by the treatment. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were not statistically different in the various groups, but the endothelium-dependent relaxation to ADP was reduced in the control group of older animals. D-Fenfluramine treatment restored the response to ADP. PMID:7678666

  1. Fetal sex differences in human chorionic gonadotropin fluctuate by maternal race, age, weight and by gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, J. J.; Lee, M. K.; Saha, S.; Boscardin, W. J.; Apfel, A.; Currier, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are higher in women carrying female v. male fetuses; yet, the significance of this difference with respect to maternal factors, environmental exposures and neonatal outcomes is unknown. As a first step in evaluating the biologic and clinical significance of sex differences in hCG, we conducted a population-level analysis to assess its stability across subgroups. Subjects were women carrying singleton pregnancies who participated in prenatal and newborn screening programs in CA from 2009 to 2012 (1.1 million serum samples). hCG was measured in the first and second trimesters and fetal sex was determined from the neonatal record. Multivariate linear models were used to estimate hCG means in women carrying female and male fetuses. We report fluctuations in the ratios of female to male hCG by maternal factors and by gestational age. hCG was higher in the case of a female fetus by 11 and 8% in the first and second trimesters, respectively (P <0.0001). There were small (1–5%) fluctuations in the sex difference by maternal race, weight and age. The female-to-male ratio in hCG decreased from 17 to 2% in the first trimester, and then increased from 2 to 19% in the second trimester (P <0.0001). We demonstrate within a well enumerated, diverse US population that the sex difference in hCG overall is stable. Small fluctuations within population subgroups may be relevant to environmental and physiologic effects on the placenta and can be probed further using these types of data. PMID:26242396

  2. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether

  3. A review of bufflehead sex and age criteria with notes on weights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Carter, J.L.; Carter, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    Summary: Buftleheads Bucephala albeola were collected along the Oregon coast during the hunting season. Birds were first sexed and aged upon cloacal and internal characteristics. Results were then compared with data derived from wing plumage. A small change was made in Carney's (1964) wing plumage key to improve its accuracy. Although only a few studies have been made of Bufflehead weights, it seems that in at least several of these, some immature males have been included in the female category. This mistake has probably resulted from the extremely small penis in the immatures. The foot web length shows potential as a simple sexing criterion during the fall and winter for immatures which are the most difficult to sex under field conditions.

  4. Contributions of body fat and effort in the 5K run: age and body weight handicap.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Laubach, Lloyd L

    2008-09-01

    The 5K handicap (5KH), designed to eliminate the body weight (BW) and age biases inherent in the 5K run time (RT), yields an adjusted RT (RTadj) that can be compared between runners of different BW and age. As hypothesized in a validation study, however, not all BW bias may be removed, because of the influences of body fatness (BF) and effort (run speed; essentially the inverse as measured by rating of perceived exertion (RPE)). This study's purpose was to determine the effects of BF and RPE on BW bias in the 5KH. For 99 male runners in a regional 5K race (age = 43.9 +/- 12.1 years; BW = 83.4 +/- 12.9 kg), BF was determined via sum of three skinfolds just before the race. RPE, on the 20-point Borg scale, was used to assess overall race effort on race completion. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop a new adjusted RT (NRTadj, the RTadj corrected for BF and RPE), which was computed for each runner and then correlated with BW to determine bias. Indicative of slight bias, BW was correlated with RTadj (r = 0.220, p = 0.029). Both BF (p = 0.00002) and RPE (p = 0.0005) were significant, independent predictors of RTadj. NRTadj was not significantly correlated with BW (r = 0.051, p = 0.61), but BF explained 90%, and RPE explained only 6%, of the remaining BW bias evidenced in the 5KH. The previous finding that the 5KH does not remove all BW bias is apparently accounted for by BF and not RPE. Because no handicap should be awarded for higher BF, this finding suggests that the 5KH, for men, appropriately adjusts for the age and BW vs. RT biases previously noted.

  5. Molecular chaperone properties of the high molecular weight aggregate from aged lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Boyle, D.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The high molecular weight aggregate (HMWA) fraction was isolated from the water soluble proteins of aged bovine lenses. Its composition and ability to inhibit heat-induced denaturation and aggregation were compared with the lower molecular weight, oligomeric fraction of alpha isolated from the same lens. Although the major components of both fractions were the alpha-A and alpha-B chains, the HMWA fraction possessed a decreased ability to protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. Immunoelectron microscopy of both fractions demonstrated that alpha particles from the HMWA fraction contained increased amounts of beta and gamma crystallins, bound to a central region of the supramolecular complex. Together, these results demonstrate that alpha crystallins found in the HMWA fraction possess a decreased ability to protect against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation, and suggest that at least part of this decrease could be due to the increased presence of beta and gamma crystallins complexed to the putative chaperone receptor site of the alpha particles.

  6. Stochastic variation in food availability influences weight and age at maturity.

    PubMed

    Tenhumberg, B; Tyre, A J; Roitberg, B

    2000-02-21

    Variation in mean food availability, and in the variance around the mean, affects the growth rate during development. Previous theoretical work on the influence of environmental quality or growth rates on the phenotypic traits age and size at maturation assumed that there is no variation in growth rate or food availability within a generation. We develop a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model of the foraging behaviour of aphidophagous syrphids, and use this model to predict when syrphids should pupate (mature) when average food availability changes, or varies stochastically, during development. The optimal strategy takes into account not only the availability of food, but also the timing of its availability. Food availability, when small, influences developmental time, but not weight at pupation. Food availability, when large, influences weight at pupation, but not developmental time. When the food supply is low, the optimal strategy adjusts the size at pupation downwards for stochastic as opposed to deterministic availability of food. The conclusions reinforce the need for life-history studies to consider state dependence and short-term variability in growth rates. PMID:10666359

  7. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade…

  8. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  9. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  10. Genetic correlations between body weight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age.

    PubMed

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; van der Werf, J H J; Thompson, A N; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-08-01

    Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less BW when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more BW when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on BW change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between BW, BW change, and reproduction were estimated using records from approximately 7,350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on approximately 5,300 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 4,900 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 3,600 4-yr-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes BW change was measured: approximately 1,950 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 1,500 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 1,100 4-yr-old ewes. The BW measurements were for 3 periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 d on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 d for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 d for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than 0 using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all BW had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In 2-yr-old ewes, BW change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); BW change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = -0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than 0 but estimates of genetic correlations for 3-yr-old ewes were

  11. EEG Functional Connectivity in Term Age Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Grieve, Philip G.; Isler, Joseph R.; Izraelit, Asya; Peterson, Bradley S.; Fifer, William P.; Myers, Michael M.; Stark, Raymond I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The hypothesis is tested that electrocortical functional connectivity (quantified by coherence) of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, measured at term post menstrual age, has regional differences from that of full term infants. Methods 128 lead EEG data were collected during sleep from 8 ELBW infants with normal head ultrasound exams and 8 typically developing full term infants. Regional spectral power and coherence were calculated. Results No significant regional differences in EEG power were found between infant groups. However, compared to term infants, ELBW infants had significantly reduced interhemispheric coherence (in frontal polar and parietal regions) and intrahemispheric coherence (between frontal polar and parieto-occipital regions) in the 1–12 Hz band but increased interhemispheric coherence between occipital regions in the 24–50 Hz band. Conclusions ELBW infants at term post menstrual age manifest regional differences in EEG functional connectivity as compared to term infants. Significance Distinctive spatial patterns of electrocortical synchrony are found in ELBW infants. These regional patterns may presage regional alterations in the structure of the cortex. PMID:18986834

  12. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann Chen; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2) with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age. PMID:20354568

  13. Effects of age, weight, hormones, and hibernation on breeding success in boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas).

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Szymanski, D C; Keyster, E D

    2010-03-01

    The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (P<0.05) in those that were hibernated than in those that were nonhibernated (54.0% and 33.3%, respectively), but most males in each group (93.3% and 75%, respectively) produced sperm in response to LHRHa treatment. Only one 2-yr-old and two 3-yr-old females produced eggs. At 4 yr of age, eight females produced eggs, but two died from egg retention. More nonhibernated than hibernated females developed eggs (7 of 10 vs. 1 of 10, P<0.05). Mean (+/-SD) weight of female toads producing eggs (58.9 +/- 11.9g) was greater (P<0.05) than that of nonproducing females (43.6 +/- 7.0g). Similarly, four of seven nonhibernated females (58.8+/-8.3g) produced eggs at 5 yr of age. All eggs were produced by females treated once with LHRHa. Number of eggs per female varied (141 to 3307), and development to tadpoles was low (0 to 36.5%), although tadpoles did become toadlets. In conclusion, male and female boreal toads matured at 2 and 4 yr of age, respectively, and heavier females were more likely to produce eggs. To enhance breeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment.

  14. Number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) crossbred gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate. The genital organs from 316 gilts were examined for gross abnormalities, and those with normal cyclic ovaries (n=155, 307 ± 4.1 days of age, 148 ± 1.6 kg body weight) were included in the analyses. Number of ovulations was defined by a count of the corpora lutea (CL) from both ovaries. On average, the number of ovulations in LY gilts was 15.9 ± 0.3 (range 4 to 27). The number of ovulations correlated with the body weight (r=0.31, P<0.001) and growth rate (r=0.20, P=0.015) of the gilts, but not with their age (P>0.05). Gilts with a body weight of 141 to 150 kg (17.0 CL, n=31) ovulated more than those with a body weight ≤130 kg (14.1 CL, P=0.014, n=23). In conclusion, both the body weight and growth rate of the gilts were significantly correlated with the number of ovulations. The maximum number of ovulations was found in gilts at a body weight of above 141 kg.

  15. Some essential elements in maternal and cord blood in relation to birth weight and gestational age of the baby.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Mehrotra, P K; Srivastava, S P; Siddiqui, M K J

    2002-05-01

    Maternal and cord blood were collected from 54 Indian women at parturition and analyzed for Zn, Cu, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the relationship between levels of these elements in mother's and infant's blood and maternal age, birth weight, and gestational age of the baby. The blood Zn level of mothers in the age group 24-28 yr was significantly higher than those of mothers in the age group of 18-23 yr (p<0.05). Similarly, mothers in the 24 to 28-yr group also had higher blood Fe level than mothers in the group 29-38 yr (p<0.05). The levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe were higher in the maternal blood and lower, but not significantly, in the cord blood of low-birth-weight babies than in those of normal-birth-weight babies. However, differences in the levels of Zn, Cu, and Fe between maternal and cord blood of the two birth-weight groups was statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the levels of the three elements in maternal or cord blood by the gestational age of the baby. A weak but significant correlation was found between the birth weight of the baby and the Fe level in the cord blood (r=0.26; p<0.05). Also, weak significant correlations were observed between gestational age of the baby and Fe (r=0.23; p<0.05) and Cu (r=0.31; p<0.05) levels in the cord blood. Although, there are many confounders of low birth weight and preterm deliveries, a diminished placental transfer of these essential elements could be one of the several etiological factors for low birth weight of newborns. PMID:12008981

  16. Age-related iron deposition in the basal ganglia of controls and Alzheimer disease patients quantified using susceptibility weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Li, Yan-Ying; Luo, Jian-Hua; Li, Yue-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age-related iron deposition changes in healthy subjects and Alzheimer disease patients using susceptibility weighted imaging. The study recruited 182 people, including 143 healthy volunteers and 39 Alzheimer disease patients. All underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging and susceptibility weighted imaging sequences. The groups were divided according to age. Phase images were used to investigate iron deposition in the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen, and the angle radian value was calculated. We hypothesized that age-related iron deposition changes may be different between Alzheimer disease patients and controls of the same age, and that susceptibility weighted imaging would be a more sensitive method of iron deposition quantification. The results revealed that iron deposition in the globus pallidus increased with age, up to 40 years. In the head of the caudate nucleus, iron deposition peaked at 60 years. There was a general increasing trend with age in the putamen, up to 50-70 years old. There was significant difference between the control and Alzheimer disease groups in the bilateral globus pallidus in both the 60-70 and 70-80 year old group comparisons. In conclusion, iron deposition increased with age in the globus pallidus, the head of the caudate nucleus and putamen, reaching a plateau at different ages. Furthermore, comparisons between the control and Alzheimer disease group revealed that iron deposition changes were more easily detected in the globus pallidus.

  17. Alterations in the molecular weight distribution of proteins in rat brain synaptosomes during aging and centrophenoxine treatment of old rats.

    PubMed

    Nagy, K; Nagy, I

    1984-12-01

    Properly prepared membrane proteins of brain synaptosomes of 2-, 12- and 24-month-old CFY female rats were filtrated on a Sepharose 2B gel. The molecular weight distribution showed an age-dependence: there was a clear shift toward the higher molecular weights in the adult and old rats. The observed alterations reflect an increased cross-linking of the proteins during aging due most probably to the OH free radical damage of the cell components. Centrophenoxine treatment for 2 months reversed this phenomenon in the old animals: the high molecular weight fractions decreased and the lower ones increased in the treated animals as compared to the old, untreated rats. The results support the membrane hypothesis of aging and contribute to a better understanding of the biological effects of centrophenoxine.

  18. Optimising product advice based on age when design criteria are based on weight: child restraints in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2009-03-01

    The motivation for this paper is the high rate of inappropriate child restraint selection in cars that is apparent in published surveys of child restraint use and how the public health messages promoting child restraints might respond. Advice has increasingly been given solely according to the child's weight, while many parents do not know the weight of their children. A common objection to promoting restraint use based on the age of the child is the imprecision of such advice, given the variation in the size of children, but the magnitude of the misclassification such advice would produce has never been estimated. This paper presents a method for estimating the misclassification of children by weight, when advice is posed in terms of age, and applies it to detailed child growth data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Australia, guidelines instructing all parents to promote their children from an infant restraint to a forward-facing child seat at 6 months, and then to a belt-positioning booster at 4 years, would mean that 5% of all children under the age of 6 years would be using a restraint not suited to their weight. Coordination of aged-based advice and the weight ranges chosen for the Australian Standard on child restraints could reduce this level of misclassification to less than 1%. The general method developed may also be applied to other aspects of restraint design that are more directly relevant to good restraint fit.

  19. Differentiating the Influences of Aging and Adiposity on Brain Weights, Levels of Serum and Brain Cytokines, Gastrointestinal Hormones, and Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A; Abrass, Christine K; Hansen, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Aging and obesity exert important effects on disease. Differentiating these effects is difficult, however, because weight gain often accompanies aging. Here, we used a nested design of aged, calorically restricted, and refed rats to measure changes in brain and blood levels of cytokines and gastrointestinal hormones, brain amyloid precursor protein levels, and brain and body weights. By comparing groups and using path analysis, we found divergent influences of chronological aging versus body weight, our main findings being (i) changes in whole brain weight and serum macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels correlated better with body weight than with chronological aging, (ii) a decrease in brain cytokines and brain plasminogen activator inhibitor levels correlated better with chronological aging than with body weight, (iii) serum erythropoietin levels were influenced by both body weight and aging, (iv) serum plasminogen activator inhibitor, serum cytokines, and brain tumor necrosis factor were not influenced by aging or body weight, and (v) brain amyloid precursor protein more closely related to body weight and serum levels of gastrointestinal hormones than to brain weight, chronological aging, or cytokines. These findings show that although aging and body weight interact, their influences are distinct not only among various cytokines and hormones but also between the central nervous system and the peripheral tissue compartments.

  20. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  1. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  2. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  3. Age-Associated Weight Gain, Leptin, and SIRT1: A Possible Role for Hypothalamic SIRT1 in the Prevention of Weight Gain and Aging through Modulation of Leptin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus is the principal regulator of body weight and energy balance. It modulates both energy intake and energy expenditure by sensing the energy status of the body through neural inputs from the periphery as well as direct humoral inputs. Leptin, an adipokine, is one of the humoral factors responsible for alerting the hypothalamus that enough energy is stored in the periphery. Plasma leptin levels are positively linked to adiposity; leptin suppress energy intake and stimulates energy expenditure. However, prolonged increases in plasma leptin levels due to obesity cause leptin resistance, affecting both leptin access to hypothalamic neurons and leptin signal transduction within hypothalamic neurons. Decreased sensing of peripheral energy status through leptin may lead to a positive energy balance and gradual gains in weight and adiposity, further worsening leptin resistance. Leptin resistance, increased adiposity, and weight gain are all associated with aging in both humans and animals. Central insulin resistance is associated with similar observations. Therefore, improving the action of humoral factors in the hypothalamus may prevent gradual weight gain, especially during middle age. SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase with numerous substrates, including histones, transcription factors, co-factors, and various enzymes. SIRT1 improves both leptin sensitivity and insulin sensitivity by decreasing the levels of several molecules that impair leptin and insulin signal transduction. SIRT1 and NAD+ levels decrease with age in the hypothalamus; increased hypothalamic SIRT1 levels prevent age-associated weight gain and improve leptin sensitivity in mice. Therefore, preventing the age-dependent loss of SIRT1 function in the hypothalamus could improve the action of humoral factors in the hypothalamus as well as central regulation of energy balance. PMID:26236282

  4. Age-related differences in weighting and masking of two cues to word-final stop voicing in noisea)

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Because laboratory studies are conducted in optimal listening conditions, often with highly stylized stimuli that attenuate or eliminate some naturally occurring cues, results may have constrained applicability to the “real world.” Such studies show that English-speaking adults weight vocalic duration greatly and formant offsets slightly in voicing decisions for word-final obstruents. Using more natural stimuli, Nittrouer [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 1777–1790 (2004)] found different results, raising questions about what would happen if experimental conditions were even more like the real world. In this study noise was used to simulate the real world. Edited natural words with voiced and voiceless final stops were presented in quiet and noise to adults and children (4 to 8 years) for labeling. Hypotheses tested were (1) Adults (and perhaps older children) would weight vocalic duration more in noise than in quiet; (2) Previously reported age-related differences in cue weighting might not be found in this real-world simulation; and (3) Children would experience greater masking than adults. Results showed: (1) no increase for any age listeners in the weighting of vocalic duration in noise; (2) age-related differences in the weighting of cues in both quiet and noise; and (3) masking effects for all listeners, but more so for children than adults. PMID:16158662

  5. Metabolic and energy balance in small- and appropriate-for-gestational-age, very low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Picaud, J C; Putet, G; Rigo, J; Salle, B L; Senterre, J

    1994-12-01

    This study compared nutrient utilization and postnatal weight gain composition in eight appropriate for gestational age (AGA: birth weight 1293 +/- 107 g; gestational age 28.8 +/- 1.4 weeks) and eight symmetrically growth-retarded (SGA: birth weight 1110 +/- 230 g; gestational age 32.7 +/- 1.9 weeks), very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. There was no significant difference in protein, mineral and energy intake between AGA and SGA infants. Nitrogen absorption (84 +/- 3 and 83 +/- 4%) and nitrogen retention (356 +/- 48 and 352 +/- 43 mg/kg/day) were similar in both groups. Fat absorption tended to be lower in AGA (78 +/- 15%) than in SGA (87 +/- 4%) infants. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium absorptions were similar in AGA and SGA infants. Metabolizable energy utilization was similar in both groups; about 55% was expended and 45% stored in new tissues. Energy expenditure was 58 +/- 4 kcal/kg/day in SGA infants and 61 +/- 9 kcal/kg/day in AGA infants. Weight gain and its composition were similar in both groups. We conclude that nutrient and energy utilization are similar in AGA and symmetrically growth-retarded, VLBW infants.

  6. Age-related changes in distribution of body weight on soles of feet for selected actions and postures.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, T; Asami, T

    1997-12-01

    We investigated age-related changes in the distribution of body weight on soles of feet in 878 healthy subjects ranging from 5 to 80 years of age. By modifying Morton's Staticometer, we constructed an instrument for measuring body-weight distribution over three areas of soles of the feet, the big toe (inner forefoot), the other four toes combined (outer forefoot) and the heels for both feet, thus a total of six areas. The weights in the six areas were recorded at the completion of nine selected actions and postures. We observed that for inhaling and exhaling standing postures, generally younger subjects had a ratio close to 1:2:3 for weights recorded for the inner toe:outer toes:heels as observed by Morton, but elderly subjects had a smaller value than 3 for the heel. The body-weight distribution tended to shift from heels to outer toes across age groups, which was more distinctly observed in women than in men.

  7. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  8. The Long-Term Outcome of Children by Birth Weight and Gestational Age. High-Risk Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.

