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Sample records for age height weight

  1. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-06-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action.

  2. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-01-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. Images p96-a p96-b PMID:4027502

  3. Height, age at menarche, body weight and body mass index in life-long vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim

    2005-10-01

    We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.

  4. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  5. The relation of femoral osteon geometry to age, sex, height and weight.

    PubMed

    Britz, Hayley M; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G; Cooper, David M L

    2009-07-01

    As computational modeling becomes an increasingly common tool for probing the regulation of bone remodeling, the need for experimental data to refine and validate such models also grows. For example, van Oers et al. (R.F. van Oers, R. Ruimerman, B. van Rietbergen, P.A. Hilbers, R. Huiskes, Relating osteon diameter to strain. Bone 2008;43: 476-482.) recently described a mechanism by which osteon size may be regulated (inversely) by strain. Empirical data supporting this relation, particularly in humans, are sparse. Therefore, we sought to determine if there is a link between body weight (the only measure related to loading available for a cadaveric population) and osteon geometry in human bone. We hypothesized that after controlling for age, sex and height, weight would be inversely related to femoral osteon size (area, On.Ar; diameter, On.Dm). Secondarily we sought to describe the relation between osteon circularity (On.Cr) and these parameters. Osteons (n=12,690) were mapped within microradiographs of femoral mid-diaphyseal specimens (n=88; 45 male, 43 female; 17-97 yrs). Univariate analysis of covariance was conducted (n=87; 1 outlier) with sex as a fixed factor and height, weight and log-transformed age as covariates. Weight was negatively related to On.Ar and On.Dm (p=0.006 and p=0.004, respectively). Age was significantly related to osteon and, it was also significantly related to circularity (all p<0.001). This relation was negative for On.Ar and On.Dm and positive for On.Cr (increasing circularity with age). On.Ar and On.Dm were found to be significantly different between the sexes (p=0.021 and p=0.019, respectively), with females having smaller osteons. No relation between sex and On.Cr was detected (p=0.449). Height was not significantly related to any of the geometric parameters. Partial eta-squared values revealed that age accounted for the largest proportion (On.Ar: 28%, On.Dm: 18%, On.Cr: 30%), weight accounted for the second largest (On.Ar: 9%, On

  6. Relationship between axial length of the emmetropic eye and the age, body height, and body weight of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Selović, Alen; Juresa, Vesna; Ivankovic, Davor; Malcic, Davor; Selović Bobonj, Gordana

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses the relationship of axial length of emmetropic (without refractive error) eyes to age, height, and weight in 1,600 Croatian schoolchildren. Axial eye lengths were determined by an ultrasonic eye biometry (A scan). Axial length of both eyes increases with age, height, and weight but shows a closer correlation to height and weight than to age. Boys have a significantly longer axial eye length than girls (P < 0.01). Boys or girls of similar or nearing body height and body weight and with emmetropic eyes have close linear measures of anatomic eye structures within their sex, regardless their age. Body height demonstrates the closest correlation to the growth and development of the emmetropic eye. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Total body nitrogen in health and disease: effects of age, weight, height, and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-06-01

    Total body levels of nitrogen were measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis in 136 healthy adults in the general population (age 20 to 80 years), in 55 cancer patients, and in 20 obese subjects. In order to evaluate the TBN values for the patients, it was necessary to normalize the data for possible differences due to body habitus. This normalization was defined as the ratio of the measured nitrogen level to a predicted nitrogen level derived from the normal population. The parameters of sex, age, height, weight, and fat were used to calculate expected normal values of nitrogen. For the cancer patients, an average TBN deficit of less than 10% was observed. Individual patients, however, showed deviations from the TBN/sub p/ value as large as 28%. For obese patients, the TBN values were normal to slightly high. When adjusted for body size, the deficit of TBN in the cancer patients was approximately half that observd for TBK.

  8. [Weight and height local growth charts of Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age)].

    PubMed

    Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13 cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents.

  9. Relation between birth weight and weight and height at the age of 2 in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Olson, Gayle; Weiner, Steven J; Rouse, Dwight J; Reddy, Uma M; Mercer, Brian M; Varner, Michael W; Leveno, Kenneth J; Iams, Jay D; Wapner, Ronald J; Ramin, Susan M; Malone, Fergal D; Carpenter, Marshall W; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Dinsmoor, Mara J; Hankins, Gary D V; Caritis, Steve N

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate associations between fetal growth and weight at 2 years in infants born preterm using a customized approach for birth weight. This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter trial that included a 2-year follow-up of children born prematurely. Customized birth weight percentiles were calculated using the Gardosi model for a U.S. population, and the relation between customized percentile and weight and height at 2 years (adjusted for gender using z-score) was determined using regression analysis and by comparing z-scores for children with birth weight <10th versus ≥10th percentile. Weight z-score at 2 years was significantly lower in the <10th than in the ≥10th percentile group (median [interquartile range, IQR]: -0.66 [-1.58, -0.01] vs. -0.23 [-1.05, 0.55]; p < 0.001), and remained after adjusting for maternal education (p < 0.001). A similar relationship was noted for height z-score between groups (median [IQR]: -0.56 [-1.29, 0.19] vs. -0.24 [-0.99, 0.37]; p < 0.001). Positive relationships between customized birth weight percentile and weight and height at 2 years were noted (p < 0.001 for both), but were not strong (R (2) = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Customized birth weight percentile is a minor determinant of weight at 2 years among children born preterm. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Heavier birth weight associated with taller height but not age at menarche in US women born 1991-1998.

    PubMed

    Workman, Megan; Kelly, Karina

    2017-09-10

    Heavier birth weight predicts taller adult height, but it remains unknown the extent to which this additional height increment results from a faster average growth rate versus an extension of the growth period. Aiming to distinguish these effects, this study examined associations between birth weight (BW), age at menarche (an established proxy for growth duration), and near-adult height in a cohort of US young women born in the 1990s. Multiple regression evaluated age-adjusted height as an outcome of BW, age at menarche, indicators of family socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders in a sample of US teens who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2012 (N = 342). Relevant interactions were also evaluated. Mean ± SD was 11.9 ± 1.2 years and 3262 ± 592 g for age at menarche and BW, respectively. BW did not predict age at menarche (β = -.01, p = .838). Girls were 1.3 cm taller per year delay in menarche (p < .001) and 2.9 cm taller per 1 kg increase in BW (p < .001). Additionally, the greatest gain in height associated with delayed menarche was observed among the heaviest BW quartile. Girls born heavier were taller but experienced menarche at similar ages to girls born lighter. To the extent that age at menarche reflected growth duration, these results demonstrate faster average growth among heavier-born girls. Consistent with fetal programming of average growth rate, these results held after adjustment for confounders of postnatal growth like family socioeconomic status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; García, Juan Manuel Fernández; Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Molina, Jose Antonio Moreno; Cosano, Carlos Ruiz; Ortiz, Antonio Jurado

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys). They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years) and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men) were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men) were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197) in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys) refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5%) were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97) and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97) are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is the first study in

  12. New reference centiles for boys' height, weight and body mass index used voice break as the marker of biological age.

    PubMed

    Mumm, Rebekka; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to develop the first references for body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) for boys based on the individual developmental tempo with respect to their voice break status. We re-analysed data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS study) on body height, body weight and body mass index based on the voice break, or mutation, in 3956 boys aged 10-17 years. We used the LMS method to construct smoothed references centiles for the studied variables in premutational, mutational and postmutational boys. Body height, body weight and BMI differed significantly (p < 0.001) between the different stages of voice break. On average, boys were 5.9 cm taller, 5.8 kg heavier and had a 0.7 kg/m² higher BMI with every higher stage of voice break. Currently used growth references for chronological age in comparison with maturity-related references led to an average of 5.4% of boys being falsely classified as overweight. These newly developed growth references allowed convenient classifications of underweight and overweight or obese boys with respect to their voice break status. They should be added to currently used references centiles for the body mass index to avoid misclassifying boys' weight. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Association of diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections with weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 5 to 11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A. M.; Peterson, K. E.; de Souza, A. C.; Orav, E. J.; Hughes, M.; Chen, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The association between infection and growth delay is not well documented in school-age children in developing countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the association between infectious disease and weight and height gains among Bangladeshi children. METHODS: A one-year follow-up study was performed to elucidate the determinants and consequences of physical growth of children under five years of age. The study included 135 households randomly selected from four villages in the Matlab area. RESULTS: The most frequent infections were upper respiratory infections (mean = 4 episodes or 27 days per year) followed by non-dysenteric diarrhoea (mean = 2.3 episodes or 15 days per year) and dysentery (mean = 0.2 episodes or 2 days per year). The number of episodes and their duration decreased significantly with age. Over a 12-month period the mean weight gain was 1.3 kg and the mean increase in height was 2.9 cm. The total number of days when diarrhoea occurred was negatively associated with annual weight gain (regression coefficient beta = -7 g per day, P = 0.02), with adjustment for age, sex, energy and protein intake, and household land ownership. The incidence of diarrhoeal disease was significantly associated with weight gain in intermediate models but only marginally associated with it in the final multivariate model (P = 0.08). Neither the incidence nor the duration of upper respiratory infections was associated with weight gain. Height gain was not significantly associated with the duration or incidence of either category of illness. Diarrhoea was a significant correlate of retarded weight gain among children above preschool age, whereas upper respiratory infections were not. DISCUSSION: Diarrhoeal morbidity slowed growth in children well beyond the weaning age, suggesting that increased attention should be given to the study of the continuous impact of diarrhoea in children aged over 5 years. An understanding of the determinants of