    This report is comprised of three separate studies conducted at the University of Colorado Medical Center. In the first study, answers to the following questions were sought: (1) What kinds of late morbidity occur at different birth weights and gestational ages? and (2) Has a vigorous approach to metabolic support in the newborn period changed the…

  9. Pteridine levels and head weights are correlated with age and colony task in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Margotta, Joseph W; Pittman, Jean M; Ottea, James A; Healy, Kristen B

    2016-01-01

    Background. The age of an insect strongly influences many aspects of behavior and reproduction. The interaction of age and behavior is epitomized in the temporal polyethism of honey bees in which young adult bees perform nurse and maintenance duties within the colony, while older bees forage for nectar and pollen. Task transition is dynamic and driven by colony needs. However, an abundance of precocious foragers or overage nurses may have detrimental effects on the colony. Additionally, honey bee age affects insecticide sensitivity. Therefore, determining the age of a set of individual honey bees would be an important measurement of colony health. Pteridines are purine-based pigment molecules found in many insect body parts. Pteridine levels correlate well with age, and wild caught insects may be accurately aged by measuring pteridine levels. The relationship between pteridines and age varies with a number of internal and external factors among many species. Thus far, no studies have investigated the relationship of pteridines with age in honey bees. Methods. We established single-cohort colonies to obtain age-matched nurse and forager bees. Bees of known ages were also sampled from colonies with normal demographics. Nurses and foragers were collected every 3-5 days for up to 42 days. Heads were removed and weighed before pteridines were purified and analyzed using previously established fluorometric methods. Results. Our analysis showed that pteridine levels significantly increased with age in a linear manner in both single cohort colonies and colonies with normal demography. Pteridine levels were higher in foragers than nurses of the same age in bees from single cohort colonies. Head weight significantly increased with age until approximately 28-days of age and then declined for both nurse and forager bees in single cohort colonies. A similar pattern of head weight in bees from colonies with normal demography was observed but head weight was highest in 8-day old

  10. Pteridine levels and head weights are correlated with age and colony task in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Margotta, Joseph W; Pittman, Jean M; Ottea, James A; Healy, Kristen B

    2016-01-01

    Background. The age of an insect strongly influences many aspects of behavior and reproduction. The interaction of age and behavior is epitomized in the temporal polyethism of honey bees in which young adult bees perform nurse and maintenance duties within the colony, while older bees forage for nectar and pollen. Task transition is dynamic and driven by colony needs. However, an abundance of precocious foragers or overage nurses may have detrimental effects on the colony. Additionally, honey bee age affects insecticide sensitivity. Therefore, determining the age of a set of individual honey bees would be an important measurement of colony health. Pteridines are purine-based pigment molecules found in many insect body parts. Pteridine levels correlate well with age, and wild caught insects may be accurately aged by measuring pteridine levels. The relationship between pteridines and age varies with a number of internal and external factors among many species. Thus far, no studies have investigated the relationship of pteridines with age in honey bees. Methods. We established single-cohort colonies to obtain age-matched nurse and forager bees. Bees of known ages were also sampled from colonies with normal demographics. Nurses and foragers were collected every 3-5 days for up to 42 days. Heads were removed and weighed before pteridines were purified and analyzed using previously established fluorometric methods. Results. Our analysis showed that pteridine levels significantly increased with age in a linear manner in both single cohort colonies and colonies with normal demography. Pteridine levels were higher in foragers than nurses of the same age in bees from single cohort colonies. Head weight significantly increased with age until approximately 28-days of age and then declined for both nurse and forager bees in single cohort colonies. A similar pattern of head weight in bees from colonies with normal demography was observed but head weight was highest in 8-day old

  11. Pteridine levels and head weights are correlated with age and colony task in the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Rinkevich, Frank D.; Margotta, Joseph W.; Pittman, Jean M.; Ottea, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The age of an insect strongly influences many aspects of behavior and reproduction. The interaction of age and behavior is epitomized in the temporal polyethism of honey bees in which young adult bees perform nurse and maintenance duties within the colony, while older bees forage for nectar and pollen. Task transition is dynamic and driven by colony needs. However, an abundance of precocious foragers or overage nurses may have detrimental effects on the colony. Additionally, honey bee age affects insecticide sensitivity. Therefore, determining the age of a set of individual honey bees would be an important measurement of colony health. Pteridines are purine-based pigment molecules found in many insect body parts. Pteridine levels correlate well with age, and wild caught insects may be accurately aged by measuring pteridine levels. The relationship between pteridines and age varies with a number of internal and external factors among many species. Thus far, no studies have investigated the relationship of pteridines with age in honey bees. Methods. We established single-cohort colonies to obtain age-matched nurse and forager bees. Bees of known ages were also sampled from colonies with normal demographics. Nurses and foragers were collected every 3–5 days for up to 42 days. Heads were removed and weighed before pteridines were purified and analyzed using previously established fluorometric methods. Results. Our analysis showed that pteridine levels significantly increased with age in a linear manner in both single cohort colonies and colonies with normal demography. Pteridine levels were higher in foragers than nurses of the same age in bees from single cohort colonies. Head weight significantly increased with age until approximately 28-days of age and then declined for both nurse and forager bees in single cohort colonies. A similar pattern of head weight in bees from colonies with normal demography was observed but head weight was highest in 8-day

  12. Frequent self-weighing with electronic graphic feedback to prevent age-related weight gain in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bertz, Fredrik; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Levitsky, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults display substantial weight gain. Preventing this age-related weight gain would reduce overweight and obesity. Objective We evaluated an internet based intervention using Internet-connected scales and graphic email feedback; the Caloric Titration Method (CTM), to reduce age-related weight gain over the course of 1 y among first-year college students. Design First-year college students (n=167) were randomized to (CTM) or control (C) group. Both groups were provided Internet-connected scales. CTM group was instructed to weigh daily, view a weight graph emailed to them after weighing, and try to maintain their weight as indicated in the graph. The C group could weigh at any time, but did not receive feedback. At six months and 1 year the C group were notified to provide weights. Intention to treat analysis, using a mixed model adjusted for baseline weight, BMI and gender was used to analyze the effect of the intervention. Results Baseline Body Mass Index was 22.9 ± 3.0 kg/m2. Frequency of self-weighing (median) was 5 times/week in the CTM group, compared to 1 time/week in C (p<0.001). Ninety-five percent of the CTM participants weighed ≥3 times/week, compared to 15% in C group (p<0.001). After 1 year the C group had gained 1.1 ± 4.4 kg whereas the CTM group lost 0.5 ± 3.7 kg, yielding a significant overall time*group interaction (F=3.39, p=0.035). The difference in weight change between the two groups at 1 year was significant (p=0.004). Weight change of the CTM group was not different from zero whereas weight gain in C group was significant. Retention was 81%. Conclusions The internet based frequent self-weighing CTM system was effective in preventing age-related weight gain in young adults over one year and thus offers promise to reduce overweight and obesity. PMID:26414563

  13. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  14. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  15. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  16. What's the Right Weight for My Height?

    MedlinePlus

    ... puberty , the body begins making hormones that spark physical changes like faster muscle growth (particularly in guys) and ... health. It can be tough dealing with the physical changes your body goes through during puberty. But at ...

  17. Reconstruction of SO2 emission height time-series and plume age using a combination of satellite imagery, volcanic tremor and back trajectory modelling at Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Federica; Burton, Mike; Salerno, Giuseppe; Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Barsotti, Sara; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; di Grazia, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    While much work has focused on detection of volcanic gas emissions from space, relatively little progress has been made on examining volcanic processes using satellite measurements of volcanic plumes. In theory, much information can be derived regarding the temporal evolution of an eruption from a single image of an eruption plume. This information could be used to constrain models of magma chamber emptying, and comparison with InSAR measurements of syn-eruptive deflation. The over-arching goal of the work presented here therefore is SO2 flux time-series reconstruction using satellite imagery of SO2 in volcanic plumes. One of the major sources of uncertainty in the determination of SO2 abundances from satellite imagery is the plume height, and so we have focused on the development of a robust procedure that allows us to make accurate reconstructions of plume height time series. Starting from satellite images of SO2 emitted from Mt. Etna, Italy, we identified specific pixels where SO2 was detected and utilized the HYSPLIT Lagrangian back-trajectory model in order to retrieve the emission height and time of the eruption column over the volcano. The results have been refined using a probabilistic approach that allows calculation of the most probable emission height range. Previous work has highlighted that volcanic tremor is strongly connected to eruption intensity, and therefore, potentially to plume height. We therefore examined the relationship between volcanic tremor measured on Etna with our derived plume height time series. We discovered a relatively good agreement between the time series, suggesting that the physical processes controlling both the distribution of SO2 in the atmosphere and the intensity of volcanic tremor are strongly coupled, through the explosivity of the eruptive activity. The synthesis of volcanic tremor and derived plume heights is a novel new approach, and opens the possibility of more quantitative analysis of SO2 amounts in satellite

  18. Treatment with 17beta-oestradiol does not influence age and weight at puberty in Bos indicus heifers.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, H D; Kinder, J E; Fitzpatrick, L A

    1999-05-17

    The working hypothesis was that treatment of heifers with 17beta-oestradiol (E2) during specific periods of prepuberty would reduce the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to E2 negative feedback and induce an earlier onset of puberty. The effects of chronic treatment with exogenous E2 administered at specific maturational phases on the age and weight at puberty were studied in 96 prepubertal Brahman (3/4-7/8 Bos indicus) heifers (187.0 +/- 3.3 days of age, mean +/- SEM), weighing 149.9 +/- 2.5 kg. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of six groups (n = 16 per group). Groups 2-6 received E2 implants (Compudose 200) for 90-day periods starting at 10, 13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age, while animals in group 1 remained untreated. Implants were placed subcutaneously at the base of the ear. Blood was collected for progesterone (P4) determination by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the animals were weighed at monthly intervals from 6 to 15 months then weekly from 15 to 28 months of age. Puberty was defined by concentrations of P > 1 ng/ml in plasma and identification of a corpus luteum (CL) by transrectal ultrasonography (Aloka 210DX:7.5 MHZ probe). Treatment with exogenous E2 at any of the ages/treatment intervals evaluated in this study did not reduce age or weight at puberty (P > 0.7). The mean age and weight at puberty of control heifers was 735.3 +/- 19.7 days (range: 597-861) and 299.2 +/- 10.2 kg (range: 233-382), respectively, which is greater than the age and weight at puberty of 481 days and 246 kg, that was previously reported for B. indicus heifers [Post, T.B., Reich, M.M., 1980. Puberty in tropical breeds of heifers as monitored by plasmaprogesterone. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 13, 61-62.]. The large variation in age and weight at puberty that was observed in the present study among heifers might indicate an individual animal effect to E2 treatment among some of the treated animals. The lengthy interval from birth to puberty

  19. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8–10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail. PMID:25243007

  20. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8-10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail.

  1. Use of knee height for the estimation of body height in Thai adult women.

    PubMed

    Chumpathat, Nopphanath; Rangsin, Ram; Changbumrung, Supranee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Durongritichai, Vanida; Kwanbunjan, Karunee

    2016-01-01

    Knee height has been the most frequently used measure for height prediction where full height is difficult to measure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive equations using knee height to estimate the height of Thai women. The female participants were 18-59 years of age and lived in Bangkok or three surrounding provinces. They were assigned to one of two groups; the equation development group (n=488) and the equation validation group (n=188). Standing height and knee height were measured in duplicate using a stadiometer and a knee height calliper. Age and physical characteristics of the equation development group and the validate group were comparable. The measured heights showed a significant strongly positive correlation with the mean knee height (r=0.84, p<0.001). Mean knee height in a regression model exhibited the most accurate height prediction (adjusted R(2)=0.718, standard error of estimate=2.80), according to the equation "Height=38.1+2.45 (average knee height) - 0.051(age)". This study proposes a new height estimation equation for Thai adult women using knee height. The equation shows more estimation power than the previous studies conducted in Thailand. PMID:27440676

  2. Characteristics of spermatozoa and reproductive organs in relation to age and body weight in Swedish moose (Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, Jonas; Söderquist, Lennart; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive biology of game species is vital for sustainable management. In moose (Alces alces), research in reproductive characteristics has focused on the female, whereas there are few studies in male moose. The aim of the present study was to investigate sperm morphology and chromatin integrity (SCSA), and their relationships with testicular and epididymal features, as well as temporal aspects with respect to the hunting season. In total, 143 male moose aged 1.5-11.5 years were sampled from 2008 to 2011. The proportion of normal spermatozoa (PNS) ranged from 1.5% to 82.0%, with a mean of 51%, and the %DFI (DNA fragmentation index) ranged from 2.5% to 36.7% (mean 9.5). PNS decreased temporally, and was positively associated with carcass and testes weight. Body weight and testes weight had positive effect on PNS regardless of age. No effect of any explanatory variables was observed on the DFI. The testis/body weight ratio of moose (0.033%) is among the lowest reported among mammals, indicating a less polygynous mating system than in roe deer and red deer. For reproduction success in moose, a high body weight in males is favorable, as is a balanced sex ratio. Thus, males should not be harvested prior to the time when the majority of females have passed their first oestrus of the season.

  3. Diffusional anisotropy of the human brain assessed with diffusion-weighted MR: Relation with normal brain development and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Sakuma, Hajime; Takeda, Kan; Tagami, Tomoyasu; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi )

    1994-02-01

    To analyze diffusional anisotropy in frontal and occipital white matter of human brain quantitatively as a function of age by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Ten neonates (<1 month), 13 infants (1-10 months), 9 children (1-11 years), and 16 adults (20-79 years) were examined. After taking axial spin-echo images of the brain, diffusion-sensitive gradients were added parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nerve fibers. The apparent diffusion coefficient parallel to the nerve fibers (0) and that perpendicular to the fibers (90) were computed. The anisotropic ratio (90/0) was calculated as a function of age. Anisotropic ratios of frontal white matter were significantly larger in neonates as compared with infants, children, or adults. The ratios showed rapid decrease until 6 months and thereafter were identical in all subjects. In the occipital lobe, the ratios were also greater in neonates, but the differences from other age groups were not so prominent as in the frontal lobe. Comparing anisotropic ratios between frontal and occipital lobes, a significant difference was observed only in neonates. Diffusion-weighted images demonstrated that the myelination process starts earlier in the occipital lobe than in the frontal lobe. The changes of diffusional anisotropy in white matter are completed within 6 months after birth. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides earlier detection of brain myelination compared with the conventional T1- and T2-weighted images. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  5. Similarity of the CDC and WHO weight-for-length growth charts in predicting risk of obesity at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-length (WFL) or BMI growth charts are now recommended as the new standard for children under 24 months. The objective of this study was to examine associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months, based on the older Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO cutpoints, with risk of obesity at age 5 years. From well-child visits to a Massachusetts multi-site group practice during 1980-2008, we studied 15,488 children with length/height and weight measurements at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and at 5 years. The main exposures were ever being overweight during 1-24 months using each of three cutpoints: CDC WFL ≥ 95th percentile, WHO WFL or BMI ≥ 97.7th percentile. The main outcome was obesity at 5 years (CDC BMI ≥ 95th percentile). We calculated multivariable odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year. At 5 years, 10.8% of participants were obese. During 1-24 months, 21.3, 18.3, and 20.2% were ever overweight using CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints, respectively. ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months with obesity at 5 years were 6.0 (5.4, 6.6), 6.3 (5.7, 7.0), and 6.0 (5.4, 6.7), respectively. Ever being overweight in the first 2 years of life is a strong predictor of obesity at 5 years. CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints for overweight in early childhood provided similar estimates of later obesity risk.

  6. Scrotal Circumference and Its Relationship with Testicular Growth, Age, and Body Weight in Tho Tho (Bos indicus) Bulls.

    PubMed

    Perumal, P

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18-24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25-36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37-48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters.

  7. Children's nutrient intake variability is affected by age and body weight status according to results from a Brazilian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Michelle A; Verly, Eliseu; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in nutritional studies focusing on children is estimating "true" intake because the type and amount of foods eaten change throughout growth and development, thereby affecting the variability of intake. The present study investigated the hypothesis that age and body weight status affect the ratio of the within- and between-subject variation of intakes (VR) as well as the number of days of dietary assessment (D) of energy and nutrients. A total of 2,981 Brazilian preschoolers aged 1-6 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Weighed food records and estimated food records were used to assess dietary intake inside and outside of school. Within- and between-subject variations of intakes were estimated by multilevel regression models. VR and D were calculated according to age group and body weight status. VR ranged from 1.17 (calcium) to 8.70 (fat) in the 1- to 2-year-old group, and from 1.47 (calcium) to 8.95 (fat) in the 3- to 6-year-old group. Fat, fiber, riboflavin, folate, calcium, phosphorus, and iron exhibited greater VR and D in the 3- to 6-year-old group. For energy, carbohydrates, and protein, both within- and between-subject variation increased with increasing age. In both body weight groups, calcium showed the lowest VR. Fat showed the highest VR in nonoverweight/obese children (9.47), and fiber showed the highest VR in overweight/obese children (8.74). For most nutrients, D = 7 was sufficient to correctly rank preschoolers into tertiles of intake. In conclusion, age and body weight status affected the within- and between-subject variation and the VR of energy and nutrient intakes among Brazilian preschool children.

  8. Circulating venous bubbles in recreational diving: relationships with age, weight, maximal oxygen uptake and body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Carturan, D; Boussuges, A; Burnet, H; Fondarai, J; Vanuxem, P; Gardette, B

    1999-08-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is recognized as a multifactorial phenomenon depending on several individual factors, such as age, adiposity, and level of fitness. The detection of circulating venous bubbles is considered as a useful index for the safety of a decompression, because of the relationship between bubbles and DCS probability. The aim of this work was to study the effects of individual variables which can be assessed non invasively, on the grades of bubbles detected 60 min, after diving by means of Doppler monitoring, in a sample of 40 male recreational scuba divers. The variables investigated were: age, weight, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and percentage of body fat (%BF). Bubble signals were graded according to the code of Spencer. The relationships between the bubble grades (BG) and the variables investigated were studied using two methods: the differences between the average values of each variable at each BG were analyzed by the Scheffe test. Then we performed the non-parametric Spearman correlation analysis. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found (Scheffe test) between average values of the variables at grade 0 and 3 (age: P = 0.0323; weight: P = 0.0420; VO2max: P = 0.0484), except for %BF (P = 0.1697). Relationships with P < 0.01 were found (Spearman correlation) between BG and the variables: age: p = 0.486, P = 0.0024; weight: p = 0.463, P = 0.0039; VO2max: p = -0.481, P = 0.0027; except for %BF: p = 0.362, P = 0.0237. This work showed that bubble production after hyperbaric exposures depends on several individual factors. The effects of age, weight and VO2max are more significant than the effect of %BF. We concluded that to take into account such variables in decompression tables and diving computer programs should allow to adapt the decompression procedures to individual risk factors and reduce the DCS probability.

  9. A study of common Mendelian disease carriers across ageing British cohorts: meta-analyses reveal heterozygosity for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency increases respiratory capacity and height

    PubMed Central

    North, Teri-Louise; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gallacher, John; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Pattie, Alison; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Starr, John M; Wong, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Rodriguez, Santiago; Day, Ian N M

    2016-01-01

    Background Several recessive Mendelian disorders are common in Europeans, including cystic fibrosis (CFTR), medium-chain-acyl-Co-A-dehydrogenase deficiency (ACADM), phenylketonuria (PAH) and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (SERPINA1). Methods In a multicohort study of >19 000 older individuals, we investigated the relevant phenotypes in heterozygotes for these genes: lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC)) for CFTR and SERPINA1; cognitive measures for ACADM and PAH; and physical capability for ACADM, PAH and SERPINA1. Results Findings were mostly negative but lung function in SERPINA1 (protease inhibitor (PI) Z allele, rs28929474) showed enhanced FEV1 and FVC (0.13 z-score increase in FEV1 (p=1.7×10−5) and 0.16 z-score increase in FVC (p=5.2×10−8)) in PI-MZ individuals. Height adjustment (a known, strong correlate of FEV1 and FVC) revealed strong positive height associations of the Z allele (1.50 cm increase in height (p=3.6×10−10)). Conclusions The PI-MZ rare (2%) SNP effect is nearly four times greater than the ‘top’ common height SNP in HMGA2. However, height only partially attenuates the SERPINA1-FEV1 or FVC association (around 50%) and vice versa. Height SNP variants have recently been shown to be positively selected collectively in North versus South Europeans, while the Z allele high frequency is localised to North Europe. Although PI-ZZ is clinically disadvantageous to lung function, PI-MZ increases both height and respiratory function; potentially a balanced polymorphism. Partial blockade of PI could conceivably form part of a future poly-therapeutic approach in very short children. The notion that elastase inhibition should benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may also merit re-evaluation. PI is already a therapeutic target: our findings invite a reconsideration of the optimum level in respiratory care and novel pathway potential for development of agents for the

  10. Persistence of Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis: Assessment of a Low-Birth-Weight Cohort at Ages 2, 6, and 9 Years.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Steven J; Feldman, Judith F; Lorenz, John M; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Whitaker, Agnes H; Paneth, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    We examined the stability of nondisabling and disabling cerebral palsy at age 2 in a longitudinally followed tri-county low-birth-weight (<2000 g) birth cohort. A total of 1105 newborns were enrolled, 901 (81.5%) survived to age 2, and 86% (n = 777) were followed up. Of the 113 cerebral palsy diagnoses at age 2, 61 (9% of the cohort, n = 61/777) had disabling cerebral palsy and 52 (7%, n = 52/777) had nondisabling cerebral palsy. Of 48 followed children diagnosed with disabling cerebral palsy at age 2, 98% were again classified as having cerebral palsy at school age, and 1 had an uncertain cerebral palsy status. By contrast, 41% (n = 17) of the 43 children diagnosed with nondisabling cerebral palsy at age 2 were classified as not having cerebral palsy. Of the 517 followed children who were not diagnosed with cerebral palsy at age 2, 7% (n = 35) were classified as having late emerging nondisabling cerebral palsy at school age.

  11. Water Consumption Increases Weight Loss During a Hypocaloric Diet Intervention in Middle-aged and Older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55–75 years, BMI 25–40 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (β = −0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (β = −0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 ± 25 kcal, NP 541 ± 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 ± 25 kcal, NP 506 ± 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion. PMID:19661958

  12. Response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention by age of onset of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, S. E.; Lang, W.; Jakicic, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss, physical activity, fitness and diet changes in response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with self‐reported juvenile onset (n = 61) or adult onset (n = 116) obesity. Methods Participants (n = 177; 43.0 ± 8.6 years; body mass index [BMI] = 33.0 ± 3.4 kg m−2) engaged in an 18‐month standard behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were randomized into three different intervention groups as part of the larger parent trial. BMI, physical activity, fitness and diet were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Separate adjusted mixed models were constructed using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Results There was significant weight loss, increased physical activity, improved fitness and reduced caloric intake over time (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in these outcome variables by obesity onset group. However, there was a significant group by time interaction for fitness (p = 0.001), with the adult onset making significantly greater gains in fitness from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.001); however, this difference was no longer present at 12 or 18 months. Conclusions With the exception of fitness at 6 months, weight loss, physical activity and diet did not differ between juvenile onset and adult onset participants, suggesting that those with juvenile onset obesity are equally responsive to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adulthood.

  13. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-06-01

    To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. We conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16-40 year old women (n = 1,057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0-15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P < .001). Obese women (P = .002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P = .030), and some college hours/degree (P < .001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.18], switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors.

  14. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. Methods we conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16–40 year old women (n=1057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Results The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0–15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P<.001). Obese women (P=.002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P=.030), and some college hours/degree (P<.001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.18), switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Conclusions Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  15. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485

  16. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  17. Effect of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program for Low Birth Weight Children of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askins, Billy E.; And Others

    This paper describes an external evaluation study of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program (formerly known as the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children), an educational intervention program for "high risk" (low birth weight) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in Clovis, New Mexico. Major goals of the program are:…

  18. Weight Reduction and Maintenance for Overweight, Mentally Retarded Students, Ages 9-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Evelyn C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    This article reports on a study undertaken to determine if overweight, mentally retarded students could safely lose weight and maintain their individual losses through a given time period (six months). School personnel and parents instituted minor changes in nutrition and a simple activity program. (Authors/JMK)

  19. Is there any difference between high-risk infants with different birth weight and gestational age in neurodevelopmental characters?

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Özgün Kaya; Günel, Mintaze Kerem; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Yiğit, Şule; Arslan, Mutluay

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study is aimed to investigate differences between cognitive, language and motor development of high-risk infants related to birth weight and gestational age. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty high-risk infants who were born 32 weeks, 1 500 gr and below included in this study. According to corrected age, 58 infants were 1 month, 72 were at 4 months, 82 were at 8 months and 65 were 12 months old. Infants were seperated two groups according to gestational age <30 weeks and 30–32 weeks and birth weight ≤1 000 gr and 1 001–1 500 gr. Infants motor development were assessed with Bayley-III Infant and Toddler Development Motor Scale (Bayley-III) and Neuro Sensory Motor Developmental Scale (NSMDA), cognitif and lanuage development were Bayley-III cognitive and Language scales. Assessments were applied by the same physiotherapist at 1 month, 4 months, 8 months and 12 months old infants in corrected age. Mann-Whitney U Test, 2 x 2 Chi-Square test ve Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare group data. Statistical significance was determined p<0.05. Results: Cognitive, motor and language developments were in normal ranges in all infants. There were no statistical differences in cognitive, language and motor development between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the motor, cognitive and language development were normal in all high risk infants and power gestational age and birth weight did not affect these parametes. PMID:26568690

  20. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children. PMID:25952145

  1. Inverse relationship between a genetic risk score of 31 BMI loci and weight change before and after reaching middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rukh, G; Ahmad, S; Ericson, U; Hindy, G; Stocks, T; Renström, F; Almgren, P; Nilsson, P M; Melander, O; Franks, P W; Orho-Melander, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages. Methods: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10−8) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: −0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: −0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele. Conclusions: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less

  2. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  3. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Laska, Melissa N.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between weight misperception and youth health risk and protective factors. Methods: Three thousand ten US seventh-graders (72.1% white, mean age: 12.7 years) self-reported height, weight, risk, and protective factors. Analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between…

  4. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex, and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Rapoport, Alan M; Fisher, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI]), age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp) profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan) injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL); or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL). Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax), area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2), and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞) were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others). Results Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 4 mg and larger than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 3 mg. Results were similar for the other exposure metrics and for weight. Exposure was higher in women than in men, which can be attributed in part to differences in weight. There was no relationship between exposure and age. For DFN-11, AUC0–2 and AUC0–∞ were lower in nonwhites compared with whites; the ratio of median values was 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. A similar

  5. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex, and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Rapoport, Alan M; Fisher, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI]), age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp) profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan) injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL); or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL). Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax), area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2), and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞) were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others). Results Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 4 mg and larger than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 3 mg. Results were similar for the other exposure metrics and for weight. Exposure was higher in women than in men, which can be attributed in part to differences in weight. There was no relationship between exposure and age. For DFN-11, AUC0–2 and AUC0–∞ were lower in nonwhites compared with whites; the ratio of median values was 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. A similar

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of body weight and weight change in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F

    1993-10-01

    Data on body weight and weight change collected from nationally representative samples of U.S. adults are reviewed. The body mass index (weight [kg]/height [m2]) has a low correlation with height and is used to compare body weights between persons of differing heights. The BMI varies to a greater degree in women than in men. Below the 75th percentile of the BMI distribution, women have lower BMIs than men, whereas at the 75th percentile and above, women have higher BMIs than men. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 27.8 or more in men and of 27.3 or more in women, corresponding to approximately 20% or more above desirable weight in the 1983 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company tables. For persons of average height (men, 5'9"; women, 5'4") this definition is equivalent to a body weight above 85 kg (187 pounds) in men and above 72 kg (158 pounds) in women. Among adults 20 to 74 years of age, 24% of men and 27% of women are overweight, yielding an estimated total of 34 million persons in the United States. The prevalence of overweight increases with age, for both men and women but to a greater degree in women. Blacks and Hispanics have a higher prevalence of overweight than do whites, especially among women. Between 1960 and 1980, the prevalence of overweight among whites increased by 3% in women and by 6% in men. In blacks, however, the prevalence of overweight increased by 7% in women and by 28% in men. Longitudinal body weight measurements taken 10 years apart show that adults younger than 55 years tend to gain weight, whereas those 55 years and older tend to lose weight. The youngest adults gain the most weight, and the oldest adults lose the most weight. In all age groups, women have substantially greater variation in their 10-year weight change than do men.

  7. Differences in mortality and morbidity according to gestational ages and birth weights in infants with trisomy 18

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomoka; Ago, Mako; Suenaga, Hideyo; Sugita, Eri; Ono, Hideko; Shuri, Kyoko; Masumoto, Kenichi; Totsu, Satsuki; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of gestational age and birth weight on outcomes of the infants. Medical records of 36 infants with trisomy 18 admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared clinical characteristics between term infants (n = 15) and preterm infants (n = 21). There were one very‐low‐birth‐weight (VLBW) term infant (5%) and 12 VLBW preterm infants (80%). Although there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and provided management between the two groups, none of the preterm infants achieved survival to discharge. On the other hand, 6 of 21 term infants (29%) achieved survival to discharge (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for comparisons between the VLBW infants and non‐VLBW infants. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter gestational age had a more negative impact than lower birth weight to survival to discharge in infants with trisomy 18. In both preterm and term groups, the infants who died before 30 days commonly died of respiratory failure or apnea. Whereas, the infants who survived more than 30 days mostly died of heart failure. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26307940

  8. [Height vertigo, fear of heights, acrophobia].

    PubMed

    Rennert, H

    1990-06-01

    Height vertigo (acrophobia) is a very frequent phenomenon being of interest for its physiological and psychological background, though usually only of limited significance in neuropsychiatry and otology. The different aspects as to its nature and origin are discussed. If acrophobia has developed into a conditioned reaction of avoidance with pressure of suffering, or acrophobia in persons, who have to work at heights, behavior therapeutic measures with systematic desensibilisation, starting from an imaginative training, are indicated.

  9. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Children Selected for Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Using Mid Upper Arm Circumference and/or Weight-for-Height Z-Score

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Guesdon, Benjamin; Labar, Amy S.; Hanson, Kerstin; Langendorf, Celine; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Debate for a greater role of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measures in nutritional programming continues, but a shift from therapeutic feeding programs admitting children using MUAC and/or weight-for-height Z (WHZ) to a new model admitting children using MUAC only remains complicated by limited information regarding the clinical profile and response to treatment of children selected by MUAC vs. WHZ. To broaden our understanding of how children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ may differ, we aimed to investigate differences between children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ in terms of demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory and treatment response characteristics. Methods Using secondary data from a randomized trial in rural Niger among children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition, we compared children that would be admitted to a therapeutic feeding program that used a single anthropometric criterion of MUAC< 115 mm vs. children that are admitted under current admission criteria (WHZ< -3 and/or MUAC< 115 mm) but would be excluded from a program that used a single MUAC< 115 mm admission criterion. We assessed differences between groups using multivariate regression, employing linear regression for continuous outcomes and log-binomial regression for dichotomous outcomes. Results We found no difference in terms of clinical and laboratory characteristics and discharge outcomes evaluated between children that would be included in a MUAC< 115 mm therapeutic feeding program vs. children that are currently eligible for therapeutic feeding but would be excluded from a MUAC-only program. Conclusions A single anthropometric admission criterion of MUAC < 115 mm did not differentiate well between children in terms of clinical or laboratory measures or program outcomes in this context. If nutritional programming is to use a single MUAC-based criterion for admission to treatment, further research and

  10. Lower levels of human milk adiponectin predict offspring weight for age: a study in a lean population of Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Justine; McKinley, Kassielle; Onugha, Jason; Duazo, Paulita; Chernoff, Meytal; Quinn, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have reported a significant, inverse association between adiponectin in human milk and offspring growth velocity. Less is known about this association in populations characterised by a loss of weight for age z-scores (WAZs) in early life. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk adiponectin in a sample of Filipino mothers. We then tested for an association between milk adiponectin and size for age in their infants. A total of 117 Filipino mothers nursing infants from 0 to 24 months were recruited from Cebu, Philippines. Anthropometrics, interviews and milk samples were collected and analysed using standard protocols. Mean milk adiponectin in this sample was 7.47 ± 5.75 ng mL(-1) . Mean infant WAZ and weight for length (WLZ) decreased with age. Maternal body composition was not associated with milk adiponectin content. Milk adiponectin had a significant, positive association with infant WAZ and WLZ. Prior reports have found an inverse association between milk adiponectin and infant WAZ. Here, we report that in lean populations with lower milk adiponectin, there is a positive association with infant WAZ, possibly reflecting pleiotropic biological functions of adiponectin for post-natal growth. This study increases the understanding of normal biological variation in milk adiponectin and the consequences of low levels of milk adiponectin for offspring growth.

  11. Variation in Methods of Predicting Adult Height in Children with Idiopathic Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Topor, Lisa Swartz; Feldman, Henry A.; Bauchner, Howard; Cohen, Laurie E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is approved for treatment of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Endocrinologists often depend on algorithms to predict adult height. As algorithm performance is often included in treatment decision, we sought to evaluate agreement among height prediction formulas. Methods We identified 3 commonly used algorithms for height prediction: Bayley-Pinneau (BP), Roche-Wainer-Thissen (RWT), and Khamis-Roche (KR). We constructed simulated samples of children with typical distributions of ages, heights, weights, bone ages, and parental heights seen in patients with ISS, and applied the algorithms to the simulated children to determine if predicted adult height was <160 cm for boys or <150 cm for girls, the 1.2nd height percentiles for adults. Results We found substantial disagreement amongst algorithms in the percentage of simulated children with predicted adult height < 1.2nd percentile, a cut-off that may influence GH treatment decisions. Using the BP formula, 43% of boys and 81% of girls had predicted adult height below this threshold, whereas only 3% of boys and 0.2% of girls had predicted heights < 1.2nd percentile using the KR method. RWT predictions fell in between. Overall agreement of the methods was poor (kappa = 0.21) in boys and negative in girls. Conclusions Wide variation exists among formulas used to predict adult height. As these algorithms may be used in decisions about whether to initiate GH treatment and to assess GH’s efficacy in research trials, it is important for parents, pediatricians, and investigators to recognize the considerable variation involved in height prediction. PMID:20974789

  12. Relationships between molecular weight and fluorescence properties for size-fractionated dissolved organic matter from fresh and aged sources.

    PubMed

    Cuss, C W; Guéguen, C

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between the molecular weight (MW) and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are important considerations for studies seeking to connect these properties to water treatment processes. Relationships between the size and fluorescence properties of nine allochthonous DOM sources (i.e. leaf leachates, grass, and headwaters) were measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detectors. Correlations between optical properties and MW were readily apparent using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled to self-organizing maps (SOM): protein/polyphenol-like fluorescence (peaks B and T) was highest at lower molecular weights (<0.5 kDa), fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (peaks A, C, and M) was highest at mid-weights (0.5-1 kDa), and humic-like fluorescence (Peaks A + C) was highest at larger molecular weights (>1 kDa). Proportions of peaks B, T, and A + C were significantly correlated with MW (p < 0.001). The first principal component (PC1, 42% of variation in fluorescence properties) was a significant predictor of sample MW (R² = 0.63, p < 0.05), while scores on PC2 (27% of total variance) traced a source-based gradient from deciduous leachates/headwaters through to coniferous leachates/headwaters. PC3 (13% of var.) was also correlated with MW (p < 0.005). A secondary peak in peak T fluorescence was associated with larger size fractions in aged sources, and scores on PC1 also traced a path from the leachates of fresher leaves, through more humified leaves, to headwaters. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the structure of aged DOM arises through supramolecular assembly.

  13. Relationships between molecular weight and fluorescence properties for size-fractionated dissolved organic matter from fresh and aged sources.

    PubMed

    Cuss, C W; Guéguen, C

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between the molecular weight (MW) and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are important considerations for studies seeking to connect these properties to water treatment processes. Relationships between the size and fluorescence properties of nine allochthonous DOM sources (i.e. leaf leachates, grass, and headwaters) were measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detectors. Correlations between optical properties and MW were readily apparent using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled to self-organizing maps (SOM): protein/polyphenol-like fluorescence (peaks B and T) was highest at lower molecular weights (<0.5 kDa), fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (peaks A, C, and M) was highest at mid-weights (0.5-1 kDa), and humic-like fluorescence (Peaks A + C) was highest at larger molecular weights (>1 kDa). Proportions of peaks B, T, and A + C were significantly correlated with MW (p < 0.001). The first principal component (PC1, 42% of variation in fluorescence properties) was a significant predictor of sample MW (R² = 0.63, p < 0.05), while scores on PC2 (27% of total variance) traced a source-based gradient from deciduous leachates/headwaters through to coniferous leachates/headwaters. PC3 (13% of var.) was also correlated with MW (p < 0.005). A secondary peak in peak T fluorescence was associated with larger size fractions in aged sources, and scores on PC1 also traced a path from the leachates of fresher leaves, through more humified leaves, to headwaters. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the structure of aged DOM arises through supramolecular assembly. PMID:25462755

  14. The Accuracy of Broselow Tape Weight Estimate among Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    AlGarni, Abdullaziz; AlGamdi, Fasial; Jawish, Mona; Wani, Tariq Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of the Broselow Tape (BT) versions 2007 and 2011 in estimating weight among pediatric population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Fahad Medical City and six schools across Riyadh province on 1–143-month-old children. BT 2007 and 2011 estimated weights were recorded. Both tapes via the child's height produce an estimated weight, which was compared with the actual weight. Results. A total of 3537 children were recruited. The height (cm) of the subjects was 97.7 ± 24.1 and the actual weight (kg) was 16.07 ± 8.9, whereas the estimated weight determined by BT 2007 was 15.87 ± 7.56 and by BT 2011 was 16.38 ± 7.95. Across all the five age groups, correlation between actual weight and BT 2007 ranged between 0.702 and 0.788, while correlation between actual weight and BT 2011 ranged between 0.698 and 0.788. Correlation between BT 2007 and BT 2011 across all the five age groups ranged from 0.979 to 0.989. Accuracy of both the tape versions was adversely affected when age was >95 months and body weight was >26 kilograms. Conclusions. Our study showed that BT 2007 and 2011 provided accurate estimation of the body weight based on measured body height. However, 2011 version provided more precise estimate for weight. PMID:27668258

  15. The Accuracy of Broselow Tape Weight Estimate among Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    AlGarni, Abdullaziz; AlGamdi, Fasial; Jawish, Mona; Wani, Tariq Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of the Broselow Tape (BT) versions 2007 and 2011 in estimating weight among pediatric population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Fahad Medical City and six schools across Riyadh province on 1–143-month-old children. BT 2007 and 2011 estimated weights were recorded. Both tapes via the child's height produce an estimated weight, which was compared with the actual weight. Results. A total of 3537 children were recruited. The height (cm) of the subjects was 97.7 ± 24.1 and the actual weight (kg) was 16.07 ± 8.9, whereas the estimated weight determined by BT 2007 was 15.87 ± 7.56 and by BT 2011 was 16.38 ± 7.95. Across all the five age groups, correlation between actual weight and BT 2007 ranged between 0.702 and 0.788, while correlation between actual weight and BT 2011 ranged between 0.698 and 0.788. Correlation between BT 2007 and BT 2011 across all the five age groups ranged from 0.979 to 0.989. Accuracy of both the tape versions was adversely affected when age was >95 months and body weight was >26 kilograms. Conclusions. Our study showed that BT 2007 and 2011 provided accurate estimation of the body weight based on measured body height. However, 2011 version provided more precise estimate for weight.

  16. Comparison of weight loss outcomes 1 year after sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients aged above 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Praveenraj, Palanivelu; Gomes, Rachel M; Kumar, Saravana; Perumal, Sivalingam; Senthilnathan, Palanisamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Rajapandian, Subbiah; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Safe, effective weight loss with resolution of comorbidities has been convincingly demonstrated with bariatric surgery in the aged obese. They, however, lose less weight than younger individuals. It is not known if degree of weight loss is influenced by the choice of bariatric procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of weight loss between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in patients above the age of 50 years at 1 year after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients more than 50 years of age who underwent LSG or LRYGB between February 2012 and July 2013 with at least 1 year of follow-up. Data evaluated at 1 year included age, sex, weight, body mass index (BMI), mean operative time, percentage of weight loss and excess weight loss, resolution/remission of diabetes, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Of a total of 86 patients, 54 underwent LSG and 32 underwent LRYGB. The mean percentage of excess weight loss at the end of 1 year was 60.19 ± 17.45 % after LSG and 82.76 ± 34.26 % after LRYGB (P = 0.021). One patient developed a sleeve leak after LSG, and 2 developed iron deficiency anaemia after LRYGB. The remission/improvement in diabetes mellitus and biochemistry was similar. CONCLUSION: LRYGB may offer better results than LSG in terms of weight loss in patients over 50 years of age. PMID:27279392

  17. Relationship between maternal pelvis height and other anthropometric measurements in a multisite cohort of Ugandan mothers

    PubMed Central

    Munabi, Ian Guyton; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Luboobi, Livingstone; Luboga, Samuel Abilemech; Mirembe, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In sub Saharan Africa, childbirth remains a challenge that creates the need for additional screening tools. Maternal pelvis height, which is currently in use by automotive engineers has previously been shown to have significant associations with various childbirth related outcomes and events. This study set out to determine the associations between maternal: Age, height, weight and number of pregnancies with maternal pelvis height in Ugandan mothers. Methods This was a secondary analysis of maternal birth records from nine Ugandan hospitals, of mothers with singleton pregnancies. Data was analyzed using multilevel regression with respect to maternal pelvis height and additional analysis for tribe and site of childbirth intraclass correlations (ICCs). Results The mean maternal pelvis height was 7.30cm for the 2068 records. Maternal pelvis height was associated with: a 0.01cm reduction per centimeter of maternal height (P=0.02), 0.01cm increase per kg of maternal weight (P<0.01), 0.04cm increase for each additional pregnancy (P=0.03) and 0.03cm increase with respect to tribe of mother (P=0.27), for a constant of 7.97cm (P<0.01). The ICC for tribe was 0.20 (SE=0.08) and 0.37 (SE=0.11) for site. Conclusion Maternal pelvis height was associated with maternal height, maternal weight and number of pregnancies. The site of childbirth had a moderate effect on the above associations with maternal pelvis height. More study on the public health screening value of these measurements in these settings is required. PMID:27800110

  18. Distinct contributions of explicit and implicit memory processes to weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights: an aging study.