  14. Weight, height and eruption times of permanent teeth of children aged 4-15 years in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kutesa, Annet; Nkamba, Eriab Moses; Muwazi, Louis; Buwembo, William; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha

    2013-03-16

    Tooth eruption is a continuous biological process by which developing teeth emerge through the jaws and the overlying mucosa to enter into the oral cavity. Tooth eruption time and sequence are important factors in dental treatment planning, particularly in orthodontics, but also in forensic dentistry to estimate age of a child. Tooth eruption time is influenced by many factors. In this study we set out to determine the timing of eruption of permanent teeth and assess its association with the height and weight of school children aged 4-15 years in Kampala, Uganda. This was a cross sectional study comprising of 1041 healthy Ugandan children: boys/girls (520/521) who were consecutively selected from two primary schools in Kampala. The children were clinically assessed for tooth emergency through the oral mucosa as well as measuring their weight and height. The mean and standard deviation of tooth eruption time was estimated for boys and girls. Bivariate analysis was used to assess any significant association between tooth eruption time and demographic variables. Pearson and partial correlation analyses were used to assess any significant association between the tooth eruption time and anthropometric measurements of the children. Generally, the mean eruption times for girls were lower compared to boys except for three teeth (#25, #32 and #42) which erupted earlier in boys. The average difference in mean eruption times of all teeth between boys and girls was found to be 0.8 (range, 0-1.5) years. In partial correlation analysis, mean tooth eruption times were positively, but not significantly associated with height while controlling for weight except for the mandibular left central incisor (#31). On the other hand, in partial correlation analysis, mean tooth eruption times were positively associated with weight while controlling for height except for tooth #11, #16, #26 and #41. The weight of the child was significantly correlated with mean eruption times in 50% of the

  15. Height and Weight of Children in the United States, India, and the United Arab Republic: Presentation and Analysis of Comparative Data on Standard Height and Weight of Children Aged 6 Through 11 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Arthur J.; And Others

    This report presents and analyzes data on standing height and on weight of children aged 6 through 11 years in the United States, India, and the United Arab Republic. Data for all three countries come from representative national samples and present the first opportunity to compare data from several countries that are broadly representative of the…

  16. Peak Weight and Height Velocity to Age 36 Months and Asthma Development: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Maria C.; Stigum, Hein; Håberg, Siri E.; Nafstad, Per; London, Stephanie J.; Nystad, Wenche

    2015-01-01

    Background The immediate postnatal period is the period of the fastest growth in the entire life span and a critical period for lung development. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the association between growth during this period and childhood respiratory disorders. Methods We examined the association of peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months with maternal report of current asthma at 36 months (n = 50,311), recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) by 36 months (n = 47,905) and current asthma at 7 years (n = 24,827) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Peak weight and height velocity was calculated using the Reed1 model through multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (adj.RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also conducted a sibling pair analysis using conditional logistic regression. Results Peak weight velocity was positively associated with current asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.22 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.26) per standard deviation (SD) increase], recurrent LRTIs by 36 months [adj.RR 1.14 (1.10, 1.19) per SD increase] and current asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.13 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.19) per SD increase]. Peak height velocity was not associated with any of the respiratory disorders. The positive association of peak weight velocity and asthma at 36 months remained in the sibling pair analysis. Conclusions Higher peak weight velocity, achieved during the immediate postnatal period, increased the risk of respiratory disorders. This might be explained by an influence on neonatal lung development, shared genetic/epigenetic mechanisms and/or environmental factors. PMID:25635872

  17. Estimation of maximum increment age in height and weight during adolescence and the effect of World War II.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md. Ayub; Ohtsuki, Fumio

    2000-05-01

    An attempt was made to estimate the maximum increment age (MIA) in height and weight of Japanese boys and girls during the birth years 1893-1990 through the published data of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in Japan. In cases where the same maximum annual increment occurred in two or three successive age classes in a birth year cohort, a new formula (see Eq. 2) was developed to estimate the MIA. The existing formula for estimating MIA was modified to remove the mathematical deficiency (Eq. 1). Estimated MIA shows an overall declining trend, except in birth year cohorts 1934-1951. The effect of World War II on MIA was investigated by a dummy variable regression model. On average, during the birth years 1934-1951, MIA in height decelerated by 1.35 years in boys and 0.54 year in girls, while MIA in weight decelerated by 0.95 year in boys and 0.78 year in girls. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:363-370, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age of Polish school-aged children and adolescents relative to international and local growth references

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The growth of children is an indicator of health and society's wellbeing. Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is a very important part of child care. Poland's growth references are not updated regularly. Although several growth reference ranges have been developed in Poland over recent years, sampling was restricted to urban populations of major cities. The aim of this study was to assess how well Polish children match with, or diverge from, regional charts and to compare them with international growth references. Methods Four Polish and two international (WHO 2007 and USCDC2000) growth references were used to calculate the height, weight and BMI z-scores in a recent, large, population-representative sample of school-aged children and adolescents in Poland. The distributions of z-scores were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results Mean height z-scores calculated with the use of the WHO 2007 and USCDC2000 references were positive and significantly different from zero over the entire age range. The mean height z-score was closest to zero in the Poznan reference for boys (0.05) and Warszawa reference for girls (0.01). Median weight z-scores were positive under all weight references over the entire age range with only the exception of 18-year-old girls' weight z-score calculated relative to USCDC2000. Median BMI z-scores were positive in males in early childhood, decreasing with age. In the case of girls, the median BMI z-score calculated using WHO 2007 and USCDC2000 was close to zero in early childhood, decreased in adolescents and reached minimum values at age 18 years. Median BMI z-scores calculated with the use of the Lodz reference fluctuated between 0.05 and 0.2 over the studied age range. Conclusions In this contemporary sample of Polish school-aged children, distributions of height, weight and BMI differed from those of children from the international growth references. These differences

  19. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (<10 years of age) vs. 6% of older children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  20. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ(2) tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes <$60,000 trended shorter (1.5±0.8 cm; P=0.070) and were heavier (2.0±0.7 BMI units; P=0.002) than participants with family incomes ≥$60,000/year. Adjusted mean weight, height, and BMI estimates differed by beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For

  1. Nutritional status and height, weight and BMI centiles of school-aged children and adolescents of 6-18-years from Kinshasa (DRC).

    PubMed

    Buhendwa, Rudahaba Augustin; Roelants, Mathieu; Thomis, Martine; Nkiama, Constant E

    2017-09-01

    The last study to establish centiles of main anthropometric measurements in Kinshasa was conducted over 60 years ago, which questions its current adequacy to describe or monitor growth in this population. To assess the nutritional status of school-aged children and adolescents and to estimate centile curves of height, weight and body mass index (BMI). A representative sample of 7541 school-aged children and adolescents (48% boys) aged 6-18 years was measured between 2010-2013. Smooth centiles of height, weight and BMI-for-age were estimated with the LMS method and compared with the WHO 2007 reference. Nutritional status was assessed by comparing measurements of height and BMI against the appropriate WHO cut-offs. Compared to the WHO reference, percentiles of height and BMI were generally lower. This difference was larger in boys than in girls and increased as they approached adolescence. The prevalence of short stature (< -2 SD) and thinness (< -2 SD) was higher in boys (9.8% and 12%) than in girls (3.4% and 6.1%), but the prevalence of overweight (> 1 SD) was higher in girls (8.6%) than in boys (4.5%). Children from Kinshasa fall below WHO centile references. This study established up-to-date centile curves for height, weight and BMI by age in children and adolescents. These reference curves describe the current status of these anthropometric markers and can be used as a basis for comparison in future studies.

  2. Household food insecurity is not associated with BMI for age or weight for height among Brazilian children aged 0-60 months.

    PubMed

    Kac, Gilberto; Schlüssel, Michael M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Velásquez-Melendez, Gustavo; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI), weight for height z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z) in a representative sample of children 0-60 months of age (n = 3,433) in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006-07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (β coefficients and 95% CI) taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%), born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9%) and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%). The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119) and WHZ (P = 0.198). Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.35 - -0.03, P = 0.047), and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.42 - -0.09, P = 0.009). Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0-60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0-60 months.

  3. Optimal scaling of weight and waist circumference to height for maximal association with DXA-measured total body fat mass by sex, age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Heo, M; Kabat, G C; Gallagher, D; Heymsfield, S B; Rohan, T E

    2013-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI; weight (Wt)/height (Ht) (in kg m(-2)) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as proxy anthropometric measures for total adiposity. Little is known about what scaling power of 'x' in both Wt(kg)/Ht(m)(x) and WC(m)/Ht(m)(x) is maximally associated with measured total body fat mass (TBFM). Establishing values for x would provide the information needed to create optimum anthropometric surrogate measures of adiposity. To estimate the value of 'x' that renders Wt/Ht(x) and WC/Ht(x) maximally associated with DXA-measured TBFM. Participants of the NHANES 1999-2004 surveys, stratified by sex (men, women), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Mexican-Americans), and age(18-29, 30-49, 50-84 years). We apply a grid search by increasing x from 0.0-3.0 by increments of 0.1 to the simple regression models, TBFM=b0+b1*(Wt/Ht(x)) and TBFM=b0+b1*(WC/Ht(x)) to obtain an estimate of x that results in the greatest R(2), taking into account complex survey design features and multiply imputed data. R(2)'s for BMI are 0.86 for men (N=6544) and 0.92 for women (N=6362). The optimal powers x for weight are 1.0 (R(2)=0.90) for men and 0.8 (R(2)=0.96) for women. The optimal power x for WC is 0, that is, no scaling of WC to height, for men (R(2)=0.90) or women (R(2)=0.82). The optimal powers for weight across nine combinations of race/ethnicity and age groups for each sex vary slightly (x=0.8-1.3) whereas the optimal scaling powers for WC are all 0 for both sexes except for non-Hispanic black men aged 18-29y (x=0.1). Although the weight-for-height indices with optimal powers are not independent of height, they yield more accurate TBFM estimates than BMI. In reference to TBFM, Wt/Ht and Wt/Ht(0.8) are the optimal weight-for-height indices for men and women, respectively, whereas WC alone, without Ht adjustment, is the optimal WC-for-height index for both sexes. Thus, BMI, an index independent of height, may be less useful when predicting TBFM.