    PubMed

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-09-01

    Weight predictions used to scale lifting forces adapt quickly when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects and are readily updated by explicit information provided about weight. In contrast, weight predictions used when making perceptual judgments about weight are more resistant to change and are largely unaffected by explicit information about weight. These observations suggest that distinct memory systems underlie weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights. Here we examined whether these weight predictions differ in their reliance on declarative and nondeclarative memory resources by comparing the adaptability of these predictions in older adults, who exhibit relatively impaired declarative memory processes, to those in younger adults. In the size condition, we measured lift forces as participants repeatedly lifted a pair of size-weight inverted objects in alternation. To assess weight judgments, we measured the size-weight illusion every 10 lifts. The material condition was similar, except that we used material-weight inverted objects and measured the material-weight illusion. The strengths of these illusions prior to lifting, and the attenuation of the illusions that arise when lifting inverted objects, were similar for both groups. The magnitude of the change in the illusions was positively correlated with implicit memory performance in both groups, suggesting that predictions used when judging weight rely on nondeclarative memory resources. Updating of lifting forces also did not differ between groups. However, within the older group the success with which lifting forces were updated was positively correlated with working memory performance, suggesting that weight predictions used when lifting rely on declarative memory resources.

  19. Distinct contributions of explicit and implicit memory processes to weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights: an aging study.

    PubMed

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-09-01

    Weight predictions used to scale lifting forces adapt quickly when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects and are readily updated by explicit information provided about weight. In contrast, weight predictions used when making perceptual judgments about weight are more resistant to change and are largely unaffected by explicit information about weight. These observations suggest that distinct memory systems underlie weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights. Here we examined whether these weight predictions differ in their reliance on declarative and nondeclarative memory resources by comparing the adaptability of these predictions in older adults, who exhibit relatively impaired declarative memory processes, to those in younger adults. In the size condition, we measured lift forces as participants repeatedly lifted a pair of size-weight inverted objects in alternation. To assess weight judgments, we measured the size-weight illusion every 10 lifts. The material condition was similar, except that we used material-weight inverted objects and measured the material-weight illusion. The strengths of these illusions prior to lifting, and the attenuation of the illusions that arise when lifting inverted objects, were similar for both groups. The magnitude of the change in the illusions was positively correlated with implicit memory performance in both groups, suggesting that predictions used when judging weight rely on nondeclarative memory resources. Updating of lifting forces also did not differ between groups. However, within the older group the success with which lifting forces were updated was positively correlated with working memory performance, suggesting that weight predictions used when lifting rely on declarative memory resources. PMID:27306680

  20. Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554

  1. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  2. [Correlation of menarche with age and various somatometric indexes].

    PubMed

    Jacobo, M; Malacara, J

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of age at menarche in Mexico is presented. Data concern 1,500 girls in the urban population of Leon. Consideration is given to differences by socioeconomic status, height, and weight. (summary in ENG)

  3. Excess body weight increases the burden of age-associated chronic diseases and their associated health care expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna; Medea, Gerardo; Belotti, Federico; Tosti, Valeria; Mortari, Andrea Piano; Cricelli, Claudio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Aging and excessive adiposity are both associated with an increased risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, which drive ever increasing health costs. The main aim of this study was to determine the net (non‐estimated) health costs of excessive adiposity and associated age‐related chronic diseases. We used a prevalence‐based approach that combines accurate data from the Health Search CSD‐LPD, an observational dataset with patient records collected by Italian general practitioners and up‐to‐date health care expenditures data from the SiSSI Project. In this very large study, 557,145 men and women older than 18 years were observed at different points in time between 2004 and 2010. The proportion of younger and older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased with increasing BMI. After adjustment for age, sex, geographic residence, and GPs heterogeneity, a strong J‐shaped association was found between BMI and total health care costs, more pronounced in middle‐aged and older adults. Relative to normal weight, in the 45‐64 age group, the per‐capita total cost was 10% higher in overweight individuals, and 27 to 68% greater in patients with obesity and very severe obesity, respectively. The association between BMI and diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease largely explained these elevated costs. PMID:26540605

  4. Effects of pig age at market weight and magnesium supplementation through drinking water on pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2006-06-01

    Thirty-two halothane-negative pigs (109 +/- 0.6 kg of BW) were used to determine the effect of pig age at marketing (and thus growth rate), and magnesium supplementation through drinking water, on pork quality. Two initial groups of 50 pigs that differed by 30 +/- 2 d of age were fed diets to meet or exceed nutrient requirements beginning at 28 kg of BW. Sixteen average, representative pigs were selected from each group to represent older, slow-growing pigs and younger, fast-growing pigs. For the duration of the study, pigs were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily, and allowed free access to water. After 7 d of adjustment, pigs were blocked by sex and BW and allotted to 0 or 900 mg of supplemental Mg/L as MgSO4 in drinking water for 2 d before slaughter. All 32 pigs were then transported (110 km) to a commercial abattoir on the same day and slaughtered 2.5 h after arrival. Longissimus and semimembranosus (SM) chops were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for fluid loss and Minolta color determinations at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. Two remaining sections of the LM were vacuum-packaged and stored at 4 degrees C for 25 or 50 d. Fast- (younger) and slow- (older) growing pigs differed by 27 +/- 0.3 d of age (153 and 180 +/- 0.3 d; P < 0.001) at similar BW (108 and 110 +/- 0.6 kg of BW; P = 0.13). Supplementation of Mg tended to increase plasma Mg concentration (24.1 vs. 21.8 +/- 0.8 ppm; P = 0.06) but did not affect Mg concentration in LM or SM. Fluid loss of displayed LM or SM, and purge loss, color, and oxidation of vacuum-packaged LM or SM were not affected by age or Mg (P > 0.10). Surface exudate of the SM from older pigs was lower than that of younger pigs (61 vs. 74 +/- 6 mg; P = 0.05) but was not different for the LM (P = 0.22). The LM from older pigs displayed for 4 and 8 d; P < 0.05) were less yellow (lower b*) than younger pigs. The SM from older pigs had lower lightness (L*) initially (47.9 vs. 49.5 +/- 0.4) and after 2 d (49

  5. Birth Weight, Birth Length, and Gestational Age as Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions in a US Sample

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    The “fetal origins” hypothesis suggests that fetal conditions not only affect birth characteristics such as birth weight and gestational age, but also have lifelong health implications. Despite widespread interest in this hypothesis, few methodological advances have been proposed to improve the measurement and modeling of fetal conditions. A Statistics in Medicine paper by Bollen, Noble, and Adair examined favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) as a latent variable. Their study of Filipino children from Cebu provided evidence consistent with treating FFGC as a latent variable that largely mediates the effects of mother’s characteristics on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age. This innovative method may have widespread utility, but only if the model applies equally well across diverse settings. Our study assesses whether the FFGC model of Cebu replicates and generalizes to a very different population of children from North Carolina (N = 705) and Pennsylvania (N = 494). Using a series of structural equation models, we find that key features of the Cebu analysis replicate and generalize while we also highlight differences between these studies. Our results support treating fetal conditions as a latent variable when researchers test the fetal origins hypothesis. In addition to contributing to the substantive literature on measuring fetal conditions, we also discuss the meaning and challenges involved in replicating prior research. PMID:27097023

  6. Birth Weight, Birth Length, and Gestational Age as Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions in a US Sample.

    PubMed

    Camerota, Marie; Bollen, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    The "fetal origins" hypothesis suggests that fetal conditions not only affect birth characteristics such as birth weight and gestational age, but also have lifelong health implications. Despite widespread interest in this hypothesis, few methodological advances have been proposed to improve the measurement and modeling of fetal conditions. A Statistics in Medicine paper by Bollen, Noble, and Adair examined favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) as a latent variable. Their study of Filipino children from Cebu provided evidence consistent with treating FFGC as a latent variable that largely mediates the effects of mother's characteristics on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age. This innovative method may have widespread utility, but only if the model applies equally well across diverse settings. Our study assesses whether the FFGC model of Cebu replicates and generalizes to a very different population of children from North Carolina (N=705) and Pennsylvania (N=494). Using a series of structural equation models, we find that key features of the Cebu analysis replicate and generalize while we also highlight differences between these studies. Our results support treating fetal conditions as a latent variable when researchers test the fetal origins hypothesis. In addition to contributing to the substantive literature on measuring fetal conditions, we also discuss the meaning and challenges involved in replicating prior research. PMID:27097023

  7. The Association between Birth Weight and Gestational Age and Asthma in 6-7- and 13-14-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Raheleh, Zamani; Ahmad, Alikhani; Abtin, Heydarzadeh; Roghaye, Zare; Sara, Hashemain; Siavash, Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies that assessed the role of birth weight and gestational age in the risk of asthma have been conflicting. Objectives. To examine the association between birth weight and gestational age and symptoms of asthma. Patients and Methods. Subjects were 6656 school children of ages 6-7 and 13-14 years from urban districts of Mazandaran, Iran. ISAAC questionnaires were used. Results. There was an increased risk of "wheeze ever" in both age groups with birth weight under 2.5 kg and in all subgroups of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight more than 3.5 kg was associated with lower risk of "severe asthma" in age group 6-7 years. With respect to gestational age, higher risks of "wheeze ever," "asthma ever," and "night cough in the past 12 months" were found in age group 13-14 years born before 37 weeks and the risk of "severe asthma" was higher in younger group (6-7 years). A lower risk of "asthma ever" was also found in 6-7-year-old children and 13-14-year-old girls who were born after 40 weeks. Conclusions. This study showed that there is a direct relation between "wheeze ever" and LBW and an inverse relation between risk of "severe asthma" and birth weight more than 3.5 kg.

  8. Investigation of cerebral iron deposition in aged patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease using susceptibility-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Huanghui; Liao, Yunjie; Cao, Lu; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers. Patients and methods Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females) and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females) were studied retrospectively. On phase image of susceptibility-weighted imaging and regions of interest were manually drawn at the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus (LN), thalamus (TH), frontal white matter, and occipital white matter. The correlation between iron deposition level and the clinical and imaging variables was also investigated. Results Iron deposition level at LN was significantly higher in patients with previous stroke history. It linearly correlated with the presence and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) but not with white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarct. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that deep structure CMBs were the most relevant in terms of iron deposition at LN. Conclusion Iron deposition at LN may increase in cases of more severe ischemia in aged patients with transient ischemic attack, and it may be an imaging marker for CMB of ischemic origin. PMID:27574434

  9. Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of Age: A Multi-pollutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may induce weight gain and obesity in children, but the obesogenic effects of mixtures have not been studied. Objective We evaluated the associations between pre- and perinatal biomarker concentrations of 27 EDCs and child weight status at 7 years of age. Methods In pregnant women enrolled in a Spanish birth cohort study between 2004 and 2006, we measured the concentrations of 10 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, cadmium, arsenic, and lead in two maternal pregnancy urine samples; 6 organochlorine compounds in maternal pregnancy serum; mercury in cord blood; and 6 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in colostrum. Among 470 children at 7 years, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated, and overweight was defined as BMI > 85th percentile. We estimated associations with EDCs in single-pollutant models and applied principal-component analysis (PCA) on the 27 pollutant concentrations. Results In single-pollutant models, HCB (hexachlorobenzene), βHCH (β-hexachlorocyclohexane), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138 and 180 were associated with increased child BMI z-scores; and HCB, βHCH, PCB-138, and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) with overweight risk. PCA generated four factors that accounted for 43.4% of the total variance. The organochlorine factor was positively associated with BMI z-scores and with overweight (adjusted RR, tertile 3 vs. 1: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.19, 5.63), and these associations were robust to adjustment for other EDCs. Exposure in the second tertile of the phthalate factor was inversely associated with overweight. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to organochlorines was positively associated with overweight at age 7 years in our study population. Other EDCs exposures did not confound this association. Citation Agay-Shay K, Martinez D, Valvi D, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Robinson O, Casas M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. Exposure to endocrine

  10. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  11. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203) and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern

  12. Circulatory response to single circuit weight and walking training sessions of similar energy cost in middle-aged overweight females.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J; Pihl, E

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare circulatory responses to circuit weight (CWT) and aerobic walking training sessions of similar energy cost in middle-aged overweight females. Thirty-three middle-aged pre-menopausal females participated in the experiment. They were divided into overweight (n=18, 36.2 +/- 6.3 years, 166.3 +/- 8.0 cm, 83.5 +/- 9.7 kg, BMI 30.2 +/- 3.1 kg m-2) and non-overweight control (n=15, 34.1 +/- 6.3 years, 165.0 +/- 5.6 cm, 61.6 +/- 5.0 kg, BMI 22.7 +/- 1.5 kg m-2) groups. Individual physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using the cycle ergometer test (calculated at the level of predicted HRmax (205 - (1/2) age). A CWT session consisted of leg extension, bench press, sit-ups and leg press exercises. The subjects performed four circuits at the maximal possible speed, using a work-to-rest ratio of 60 s. Blood pressure (BP) was measured during every rest period between the exercises, and the heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously during the whole CWT programme. During the walking training session, the subjects walked as fast as possible on the indoor track. The total energy cost of the walking training session was the same as during the CWT session, approximately 270 kcal, and was controlled by a CALTRAC accelerometer. HR and BP were measured every 5 min during the walking training session. The PWC index was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the overweight group in comparison with the control females (215.4 +/- 76.1 and 187.9 +/- 42.4 W, respectively). The resting BP was normal in both groups (<140/90 mmHg). HR was between 120 and 140 beats min-1 during CWT and walking sessions. There were no differences in BP during both training sessions in overweight and control subjects. It was concluded that both CWT and walking training sessions were acceptable forms of physical activity to increase cardiovascular fitness in middle-aged overweight and normal body weight females.

  13. The Contribution of Age and Weight to Blood Pressure Levels Among Blacks and Whites Receiving Care in Community-Based Primary Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Kan, Athena Wing-ga; Hussain, Tanvir; Carson, Kathryn A; Purnell, Tanjala S; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Albert, Michael; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether race and age, risk factors for obesity and hypertension, affect the association of obesity with elevated blood pressure (BP). Using electronic medical record data, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients seen at 6 Maryland primary care clinics from September 2011 through June 2012. The risk for higher BP among patients younger than 65 years and in an elevated weight category was greater for both races but was higher for whites than blacks. For patients aged 65 years or older, weight had little impact on systolic BP, suggesting that approaches involving weight loss to address elevated BP should focus on populations younger than 65.

  14. Melatonin effect on rat body weight regulation in response to high-fat diet at middle age.

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Stephaney S; Green, Jill N; Rasmussen, Dennis D

    2003-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily melatonin administration to middle-aged rats to restore youthful plasma melatonin levels also decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to more youthful levels, without detectable changes in consumption of chow diet. We now evaluate: (a) whether melatonin alters consumption of a more precisely quantifiable liquid diet similar in high-fat content to the typical American diet; (b) differences between melatonin-induced endocrine responses in the fasted vs fed state; and (c) time course of these responses. Ten-month-old male Sprague- Dawley rats received liquid diet containing either 0.2 micro g/mL melatonin (MELATONIN) or vehicle (CONTROL) (n = 14/treatment); the diet was available throughout each night, but was removed for the final 10 h of each daytime. MELATONIN rats gained 4% body weight during the first 2 wk and then stabilized, whereas CONTROL rats continued to gain for an additional week, achieving 8% gain (p < 0.05 vs MELATONIN). During the first 3 wk, afternoon tail-blood leptin, but not insulin, levels decreased in melatonin-treated rats (p < 0.05 vs CONTROL). After 8 wk, half of the rats were killed at the midpoint of the dark period (NIGHT; fed) and half at the end of the light period (DAYTIME; fasted). NIGHT but not DAYTIME plasma leptin levels were decreased in MELATONIN rats, whereas DAYTIME but not NIGHT plasma insulin levels were decreased (p < 0.05 vs CONTROL). Melatonin treatment did not alter cumulative food consumption. Thus, melatonin decreased weight gain in response to high-fat diet, decreased plasma leptin levels within 3 wk-before decreasing plasma insulin-and exerted these metabolic effects independent of total food consumption.

  15. High molecular weight complexes of mutant superoxide dismutase 1: age-dependent and tissue-specific accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiou; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2002-03-01

    Mutations in the cytosolic enzyme, superoxide dismutase 1, have been identified as the cause of motor neuron disease in a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It has been postulated that the injurious property of mutant enzyme resides in its propensity to aggregate or its propensity to catalyze deleterious, copper-mediated, chemistries. Aggregates of SOD1 have been identified, histologically, in neurons and astroglia of the spinal cords of SOD1-linked FALS patients and in transgenic mice that express these mutant proteins. In the present study, we have employed a technique used in detecting and quantifying aggregates of mutant huntingtin (cellulose acetate filtration) to examine the molecular characteristics of mutant SOD1 in three previously characterized transgenic mouse models of FALS. We show that the brains and spinal cords of these mice accumulate mutant SOD1 complexes that can be trapped by cellulose acetate filtration. The relative abundance of these structures increases dramatically with age. Although expressed to the same level in nonnervous tissues, mutant SOD1 was not found in high molecular weight structures. We conclude that some aspect of the biology of neural tissues (in a setting of declining motor neuron function) predisposes to the accumulation of high molecular weight complexes of mutant SOD1.

  16. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Lind, Erik; Vazou, Spiridoula

    2010-01-01

    At least 60 min of daily physical activity (PA) are recommended for weight control, a target achieved by only 3% of obese (OB) women. The purposes of this study were to examine (i) the affective responses of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB middle-aged sedentary women to exercise of increasing intensity and (ii) the relationship of affective responses to self-efficacy and social physique anxiety. The women participated in a graded treadmill protocol to volitional exhaustion while providing ratings of pleasure-displeasure and perceived activation each minute. The Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL) was also completed before and after exercise. The affective responses of NW and OW women did not differ. However OB women gave lower pleasure ratings during the incremental protocol and reported lower Energy scores immediately after the protocol. Social physique anxiety, but not self-efficacy, was inversely related to pleasure and energy. The lower levels of pleasure and energy experienced by OB than nonobese women could account in part for their dramatically low levels of PA participation. Modifying the cognitive antecedents of social physique anxiety might be a useful intervention strategy.

  17. Dynamic mechanical and molecular weight measurements on polymer bonded explosives from thermally accelerated aging tests. I. Fluoropolymer binders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Caley, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and molecular weight distribution of two polymer bonded explosives, LX-10-1 and PBX-9502, maintained at 23, 60, and 74/sup 0/C for 3 years were studied. LX-10-1 is 94.5% 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane explosive bonded together with 5.5% Viton A fluoropolymer. PBX-9502 is 95% triaminotrinitrobenzene explosive bonded with 5% Kel-F-800 fluoropolymer. There are two mechanical relaxations in the LX-10-1 in the military temperature range. The relaxation at -10/sup 0/C is associated with the glass transition temperature of the Viton A binder. A second weak relaxation occurs at about 30/sup 0/C in all LX-10-1 samples tested. This relaxation is probably associated with small amounts of crystallinity in the binder although this has not been demonstrated. There is a slight increase in modulus of the LX-10-1 with accelerated aging temperature. Changes in the dynamic mechanical properties of PBX-9502 are ascribed to crystallization of the chlorotrifluoroethylene component of the Kel-F-800 binder. The molecular weight of the Viton A binder decreased slight with increasing aging temperature. Using the kinetics of random scission the activation energy for polymer degradation in the presence of the explosive was 1.19 kcal/mole. The Arrhenius preexponential term and activation energy predict an expected use-life in excess of 60 years for LX-10-1. The Kel-F-800 in PBX-9502 is also extremely stable.

  18. Height and calories in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. PMID:26656205

  19. Mathematically combined half-cell reduction potentials of low-molecular-weight thiols as markers of seed ageing.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Colville, Louise; Pritchard, Hugh W; Pearce, Stephen R; Kranner, Ilse

    2011-09-01

    The half-cell reduction potential of the glutathione disulphide (GSSG)/glutathione (GSH) redox couple appears to correlate with cell viability and has been proposed to be a marker of seed viability and ageing. This study investigated the relationship between seed viability and the individual half-cell reduction potentials (E(i)s) of four low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols in Lathyrus pratensis seeds subjected to artificial ageing: GSH, cysteine (Cys), cysteinyl-glycine (Cys-Gly) and γ-glutamyl-cysteine (γ-Glu-Cys). The standard redox potential of γ-Glu-Cys was previously unknown and was experimentally determined. The E(i)s were mathematically combined to define a LMW thiol-disulphide based redox environment (E(thiol-disulphide)). Loss of seed viability correlated with a shift in E(thiol-disulphide) towards more positive values, with a LD(50) value of -0.90 ± 0.093 mV M (mean ± SD). The mathematical definition of E(thiol-disulphide) is envisaged as a step towards the definition of the overall cellular redox environment, which will need to include all known redox-couples.

  20. The influence of age, relative weight, smoking, and alcohol intake on the reproducibility of a dietary questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Sampson, L; Rosner, B; Hennekens, C H; Speizer, F E

    1987-09-01

    To evaluate factors that affect the reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a large prospective study we compared an extended 99-item questionnaire with a shorter, 61-item form completed by 1497 women with an interval of nine months between. Correlation coefficients for individual items assessed by the two questionnaires were highest for beverages (Spearman r = 0.70). For other foods, coefficients ranged from 0.60 to 0.70 for items eaten frequently (or habitually), to values between 0.34 and 0.45 for foods, such as sweet potatoes and ready made pie, that were eaten less frequently. For food items, the correlation between mean frequency of consumption and the reproducibility coefficient (Spearman r) was 0.51 (p less than 0.01), formally confirming that the reproducibility of measurements was positively associated with frequency of use. Pearson correlation coefficients for calorie-adjusted intakes of nutrients between the two questionnaires ranged from 0.40 for trans-fatty acids to 0.71 for vitamin E (including supplements). These correlation coefficients did not vary materially between subjects in different categories of smoking status or tertiles of age or relative weight. Moderate alcohol use had minimal effect on correlation coefficients, but reproducibility was slightly reduced among heavier drinkers. These data indicate that this self-administered dietary questionnaire can provide reproducible information about individual food and nutrient intakes which is not altered materially by age and a number of important health habits.

  1. Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Decreases With Height, Based on Consortium Analysis and Confirmed by Mendelian Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Thrift, Aaron P.; Risch, Harvey A.; Onstad, Lynn; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Casson, Alan G.; Bernstein, Leslie; Corley, Douglas A.; Levine, David M.; Chow, Wong–Ho; Reid, Brian J.; Romero, Yvonne; Hardie, Laura J.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wu, Anna H.; Bird, Nigel C.; Gammon, Marilie D.; Ye, Weimin; Whiteman, David C.; Vaughan, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Risks for some cancers increase with height. We investigated the relationship between height and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett’s esophagus (BE). METHODS We analyzed epidemiologic and genome-wide genomic data from individuals of European ancestry in the Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium, from 999 cases of EAC, 2061 cases of BE, and 2168 population controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between height and risks of EAC and BE. We performed a Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate an unconfounded effect of height on EAC and BE using a genetic risk score derived from 243 genetic variants associated with height as an instrumental variable. RESULTS Height was associated inversely with EAC (per 10-cm increase in height: OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.62–0.79 for men and OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.40–0.80 for women) and BE (per 10-cm increase in height: OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62–0.77 for men and OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.48–0.77 for women). The risk estimates were consistent across strata of age, education level, smoking, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, body mass index, and weight. Mendelian randomization analysis yielded results quantitatively similar to those from the conventional epidemiologic analysis. CONCLUSIONS Height is associated inversely with risks of EAC and BE. Results from the Mendelian randomization study showed that the inverse association observed did not result from confounding factors. Mechanistic studies of the effect of height on EAC and BE are warranted; height could have utility in clinical risk stratification. PMID:24530603

  2. The Status at Two Years of Low-Birth-Weight Infants Born in 1974 with Birth Weights of Less Than 1,001 gm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, K. E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    For availibility see EC 103 548 Among findings of a 2-year followup study of 43 infants of birth weight less than 1000 grams were the following: average height at age 2 years was between the tenth and twenty-fifth percentiles; average weight was between the third and tenth percentiles; 15 Ss developed lower respiratory tract infections during the…

  3. Place vs. time and vegetational persistence: A comparison of four tropical mires from the Illinois Basin during the height of the Pennsylvanian Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Phillips, T.L.; Nelson, W. John

    2002-01-01

    Coal balls were collected from four coal beds in the southeastern part of the Illinois Basin. Collections were made from the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker coals in western Kentucky, and from the Danville Coal in southwestern Indiana. These four coal beds are among the principal mineable coals of the Illinois Basin and belong to the Carbondale and Shelburn Formations of late Middle Pennsylvanian age. Vegetational composition was analyzed quantitatively. Coal-ball samples from the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker are dominated by the lycopsid tree Lepidophloios, with lesser numbers of Psaronius tree ferns, medullosan pteridosperms, and the lycopsid trees Synchysidendron and Diaphorodendron. This vegetation is similar to that found in the Springfield and Herrin coals elsewhere in the Illinois Basin, as reported in previous studies. The Danville coal sample, which is considerably smaller than the others, is dominated by Psaronius with the lycopsids Sigillaria and Synchysidendron as subdominants. Coal balls from the Springfield coal were collected in zones directly from the coal bed and their zone-by-zone composition indicates three to four distinct plant assemblages. The other coals were analyzed as whole-seam random samples, averaging the landscape composition of the parent mire environments. This analysis indicates that these coals, separated from each other by marine and terrestrial-clastic deposits, have essentially the same floristic composition and, thus, appear to represent a common species pool that persisted throughout the late Middle Pennsylvanian, despite changes in baselevel and climate attendant the glacial interglacial cyclicity of the Pennsylvanian ice age. Patterns of species abundance and diversity are much the same for the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker, although each coal, both in the local area sampled, and regionally, has its own paleobotanical peculiarities. Despite minor differences, these coals indicate a high degree of recurrence of assemblage

  4. An Influence of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Apgar Score on Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Children with History of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, Marta; Urban, Beata; Chrzanowska-Grenda, Beata; Oziębło-Kupczyk, Monika; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of our study was to examine a possible influence of gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score on amplitudes and latencies of P100 wave in preterm born school-age children. Materials and Methods. We examined the following group of school-age children: 28 with history of prematurity (mean age 10.56 ± 1.66 years) and 25 born at term (mean age 11.2 ± 1.94 years). The monocular PVEP was performed in all children. Results. The P100 wave amplitudes and latencies significantly differ between preterm born school-age children and those born at term. There was an essential positive linear correlation of the P100 wave amplitudes with birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar score. There were the negative linear correlations of P100 latencies in 15-minute stimulation from O1 and Oz electrode with Apgar score and O1 and O2 electrode with gestational age. Conclusions. PVEP responses vary in preterm born children in comparison to term. Low birth weight, early gestational age, and poor baseline output seem to be the predicting factors for the developmental rate of a brain function in children with history of prematurity. Further investigations are necessary to determine perinatal factors that can affect the modified visual system function in preterm born children. PMID:26417461

  5. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  6. The Association between Birth Weight and Gestational Age and Asthma in 6-7- and 13-14-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Raheleh, Zamani; Ahmad, Alikhani; Abtin, Heydarzadeh; Roghaye, Zare; Sara, Hashemain; Siavash, Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies that assessed the role of birth weight and gestational age in the risk of asthma have been conflicting. Objectives. To examine the association between birth weight and gestational age and symptoms of asthma. Patients and Methods. Subjects were 6656 school children of ages 6-7 and 13-14 years from urban districts of Mazandaran, Iran. ISAAC questionnaires were used. Results. There was an increased risk of “wheeze ever” in both age groups with birth weight under 2.5 kg and in all subgroups of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight more than 3.5 kg was associated with lower risk of “severe asthma” in age group 6-7 years. With respect to gestational age, higher risks of “wheeze ever,” “asthma ever,” and “night cough in the past 12 months” were found in age group 13-14 years born before 37 weeks and the risk of “severe asthma” was higher in younger group (6-7 years). A lower risk of "asthma ever" was also found in 6-7-year-old children and 13-14-year-old girls who were born after 40 weeks. Conclusions. This study showed that there is a direct relation between “wheeze ever” and LBW and an inverse relation between risk of “severe asthma” and birth weight more than 3.5 kg. PMID:27379196

  7. The injury pattern in fatal suicidal falls from a height: an examination of 307 cases.

    PubMed

    Casali, Michelangelo Bruno; Bruno, Casali Michelangelo; Battistini, Alessio; Alessio, Battistini; Blandino, Alberto; Alberto, Blandino; Cattaneo, Cristina; Cristina, Cattaneo

    2014-11-01

    Falls from a height are a common cause of suicidal death in urban settings. The aim of the present work is to describe and discuss a specific set of 307 autopsies performed in a metropolitan city such as Milan, Italy from 2006 to 2011, with a special focus on the relationship between the injury pattern and height of the fall, age at death and weight at death. The rib cage (92%), the lungs (76%), the heart (53%) and the liver (58%) turned out to be the most injured structures in the whole population. Age resulted statistically significant for heart, thoracic aorta, mesentery, kidney hilus, hip bones and right forearm injuries. Weight resulted statistically significant for subtentorial brain, facial skull, rib cage, lungs and liver injuries. Height was significant for the facial skull (including the jaw), lungs, heart, thoracic aorta, diaphragm, liver, cervical spine, sacroiliac joints, pubic symphysis, right arm and left leg. A simple Injury Extension Score was also calculated which showed a correlation with height. A great variability does exist across all the available forensic literature concerning falls from a height. As a strong common denominator for the injury pattern across all the available literature there is however the very low prevalence of neck injuries, the very high prevalence of rib cage fractures and a definite thorax and upper abdomen injury.

  8. [Relations hip between placental weight and age, family characteristics, parity and activity of the mother as well as the weight or maturity and sex of the newborn infant]?1?H.

    PubMed

    Dörste, P

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the correlation of the placental weights of 500 unselected live-born babies delivered after a gestation period of 33 weeks at the minimum and 42 weeks at the maximum, respectively, with age, family status parity, and mother's occupation, as well as with the weight, maturity, and sex of the neonates yielded the following results: 1. Between primiparae, secundiparae, and multiparae, working and housewife mothers, workers, farmerettes, women doing other jobs, and academically trained women, eutrophic mature and hypertrophic mature neonates, and newly born male and female babies there was observed a roughly similar frequency of the generally accepted "normal weight of placenta" of 400 g to 600 g and no significance of minor differences in frequency, respectively. 2. The high incidence of mothers aged 20 and less in the "normal placental weight group" of 400 g to 600 g compared to 21- to 30-year-old and 31- to 35-year-old mothers was not found to be significant. 3. The high incidence of unmarried mothers in the "normal placental weight group" of 400 g to 600 g compared to married mothers is not significant, the higher incidence of premature labor in unmarried women being due possibly, not to the weight of placenta, but rather primiparity, age under 20, and social class. 4. The higher frequency in the placental weight group up to and including 400 g of married compared to unmarried mothers, primiparae compared to secundiparae, primiparae and secundiparae compared to multiparae, working mothers compared to housewife mothers, and workers and farmerettes compared to both women doing other types of jobs and academically trained women was not found to be significant. PMID:970005

  9. [Relations hip between placental weight and age, family characteristics, parity and activity of the mother as well as the weight or maturity and sex of the newborn infant]?1?H.

    PubMed

    Dörste, P

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the correlation of the placental weights of 500 unselected live-born babies delivered after a gestation period of 33 weeks at the minimum and 42 weeks at the maximum, respectively, with age, family status parity, and mother's occupation, as well as with the weight, maturity, and sex of the neonates yielded the following results: 1. Between primiparae, secundiparae, and multiparae, working and housewife mothers, workers, farmerettes, women doing other jobs, and academically trained women, eutrophic mature and hypertrophic mature neonates, and newly born male and female babies there was observed a roughly similar frequency of the generally accepted "normal weight of placenta" of 400 g to 600 g and no significance of minor differences in frequency, respectively. 2. The high incidence of mothers aged 20 and less in the "normal placental weight group" of 400 g to 600 g compared to 21- to 30-year-old and 31- to 35-year-old mothers was not found to be significant. 3. The high incidence of unmarried mothers in the "normal placental weight group" of 400 g to 600 g compared to married mothers is not significant, the higher incidence of premature labor in unmarried women being due possibly, not to the weight of placenta, but rather primiparity, age under 20, and social class. 4. The higher frequency in the placental weight group up to and including 400 g of married compared to unmarried mothers, primiparae compared to secundiparae, primiparae and secundiparae compared to multiparae, working mothers compared to housewife mothers, and workers and farmerettes compared to both women doing other types of jobs and academically trained women was not found to be significant.

  10. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age = 43.25, SD = 13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

  11. Preconception Blood Pressure and Risk of Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age: A Large Cohort Study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Shun; Yang, Na; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to examine whether high blood pressure in the preconception period was associated with low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) in Chinese women. Data were obtained from the China-US Collaborative Project for Neural Tube Defects Prevention, a large population-based cohort study. We included 43 718 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 28-45 weeks to women who were registered before pregnancy in 7 counties in southern China. Blood pressure was measured during registration by trained healthcare workers, and other health-related information was recorded prospectively. We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations between preconception blood pressure and the risk of LBW and SGA, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypertension in the preconception study population was 4.62% (2019/43 718). The incidences of LBW and SGA were 2.33% and 5.05% for the hypertension group and 2.01% and 5.68% for the nonhypertension group. Compared with the nonhypertension group, the hypertension group did not show significantly increased risk for LBW overall (adjusted risk ratio =1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.57) or SGA (adjusted risk ratio =0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.09). When participants with normal blood pressure were used as the reference, the adjusted risk ratio of SGA for prehypertensive women was 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.25). Our results do not support an association between hypertension or higher blood pressure before pregnancy and increased risk of LBW or SGA.

  12. The Tromsø Study: body height, body mass index and fractures.

    PubMed

    Joakimsen, R M; Fønnebø, V; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A; Søgaard, A J

    1998-01-01

    Tall persons suffer more hip fractures than shorter persons, and high body mass index is associated with fewer hip and forearm fractures. We have studied the association between body height, body mass index and all non-vertebral fractures in a large, prospective, population-based study. The middle-aged population of Tromsø, Norway, was invited to surveys in 1979/80, 1986/87 and 1994/95 (The Tromsø Study). Of 16,676 invited to the first two surveys, 12,270 attended both times (74%). Height and weight were measured without shoes at the surveys, and all non-vertebral fractures in the period 1988-1995 were registered (922 persons with fractures) and verified by radiography. The risk of a low-energy fracture was found to be positively associated with increasing body height and with decreasing body mass index. Furthermore, men who had gained weight had a lower risk of hip fractures, and women who had gained weight had a lower risk of fractures in the lower extremities. High body height is thus a risk factor for fractures, and 1 in 4 low-energy fractures among women today might be ascribed to the increase in average stature since the turn of the century. Low body mass index is associated with a higher risk of fractures, but the association is probably too weak to have any clinical relevance in this age category.

  13. Influence on growth conditions on the value of crisphead lettuce. 2. Weight losses during storage as affected by nitrogen, plant age and cooling system.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, N; Sørensen, J N; Johansen, A S

    1994-07-01

    Storage of crisphead lettuce was carried out at 1 degrees C in an ordinary cold storage room and in an ice bank cooling system. The plants were grown at three plantings at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg total nitrogen supply per hectare and harvested at two or three different plant ages. The cultivars used were 'Marius' and 'Saladin'. The aim of the experiment was to prolong the storage and to reduce the losses. After 14 days of storage the greatest total weight losses were found at the mid-season planting whereas the least total weight loss was found at the late planting. Ice bank cooling at all plantings reduced the total weight loss in comparison to the cold storage. The effect of nitrogen and cultivar was low. The total weight loss defined as loss due to transpiration and trimming was neither related to the head weight nor the surface area of the heads. A reduced loss with increasing plant age was not a question of increased transpiration due to surface to volume ratio changes, but may be related to other factors. A lower average total weight loss was found in the ice bank cooling system compared to the cold storage. The explanation of this might be the existence of a high relative humidity in the ice bank storage. To reduce the total weight loss harvest must take place at the right plant age. No definite growth stage was defined here, but the plants must have reached marketable quality as the young plants are more susceptible to weight loss during storage. It seems likely that some unknown internal factors in the plant were involved in reduction of the total weight loss. PMID:7971782

  14. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  15. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk. PMID:26666445

  16. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents ... 2 ). Weight status misperception occurs when the child’s perception of their weight status differs from their actual ...

  17. Body Salience, Weight-Role Knowledge-Flexibility and Peer Affiliations between the Ages of Three and Eight Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Donna

    Studies were made of (1) young children's use of body-weight type for processing information about peers, and (2) the development of children's stereotypical knowledge about characteristics associated with body-weight type. For the first study, a measure was developed to assess "body salience," or the degree to which children use weight type as a…

  18. Vertical jumping height and horizontal overhead throwing velocity in young male athletes.

    PubMed

    Viitasalo, J T; Rahkila, P; Osterback, L; Alén, M

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of calendar and skeletal age, anthropometric dimensions, training history and their interactions on vertical jumping height and horizontal overhead throwing velocity in a cross-section of 318 young male athletes (age range 9-16 years) participating in cross-country skiing (n = 70), basketball (n = 40), apparatus gymnastics (n = 19), ice hockey (n = 50), track and field (n = 89) and wrestling (n = 50). Vertical jumping height was measured with four different loads held on the shoulders and then interpolated for loads representing 0 and 40% body mass. Horizontal overhead throwing velocity using both hands was determined for seven balls of different weights and then interpolated for weights representing 1 and 5% body mass. Both vertical jumping height and overhead throwing velocity were found to increase (P < 0.01) from the skeletally youngest to the oldest cohort when the effects of body height and mass were controlled. The inter-event comparisons did not reveal statistically significant differences in respect of vertical jumping height. Also in the overhead throwing tests, the inter-event differences were small, although the analysis of variance revealed statistically significant (P < 0.001) differences for the skeletal age cohorts of 13 and 14 years. While the quantity of training had no effect on vertical jumping height, it explained the results in the overhead throwing test. The effects of training on vertical jumping and horizontal overhead throwing among adolescent athletes were considered to be small, while maturational processes and anthropometric development followed by increase in calendar age were deemed to be of greater importance.

  19. A study on verifying the effectiveness of 4-week composite weight-loss dietary supplement ingestion on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoonseok; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Sung, Suhyun; Jung, Matthew; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a composite weight-loss dietary supplement on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women. Methods Thirty seven middle-aged women living in the Kyunggi area participated in this study and they were randomly divided into 2 groups (Dietary supplement ingestion group; DG, n = 20 and Placebo group; PG, n = 17). Blood draw and dual energy x-ray (DEXA) measurements were conducted to examine changes in body composition and blood lipids. Results There were no significant changes in weight and BMI in both groups. There was an interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and lean body mass in DG and there was a significant decrease in percent body fat in DG. Blood lipid changes in the study results showed that there was no significant difference in TC, TG, and LDL in both groups; however, there was a significant interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and HDL-C as well as an increase in the HDL-C of DG. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that 4-week ingestion of the composite weight-loss dietary supplement decreased body fat, increased lean body mass, and increased HDL-C. Therefore, the composite weight-loss dietary supplement is expected to prevent obesity and induce health improvements in middle-aged women. PMID:26527460

  20. Actual Body Weight and the Parent's Perspective of Child's Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children.

    PubMed

    Karunanayake, Chandima P; Rennie, Donna C; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam; The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study Team

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent's perception of their child's weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child's weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child's height and weight and rated their child's weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent's perception of child's weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child's BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child's weight status. PMID:27527235

  1. Gender differences between hypocretin/orexin knockout and wild type mice: age, body weight, body composition, metabolic markers, leptin and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

    2014-12-01

    Female hypocretin knockout (Hcrt KO) mice have increased body weight despite decreased food intake compared to wild type (WT) mice. In order to understand the nature of the increased body weight, we carried out a detailed study of Hcrt KO and WT, male, and female mice. Female KO mice showed consistently higher body weight than WT mice, from 4 to 20 months (20-60%). Fat, muscle, and free fluid levels were all significantly higher in adult (7-9 months) as well as old (18-20 months) female KO mice compared to age-matched WT mice. Old male KO mice showed significantly higher fat content (150%) compared to age-matched WT mice, but no significant change in body weight. Respiratory quotient (-19%) and metabolic rates (-14%) were significantly lower in KO mice compared to WT mice, regardless of gender or age. Female KO mice had significantly higher serum leptin levels (191%) than WT mice at 18-20 months, but no difference between male mice were observed. Conversely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in both male (73%) and female (93%) KO mice compared to age- and sex-matched WT mice. We conclude that absence of the Hcrt peptide has gender-specific effects. In contrast, Hcrt-ataxin mice and human narcoleptics, with loss of the whole Hcrt cell, show weight gain in both sexes.

  2. Foraminal height measurement techniques

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the proposed advantages of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is restoration of disc height and hence an indirect foraminal height restoration. While this proposed advantage is often quoted in the literature, there are few robust studies demonstrating restoration of foraminal volume. Thus, this study aimed to review the literature and discuss the progression and development of foramen measurement techniques. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify studies which reported foraminal height and dimensions following fusion surgery in cadaveric models or patients. Results Techniques in prior studies used to quantify foraminal dimensions before and after fusion operations include analysis from plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Recent studies have attempted to standardize foraminal dimension measurements with the use of orthogonal software, accelerator-based measurements and the use of multiple images for three-dimensional reconstruction of the foramen volume. Conclusions Consistent results have demonstrated significant increases in foraminal area and height following anterior lumbar interbody distraction, providing evidence that ALIF can indirectly increase foraminal height. Future studies should use standardized measurement approaches such as the Pedicle-to-Pedicle technique with CT or MRI images to determine changes in foraminal dimensions.