  4. Adolescent weight and height are predictors of specific non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes among a cohort of 2,352,988 individuals aged 16 to 19 years.

    PubMed

    Leiba, Merav; Leiba, Adi; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Avigdor, Abraham; Derazne, Estela; Levine, Hagai; Kark, Jeremy D

    2016-04-01

    The age-adjusted annual incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has risen worldwide. This trend may be affected by the secular increase in height and the sharp upswing in adolescent overweight; these drive increased insulinlike growth factor 1 and chronic inflammation, which may play an etiologic role. This study examined the association of the body mass index (BMI) and height of adolescents with NHL subtypes, which have been insufficiently evaluated. Health-related data on 2,352,988 Israeli adolescents, aged 16 to 19 years, who were examined between 1967 and 2011 were linked to the Israel National Cancer Registry to derive the NHL incidence up to December 31, 2012 (4021 cases). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for NHL subtypes associated with the BMI and height of adolescents. Adolescent overweight and obesity were associated with an HR of 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.37; P = 1.14 × 10(-5) ) for NHL in comparison with normal weight. There was a graded association of height with NHL (P = 4.29 × 10(-9) ), with the tallest adolescents (≥ 95th percentile vs 25th to < 50th percentiles [US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]) exhibiting an HR of 1.28 (95% CI, 1.04-1.56). Marginal zone lymphoma, primary cutaneous lymphoma (PCL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) showed the strongest associations for overweight/obesity, and DLBCL and PCL showed the strongest associations for height. The findings of this large cohort study add to the growing body of evidence showing that higher body weight and taller stature during adolescence are associated with an increased risk of NHL and may modestly contribute to its increasing incidence. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking anthropometric measures and NHL risk. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. [Concordance between self-reported weight and height for nutritional assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education].

    PubMed

    Matínez-Torres, Javier; Lee Osorno, Belinda Inés; Mendoza, Leylis; Mariotta, Sharom; López Epiayu, Yandra; Martínez, Yelitza; Jiménez, Nelly

    2014-11-01

    Overweight and obesity are metabolic disorders that have become a public health problem due to the current high prevalence; therefore, it is important to create simple monitoring systems to assess their trends. To determine the correlation between weight, height and body mass index reported by patients and the values measured directly in adults between 25 and 50 years old without higher education. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with participation of 207 adults between 25 and 50 years old. Each participant was asked weight and height; and body mass index was calculated with these data. Moreover, a qualified person determined the real value of these variables. The coefficient of intra-class correlation between self-reported and measurements was obtained. The body mass index measured for men was 25.8±3.7 kg/m2 and for women 26.0±4.1 kg/m2. Intraclass correlation coefficients were for weight 0.962 (IC95%: 0.950-0.971), height 0.909 (IC95%: 0.882-0.930), and body mass index 0.929 (IC95% 0.907-0.945); the real prevalence of people with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 was 52.1%, whereas the value obtained by self-reported data was 44%. Self-reported weight and height data are useful for obesity assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education at the population level. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. [Centile charts of body height, body weight and skinfold thickness of Warsaw's children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age].

    PubMed

    Kurniewicz-Witczakowa, R; Miesowicz, I; Niedźwiecka, Z; Pietrzak, M

    1983-01-01

    The tables and centile charts of height, weight and thickness of 3 skinfolds of Warsaw children from birth up to the age of 18 are presented. The data was collected in the years 1976-80. The results were compared with the data of the 60s for Warsaw children and with present figures for urban children from other towns of Poland. The acceleration of growth of Warsaw children has been established and it was stated that they were the tallest of all Polish children.

  7. Height, weight and skinfold thickness of Michigan adults.

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, R J; Sady, S P; Owen, G M

    1980-01-01

    Height, weight, and selected skinfold measurements were taken on 544 Michigan males and 557 females age 18 and over. Mean body weight showed a tendency to increase with age for both sexes up to age 64 while mean height progressively decreased from its maximum at age 18-24 years. Between ages 18 and 64 years, mean triceps skinfold thickness of men increased 10 per cent, female triceps skinfolds 50 per cent. Mean subscapular skinfold values rose consistently with age for both sexes. Comparison of these findings with those from earlier national studies suggest that Michigan adults are heavier and fatter but no taller than other US adults. PMID:7435748

  8. Risk factors for wrist fracture: effect of age, cigarettes, alcohol, body height, relative weight, and handedness on the risk for distal forearm fractures in men.

    PubMed

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D R; Rimm, E B; Feskanich, D; Willett, W C

    1994-08-15

    Fractures of the distal forearm (wrist) are among the most common of all fractures. While evidence exists concerning risk factors for wrist fracture among women, little is known about risk factors among men. This study examines the relation of lifestyle characteristics (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, relative weight) as well as body height and handedness to the risk for fracture in a male population that has been followed up for 6 years. The 51,529 men, who were between the ages of 40 and 75 years in 1986, were participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a national prospective cohort study. In 271,552 person-years of follow-up, 271 respondents reported a wrist fracture. The risk for wrist fracture in this population did not vary with age. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body height, and relative weight also were not related to risk for wrist fracture. Handedness, which was divided into four mutually exclusive categories (right-handed, left-handed, forced to change, and ambidextrous), was significantly associated with wrist fracture. Left-handers had a multivariate relative risk for wrist fracture 1.56 times that of right-handers (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.37), and men who reported they had been forced to change from left-handed to right-handed had a multivariate relative risk 2.47 times greater than right-handers (95 percent confidence interval 1.21-5.04).

  9. Genetic regulation of growth in height and weight from 3 to 12 years of age: a longitudinal study of Dutch twin children.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Bartels, Meike; Posthuma, Daniëlle; Estourgie-van Burk, G Frederiek; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2007-04-01

    Human growth is a complex and poorly understood process. We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on height and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) based on maternal reports at 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 12 years of age in a large longitudinal cohort of Dutch twins (7755 complete twin pairs at age 3). Several multivariate variance component models for twins were fitted to the data using the Mx statistical package. The first-born twin was taller until age 10 and heavier until age 12 than the second-born co-twin. Heritability estimates were high for height (a(2) = .58-.91) and BMI (a(2) = .31-.82), but common and unshared environmental factors were also important. The phenotypic correlations across the ages for height and BMI were mainly explained by correlated additive genetic factors (r(a) = .77-.96 for height and .43-.92 for BMI), but common (r(c) = .40-.84 and .09-.78, respectively) and specific environmental correlations (r(e) = .50-.81 and .42-.80, respectively) were also significant. Additive genetic factors decreased with increasing age difference for both height and BMI. However, the full Cholesky model, which does not make any assumptions regarding the underlying genetic structure, had the best fit. High genetic correlations across the ages, especially for height, may help further molecular genetic studies of human growth. Environmental factors affecting height and BMI during growth period are also important, and further studies are needed to identify these factors and test whether they interact with genetic factors.

  10. Height and weight bias: the influence of time.

    PubMed

    Shiely, Frances; Hayes, Kevin; Perry, Ivan J; Kelleher, C Cecily

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified in a study of both self-reported body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured BMI that the sensitivity score in the obese category has declined over a 10-year period. It is known that self-reported weight is significantly lower that measured weight and that self-reported height is significantly higher than measured height. The purpose of this study is to establish if self-reported height bias or weight bias, or both, is responsible for the declining sensitivity in the obese category between self-reported and clinically measured BMI. We report on self-reported and clinically measured height and weight from three waves of the Surveys of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) involving a nationally representative sample of Irish adults. Data were available from 66 men and 142 women in 1998, 147 men and 184 women in 2002 and 909 men and 1128 women in 2007. Respondents were classified into BMI categories normal (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-<30 kg/m(2)) and obese (≥30 kg/m(2)). Self-reported height bias has remained stable over time regardless of gender, age or clinical BMI category. Self-reported weight bias increases over time for both genders and in all age groups. The increased weight bias is most notable in the obese category. BMI underestimation is increasing across time. Knowledge that the widening gap between self-reported BMI and measured BMI is attributable to an increased weight bias brings us one step closer to accurately estimating true obesity levels in the population using self-reported data.