  3. Foraminal height measurement techniques

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the proposed advantages of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is restoration of disc height and hence an indirect foraminal height restoration. While this proposed advantage is often quoted in the literature, there are few robust studies demonstrating restoration of foraminal volume. Thus, this study aimed to review the literature and discuss the progression and development of foramen measurement techniques. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify studies which reported foraminal height and dimensions following fusion surgery in cadaveric models or patients. Results Techniques in prior studies used to quantify foraminal dimensions before and after fusion operations include analysis from plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Recent studies have attempted to standardize foraminal dimension measurements with the use of orthogonal software, accelerator-based measurements and the use of multiple images for three-dimensional reconstruction of the foramen volume. Conclusions Consistent results have demonstrated significant increases in foraminal area and height following anterior lumbar interbody distraction, providing evidence that ALIF can indirectly increase foraminal height. Future studies should use standardized measurement approaches such as the Pedicle-to-Pedicle technique with CT or MRI images to determine changes in foraminal dimensions. PMID:27683677

  4. New Korean reference for birth weight by gestational age and sex: data from the Korean Statistical Information Service (2008-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Sub; Lim, Se Won; Ahn, Ju Hyun; Song, Bong Sub; Shim, Kye Shik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To construct new Korean reference curves for birth weight by sex and gestational age using contemporary Korean birth weight data and to compare them with the Lubchenco and the 2010 United States (US) intrauterine growth curves. Methods Data of 2,336,727 newborns by the Korean Statistical Information Service (2008-2012) were used. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma method using subsample of singleton. The new Korean reference curves were compared with the Lubchenco and the 2010 US intrauterine growth curves. Results Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles birth weight by gestational age were made using 2,249,804 (male, 1,159,070) singleton newborns with gestational age 23-43 weeks. Separate birth weight curves were constructed for male and female. The Korean reference curves are similar to the 2010 US intrauterine growth curves. However, the cutoff values for small for gestational age (<10th percentile) of the new Korean curves differed from those of the Lubchenco curves for each gestational age. The Lubchenco curves underestimated the percentage of infants who were born small for gestational age. Conclusion The new Korean reference curves for birth weight show a different pattern from the Lubchenco curves, which were made from white neonates more than 60 years ago. Further research on short-term and long-term health outcomes of small for gestational age babies based on the new Korean reference data is needed. PMID:25346919

  5. The impact of aging, hearing loss, and body weight on mouse hippocampal redox state, measured in brain slices using fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Kevin A; Choi, Hyun W; Ravindra, Aditya; Llano, Daniel Adolfo

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between oxidative stress in the hippocampus and other aging-related changes such as hearing loss, cortical thinning, or changes in body weight are not yet known. We measured the redox ratio in a number of neural structures in brain slices taken from young and aged mice. Hearing thresholds, body weight, and cortical thickness were also measured. We found striking aging-related increases in the redox ratio that were isolated to the stratum pyramidale, while such changes were not observed in thalamus or cortex. These changes were driven primarily by changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide, not nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. Multiple regression analysis suggested that neither hearing threshold nor cortical thickness independently contributed to this change in hippocampal redox ratio. However, body weight did independently contribute to predicted changes in hippocampal redox ratio. These data suggest that aging-related changes in hippocampal redox ratio are not a general reflection of overall brain oxidative state but are highly localized, while still being related to at least one marker of late aging, weight loss at the end of life.

  6. Height unification using GOCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, R.

    2012-12-01

    With the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) (preferably combined with the gravity field and climate experiment (GRACE)) a new generation of geoid models will become available for use in height determination. These models will be globally consistent, accurate (<3 cm) and with a spatial resolution up to degree and order 200, when expressed in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion. GOCE is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). It is the first satellite equipped with a gravitational gradiometer, in the case of GOCE it measures the gradient components Vxx , Vyy, Vzzand Vxz. The GOCE gravitational sensor system comprises also a geodetic global positioning system (GPS)-receiver, three star sensors and ion-thrusters for drag compensation in flight direction. GOCE was launched in March 2009 and will fly till the end of 2013. Several gravity models have been derived from its data, their maximum degree is typically between 240 and 250. In summer 2012 a first re-processing of all level-1b data took place. One of the science objectives of GOCE is the unification of height systems. The existing height offsets among the datum zones can be determined by least-squares adjustment. This requires several precise geodetic reference points available in each height datum zone, physical heights from spirit levelling (plus gravimetry), the GOCE geoid and, in addition, short wavelength geoid refinement from terrestrial gravity anomalies. GOCE allows for important simplifications of the functional and stochastic part of the adjustment model. The future trend will be the direct determination of physical heights (orthometric as well as normal) from precise global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-positioning in combination with a next generation combined satellite-terrestrial high-resolution geoid model.

  7. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks.

  8. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks. PMID:26931206

  9. Relationship of the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers with the birth weight and gestational age: Need for public and individual educational programs

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Zahra; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers and neonatal low birth weight and premature births. Materials and Methods: In this cohort, the target population was 225 pregnant women, randomly selected from different geographical areas of the city of Isfahan, Iran (from April to September, 2012). The main variables in the study were weight and gestational age of the neonates and the type and amount of different food groups used by the mothers. All nutritional variables were compared according to different groups of infants (normal, premature, and low birth weight). In the multivariate analysis, multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to identify those different food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) variables independently associated with the newborn's weight and gestational age, adjusted by maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy. Results: A total of 214 (47.7% boys) infants with complete information were included. They had a mean gestational age of 38.72 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean birth weight was 3.11 ± 0.384 kg. The percentages of premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants were 7 and 5%, respectively. At multiple logistic regression controlling for potentially confounding factors that were significantly associated with prematurity and LBW at univariate analysis (maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy), type of nutritional groups containing dairy products, proteins, fish, and shrimp group, as well as fruits and vegetables, had a significant positive association with increasing the gestational age (P < 0.05). The group that consumed proteins, fish, and shrimp, as well as fruits and vegetables had a significant positive association with the newborn's weight (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated the importance of proper nutrition on reducing the rates of LBW and

  10. Importance of physical fitness on predictive effect of body mass index and weight gain on incident atrial fibrillation in healthy middle-age men.

    PubMed

    Grundvold, Irene; Skretteberg, Per Torger; Liestøl, Knut; Gjesdal, Knut; Erikssen, Gunnar; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Arnesen, Harald; Erikssen, Jan; Bodegard, Johan

    2012-08-01

    The incidence of both atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity is increasing in the community, and lifestyle intervention is recommended. We aimed to test whether the predictive effect of body mass index (BMI) and weight change from age 25 years to midlife on incident AF were influenced by physical fitness. In 1972 to 1975, 2,014 healthy middle-age men conducted a bicycle exercise electrocardiographic test as a part of a cardiovascular survey program, defining physical fitness as work performed divided by body weight. During 35 years of follow-up, 270 men developed AF, documented by scrutiny of the health files in all Norwegian hospitals. Risk estimation was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models and tested for age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median. The mean BMI of 24.6 kg/m(2) defined a lean baseline cohort. The men with a baseline BMI of ≥28 kg/m(2) (11%) compared to a BMI <28 kg/m(2) had a 1.68-fold risk of AF (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.40) and men reporting weight gain of ≥10 kg (24%) compared to weight loss (11%) of 1.66-fold (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.89), respectively. The dichotomy into men with age-adjusted physical fitness above and below the median, demonstrated statistically significant risk associations only for men with low fitness. The overall risk of AF was reduced by 23% in the fit men. In conclusion, within our lean baseline cohort of healthy middle-age men, a BMI of ≥28 kg/m(2) and weight gain of ≥10 kg from age 25 to midlife were long-term predictors of incident AF in men with physical fitness below the population median. The fit men had an overall slightly reduced risk of AF.

  11. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  12. Associations of vitamin D status, bone health and anthropometry, with gross motor development and performance of school-aged Indian children who were born at term with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Suzanne; Rehman, Andrea M; Yousafzai, Aisha; Chugh, Reema; Kaur, Manpreet; Sachdev, H P S; Trilok-Kumar, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little information regarding motor development of children born at term with low birth weight (LBW), a group that constitutes a large proportion of children in South Asia. We used data from infancy and at school age from a LBW cohort to investigate children's motor performance using causal inference. Design Cross-sectional follow-up study. Setting Delhi, India. Participants We recruited 912 children aged 5 years who had participated in a trial of vitamin D for term LBW infants in the first 6 months of life. Outcome measures We focused on gross motor development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) gross motor scale and several measures of motor performance. We examined the effects on these of current anthropometry, vitamin D status and bone health, controlling for age, sex, season of interview, socioeconomic variables, early growth, recent morbidity, sun exposure and animal food intake. Results In adjusted analyses, stunted children (height-for-age Z (HAZ) <−2) took longer to run 20 m (0.52 s, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.70; p<0.001) and had greater odds of a failing score on the ASQ (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.41 to 6.38, p=0.004). Greater arm muscle area was associated with faster run time, and the ability to perform more stands and squats in 15 s. Poorer vitamin D status was associated with the ability to perform more stands and squats. Lower tibia ultrasound Z score was associated with greater hand grip strength. Early growth and current body mass index had no associations with motor outcomes. Conclusions Current HAZ and arm muscle area showed the strongest associations with gross motor outcomes, likely due to a combination of simple physics and factors associated with stunting. The counterintuitive inverse associations of tibia health and vitamin D status with outcomes may require further research. PMID:26747034

  13. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (<=24 years) and older (>=40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  14. "If I drink it anyway, then I rather take the light one". Appropriation of foods and drinks designed for weight management among middle-aged and elderly Finns.

    PubMed

    Niva, Mari; Jauho, Mikko; Mäkelä, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    This article examines everyday ideals of eating for weight management as described by middle-aged and elderly Finns with varying experiences of managing their weight. The paper draws on the theoretical approach of appropriation and looks at the meanings, understandings and use of foods for weight management in the context of the practices of eating. The article is based on an analysis of eight focus group discussions with 68 people (47 women, 21 men, aged between 38 and 77) conducted in Helsinki in autumn 2009. The findings of the study suggest that lay understandings of foods suitable for weight management rest not only on simple measures such as energy, fat and sugar, but also on a complex set of generalised food ideals. These include a conflict between foods described as natural against artificial, moral judgements of the necessity of foods designed for weight management, and the overall emphasis on moderation as a basic ideal. The results indicate that people employ two perspectives in assessing foods suitable for weight management: in the context of the whole of diet the products are dismissed as unnecessary, but in specific situations they can replace 'normal' products if the latter are deemed more harmful.

  15. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  16. The Association between Body Dissatisfaction and Depression: An Examination of the Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Weight Status in a Sample of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…

  17. DO BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IMPACT AGE OF PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS IN THE EDSP TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    DO BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IMPACT AGE OF PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS IN THE EDSP TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS? T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Bremser, R. Cooper and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    The relations...

  18. Snapshots of Children's Changing Biases during Language Development: Differential Weighting of Perceptual and Linguistic Factors Predicts Noun Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Christopher H.; Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Word learning is a lifelong activity constrained by cognitive biases that people possess at particular points in development. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a psycholinguistic variable that may prove useful toward gauging the relative weighting of different phonological, semantic, and morphological factors at different phases of language acquisition…

  19. Congenital heart disease in low-birth-weight infants: effects of small for gestational age (SGA) status and maturity on postoperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Daniel; Azen, Colleen; Bhombal, Shazia; Hastings, Laura; Paquette, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role that small for gestational age (SGA) status plays in postoperative outcomes for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to examine the effect of SGA status, gestational and chronologic age, and weight on differences in morbidities and mortalities during the immediate postoperative hospitalization period. The charts of infants with CHD weighing less than 2.5 kg who underwent operative repair during the neonatal period between 2004 and 2011 were reviewed. Infants with an isolated patent ductus arteriosus were excluded from the study. Data on hospital morbidities and mortality before discharge were collected. The study identified 136 LBW infants with a diagnosis of CHD. Among the 74 infants who underwent surgery and had complete chart records, the SGA infants had a higher gestational age at birth (36.8 vs. 32.3 weeks; p < 0.0001). The SGA and non-SGA infants did not differ in terms of survival to discharge or immediate postoperative outcomes. A lower weight at surgery was significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection. In contradistinction, an older postnatal age at surgery was associated with an increased risk of preoperative infection (p < 0.0001). Additionally, lower gestational age at birth was associated with home oxygen use, higher tracheostomy rates, and discharge with a gastrostomy tube. Small for gestational age status played no protective role in the outcome for LBW infants after primary surgery for CHD. A weight of 2.4 kg or greater at the time of surgery was associated with lower rates of postoperative infections. Greater duration of time between birth and surgery was associated with a greater risk of preoperative infection. A gestational age of 32 weeks or more at birth was associated with decreased morbidities, which could influence obstetric management. PMID:24997649

  20. Use of weight-for-age-data to optimize tablet strength and dosing regimens for a new fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine combination for treating falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Walter R. J.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; Olliaro, Piero L.; White, Nicholas J.; Brasseur, Philippe; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a novel methodology to define age-based dosing regimens for the treatment of malaria with a new, user-friendly, blister-packaged fixed-dose combination of artesunate and amodiaquine. METHODS: A weight-for-age reference database of 88 054 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa was compiled using data from Demographic Health Surveys, observational and intervention studies, and standardized for sex, age and malaria risk. We then determined the optimal tablet strength (milligram (mg) per tablet) and age-dose categories for the combination of artesunate and amodiaquine. The proportions of patients predicted to receive doses within newly defined therapeutic ranges for amodiaquine (7-15 mg/kg/day) and artesunate (2-10 mg/kg/day), were estimated for different age categories and mg tablet strengths using models based on the weight-for-age reference database. FINDINGS: The optimal paediatric (p) and adult (a) strength tablets contained 25/67.5 and 100/270 mg artesunate/amodiaquine, respectively. A regimen with five age categories: 0-1 months (1/2 p), 2-11 months (1 p), 1-5 years (2 p), 6-13 years (1 a), and > 14 years (2 a) had an overall dosing accuracy of 83.4% and 99.9% for amodiaquine and artesunate, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed method to use weight-for-age reference data from countries where malaria is endemic is a useful tool for designing age-based dosing regimens for antimalarial drugs for drug registration and field use. PMID:17242831

  1. Assessing the Feasibility of a Web-Based Weight Loss Intervention for Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sisneros, Jessica A; Ronay, Ashley A; Robbins, Cheryl L; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ni, Ai; Morrow, John; Vu, Maihan B; Johnston, Larry F; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-income women of reproductive age are at increased risk for obesity and resulting increases in the risk of maternal/fetal complications and mortality and morbidity. Very few weight-loss interventions, however, have been targeted to this high-risk group. Based on the high prevalence of social media use among young and low-income individuals and previous successes using group formats for weight-loss interventions, the use of social media as a platform for weight-loss intervention delivery may benefit low-income women of reproductive age. Objective Examine the feasibility of delivering group-based weight-loss interventions to low-income women of reproductive age using face-to-face meetings and Web-based modalities including social media. Methods Participants attended a family planning clinic in eastern North Carolina and received a 5-month, group- and Web-based, face-to-face weight-loss intervention. Measures were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks. Results Forty participants enrolled, including 29 (73%) African American women. The mean body mass index of enrollees was 39 kg/m2. Among the 12 women who completed follow-up, mean weight change was -1.3 kg. Participation in the intervention was modest and retention at 5 months was 30%. Returnees suggested sending reminders to improve participation and adding activities to increase familiarity among participants. Conclusions Engagement with the intervention was limited and attrition was high. Additional formative work on the barriers and facilitators to participation may improve the intervention’s feasibility with low-income women of reproductive age. PMID:26920252

  2. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) are at increased risk for developing later psychopathology, the mechanisms contributing to this association are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined a putative cognitive link to psychopathology in a cohort of ELBW survivors. These individuals were followed up prospectively at age 8 and again at ages 22-26. At 8 years, participants completed measures of fluid and general intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age) showed the highest level of externalizing behaviors. These findings provide support for a cumulative risk model and suggest that fluid intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  3. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 years of age and weight or BMI status among older children; systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of prospective studies that examined the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6y of age and later weight or BMI status among older children. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, and EBSCO databases of prospective studies published from 2001 to 2011. Seven studies were analyzed. The study population was from 72 to 10,904 children. Three studies showed a consistent association between SSB intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI, or waist circumference later in childhood, one study showed a positive trend of consumption of SSB and childhood obesity and the OR for incidence of overweight by baseline beverage intake was 1.04, another study it was observed that an increase in total sugar intake and sugar from sweets and beverages in children 1-2 y of age and 7-9 y of age have a tendency to increase BMI, and two studies showed no association. In conclusion, although the trend of the reviews studies, indicate an association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI or waist circumference later in childhood, to date, the results are inconsistent, and the two studies with the higher number of children showed a positive association.

  4. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  5. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This ... as 10 pounds or more at term. Gestational diabetes In the NHSII 1989 baseline questionnaire and subsequent ...

  6. The effect of physical height on workplace success and income: preliminary test of a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Cable, Daniel M

    2004-06-01

    In this article, the authors propose a theoretical model of the relationship between physical height and career success. We then test several linkages in the model based on a meta-analysis of the literature, with results indicating that physical height is significantly related to measures of social esteem (rho =.41), leader emergence (rho =.24), and performance (rho =.18). Height was somewhat more strongly related to success for men (rho =.29) than for women (rho =.21), although this difference was not significant. Finally, given that almost no research has examined the relationship between individuals' physical height and their incomes, we present four large-sample studies (total N = 8,590) showing that height is positively related to income (beta =.26) after controlling for sex, age, and weight. Overall, this article presents the most comprehensive analysis of the relationship of height to workplace success to date, and the results suggest that tall individuals have advantages in several important aspects of their careers and organizational lives.

  7. Human cranial vault thickness in a contemporary sample of 1097 autopsy cases: relation to body weight, stature, age, sex and ancestry.

    PubMed

    De Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V Vidija

    2016-09-01

    The relation between human cranial vault thickness (CVT) and various elements of the physical anthropological biological profile is subject of ongoing discussion. Some results seem to indicate no correlation between CVT and the biological profile of the individual, whereas other results suggest that CVT measurements might be useful for identification purposes. This study assesses the correlation between CVT and body weight, stature, age, sex, and ancestry by reviewing data of 1097 forensic autopsies performed at the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). In subadults (younger than 19 years of age at the time of death), all frontal, temporal, and occipital CVT measurements correlated moderately to strongly with indicators of growth (body weight, stature, and age). Neither sex nor ancestry correlated significantly with cranial thickness. In adults, body weight correlated with all CVT measurements. No meaningful correlation was found between CVT and stature or age. Females showed to have thicker frontal bones, and the occipital region was thicker in the Negroid subsample. All correlation in the adult group was weak, with the distribution of cranial thickness overlapping for a great deal between the groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that CVT generally cannot be used as an indicator for any part of the biological profile.

  8. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  9. Are inequalities in height narrowing? Comparing effects of social class on height in two generations

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Manor, O; Power, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether social inequalities in height change across generations. Methods: The target population was from the 1958 British birth cohort, all born 3rd–9th March 1958, followed to 1991, and the offspring of one third of this population. Main outcomes were height measured at 7, 11, 16, and 33 years (cohort members) and once at 4–18 years (offspring). Multilevel models applied to associations of social class of origin with (a) child-to-adult growth trajectory (cohort members), (b) height (offspring), and (c) generational height increment. Results: Height inequalities were observed among cohort members, with differences >2.0 cm at all ages between classes I and II, and IV and V. By adulthood, the difference in mean height had declined significantly in boys and slightly in girls. A secular trend was seen between the two generations. While male offspring had a similar mean height to their fathers in classes I and II, boys in classes IV and V gained 2.1 cm (p<0.001). Height gains of female offspring were evident in all classes, with a greater gain in classes IV and V (non-significant). The social class effect on height was weaker among offspring, with a difference between classes I and II, and IV and V of less than 1 cm. Conclusions: Social inequalities in height observed among the cohort weakened substantially in the next generation due to a greater height gain among offspring from manual classes. Inequalities in childhood height have narrowed between the two generations in this study. PMID:15499054

  10. Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birth weight: A multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20–45 from Chicago, USA in 1997–2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 grams to an increase of 10 grams per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4 percent of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences. PMID:18313187

  11. Variation in height and knee height in adolescents in Merida, Mexico, by head of household employment level and family income.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Azcorra, Hugo; Falfán, Ina; Dickinson, Federico

    2013-05-01

    Variation in height among young adults has been linked to the living conditions of different social groups. The aim of this study was to measure variation in the height and knee height of young adults by head of household employment level and family income. The sample comprised 180 individuals (90 girls) aged 16 and 17 years living in the city of Merida, Mexico. Height and knee height were measured by anthropometry, and individuals' family social and economic data collected from their mothers. Variation in these measurements was analysed by three categories of employment and family income terciles. One-way ANOVAs were done by sex to compare mean height and knee height by employment and family income. Coefficients of variation were calculated and a Bartlett test applied. Significant differences in height and knee height were observed only between family income terciles. Both sexes were taller at the highest levels of family income (p<0.05) and men had the highest (p<0.05) knee height. Highest family income individuals exhibited the least variation in height and knee height. Similarity in socioeconomic conditions for families in the lowest family income tercile and with employee heads of household was not associated with lower variation of height and knee height.

  12. Long-term Isothermal Aging Effects on Weight Loss, Compression Properties, and Dimensions of T650-35 Fabric-reinforced PMR-15 Composites-data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Tsuji, Luis; Kamvouris, John; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    A cooperative program was conducted with the General Electric Aircraft Engines plant in Evendale, Ohio, to study the effects of long-term isothermal aging at elevated temperatures on compression and thermal durability properties of T650 35 fabric-reinforced PMR 15 composites. This degradation study was conducted over an approximate time period of 3 1/2 yr. The aging temperatures were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different dimensions were evaluated. Specimens with ratios of the cut edge to total surface area of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. The aged and unaged specimens were tested in compression as specified in Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics (ASTM D695M). Thickness changes, degraded surface layer growth, weight loss, and failure modes were monitored and recorded. All property changes were thickness dependent.

  13. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA.

  14. A statistical analysis of the internal organ weights of normal Japanese people

    SciTech Connect

    Ogiu, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yuji; Ogiu, Toshiaki

    1997-03-01

    Correlation of weights of various organs with age, body weight, and/or body height was statistically analyzed using data on the Japanese physique collected by the Medico-Legal Society from Universities and Research Institutes in almost all areas of Japan. After exclusion of unsuitable individual data for statistical analysis, findings for 4,667 Japanese, aged 0-95 y, including 3,023 males and 1,644 females were used in the present study. Analyses of age-dependent changes in weights of the brain, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, thyroid gland and adrenal gland and also of correlations between organ weights and body height, weight, or surface area were carried out. It was concluded that organ weights in the growing generation (under 19 y) generally increased with a coefficient expressed as (body height X body weight{sup 0.5}). Because clear age-dependent changes were not observed in adults over 20 y, they were classified into 4 physical types, thin, standard, plump and obese, and the relations of organ weights with these physical types were assessed. Some organs were relatively heavier in fat groups and light in thin individuals, or vice versa. 36 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. [Use of knee height to correct the body height of elderly Hispanics].

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, O I; Tucker, K L

    2000-03-01

    Loss of stature in certain elderly subjects can be attributed to diseases such as osteoporosis, as well as to age and generational effects. In addition, many elders cannot stand straight for accurate measurement. For these cases, total height can be estimated with regression equations based on knee height. The aims of this study were, firstly, to evaluate the applicability of regression equations based on knee height for estimation of stature and, secondly, to document the differences between measured and estimated height in a group of elderly Hispanics with postural problems (n = 166) in comparison with a group of elderly Hispanic without postural problems (n = 270). Using both, estimated and measured height, we also calculated the body mass index (BMI) of both groups of elders. Statistical analyses were done with paired t-tests, within sex and study group. Within the group with postural problems, estimated height was higher than the measured height for both men (p < or = 0.001) and women (p < or = 0.001). There were no significant differences between measured and estimated height in the group without postural problems. Furthermore, in the group with postural problems, BMI values calculated with estimated height were lower than those estimated with the measured height, and these differences were also significant for both men (p < or = 0.001) and women (p < or = 0.001). With the aging of the Latin American population, there is a need for more nutrition and health research among elders. In order to do this we need to develop and use methods and criteria appropriate for each population. PMID:11048570

  16. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  17. IMPORTANCE OF BIRTH WEIGHT AS A RISK FACTOR FOR SEVERE RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY WHEN GESTATIONAL AGE IS 30 OR MORE WEEKS

    PubMed Central

    Holzman, Ian R.; Ginsburg, Robin N.; Brodie, Scott E.; Stroustrup, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether birth weight less than1,500 grams is a relevant guideline indicating the need for examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when gestational age at birth is 30 or more completed weeks. Design A retrospective observational cohort study. Methods 266 infants in a single institutional neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), whose gestational age at birth was 30 or more weeks but whose birth weight was less than 1,500 grams, were examined according to published guidelines. Infants with lethal congenital anomalies or major ocular abnormalities were excluded. Outcomes were vascularization in retinal zone III without a prior need for treatment, or ROP warranting treatment. Results A study outcome was reached by 212 infants. Two hundred and eleven (99.5%) became vascularized through zone III without needing treatment. Only 1 (0.5%) required treatment for ROP. The 95% confidence interval for the occurrence rate of ROP requiring treatment in this cohort was 0.01 to 2.60%. Conclusion Our results suggest that the occurrence rates of ROP requiring treatment in infants with gestational age 30 or more weeks and birth weight less than 1,500 grams is very low, and could indicate the need to revise examination guidelines for this subgroup of infants. PMID:24582994

  18. Television Viewing by School-Age Children: Associations with Physical Activity, Snack Food Consumption and Unhealthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…

  19. Analysing the Peer Relationships of Obese and Normal-Weight Preschool Children Aged between Five and Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seçer, Zarife; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Önder, Alev

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal whether the peer relationships of preschool children who are determined to be obese, based on their body mass index (BMI), differentiate or not. The study was conducted within the frame of a relational survey model. A total of 114 five- to six-year-old children (57 normal-weight children and 57 obese…

  20. The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

  1. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults123

    PubMed Central

    Stote, Kim S; Baer, David J; Spears, Karen; Paul, David R; Harris, G Keith; Rumpler, William V; Strycula, Pilar; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K; Longo, Dan L; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-01-01

    Background Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes. PMID:17413096

  2. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes in middle-aged obese men with and without metabolic syndrome during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Maengkyu; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2014-11-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C) is the best predictor of coronary artery disease and stroke. Studies have shown that weight loss decreases non-HDL-C levels. However, whether diet-induced weight loss in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome causes a reduction in non-HDL-C levels remains unclear. We investigated the effects of weight loss on non-HDL-C levels in 34 middle-aged obese men with and without metabolic syndrome classified using National Cholesterol Education Panel Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (metabolic syndrome, n = 17; non-metabolic syndrome, n = 17). We conducted a 12-week dietary intervention using a low-carbohydrate, -fat, and -protein diet to reduce body weight. A significant decrease in body weight and body mass index in both groups was observed. However, the non-HDL-C level after weight loss was significantly decreased in the metabolic syndrome group (151.9 ± 6.8 to 131.4 ± 6.2 mg/dL, P < 0.01) but not in the non-metabolic syndrome group (152.1 ± 8.2 to 141.2 ± 8.1 mg/dL, P > 0.05). Levels of apolipoprotein AII and B, but not AI, were similarly decreased in both groups (P > 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the change in non-HDL-C levels in the metabolic syndrome group was strongly associated with levels of total cholesterol, fasting insulin, and alanine and aspartate transaminase, as well as homeostatic model assessment index, diastolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that diet-induced weight loss without physical activity decreases non-HDL-C levels, an important factor associated with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity, in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Actual Body Weight and the Parent’s Perspective of Child’s Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A.; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent’s perception of their child’s weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child’s weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child’s height and weight and rated their child’s weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent’s perception of child’s weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child’s BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child’s weight status. PMID:27527235

  4. Effect of parallel segmented flow chromatography on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate III--influence of the column length, particle diameter, and the molecular weight of the analyte on the efficiency gain.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Pynt, Jarrod; Soliven, Arianne; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-03-14

    The effects of column length on performance in segmented flow chromatography were tested. Column efficiencies were measured for 4.6mm I.D. 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 cm long columns packed with 3.0 μm Hypurity-C18 fully porous particles and of 4.6mm I.D. 5, 10, 15 and 25 cm long columns packed with 5 μm Hypersil GOLD C18 particles. For each column length and particle type, two different configurations were tested: (1) both the inlet and outlet column endfittings were standard and (2) the inlet endfitting was standard but the outlet endfitting allowed parallel segmentation of the exiting flow into a central and a peripheral coaxial region. The segmentation flow ratio was set at 45% (for 3 μm) and at 43% or 21% (for 5 μm). Four samples were used, naphthalene, toluene, butylbenzene, and insulin, which has a ten times smaller diffusion coefficient than the small molecules. The column performance for the low molecular weight compound is significantly improved at velocities above the optimum value when the outlet flow rate is segmented because longitudinal diffusion and mass transfer resistance of this compound in the stationary phase are negligible sources of band broadening at reduced linear velocities between 5 and 25. At high flow rate (4 mL/min), the long-range eddy dispersion terms are about 3.9, 3.2, 2.6, and 1.8h unit lower for the 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 cm long columns, respectively. The longer the column, the lower the efficiency improvement because the border effects are smaller. This result was not systematically observed for the columns packed with 5 μm particles because the transverse dispersion is larger. In contrast, the gain in column efficiency is marginal for insulin because the mass transfer mechanism of this compound is mostly controlled by the slow diffusivity of insulin across Hypurity-C18 particles.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in height, leg length and trunk length among children aged 6.5 years and their parents from the Republic of Belarus: Evidence from the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kramer, Michael S.; Smith, George Davey; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Martin, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic position is associated with shorter stature, in particular shorter leg length, but the magnitude of these associations in non-Western countries has received little attention. Aim To examine socioeconomic differentials in height, leg and trunk length in 6.5 year olds from the Republic of Belarus and compare these to differentials in parental height. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations in a cohort of 13 889 children. Results Children from non-manual households were 1.0 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.3 cm) taller than those from manual households. Mothers and fathers from non-manual backgrounds were 0.7 cm (0.5–0.8) and 1.8 cm (1.6–2.0) taller than those from manual backgrounds, respectively. Associations with higher parental educational attainment were similar. The magnitudes of the associations of socioeconomic position with leg length were similar to those with trunk length. Adjusting for mid-parental height and number of older siblings attenuated associations markedly. Conclusions In Belarus, similar socioeconomic differentials in height were observed in both children and their parents. Among children, height differentials were partly explained by mid-parental height and number of older siblings. Leg length was not a more sensitive indicator of childhood socioeconomic conditions than trunk length. PMID:21591995

  6. [MODEL FOR ESTIMATING STANDING HEIGHT IN MEXICAN ADULTS FOR 20-59 YEARS, BASED ON KNEE LENGTH].

    PubMed

    Mendivil Alvarado, Herminia; Villegas Valle, Rosa Consuelo; Díaz Zavala, Rolando Giovanni; Antunez Roman, Lesley E; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E

    2015-12-01

    Currently, bone distances are used to predict standing height in adults that might not be able to achieve a correct standing position. Knee length based algorithms for estimating standing height have been proposed and designed for specific populations. However, equations for other populations may not necessarily reflect environmental and genetic factors for the group of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive models for standing height in Mexican adults. For this purpose, 240 male and female adults aged 20 to 59 years, with no apparent spine problems were measured. We measured weight, height and knee length, using an anthropometer of our own design and a glass fiber metric measuring tape. A predictive model for each measuring instrument was developed. Model selection and development of equations were carried out by "all possible regressions and multiple regression" procedures. The predictive models for standing height by the anthropometer and by the measuring tape did not show significant differences between measured and estimated height. The R2 for the two models were 0.93 and 0.92, with a standard error of the estimator (EE) of 2.30 and 2.40 cm, for the anthropometer and the measuring tape, respectively. Both methods were acceptable in terms of concordance, accuracy and precision; however, at very high and low predicted height values, both models showed significant bias, which should be considered when applying these algorithms in different populations.

  7. Absolute vs. Weight-Related Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Firefighters: Fitness Evaluation with and without Protective Clothing and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus among Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen’s College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  8. Absolute vs. weight-related maximum oxygen uptake in firefighters: fitness evaluation with and without protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus among age group.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  9. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  10. Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mary M; Stettler, Nicolas; Smith, Kimberly M; Reiss, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is recognized as one of the determinants of fetal growth. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is promoted as part of a healthful diet; however, intakes are typically lower than recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to systematically review results from studies examining the relationship between maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or risk for delivering a small for gestational age baby. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and abstracts were screened using predefined criteria. Eleven relevant studies were identified and systematically reviewed, including six prospective cohort studies, three retrospective cohort studies, and two case–control studies. Seven studies were conducted in cohorts from highly developed countries. One prospective study from a highly developed area reported increased risk for small for gestational age birth by women with low vegetable intakes (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4–6.9; P=0.01); another large prospective study reported a 10.4 g increase in birth weight per quintile increase in fruit intake (95% confidence interval 6.9–3.9; P<0.0001) and increases of 8.4 or 7.7 g per quintile intake of fruits and vegetables (combined) or fruits, vegetables, and juice (combined), respectively. One retrospective study reported an association between low fruit intake and birth weight. In less developed countries, increased vegetable or fruit intake was associated with increased birth weight in two prospective studies. Overall, limited inconclusive evidence of a protective effect of increased consumption of vegetables and risk for small for gestational age birth, and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased birth weight among women from highly developed countries was identified. Among women in less developed countries, limited inconclusive evidence suggests that increased consumption of vegetables or fruits may be

  11. Physical Activity Levels in Normal Weight and Overweight Portuguese Children: An Intervention Study during an Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Luis; Lopes, Vitor; Pereira, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of an intervention strategy during the school recess on physical activity (PA) levels, by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprises 158 Portuguese children aged 6 to 12 years. Weight and height were objectively measured. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the recess in pre-intervention…

  12. Relationship between birth weight and adult lung function: controlling for maternal factors

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Osman, L; Godden, D; Campbell, D; Douglas, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: In 2001 the cohort was assessed for current lung function, smoking status, and respiratory symptoms. Birth details obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank recorded birth weight, gestation, parity, and mother's age and height. Results: 381 subjects aged 45–50 years were traced and tested for lung function; 323 (85%) had birth details available. A significant linear trend (p<0.01) was observed between birth weight and current forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values (adjusted for height, age, sex, weight, deprivation category (Depcat), childhood group, and smoking status). This trend remained significant after adjusting birth weight for gestation, parity, sex, mother's height and weight (p = 0.01). The relationship between birth weight and FEV1 and FVC remained significant when adjusted for smoking history. There was no association between birth weight and current wheezing symptoms. Conclusion: There is a positive linear trend between birth weight, adjusted for maternal factors, and lung function in adulthood. The strength of this association supports the "fetal origins hypothesis" that impairment of fetal growth is a significant influence on adult lung function. PMID:14645976

  13. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  14. Dynamic mechanical and molecular weight measurements on polymer bonded explosives from thermally accelerated aging tests. II. A poly(ester-urethane) binder

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.; Caley, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The molecular weight distribution and dynamic mechanical properties of an experimental polymer-bonded explosive, X-0282, maintained at 23, 60, and 74/sup 0/C for 3.75 y were examined, X-0282 is 95.5% 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclo-octane explosive and 4.5% Estane 5703, a segmented poly(ester-urethane). Two mechanical relaxations at about -24 and 42/sup 0/C were found in the X-0282 aged at room temperature for 3.75 years. A third relaxation at about 85/sup 0/C was found in X-0282 aged at 60 and 74/sup 0/C. The relaxation at -24/sup 0/C is associated with the soft segment glass transition of the binder. The relaxation at 42/sup 0/C is associated with the soft segment melting and may also contain a component due to the hard segment glass transition. The relaxation at 85/sup 0/C is probably associated with improved soft segment crystallite perfection. The molecular weight of the poly(ester-urethane) binder decreased significantly with increasing accelerated aging temperature. A simple random chain scission model of the urethane degradation kinetics in the presence of explosive yields an activation energy of 11.6 kcal/mole. This model predicts a use life of about 17.5 years under the worst military operating conditions (continuous operation at 74/sup 0/C).

  15. Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: a matched group comparison

    PubMed Central

    Gutbrod, T.; Wolke, D.; Soehne, B.; Ohrt, B.; Riegel, K.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the effects of small for gestational age (SGA) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants on growth and development until the fifth year of life.
METHODS—VLBW (< 1500 g) infants, selected from a prospective study, were classified as SGA (n = 115) on the basis of birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and were compared with two groups of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants matched according to birth weight (AGA-BW; n = 115) or gestation at birth (AGA-GA; n = 115). Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors were recorded, and duration and intensity of treatment were computed from daily assessments. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured at birth, five and 20 months (corrected for prematurity), and at 56 months. General development was assessed at five and 20 months with the Griffiths scale of babies abilities, and cognitive development at 56 months with the Columbia mental maturity scales, a vocabulary (AWST) and language comprehension test (LSVTA).
RESULTS—Significant group differences were found in complications (pregnancy, birth, and neonatal), parity, and multiple birth rate. The AGA-GA group showed most satisfactory growth up to 56 months, with both the AGA-BW and SGA groups lagging behind. The AGA-GA group also scored significantly more highly on all developmental and cognitive tests than the other groups. Developmental test results were similar for the SGA and AGA-BW groups at five and 20 months, but AGA-BW infants (lowest gestation) had lower scores on performance intelligence quotient and language comprehension at 56 months than the SGA group. When prenatal and neonatal complications, parity, and multiple birth were accounted for, group differences in growth remained, but differences in cognitive outcome disappeared after five months.
CONCLUSIONS—Being underweight and with a short gestation (SGA and VLBW) leads to poor weight gain and head growth in infancy but does not

  16. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  17. The emergence of grammar in very-low-birth-weight Finnish children at two years of age.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-03-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children (N = 156) and full-term controls (N = 146). At a group level, the grammatical skills of the VLBW children were significantly weaker than those of the controls. However, when the effect of lexicon size and premature birth on the emergence of grammar was analyzed in detail, few significant differences were found between the groups. The results suggest that even though grammar emerges more slowly for the VLBW children, it emerges in a manner comparable to that of the controls, when the effect of lexicon size is taken into consideration.

  18. Adiposity of calf- and yearling-fed Brangus steers raised to constant-age and constant-body weight endpoints.

    PubMed

    Smith, S B; Chapman, A A; Lunt, D K; Harris, J J; Savell, J W

    2007-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that fatty acid biosynthesis and adipocyte diameter and volume would be greater in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of calf-fed steers than in yearling-fed steers at a constant BW, due to the greater time on feed for the calf-fed steers. Conversely, we predicted that the capacity for s.c. and i.m. preadipocytes to divide, as estimated by 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, would be greater in the less mature adipose tissues of calf-fed steers and in yearling-fed steers at 16 mo of age than in yearling-fed steers fed to 18 mo of age. Brangus steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet as calves (calf-fed; n = 9) or yearlings (n = 4) to 16 mo of age (CA yearling-fed); another group of yearlings (n = 5) was fed to a constant-BW end point of 530 kg (CW yearling-fed). Both groups of yearling-fed steers had free access to native pasture until 12 mo of age. At slaughter, the fifth to eighth thoracic rib section of the LM was removed, and fresh s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were removed for in vitro incubations. There were no differences in the number of s.c. adipocytes/g or mean peak volumes of adipocytes across production groups (P > or = 0.14). However, s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers contained greater proportions of smaller adipocytes (<1,500 pL) than calffed or CW yearling-fed steers, and similar results were observed for i.m. adipose tissue. Acetate incorporation into total lipids was greater (P = 0.02) in s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers than in calf-fed or CW yearling-fed steers, and tended to be different (P = 0.10) across production groups in i.m. adipose tissue. The production system x cell fraction interaction was significant (P = 0.03) for s.c. adipose tissue DNA synthesis, which was greatest in adipocytes from CA yearling-fed steers, whereas there were no differences across production system in stromal vascular (SV) DNA synthesis. For i.m. adipose tissue, DNA synthesis was greatest in adipocytes and SV cells

  19. Birth Weight, Growth and Feeding Pattern in Early Infancy Predict Overweight/Obesity Status at Two Years of Age: A Birth Cohort Study of Chinese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H.; Guo, Yuan; Jiang, Jingxiong; Yang, Liu; Lu, Qiaozhen; Ruan, Haiyan; Shi, Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. Methods A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls) were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3rd and 24th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity), model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight). Results Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95th >BMI ≥85th p and BMI ≥95th p, referring to WHO BMI standards) at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80–1.88), relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15–1.16) and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30–1.57) were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09–1.12), paternal BMI (OR: 1.06), and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54–1.57) or formula feeding (OR: 1.90–1.93) in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. Conclusion Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies. PMID:23755127

  20. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  1. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  2. Socioeconomic development and secular trend in height in China.

    PubMed

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui; Wu, Hua-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic development on secular trend in height among children and adolescents in China. Body height and spermarcheal/menarcheal ages were obtained from two periodic large-scale national representative surveys in China between 1975 and 2010. Chinese socioeconomic development indicators were obtained from the United Nations world population prospects. The effects of plausible determinants were assessed by partial least-squares regression. The average height of children and adolescents improved in tandem with socioeconomic development, without any tendency to plateau. The increment of height trend presented larger around puberty than earlier or later ages. The partial least-squares regressions with gross national income, life expectancy and spermarcheal/menarcheal age accounted for increment of height trend from 88.3% to 98.3% for males and from 82.9% to 97.3% for females in adolescence. Further, through the analysis of the variable importance for projection, the contributions of gross national income and life expectancy on height increment were confirmed to be significant in childhood and adolescence, and the contribution of spermarcheal/menarcheal age was superior to both of them in adolescence. We concluded that positive secular trend in height in China was significantly associated with socioeconomic status (GNI as indicator) and medical and health conditions (life expectancy as indicator). Earlier onset of spermarche and menarche proved to be an important role in larger increment of the trend over time of height at puberty for a population.