  11. Height and Weight Bias: The Influence of Time

    PubMed Central

    Shiely, Frances; Hayes, Kevin; Perry, Ivan J.; Kelleher, C. Cecily

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously identified in a study of both self-reported body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured BMI that the sensitivity score in the obese category has declined over a 10-year period. It is known that self-reported weight is significantly lower that measured weight and that self-reported height is significantly higher than measured height. The purpose of this study is to establish if self-reported height bias or weight bias, or both, is responsible for the declining sensitivity in the obese category between self-reported and clinically measured BMI. Methods We report on self-reported and clinically measured height and weight from three waves of the Surveys of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) involving a nationally representative sample of Irish adults. Data were available from 66 men and 142 women in 1998, 147 men and 184 women in 2002 and 909 men and 1128 women in 2007. Respondents were classified into BMI categories normal (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25–<30 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Results Self-reported height bias has remained stable over time regardless of gender, age or clinical BMI category. Self-reported weight bias increases over time for both genders and in all age groups. The increased weight bias is most notable in the obese category. Conclusions BMI underestimation is increasing across time. Knowledge that the widening gap between self-reported BMI and measured BMI is attributable to an increased weight bias brings us one step closer to accurately estimating true obesity levels in the population using self-reported data. PMID:23372717

  12. Height and weight measurements of Ibadan school children.

    PubMed

    Walker, M B; Omotade, O O; Walker, O

    1996-09-01

    Height and weight measurements were carried out on three groups of Nigerian primary school children aged 6-12 years, in and around Ibadan. A total of 1,192 children was examined from three social classes as follows: (1) the educated elite group (n = 444); (2) the urban low socio-economic group (n = 366), and (3) the rural village group (n = 382). The school children from the educated elite group had the highest mean height and weight values while the school children from the rural group had the lowest values and the urban low socio-economic came in between the two. In the children of the educated elite class, mean heights and weights were higher than those of the international reference population (though not significantly so) only at ages 6-9 years. Malnutrition as indicated by wasting and stunting was prevalent among both rural and urban low socio-economic school children. The prevalence of wasting was 75.9% among the rural school children, while it was 62.5% among the urban low socio-economic children. The prevalence of stunting was 79.1% among the rural school children, while it was 62.9% among the urban low socio-economic school children. Neither stunting nor wasting was observed among the children of the elite educated group. This study has demonstrated that there has been no change with time in the pattern of differences of height and weight with respect to school children of various social classes.

  13. Body weight divided by squared knee height as an alternative to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Weight/height(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. Height, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with height loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with height loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal height or height at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two heights has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate height from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee height (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated height=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current height by their equations. Maximal height cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal height does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-height ratio; weight/height(2); the Quetelet's index. Height is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current height could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with height loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.

  14. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). In addition, we found a significant interaction of height with a prudent dietary pattern in relation to healthy aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society

  15. Height and weight of school children and adolescent girls and boys in Oslo 1970.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestöl, K; Wallöe, L

    1975-07-01

    Height and weight measurements of the school children of Oslo in 1970 (aged 7 to 19 years) are reported. Weights show considerably skewed distributions with long tails towards higher weights. Weight precentiles are calculated by interpolation in the empirical distributions. Percentiles and tables for both sexes, showing height for age, weight for height and weight for age, are presented. A comparison with existing Norwegian data from Sundal, 1956, Bergen shows that the application of statistics based on normal distribution for weight, has introduced considerable error in these percentiles. Oslo children in 1970 are taller by 5-6 cm at age eighteen, than USA (Iowa) standards and 4-5 cm taller compared to Tanner-s English percentiles. Oslo children are also taller than Swedish children, and have reached a stature higher than found in any other comparable study.

  16. Height and Weight of Children: Socioeconomic Status, United States. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, Number 119.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Peter V. V.; And Others

    This is the second report on height and weight of U.S. children, six to 11 years old, from Cycle II of the Health Examination Survey. The first report analyzed and discussed data on height and weight by age, sex, race, and geographic region. This second report carries the analysis and discussion of height and weight data further by considering…

  17. [Saarland Growth Study: analyses of body composition of children, aged 3 to 11 years. Measurement of height, weight, girth (abdomen, upper arm, calf) and skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular,suprailiacal, abdominal) and bioelectric impedance (BIA)].

    PubMed

    Weinand, C; Müller, S; Zabransky, S; Danker-Hopfe, H

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to set up current reference charts of anthropometric data in the Saarland. Only national and international data were available to be compared but no former Saarland charts could be found. In the period between 1994 and 1995 we investigated children of 3 to 11 years in a cross-sectional study. Therefore we measured body height, weight, circumferences, skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). No significant gender differences were found for body height and weight. Boys of all groups of age showed bigger abdominal circumferences than girls of the same age. On the other hand upper-arm and calf-girth of younger girls were larger than that from boys. In higher age groups circumferences become rather equal. The skinfolds of Saarland girls are thicker than those of boys. The urban rural comparison indicated no significant differences. Nor was any social divergence found among the aforementioned parameters. Regarding height Saarland children are seen to be similar or somewhat shorter than those examined in national or international studies. By the way, in higher percentiles the children in our study were heavier. Thus high BMI values of our study are bigger compared with former studies. According to the definition of obesity by the ECOG almost 20 to 30% of our children are obese. The older children become the higher is the percentage of obesity. Comparing girls and boys, bioelectrical impedance shows higher values for girls. In higher age classes resistance levels gets smaller, in boys more so than in girls. Body fat estimated by a formula based on BIA test parameters yielded negative values. So we propose the use of sex- and age-specific raw charts of BIA test parameters.

  18. A Comparison of Height, Weight, and Triceps Skinfold Thickness of Children Ages 5-12 in Michigan (1978), Forsyth County North Carolina (1978), and HANES I (1971-1974)

    PubMed Central

    Diseker, Robert A.; Michielutte, Robert; Ureda, John R.; Schey, Harry M.; Corbett, Wayne

    1982-01-01

    Height, weight, and triceps skinfold measurements were made on 1,668 Forsyth County, North Carolina students ages 5-12 during 1978. These data were compared to a representative sample of Michigan children taken during the same year and to their United States counterparts in HANES I (1971-74). The North Carolina children more closely resembled their US counterparts than did the Michigan group, casting doubt on the secular trend toward heavier children suggested by the Michigan researchers. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:730-733.) PMID:7091467

  19. Height, weight, and education achievement in rural Peru.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Santiago

    2005-06-01

    The education system in Peru and many other developing countries faces several challenges, including improving education achievement and increasing education enrollment in high school. It is clear from several indicators that rural students have lower education outcomes than do urban students. In this study we used cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to determine the relationship between height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), body-mass index (BMI), and education outcomes. The sample was composed of students from 20 elementary public schools in two rural zones in Peru. The descriptive results show that there was no association between any of the anthropometric variables and achievement (mathematics and reading comprehension) or advancing to high school without repeating a grade. However, BMI was associated with dropping out of school: children with higher BMI in 1998 were more likely to be out of school by 2001. The hierarchical multivariate analysis also showed no relationship between anthropometry and achievement at the individual level, but students with relatively higher HAZ in 1998 were more likely to be drop-outs by 2001. These results contradict prior findings that showed a positive association between anthropometric variables (especially HAZ) and education achievement. The results might be explained by the fact that the study was carried out at very poor sites, at altitudes between 3000 and 3500 meters above sea level. The scarce studies about development in high altitudes suggest that the patterns for height and weight for children and adolescents are different than at sea level. Another possible explanation has to do with the fact that in the contexts studied, children who are perceived as relatively heavier (BMI) or taller (HAZ) might be expected to be out of school and start working (in fact, this was the primary reason given by children for dropping out of school).

  20. Comparison of spinal anesthesia dosage based on height and weight versus height alone in patients undergoing elective cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Khalid Maudood; Ullah, Hameed

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, typically used for elective and emergency cesarean section, is associated with a significant incidence of hypotension resulting from sympathetic blockade. A variety of dosing regimens have been used to administer spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension following two different fixed dosing regimens. Methods This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial with a two-sided design, 5% significance level and 80% power. After approval of the hospital ethics review committee, 60 patients were divided randomly into two groups. In one group, the local anesthetic dose was adjusted according to height and weight, and in the other, the dose was adjusted according to height only. Results Sixty women with a singleton pregnancy were included. Of the factors that could affect dose and blood pressure, including age, weight, height, and dose, only height differed between the groups. Mean heart rate was similar between the groups. Hypotension was significantly more frequent with dosage based on height alone than with two-factor dose calculation (56.7% vs. 26.7%; P = 0.018). Conclusions Adjusting the dose of isobaric bupivacaine to a patient's height and weight provides adequate anesthesia for elective cesarean section and is associated with a decreased incidence and severity of maternal hypotension and less use of ephedrine. PMID:27066205

  1. Association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of body weight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturation with excess body weight and height in children and adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Florianópolis city, Brazil, in 2007, with 2339 school children, aged 8–14 years (1107 males). Selection was based on a probabilistic, cluster-stratified sampling technique. School children were classified according to the presence of excess body weight, using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoff points. Z-scores were calculated from height and BMI data. Sexual maturation was self-assessed according to Tanner stages of development. Subjects were ranked based on tertiles of sexual maturation (early, normal and late) for each stage of development. Poisson and linear regression models were used. Results Compared to the reference group (normal sexual maturation), early maturing females had higher prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.33) and increased height-for-age (adjusted β: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59), while late maturing females had lower prevalence of excess weight (adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.87) and decreased height-for-age (adjusted β: −0.38; 95% CI: −0.56 to −0.20). In males, early and late sexual maturation were associated with increased (adjusted β: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.59) and decreased (adjusted β: −0.38; 95% CI: −0.56 to −0.20) height-for-age, respectively. Conclusion Early sexual maturation is associated with excess body weight in females and with greater height-for-age in both sexes. PMID:24625111

  2. [Method of determining body thickness from weight and height].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-20

    With attention given to the fact that information on weight and height is available in advance from electronic medical charts, we devised a method for determining body thickness on the basis of a simple calculation. The formula is as follows: body thickness=weight(a) x height(b) xf. In order to obtain body thickness from the above formula, it is necessary to determine optimal factors of a, b, and f. Therefore, the formula is modified to give f=body thickness/weight(a) x height(b). Then, a multiplier of a with b is changed to determine a combination in which f is varied to the smallest extent. Every site of the body is checked to find that an optimal multiplier of a with b is weight(0.6) x height(-0.8). This multiplier is applicable to all sites of the body. Then, f is given as a median of 15 to 74 cases in which calculation is made for each case based on the formula of weight(0.6) x height(-0.8) and the body thickness. A difference between calculation values and measured values is equivalent to the variation of f in which the median is given as 100%. The variation of f at all sites of the body is 3% to 11% in terms of average absolute deviation. The calculation difference is obtained by the formula of body thickness x average absolute deviation. Where the calculation difference is within the above range, clinical practices will be influenced to a small extent. Thus, this study will provide an effective method for determining body thickness.

  3. Influence of maternal pregravid weight, height and body mass index on birth weight of male and female newborns.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Tomislav; Stoini, Eugenio

    2005-06-01

    The study included 2300 healthy couples and their healthy newborns delivered vaginally from singleton, normal term (37-42 weeks) pregnancies in Sibenik, Zadar and Split (Croatia). Both fathers and mothers of male newborns were older and had a higher weight than those of female newborns (p < 0.05). Gestational age and birth weight were higher in male than female newborns (p < 0.001). Increasing maternal pregravid weight led to increasing birth weight of both male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Furthermore, increasing maternal height and body mass index resulted in increasing birth weight of male and female newborns (p < 0.001). Thus, the fathers and mothers of male infants were older than those of female infants (p < 0.05), and increasing pre-gravid body weight, body height and body mass index were associated with a higher birth weight in both male and female newborns.

  4. Parent-Reported Height and Weight as Sources of Bias in Survey Estimates of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Weden, Margaret M.; Brownell, Peter B.; Rendall, Michael S.; Lau, Christopher; Fernandes, Meenakshi; Nazarov, Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Parental reporting of height and weight was evaluated for US children aged 2–13 years. The prevalence of obesity (defined as a body mass index value (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) in the 95th percentile or higher) and its height and weight components were compared in child supplements of 2 nationally representative surveys: the 1996–2008 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (NLSY79-Child) and the 1997 Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID-CDS). Sociodemographic differences in parent reporting error were analyzed. Error was largest for children aged 2–5 years. Underreporting of height, not overreporting of weight, generated a strong upward bias in obesity prevalence at those ages. Frequencies of parent-reported heights below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (Atlanta, Georgia) first percentile were implausibly high at 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.3, 19.0) in the NLSY79-Child and 20.6% (95% CI: 16.0, 26.3) in the PSID-CDS. They were highest among low-income children at 33.2% (95% CI: 22.4, 46.1) in the PSID-CDS and 26.2% (95% CI: 20.2, 33.2) in the NLSY79-Child. Bias in the reporting of obesity decreased with children's age and reversed direction at ages 12–13 years. Underreporting of weight increased with age, and underreporting of height decreased with age. We recommend caution to researchers who use parent-reported heights, especially for very young children, and offer practical solutions for survey data collection and research on child obesity. PMID:23785115

  5. Parent-reported height and weight as sources of bias in survey estimates of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Weden, Margaret M; Brownell, Peter B; Rendall, Michael S; Lau, Christopher; Fernandes, Meenakshi; Nazarov, Zafar

    2013-08-01

    Parental reporting of height and weight was evaluated for US children aged 2-13 years. The prevalence of obesity (defined as a body mass index value (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in the 95th percentile or higher) and its height and weight components were compared in child supplements of 2 nationally representative surveys: the 1996-2008 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (NLSY79-Child) and the 1997 Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID-CDS). Sociodemographic differences in parent reporting error were analyzed. Error was largest for children aged 2-5 years. Underreporting of height, not overreporting of weight, generated a strong upward bias in obesity prevalence at those ages. Frequencies of parent-reported heights below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (Atlanta, Georgia) first percentile were implausibly high at 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.3, 19.0) in the NLSY79-Child and 20.6% (95% CI: 16.0, 26.3) in the PSID-CDS. They were highest among low-income children at 33.2% (95% CI: 22.4, 46.1) in the PSID-CDS and 26.2% (95% CI: 20.2, 33.2) in the NLSY79-Child. Bias in the reporting of obesity decreased with children's age and reversed direction at ages 12-13 years. Underreporting of weight increased with age, and underreporting of height decreased with age. We recommend caution to researchers who use parent-reported heights, especially for very young children, and offer practical solutions for survey data collection and research on child obesity.

  6. Sex differences in fetal growth responses to maternal height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in fetal growth have been reported, but how this happens remains to be described. It is unknown if fetal growth rates, a reflection of genetic and environmental factors, express sexually dimorphic sensitivity to the mother herself. This analysis investigated homogeneity of male and female growth responses to maternal height and weight. The study sample included 3495 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies followed longitudinally. Analytic models regressed fetal and neonatal weight on tertiles of maternal height and weight, and modification by sex was investigated (n=1814 males, n=1681 females) with birth gestational age, maternal parity and smoking as covariates. Sex modified the effects of maternal height and weight on fetal growth rates and birth weight. Among boys, tallest maternal height influenced fetal weight growth prior to 18 gestational weeks of age (p=0.006), pre-pregnancy maternal weight and BMI subsequently had influence (p<0.001); this was not found among girls. Additionally, interaction terms between sex, maternal height, and maternal weight identified that males were more sensitive to maternal weight among shorter mothers (p=0.003), and more responsive to maternal height among lighter mothers (p<=0.03), compared to females. Likewise, neonatal birth weight dimorphism varied by maternal phenotype. A male advantage of 60 grams occurred among neonates of the shortest and lightest mothers (p=0.08), compared to 150 and 191 grams among short and heavy mothers, and tall and light weight mothers, respectively (p=0.01). Sex differences in response to maternal size are underappreciated sources of variation in fetal growth studies and may reflect differential growth strategies. PMID:19950190

  7. Evaluation of bias in estimates of early childhood obesity from parent-reported heights and weights.

    PubMed

    Rendall, Michael S; Weden, Margaret M; Lau, Christopher; Brownell, Peter; Nazarov, Zafar; Fernandes, Meenakshi

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated bias in estimated obesity prevalence owing to error in parental reporting. We also evaluated bias mitigation through application of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's biologically implausible value (BIV) cutoffs. We simulated obesity prevalence of children aged 2 to 5 years in 2 panel surveys after counterfactually substituting parameters estimated from 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for prevalence of extreme height and weight and for proportions obese in extreme height or weight categories. Heights reported below the first and fifth height-for-age percentiles explained between one half and two thirds, respectively, of total bias in obesity prevalence. Bias was reduced by one tenth when excluding cases with height-for-age and weight-for-age BIVs and by one fifth when excluding cases with body mass-index-for-age BIVs. Applying BIVs, however, resulted in incorrect exclusion of nonnegligible proportions of obese children. Correcting the reporting of children's heights in the first percentile alone may reduce overestimation of early childhood obesity prevalence in surveys with parental reporting by one half to two thirds. Excluding BIVs has limited effectiveness in mitigating this bias.

  8. Evaluation of Bias in Estimates of Early Childhood Obesity From Parent-Reported Heights and Weights

    PubMed Central

    Weden, Margaret M.; Lau, Christopher; Brownell, Peter; Nazarov, Zafar; Fernandes, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated bias in estimated obesity prevalence owing to error in parental reporting. We also evaluated bias mitigation through application of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s biologically implausible value (BIV) cutoffs. Methods. We simulated obesity prevalence of children aged 2 to 5 years in 2 panel surveys after counterfactually substituting parameters estimated from 1999–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for prevalence of extreme height and weight and for proportions obese in extreme height or weight categories. Results. Heights reported below the first and fifth height-for-age percentiles explained between one half and two thirds, respectively, of total bias in obesity prevalence. Bias was reduced by one tenth when excluding cases with height-for-age and weight-for-age BIVs and by one fifth when excluding cases with body mass–index-for-age BIVs. Applying BIVs, however, resulted in incorrect exclusion of nonnegligible proportions of obese children. Conclusions. Correcting the reporting of children’s heights in the first percentile alone may reduce overestimation of early childhood obesity prevalence in surveys with parental reporting by one half to two thirds. Excluding BIVs has limited effectiveness in mitigating this bias. PMID:24832432

  9. Secular trends in height and weight among children and adolescents of the Seychelles, 1956–2006

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Madeleine, George; Romain, Sarah; Gabriel, Anne; Bovet, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Background Height of individuals has long been considered as a significant index of nutrition and health of a population; still, there is little information regarding the trends of height and weight among developing or transitional countries. We assessed the secular trends in height and weight in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing island state in the Indian Ocean (African region). Methods Height and weight were measured in all students of all schools in four selected school grades (kindergarten, 4th, 7th and 10th grades) for the periods 1998–9 (6391 children) and 2005–6 (8582 children). Data for 1956–7 was extracted from a previously published report. Results At age 15.5 years, boys/girls were on average 10/13 cm taller and 15/9 kg heavier in 2005–6 than in 1956–7. Height increased in boys/girls by 1.62/0.93 cm/decade between 1956–7 and 1998–9 and by 1.14/1.82 cm/decade between 1998–9 and 2005–6. For weight, the linear increase in boys/girls was 1.38/1.10 kg/decade between 1956–7 and 1998–9 and 2.21/2.50 kg/decade between 1998–9 and 2005–6. Overall, the relative increase in weight between 1956–7 and 2005–6 was 5-fold higher than the relative increase in height. Conclusion Height and weight increased markedly over time in children aged <16 years in the Seychelles, consistent with large changes in socio-economic and nutritional indicators in the considered 50-year interval. The markedly steeper increase in weight than height over time is consistent with an epidemic of overweight and obesity. PMID:18489755

  10. Weight-bearing shifts of hemiparetic and healthy adults upon stepping on stairs of various heights.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Y; Dickstein, R; Resnik, S; Marcovitz, E

    2000-04-01

    To examine and compare the effect of stepping on stairs of various heights on lower extremity weight bearing in hemiparetic patients. Flieman Geriatric Rehabilitation Hospital, Haifa, Israel. Fifteen ambulatory hemiparetic patients following an acute cerebrovascular accident, and 16 age-matched healthy controls. Each subject was tested twice on two consecutive days in five weight-bearing positions which included level stance and stepping with either leg on 10-cm- and 17-cm-high steps. Data concerning weight distribution on the lower extremities were collected by two computerized forceplates. Weight borne by each foot expressed as percentage of overall body weight. In the attempted symmetrical level stance, the percentage of body weight borne by the paretic limb of the stroke patients was significantly lower than that of the nonparetic limb. Placing one foot on a step induced a weight shift to the foot placed on the floor regardless of step height. Weight shifting to the paretic limb was, however, significantly lower than to the nonparetic limb. Weight shifting to the nonparetic limb was significantly lower than to the corresponding limb of healthy individuals. Step height had no significant effect on weight distributions on the feet. Raising a foot on a step appears to be an appropriate strategy for weight shift training of stroke patients. Since weight shifting to both the paretic and nonparetic limb of stroke patients is impaired, treatment strategies should include training in weight shifting to both lower extremities.

  11. Height prediction equations for even-aged upland oak stands

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Hilt; Martin E. Dale

    1982-01-01

    Forest growth models that use predicted tree diameters or diameter distributions require a reliable height-prediction model to obtain volume estimates because future height-diameter relationships will not necessarily be the same as the present height-diameter relationship. A total tree height prediction equation for even-aged upland oak stands is presented. Predicted...

  12. Height-age and height-diameter relationships for monocultures and mixtures of eastern cottonwood clones

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Knowe; G. Sam Foster; Randall J. Rousseau; Warren L Nance

    1998-01-01

    Data from an eastern cottonwood clonal mixing study in Mississippi and Kentucky, USA, were used to test the effects of planting locations and genetics (clonal proportions) on height-age and height-d.b.h. functions. Planting locations, which accounted for 5.6 percent of the variation in observed dominant height growth (p = 0.0001), were more important than clonal...

  13. Health, Height, Height Shrinkage, and SES at Older Ages: Evidence from China†

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Ridder, Geert; Strauss, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we build on the literature that examines associations between height and health outcomes of the elderly. We investigate the associations of height shrinkage at older ages with socioeconomic status, finding that height shrinkage for both men and women is negatively associated with better schooling, current urban residence, and household per capita expenditures. We then investigate the relationships between pre-shrinkage height, height shrinkage, and a rich set of health outcomes of older respondents, finding that height shrinkage is positively associated with poor health outcomes across a variety of outcomes, being especially strong for cognition outcomes. PMID:26594311

  14. Genetic parameters for body weight, hip height, and the ratio of weight to hip height from random regression analyses of Brahman feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the genetic control of BW, hip height, and the ratio of BW to hip height (n = 5,055) in Brahman cattle through 170 d on feed using covariance function-random regression models. A progeny test of Brahman sires (n = 27) generated records of Brahman steers and heifers (n = 724) over 7 yr. Each year after weaning, calves were assigned to feedlot pens, where they were fed a high-concentrate grain diet. Body weights and hip heights were recorded every 28 d until cattle reached a targeted fatness level. All calves had records through 170 d on feed; subsequent records were excluded. Models included contemporary group (sex-pen-year combinations, n = 63) and age at the beginning of the feeding period as a covariate. The residual error structure was modeled as a random effect, with 2 levels corresponding to two 85-d periods on feed. Information criterion values indicated that linear, random regression coefficients on Legendre polynomials of days on feed were most appropriate to model additive genetic effects for all 3 traits. Cubic (hip height and BW:hip height ratio) or quartic (BW) polynomials best modeled permanent environmental effects. Estimates of heritability across the 170-d feeding period ranged from 0.31 to 0.53 for BW, from 0.37 to 0.53 for hip height, and from 0.23 to 0.6 for BW:hip height ratio. Estimates of the permanent environmental proportion of phenotypic variance ranged from 0.44 to 0.58 for BW, 0.07 to 0.26 for hip height, and 0.30 to 0.48 for BW:hip height ratio. Within-trait estimates of genetic correlation on pairs of days on feed (at 28-d intervals) indicated lower associations of BW:hip height ratio EBV early and late in the feeding period but large positive associations for BW or hip height EBV throughout. Estimates of genetic correlations among the 3 traits indicated almost no association of BW:hip height ratio and hip height EBV. The ratio of BW to hip height in cattle has previously been used as an

  15. Weight and height growth rate and the timing of adiposity rebound.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sheila M

    2005-06-01

    Adiposity rebound occurs when the ratio of the velocities of log(weight) to log(height) changes from <2 to >2. This study examined the timing of adiposity rebound in the context of the velocities of weight and height in early childhood because it is not known whether faster weight gain or slower gain in stature is the more important determinant. This was a longitudinal study of 406 boys and 397 girls born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973. Each child's height and weight were measured at 3 years of age and at least twice more as part of their two yearly assessments until 11 years of age. The mean age of adiposity rebound was 6.6+/-1.10 years (SD) for boys and 6.0+/-1.21 years for girls. After adjusting for sex, the correlations between the timing of rebound and z-scores for BMI, weight, and height at rebound were -0.35, -0.30, and -0.14, respectively. Correlations between the timing of rebound and estimated values of weight and height velocities at 3 years were -0.48 and -0.00. The correlations with BMI and waist girth at 26 years were -0.39 and -0.35. Children with an earlier adiposity rebound were heavier and had above average BMIs. Early rebound is the result of higher rates of weight gain, measured in percentage terms, rather than slower than average accrual of stature. This suggests that restraining weight gain could delay adiposity rebound and prevent obesity in early adulthood.

  16. Aortic and Hepatic Contrast Enhancement During Hepatic-Arterial and Portal Venous Phase Computed Tomography Scanning: Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis Using Age, Sex, Total Body Weight, Height, and Cardiac Output.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takanori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Funama, Yoshinori; Higaki, Toru; Kiguchi, Masao; Imada, Naoyuki; Sato, Tomoyasu; Awai, Kazuo

    We evaluated the effect of the age, sex, total body weight (TBW), height (HT) and cardiac output (CO) of patients on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement during hepatic-arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) computed tomography (CT) scanning. This prospective study received institutional review board approval; prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 168 patients. All were examined using our routine protocol; the contrast material was 600 mg/kg iodine. Cardiac output was measured with a portable electrical velocimeter within 5 minutes of starting the CT scan. We calculated contrast enhancement (per gram of iodine: [INCREMENT]HU/gI) of the abdominal aorta during the HAP and of the liver parenchyma during the PVP. We performed univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis between all patient characteristics and the [INCREMENT]HU/gI of aortic- and liver parenchymal enhancement. Univariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the [INCREMENT]HU/gI and the age, sex, TBW, HT, and CO (all P < 0.001). However, multivariate linear regression analysis showed that only the TBW and CO were of independent predictive value (P < 0.001). Also, only the CO was independently and negatively related to aortic enhancement during HAP and to liver parenchymal enhancement when the contrast material injection protocol was adjusted for the TBW (P < 0.001). By multivariate linear regression analysis only the TBW and CO were significantly correlated with aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement; the age, sex, and HT were not. The CO was the only independent factor affecting aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement at hepatic CT when the protocol was adjusted for the TBW.

  17. Height at diagnosis and birth-weight as risk factors for osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mirabello, Lisa; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Murphy, Gwen; Daw, Najat C.; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Troisi, Rebecca J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Douglass, Chester; Schüz, Joachim; Craft, Alan W.; Savage, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Osteosarcoma typically occurs during puberty. Studies of the association between height and/or birth-weight and osteosarcoma are conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a large pooled analysis of height and birth-weight in osteosarcoma. METHODS Patient data from 7 studies of height, and 3 of birth-weight were obtained, resulting in 1067 cases with height and 434 cases with birth-weight data. We compared cases to the 2000 US National Center for Health Statistics Growth Charts by simulating 1000 age and gender matched controls per case. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between height or birth-weight and risk of osteosarcoma for each study were estimated using logistic regression. All of the case data were combined for an aggregate analysis. RESULTS Compared to average birth-weight subjects (2665–4045g), individuals with high birth-weight (≥4046g) had an increased osteosarcoma risk (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.01–1.79). Taller than average (51st–89th percentile) and very tall individuals (≥90th percentile) had an increased risk of osteosarcoma (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.18–1.54, and OR 2.60, 95%CI 2.19–3.07, respectively; Ptrend <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS This is the largest analysis of height at diagnosis and birth-weight in relation to osteosarcoma. It suggests that rapid bone growth during puberty and in utero contributes to OS etiology. PMID:21465145

  18. Height and weight differences between North and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates height and weight differences between the two Koreas by comparing national anthropometric data published by the South Korean Research Institute of Standard and Science with United Nations survey data collected inside North Korea in 2002. For socioeconomic reasons, pre-school children raised in the developing country of North Korea are up to 13 cm shorter and up to 7 kg lighter than children who were brought up in South Korea--an OECD member. North Korean women were also found to weigh up to 9 kg less than their Southern counterparts.

  19. Validity of self-reported weight and height in the French GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Niedhammer, I; Bugel, I; Bonenfant, S; Goldberg, M; Leclerc, A

    2000-09-01

    To examine the validity of self-reported weight and height and the resulting body mass index (BMI), and to explore the associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors on the one hand and bias in self-reported weight and height on the other, in order to determine the groups most likely to exhibit bias. Prospective cohort study. 7350 middle-aged subjects, 5445 men and 1905 women, from the GAZEL cohort, who have been followed up since 1989 and work at the French national company Electricité De France-Gaz De France (EDF-GDF) in various occupations. Self-reported weight and height were based on information from yearly mailed questionnaires, and measured weight and height, used here as true values, were provided by occupational physicians from 1994 to 1997. Sex, age, marital status, education, occupation, history of ischemic heart disease, and treatment for cardiovascular risk factors were obtained from the mailed questionnaires or from data provided by the Company's personnel and medical departments. Strong correlations were found between measured and self-reported values, but self-reported weight and height displayed significant systematic errors. Weight was significantly underestimated for men (0.54 kg) and for women (0.85 kg), and height overestimated for men (0.38 cm) and women (0.40 cm). These biases led to significant underestimations of BMI (0.29 and 0.44 kg/m2 for men and women respectively). Consequently, the prevalence of overweight, defined as BMI > 26.9 kg/m2 for women and BMI > 27.2 kg/m2 for men, was also underestimated, by 13% for men and 17% for women. The five factors associated with bias in self-reported weight and height were: overweight status, end-digit preference, age, educational level and occupation. These findings suggest that self-reported weight and height should be treated with caution, because of biases leading to misclassification for overweight and obesity, especially in certain segments of the population.

  20. Nutritional and pubertal status influences accuracy of self-reported weight and height in adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, Laurent; Huybrechts, Inge; Ortega, Franscico B; Coopman, Stéphanie; Manios, Yannis; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Duhamel, Alain; Ciarapica, Donatella; Gilbert, Chantal C; Kafatos, Anthony; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors that have an effect on the accuracy of self-reported weight and height in adolescents. Weight and height of 3,865 European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 years were self-reported via specific questionnaire. Then real weight and height were measured using accurate equipment and standardized protocols. Differences (D) between self-reported and measured weight and height were calculated, and factors that could have influenced the accuracy of self-reported weight and height were assessed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Student's t test and multivariate regression. Adolescents underestimated their weight (D = -0.81 kg; n = 2,968) and overestimated their height (D = +0.74 cm; n = 3,308). Obese girls underestimated their weight (D = -4.70 kg) and overestimated their height (D = +0.22 cm) to a greater extent (p < 0.05) than obese boys (D = -3.13 kg and +0.14 cm for weight and height, respectively). Underestimation of weight (D = -1.25 kg) and overestimation of height (D = +0.15 cm) were only significant for girls who had finished puberty (Tanner stage 5). Socioeconomic status, nutritional knowledge, physical fitness, physical activity level, food choice and preference, and healthy eating behaviour had no significant influence on the accuracy of self-reported weight and height. Our data confirms that self-reports of weight and height made by adolescents are inaccurate and demonstrate that inaccuracy is strongly influenced by nutritional status, pubertal status and gender. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Self-reported versus actual weight and height data contribute to different weight misperception classifications.

    PubMed

    Dalton, William T; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi L; Schetzina, Karen E; Slawson, Deborah L

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine potential differences between two approaches to defining adolescent weight misperception. Specifically, weight status perception was compared with self-reported weight status and actual weight status (based on body mass index percentiles calculated from self-reported and actual weights and heights, respectively). Furthermore, the accuracy of assigning weight status based on body mass index percentiles calculated from self-reported weights and heights was assessed by comparing them with actual weight status. Data were extracted from Team Up for Healthy Living, an 8-week, school-based obesity prevention program in southern Appalachia. Participants (N = 1509) were predominately white (93.4%) and ninth graders (89.5%), with approximately equivalent representation of both sexes (50.7% boys). The study revealed significant differences between the approaches to defining weight misperception (χ(2) = 16.2; P = 0.0003). Researchers should interpret study findings with awareness of potential differences based on the method of calculating weight misperception.

  2. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  3. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  4. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  5. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  6. Analysis of web height ratios according to age and sex.

    PubMed

    Sari, Elif

    2015-06-01

    Each component of the web space, a three-dimensional structure, should be carefully created during reconstruction of web space loss. One of these web space components is the web height. In this study, the dorsal view of subjects' hands was analyzed to determine the web height ratios. The web height ratios were then compared with respect to age and sex. The second and third web height ratios differed between adult men and women and between children and adults. However, no differences were observed among children. This study is unique because it focuses on the web height ratios of all web spaces according to age and sex and provides a very easy-to-use scale that may help surgeons to perform web space reconstruction. Moreover, the present study adds to the literature by providing information on the first web height ratios of the hand.

  7. Validation of self-reported weights and heights in the avoiding diabetes after pregnancy trial (ADAPT).

    PubMed

    Paez, Kathryn A; Griffey, Susan J; Thompson, Jennifer; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-05-13

    Randomized controlled trials that test the effectiveness of mobile health-based weight loss programs are attractive to participants, funders, and researchers because of the low implementation cost, minimal participant burden, and the ability to recruit participants from longer distances. Collecting weight data from geographically dispersed participants is a challenge. Relying on participant self-report is one approach to data collection, but epidemiologic studies indicate that self-reported anthropometric data may be inaccurate. We provided women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of postpartum weight loss after gestational diabetes with a digital scale and training to collect and report weight via a web-based survey. To validate self-reported weights and heights, we visited 30 randomly selected women in their homes, with a reference scale and stadiometer, a mean of 34 days after the self-report. We ran linear regression models to identify characteristics that were associated with underreporting or overreporting of anthropometric measures. Of the 30 women we visited, 11 women (37%) were assigned to the weight loss intervention group and 19 women (63%) were in the control group. Mean age was 38.5 years (SD 4.5). The overall mean difference between participants' self-reported weights and the weights obtained at their home visit was 0.70 kg (+1.92). Women assigned to the intervention group underreported their weight in comparison with the control group by 1.29 kg (95% CI -2.52, -0.06). The overall difference in collected to self-reported height was -0.56 cm (±1.91). No characteristics were associated with underreporting or overreporting of height. Our research suggests that by providing a digital scale and developing a weight collection protocol, researchers can train women to collect and record their own study weights with reasonable validity. To achieve the level of validity required for clinical trials, researchers should consider additional

  8. Differences in height and weight between children living in neighbourhoods of different socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Jansen, W; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, A A

    1997-02-01

    Data on height, weight and pubertal development of 8596 Dutch children were taken to study differences in health status between children living in neighbourhoods of different socioeconomic level in Rotterdam. The data were obtained during regular school medical examinations of children aged 5, 7, 11 and 14 years. Children living in poor neighbourhoods appeared to be shorter than children living in rich neighbourhoods. Overweight appeared to be more prevalent amongst children living in poorer neighbourhoods.

  9. Beyond height and weight: a programme of school nurse assessed skinfold measurements from white British and South Asian origin children aged 4–5 years within the Born in Bradford cohort study

    PubMed Central

    West, Jane; Santorelli, Gillian; Lennon, Laura; O'Connell, Kathy; Corkett, John; Wright, John; Brierley, Shirley; Whincup, Peter; Cameron, Noel; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the feasibility, reliability and additional information gained from collecting additional body fatness measures (beyond height and weight) from UK reception year children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Bradford, UK. Participants 2458 reception year children participating in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. Main outcome measures The feasibility and reliability of subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and differences in adiposity between ethnic groups. Results Of those children who were matched to their school, 91% had a subscapular skinfold measurement and 92% had a triceps skinfold measurement recorded. Reliability was generally over 90% for all measurers and both measurements. Pakistani children were slightly taller but weighed less and had lower triceps skinfold thickness (mean difference −1.8 mm, 95% CI −2.1 to −1.4 mm) but higher subscapular (mean difference 0.1 mm, 95% CI −0.1 to 0.4 mm) than white British children. Conclusions We have shown that it is feasible for school nurses to collect skinfold measurements in a similar way to the height and weight measurements collected from reception year children for the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and that these measurements are reliable. It is important for healthcare practice to acknowledge ethnic-specific risk and these additional measurements can provide important information to examine population-level risk in populations with large proportions of South Asian children. PMID:26610758

  10. Changes in Spinal Canal Diameter and Vertebral Body Height with Age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose All structures of the spine, including the spinal canal, change continuously with age. The purpose of this study was to determine how the spinal canal of the lumbar spine changes with age. The L4/5 is the most common site of spinal stenosis and has the largest flexion-extension motion, whereas the T5/6 has the least motion. Therefore, we measured the spinal canal diameter and vertebral body height at T5, T6, L4, and L5 with age. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of aged 40 to 77 years. We reviewed whole spine sagittal MRIs of 370 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (Group 2) and 166 herniated cervical disc (HCD) (Group 1). Each group was divided into four age groups, and demographic parameters (age, gender, height, weight, BMI), the mid-spinal canal diameter, and mid-vertebrae height at T5, T6, L4, L5 were compared. Within- and between-group comparisons were made to evaluate changes by age and correlations were carried out to evaluate the relationships between all parameters. Results Height, weight, and all radiologic parameters were significantly lower in Group 2 than Group 1. Group 1 did not show any differences, when based on age, but in Group 2, height, weight, and T6, L4, and L5 height were significantly decreased in patients in their 70's than patients in their 40's, except for spinal canal diameter. Age was associated with all parameters except spinal canal diameter. Conclusion Vertebral height decreased with age, but spinal canal diameter did not change in patients with either LSS or HCD. Mid-spinal canal diameter was not affected by aging. PMID:24142657

  11. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    PubMed

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.

  12. Height, weight, and aerobic fitness in relation to risk of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-06-21

    Tall stature or obesity has been associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but reported effects of aerobic fitness have been conflicting. A national cohort study was conducted to examine interactions between height or weight and aerobic fitness among 1,547,478 Swedish military conscripts during 1969-1997 (97-98% of all 18-year-old males) in relation to AF identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximum age 62). Increased height, weight, or aerobic fitness (but not muscular strength) at age 18 was associated with higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness (relative excess risk due to interaction between height and aerobic fitness, highest vs. lowest tertiles: 0.51; 95% CI, 0.40-0.62; ratio of hazard ratios: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.34-1.65). High aerobic fitness was associated with increased risk among men with height ≥186 cm (6 feet 1 inch), but was protective among shorter men. Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness had the highest risk (highest vs. lowest tertiles: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.61-1.80). These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Concordance of self-report and measured height and weight of college students.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shoff, Suzanne; White, Adrienne A; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Phillips, Beatrice; Hoerr, Sharon L; Greene, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between college students' self-report and measured height and weight. Participants (N = 1,686) were 77% white, 62% female, aged 18-24 years (mean ± SD, 19.1 ± 1.1 years), and enrolled at 8 US universities. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for self-report (via online survey); trained researchers measured height and weight and categorized them as normal (18.5 to < 25), overweight (25 to < 30), obese (30 to < 35), and morbidly obese (≥ 35). Concordance of self-report vs objectively measured BMI groups using chi-square revealed that 93% were accurate, 4% were underestimated, and 2.7% were overestimated. Pearson correlations and adjusted linear regression revealed significant associations between self-report and measured BMI (r = .97; P < .001) and BMI adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity (R² = .94). Concordance was also high between BMI categories (kappa = 0.77; P < .001). Findings provide support for the utility of self-report height and weight for survey research in college students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Colombian reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    PubMed

    Durán, Paola; Merker, Andrea; Briceño, Germán; Colón, Eugenia; Line, Dionne; Abad, Verónica; Del Toro, Kenny; Chahín, Silvia; Matallana, Audrey Mary; Lema, Adriana; Llano, Mauricio; Céspedes, Jaime; Hagenäs, Lars

    2016-03-01

    Published Growth studies from Latin America are limited to growth references from Argentina and Venezuela. The aim of this study was to construct reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference of Colombian children in a format that is useful for following the growth of the individual child and as a tool for public health. Prospective measurements from 27 209 Colombian children from middle and upper socio-economic level families were processed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Descriptive statistics for length and height, weight, BMI and head circumference for age are given as raw and smoothed values. Final height was 172.3 cm for boys and 159.4 cm for girls. Weight at 18 years of age was 64.0 kg for boys and 54 kg for girls. Growth curves are presented in a ± 3 SD format using logarithmic axes. The constructed reference growth curves are a start for following secular trends in Colombia and are also in the presented layout an optimal clinical tool for health care. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Concordance of self-report and measured height and weight of college students

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shoff, Suzanne; White, Adrienne A.; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Kattlemann, Kendra; Phillips, Beatrice; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Greene, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined associations between college students’ self-report and measured height and weight. Methods Participants (N=1686) were 77% White, 62% female, 18–24yr of age (mean 19.1±1.1SD), and enrolled at 8 U.S. universities. BMI was calculated for self-report (via online survey) and measured (taken by trained researchers) height and weight, and categorized as normal (18.5 to <25), overweight (25 to <30), obese (30 to <35), and morbidly obese (≥35). Results Concordance of self-report vs. objectively measured BMI groups using Chi-square revealed 93% were accurate, 4% underestimated, and 2.7% overestimated. Pearson correlations and adjusted linear regression revealed significant associations between self-report and measured BMI (r = 0.97, P < .001) and BMI adjusted for age, gender and race/ethnicity (R2=0.94). Concordance was also high between BMI categories (κ = 0.77, P < .001). Conclusions and Implications Findings provide support for the utility of self-report height and weight for survey research in college students. PMID:25316656

  16. [Growth in weight and height in children less than two years old in the IMSS].

    PubMed

    González-Unzaga, Marco; Martínez-Andrade, Gloria; Maya, Juan Luis; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; Turnbull, Bernardo; Flores, Sergio; Duque, Ximena; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Martínez-Salgado, Homero

    2007-01-01

    To describe the physical growth in weight and height of children less than two years of age cared for the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A population-based National Survey, which was also regional representative, was carried out in Ordinary Regime (RO) and the IMSS-Oportunidades Program (IO). In two years (2000-2002) the study gathered data on 17,502 children from the RO and 9872 from IO. The measures of weight and length were made by nurses, according to WHO criteria. Growth is reported as weight and length for each month of age and gender, in tables and percentile curves derived from quintile regressions, using a third degree polynomial to smooth out the lines. The trends of the means of weight and height in the first two years of life in children cared by Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social show a pattern similar to those described in healthy children in other populations. However, the values are lower than those obtained in developed countries. Children's growth at two years of age at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social shows a curve that is lower than that of the reference population recommended by the World Health Organization as an international standard.

  17. [Weight and height validation for diagnosis of adult nutritional status in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida da; Araújo, Cora Luíza; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Aluisio J D; Lima, Maurício Silva de

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height for predicting adult nutritional status. In a cross-sectional study of 3,934 adults (> 20 years) in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, a sub-sample of 140 individuals was drawn and weight and height were measured. From the comparison between "measured" and "reported" BMI, the average reported BMI error was estimated and the associated factors were identified. Regardless of nutritional status, women underestimated their "reported" BMI, while in men this information was accurate. Among women, age and income were associated with underestimated BMI in a multivariate analysis. Thus, women over 50 and with lower income underestimated BMI by more than 2 kg/m2. The use of "reported" BMI to predict adult nutritional status can underestimate prevalence of obesity and overestimate that of overweight in women. Correction minimizes this kind of bias, thereby making the data more accurate.

  18. Beyond height and weight: a programme of school nurse assessed skinfold measurements from white British and South Asian origin children aged 4-5 years within the Born in Bradford cohort study.

    PubMed

    West, Jane; Santorelli, Gillian; Lennon, Laura; O'Connell, Kathy; Corkett, John; Wright, John; Brierley, Shirley; Whincup, Peter; Cameron, Noel; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2015-11-26

    To describe the feasibility, reliability and additional information gained from collecting additional body fatness measures (beyond height and weight) from UK reception year children. Prospective cohort study. Bradford, UK. 2458 reception year children participating in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. The feasibility and reliability of subscapular and triceps skinfold measurements and differences in adiposity between ethnic groups. Of those children who were matched to their school, 91% had a subscapular skinfold measurement and 92% had a triceps skinfold measurement recorded. Reliability was generally over 90% for all measurers and both measurements. Pakistani children were slightly taller but weighed less and had lower triceps skinfold thickness (mean difference -1.8 mm, 95% CI -2.1 to -1.4 mm) but higher subscapular (mean difference 0.1 mm, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.4 mm) than white British children. We have shown that it is feasible for school nurses to collect skinfold measurements in a similar way to the height and weight measurements collected from reception year children for the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and that these measurements are reliable. It is important for healthcare practice to acknowledge ethnic-specific risk and these additional measurements can provide important information to examine population-level risk in populations with large proportions of South Asian children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Agreement between routine and research measurement of infant height and weight.

    PubMed

    Bryant, M; Santorelli, G; Fairley, L; Petherick, E S; Bhopal, R; Lawlor, D A; Tilling, K; Howe, L D; Farrar, D; Cameron, N; Mohammed, M; Wright, J

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, routine data relating to growth of infants are collected as a means of tracking health and illness up to school age. These have potential to be used in research. For health monitoring and research, data should be accurate and reliable. This study aimed to determine the agreement between length/height and weight measurements from routine infant records and researcher-collected data. Height/length and weight at ages 6, 12 and 24 months from the longitudinal UK birth cohort (born in Bradford; n=836-1280) were compared with routine data collected by health visitors within 2 months of the research data (n=104-573 for different comparisons). Data were age adjusted and compared using Bland Altman plots. There was agreement between data sources, albeit weaker for height than for weight. Routine data tended to underestimate length/height at 6 months (0.5 cm (95% CI -4.0 to 4.9)) and overestimate it at 12 (-0.3 cm (95% CI -0.5 to 4.0)) and 24 months (0.3 cm (95% CI -4.0 to 3.4)). Routine data slightly overestimated weight at all three ages (range -0.04 kg (95% CI -1.2 to 0.9) to -0.04 (95% CI -0.7 to 0.6)). Limits of agreement were wide, particularly for height. Differences were generally random, although routine data tended to underestimate length in taller infants and underestimate weight in lighter infants. Routine data can provide an accurate and feasible method of data collection for research, though wide limits of agreement between data sources may be observed