  3. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  4. Unified height systems after GOCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  5. Estimating Age Distributions of Base Flow in Watersheds Underlain by Single and Dual Porosity Formations Using Groundwater Transport Simulation and Weighted Weibull Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    Age distributions of base flow to streams are important to estimate for predicting the timing of water-quality responses to changes in distributed inputs of nutrients or pollutants at the land surface. Simple models of shallow aquifers will predict exponential age distributions, but more realistic 3-D stream-aquifer geometries will cause deviations from an exponential curve. In addition, in fractured rock terrains the dual nature of the effective and total porosity of the system complicates the age distribution further. In this study shallow groundwater flow and advective transport were simulated in two regions in the Eastern United States—the Delmarva Peninsula and the upper Potomac River basin. The former is underlain by layers of unconsolidated sediment, while the latter consists of folded and fractured sedimentary rocks. Transport of groundwater to streams was simulated using the USGS code MODPATH within 175 and 275 watersheds, respectively. For the fractured rock terrain, calculations were also performed along flow pathlines to account for exchange between mobile and immobile flow zones. Porosities at both sites were calibrated using environmental tracer data (3H, 3He, CFCs and SF6) in wells and springs, and with a 30-year tritium record from the Potomac River. Carbonate and siliciclastic rocks were calibrated to have mobile porosity values of one and six percent, and immobile porosity values of 18 and 12 percent, respectively. The age distributions were fitted to Weibull functions. Whereas an exponential function has one parameter that controls the median age of the distribution, a Weibull function has an extra parameter that controls the slope of the curve. A weighted Weibull function was also developed that potentially allows for four parameters, two that control the median age and two that control the slope, one of each weighted toward early or late arrival times. For both systems the two-parameter Weibull function nearly always produced a substantially

  6. Decreased body weight and hepatic steatosis with altered fatty acid ethanolamide metabolism in aged L-Fabp -/- mice.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan M; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Fu, Jin; Piomelli, Daniele; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2012-04-01

    The tissue-specific sources and regulated production of physiological signals that modulate food intake are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that L-Fabp(-/-) mice are protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet, findings at odds with an apparent obesity phenotype in a distinct line of aged L-Fabp(-/-) mice. Here we show that the lean phenotype in L-Fabp(-/-) mice is recapitulated in aged, chow-fed mice and correlates with alterations in hepatic, but not intestinal, fatty acid amide metabolism. L-Fabp(-/-) mice exhibited short-term changes in feeding behavior with decreased food intake, which was associated with reduced abundance of key signaling fatty acid ethanolamides, including oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an agonist of PPARα) and anandamide (AEA, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors), in the liver. These reductions were associated with increased expression and activity of hepatic fatty acid amide hydrolase-1, the enzyme that degrades both OEA and AEA. Moreover, L-Fabp(-/-) mice demonstrated attenuated responses to OEA administration, which was completely reversed with an enhanced response after administration of a nonhydrolyzable OEA analog. These findings demonstrate a role for L-Fabp in attenuating obesity and hepatic steatosis, and they suggest that hepatic fatty acid amide metabolism is altered in L-Fabp(-/-) mice.

  7. Weight, height and puberty in a cohort of Macedonian girls.

    PubMed

    Krstevska-Konstantinova, Marina; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Kicova, M; Gucev, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a growing problem in developed and developing countries. Many studies report an increasing incidence of obesity in the last decade. The aim of our transversal epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight children, auxological characteristics and pubertal stage in healthy girls from first (200 girls), third (209), fifth (290) and seventh (223) grade of school. In this study 928 girls were evaluated through systematic school examinations in the ambulance of municipality of Karposh, Skopje. The Rome and Turkish nationality, as well as Serbian were present in a small percentage, while detailed analysis was performed in the Macedonian and Albanian population of girls. The initiation of puberty (stage M2 or P2 by Tanner) was present in Macedonian girls: 4.3% of children in first grade, 23% in third grade, and 51.7% in fifth grade. In Albanians, in first grade M2 is present in 2.7%, in third grade 5.2%, and in fifth grade 46.9%. Body mass index (BMI SDS) was +3.5 +/- 1.5 in 35% of Macedonian girls and only 5% of Albanian girls. The Macedonian girls were also significantly higher (p < 0.01) and more obese than the Albanian girls. The pubertal stage was also more advanced in Macedonian girls. Most of the obese children who were included in the study reported increased consumption of fast food. Although in the past years obesity was not a problem in our country, it is becoming more severe with every year. PMID:19537661

  8. [Increased height in obese schoolchildren versus healthy weight schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Chávez-Palencia, Clío; Salazar-Preciado, Laura Leticia; Lizárraga-Corona, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    IBTRODUCCIÓN: la asociación entre crecimiento y obesidad ha sido poco estudiada en la población de escolares obesos mexicanos. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la talla para la edad entre escolares obesos y con peso saludable. MÉTODOS: estudio transversal realizado en 369 escolares con peso saludable y 162 obesos en una escuela primaria; 49.4 % era de sexo femenino. Se utilizó la clasificación percentilar del Índice de masa corporal: peso saludable: del percentil 5 al 84, obesidad: valor > percentil 95; se agruparon por sexo e intervalos de clase de un año. El análisis estadístico se hizo con U de Mann-Whitney.

  9. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P < 0.05) dressing percentages than Angus at the 2 largest levels of AFT and smaller (P < 0.01) percentages at the 2 largest levels of HCW, whereas the 2 breeds did not differ (P > or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly

  10. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P < 0.05) dressing percentages than Angus at the 2 largest levels of AFT and smaller (P < 0.01) percentages at the 2 largest levels of HCW, whereas the 2 breeds did not differ (P > or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly

  11. GENDER, WEIGHT, AND AGE EFFECTS ON PREVALENCE OF CAUDAL ABERRANT NASAL TURBINATES IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY ENGLISH BULLDOGS: A COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY AND CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and severity of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion via CT studies of English Bulldogs with, according to the owners, none or minimal clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. An additional objective was to propose a classification scheme for describing the degree of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion in English Bulldogs and to apply this scheme in assessing the effect of gender, weight, and age on prevalence and severity of turbinate protrusion. The nasal cavities of 40 clinically healthy English Bulldogs were examined. The prevalence of caudal aberrant turbinates in this group was 100%. Using our proposed classification scheme, Grade 1 (minimal) was detected in 7 of 40 (17.5%), Grade 2 (mild) in 28 of 40 (70%), and Grade 3 (moderate) in 5 of 40 (12.5%) English Bulldogs. No significant effect of gender, weight, and age on degree of protrusion was found. In conclusion, this study identified minimal to moderate protrusion of caudal aberrant turbinates toward the nasopharynx in all the sampled English Bulldogs, despite the absence of clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome.

  12. GENDER, WEIGHT, AND AGE EFFECTS ON PREVALENCE OF CAUDAL ABERRANT NASAL TURBINATES IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY ENGLISH BULLDOGS: A COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY AND CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and severity of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion via CT studies of English Bulldogs with, according to the owners, none or minimal clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. An additional objective was to propose a classification scheme for describing the degree of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion in English Bulldogs and to apply this scheme in assessing the effect of gender, weight, and age on prevalence and severity of turbinate protrusion. The nasal cavities of 40 clinically healthy English Bulldogs were examined. The prevalence of caudal aberrant turbinates in this group was 100%. Using our proposed classification scheme, Grade 1 (minimal) was detected in 7 of 40 (17.5%), Grade 2 (mild) in 28 of 40 (70%), and Grade 3 (moderate) in 5 of 40 (12.5%) English Bulldogs. No significant effect of gender, weight, and age on degree of protrusion was found. In conclusion, this study identified minimal to moderate protrusion of caudal aberrant turbinates toward the nasopharynx in all the sampled English Bulldogs, despite the absence of clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. PMID:25832130

  13. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  14. Atmospheric residence times from transpiration and evaporation to precipitation: An age-weighted regional evaporation tagging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianhui; Knoche, Hans Richard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-06-01

    The atmospheric water residence time is a fundamental descriptor that provides information on the timescales of evaporation and precipitation. In this study, a regional climate model-based evaporation tagging algorithm is extended with an age tracer approach to calculate moisture residence times, defined as time between the original evaporation and the returning of water masses to the land surface as precipitation. Our case study addresses how long this time is for the transpired and for the direct evaporated moisture. Our study region is the Poyang Lake region in Southeast China, the largest freshwater lake in the country. We perform simulations covering the period from October 2004 to December 2005. In 2005, 11% of direct evaporated water (10% of transpired water) precipitates locally. Direct evaporated water accounts for 64% and transpired water for 36% of the total tagged moisture with a mean age of around 36 h for both. Considering precipitation, a large proportion (69%) originates from direct evaporated water with a mean atmospheric residence time of 6.6 h and a smaller amount from transpired water with a longer residence time of 10.7 h. Modulated by the East Asian monsoon, the variation of the meteorological conditions, the magnitude of the partitioned moisture, and the corresponding residence time patterns change seasonally and spatially and reveal the different fate of transpired and direct evaporated water in the atmospheric hydrological cycle. We conclude that our methodological approach has the potential to be used for addressing how timescales of the hydrological cycle changes regionally under global warming.

  15. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and mental and motor function of very low birth weight children at six years of age.

    PubMed

    Skranes, J S; Vik, T; Nilsen, G; Smevik, O; Andersson, H W; Brubakk, A M

    1997-06-01

    In this follow-up study, 20 of a geographically based year cohort of 31 surviving non-disabled VLBW (birthweight < 1500 g) children were examined at six years of age. The aim of the study was to relate cerebral MRI findings to neuro-development in these non-disabled children at six years of age. All MRI scans were evaluated for myelination pattern, periventricular gliosis, ventricular dilation and cortical atrophy. The Peabody motor test and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) were used in the evaluation of motor, mental and perceptual function. A diagnosis of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity was made based on the examiner's impression of the child during the examination and based on the parent's history. We found that ten (50%) of the children had periventricular gliosis, mainly in centrum semiovale (CS) (nine children) and in central occipital white matter (COW) (six children). Gliosis in CS was related to lower scores on the Peabody gross motor test for locomotion, indicating involvement of corticospinal tracts. Additional gliosis in COW was related to both fine motor and gross motor impairments. We speculate that this indicates damage to both motor and visual pathways, affecting eye-hand coordination and balance function. No relationship between MRI deviations at six years and mental function based on performance, verbal and total IQ scores was found. However, there was a significant relationship between periventricular gliosis in COW and C5 and low scores on the WPPSI performance subtests: Picture completion test and Block design test. This may indicate visual and spatial perception problems, caused by damage to posterior visual pathways and occipito-thalamic tracts dealing with visuo-motor integration.

  16. Maternal misconceptions of weight status among Nepean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; Garnett, Sarah P; Campbell, Karen; Carver, Alison; Torvaldsen, Siranda; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A

    2012-12-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physical growth and sexual maturation. These changes may alter parents' beliefs about their adolescent's weight status. This study aimed to examine the changes between early and mid-adolescence in: (a) the accuracy of maternal perception regarding her adolescent's weight status, (b) the degree of maternal concern about her adolescent's weight status, and (c) the predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight as average weight. A secondary analysis of the longitudinal Nepean Study data was conducted. Participants were Australian, free-living 13-year-olds in 2002-2003 (n=347) followed up at age 15 years (n=279) and their mothers. Participants' body mass index (BMI) status (overweight, normal, or underweight) was calculated from measured height and weight. Maternal perceptions and concerns about adolescent's weight status were determined by items adapted from the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Sex-adjusted binary logistic regression models assessed potential predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight. Data were available on 224 adolescent-mother dyads. Approximately one fourth of mothers misclassified their adolescent's weight status, but this varied across groups (age 13 years [%]; age 15 years [%], respectively) underweight (75%; 70%), overweight (54%; 59%), and normal weight (12%; 9%). The endpoint data show that between 13 and 15 years of age, maternal concern regarding their adolescent's weight decreased in all weight-status groups. Predictors of maternal misclassification of adolescent overweight were adolescent BMI z score, recent weight-management practices, weight history, sex, and maternal concern regarding her adolescent's weight. These results reinforce the need for strategies in primary care that are implemented throughout adolescence to improve maternal awareness of childhood overweight.

  17. Preferred child body size and parental underestimation of child weight in Mexican-American families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods: Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and w...

  18. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  19. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  20. Experience with growth hormone therapy in Turner syndrome in a single centre: low total height gain, no further gains after puberty onset and unchanged body proportions.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, R; Ranke, M B; Binder, G; Herdach, F; Zapadlo, M; Grauer, M L; Schwarze, C P; Wollmann, H A

    2000-01-01

    The experience gained since 1987, through observation of 85 girls with Turner syndrome under growth hormone (GH) treatment, has enabled the analysis of one of the largest cohorts. Our results show that age, karyotype and height reflect the heterogeneity of the patients examined at our growth centre. In 47 girls, followed over 4 years on GH (median dose 0.72 IU/kg/week), the median age was 9.4 years and mean height SDS was -3.55 (Prader) and -0.14 (Turner-specific), while height and other anthropometrical parameters [weight, body mass index, sitting height (SH), leg length (LL) SH/LL, head circumference, arm span] were documented and compared to normative data as well as to Turner-specific references established on the basis of a larger (n = 165) untreated cohort from Tübingen. The latter data are also documented in this article. Although there was a trend towards normalization of these parameters during the observation period, no inherent alterations in the Turner-specific anthropometric pattern occurred. In 42 girls who started GH treatment at a median age of 11.8 years, final height (bone age >15 years) was achieved at 16.7 years. The overall gain in height SDS (Turner) from start to end of GH therapy was 0.7 (+/- 0.8) SD, but 0.9 (+/- 0.6) SD from GH start to onset of puberty (spontaneous 12.2 years, induced 13.9 years) and -0.2 (+/- 0.8) from onset of puberty to end of growth. Height gain did not occur in 12 patients (29%) and a gain of > 5 cm was only observed in 16 patients (38%). Height gain correlated positively with age at puberty onset, duration, and dose of GH, and negatively with height and bone age at the time GH treatment started. Final height correlated positively with height SDS at GH start and negatively with the ratio of SH/LL (SDS). We conclude that, in the future, GH should be given at higher doses, but oestrogen substitution should be done cautiously, owing to its potentially harmful effect on growth. LL appears to determine height variation

  1. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    1984-02-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity.

  2. Weight-related concerns and behaviors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Howe, Carol J; Jawad, Abbas F; Kelly, Sarah D; Lipman, Terri H

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes are at risk for disordered eating and unhealthy weight-control practices. This study describes (a) participants' weight perception and weight satisfaction, (b) participants' scores on the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey (DEPS), (c) prevalence of weight-control behaviors, and (d) association of DEPS and weight-control behaviors with race, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), weight satisfaction, and weight perception. TheAHEAD survey was completed by 295 participants to determine weight satisfaction, weight perception, and weight-control behaviors. Height, weight, and HbA1c were obtained from clinic charts. Older females with higher BMI and elevated HbA1c used significantly more weight-control behaviors. Weight dissatisfaction and heavy weight perception were associated with significantly more unhealthy weight-control practices. Prevention programs should be directed toward the preteen female. Older female teens presenting with higher BMI, elevated HbA1c, weight dissatisfaction, and heavy weight perception should be formally assessed for unhealthy weight-control behaviors. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2008; 13(6), 376-385. DOI: 10.1177/1078390307310154. PMID:21672877

  3. Adolescent blood pressure, body mass index and skin folds: sorting out the effects of early weight and length gains

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro C; Dumith, Samuel C; Matijasevich, Alicia M; Araújo, Cora L P; Yudkin, John; Osmond, Clive; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is longstanding evidence of the short-term benefits of promoting rapid growth for young children in low-income settings, more recent studies suggest that early weight gain can also increase the risk of chronic diseases in adults. This paper attempts to separate the effects of early life weight and length/height gains on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), sum of skin folds and subscapular/triceps skin fold ratio at 14–15 years of age. Methods The sample comprised 833 members of a prospective population-based birth cohort from Brazil. Conditional size (weight or height) analyses were used to express the difference between observed size at a given age and expected size based on a regression, including all previous measures of the same anthropometric index. A positive conditional weight or height indicates growing faster than expected given prior size. Results Conditional weights at all age ranges were positively associated with most outcomes; each z-score of conditional weight at 4 years was associated with an increase of 6.1 mm in the sum of skin folds (95% CI 4.5 to 7.6) in adolescence after adjustment for conditional length/height. Associations of the outcomes with conditional length/height were mostly negative or non-significant—each z-score was associated with a reduction of 2.4 mm (95% CI −3.8 to −1.1) in the sum of skin folds after adjustment for conditional weight. No associations were found with the skin fold ratio. Conclusion The promotion of rapid length/height gain without excessive weight gain seems to be beneficial for long-term outcomes, but this requires confirmation from other studies. PMID:21325148

  4. Anthropometric measurements of Saudi boys aged 6-14 years.

    PubMed

    al-Hazzaa, H M

    1990-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements of 1169 Saudi school boys between the ages of 6 and 14 years are reported. The boys were randomly selected from primary schools in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Measurements of height, weight, grip strength, chest, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses as well as biacromial, chest, bi-iliac, knee, and elbow breadths were taken. Saudi boys have slightly lower values for body weight and height than American boys (NCHS standards). Values of skinfold measurements increased with age up to age 11 where they plateaued and took then a sharp increase by age 14. Means of triceps and subscapular skinfolds of the Saudi boys are also lower than some standards from U.S.A. throughout age 13. At age 14, however, the Saudi boys have higher means than the U.S.A. boys.

  5. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Amin, N; Abel, R; Sampathkumar, V

    1993-01-01

    Maternal factors comprising of social, obstetric and anthropometric are found to influence LBW. The present study had found association between obstetric risk factors like age of the mother, parity and gravida with LBW. Similar association was also observed between maternal height, and maternal weight with LBW. However, social factors were not found to be associated with LBW. This could probably be due to RUHSA's intervention which requires a further inquiry. PMID:8244503

  6. Precision measurement of disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement from lateral radiographic views of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.; Biggemann, M.; Tillotson, M.; Burton, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE.: To compile a database of disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement from lateral radiographic views of the lumbar spine, valid for male and female subjects in the age range 16-57 years. The protocols used to measure these parameters compensate for distortion in central projection, off-centre position, axial rotation and lateral tilt of the spine as well as for variation in radiographic magnification and stature. STUDY DESIGN.: The study comprised designing and testing of measurement protocols, together with subsequent data collection from archive radiographs. BACKGROUND.: Attempts to quantify primary mechanical damage to lumbar vertebrae and discs have been limited due to imprecision when measuring disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement. Age-related, normative values for these parameters were not previously available. Consequently, important issues like the effectiveness of past and present guidelines for safe manual handling with respect to prevention of overload injuries could not be resolved and judgement on pathological alterations in the morphology of the individual lumbar spine could only be performed in a qualitative, subjective manner. METHODS.: Based on the analysis of vertebral contours in the lateral radiographic image of the lumbar spine, new protocols for measuring disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement were developed. The measured data are virtually independent of distortion, axial rotation and lateral tilt. Furthermore, description of height and displacement using dimensionless parameters guarantees independence of radiographic magnification and stature. Subjective influence in the measurement procedure was minimized by automatic computation of contour-landmarks and derived parameters. Measurement errors were assessed from sets of radiographs of spine specimens and serial flexion-extension radiographs; interobserver and intraobserver errors were assessed from repeated

  7. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age.

    PubMed

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-12-28

    In very preterm ( < 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal infections in very preterm and/or VLBW children, while developmental effects beyond 24 months are unknown. We determined the cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes at school age of a cohort of sixty-four very preterm and/or VLBW children (aged 7·5 (sd 0·4) years) who participated in a randomised placebo-controlled trial using enteral glutamine between day 3 and day 30 of life. Cognitive and motor outcomes were studied using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Attention Network Test and a visual working memory task. Behavioural outcomes were evaluated using parent- and teacher-rated questionnaires. Intelligence quotient, processing speed, attentional functioning, working memory and parent- and teacher-rated behavioural outcomes were not different between children treated with glutamine or placebo; only visuomotor abilities as measured by the Ball Skills scale of the MABC (P = 0·002; d = 0·67) were poorer in the glutamine group. This effect persisted after taking into account the beneficial effects of lower serious neonatal infections rates in children treated with glutamine (P = 0·005). In conclusion, glutamine supplementation between day 3 and day 30 of life had neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on long-term cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes of very preterm and/or VLBW children at school age, although visuomotor abilities were poorer in children that received glutamine.

  8. Normal weight obesity and mortality in United States subjects ≥60 years of age (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-15

    Current body mass index (BMI) strata likely misrepresent the accuracy of true adiposity in older adults. Subjects with normal BMI with elevated body fat may metabolically have higher cardiovascular and overall mortality than previously suspected. We identified 4,489 subjects aged ≥60 years (BMI = 18.5 to 25 kg/m(2)) with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements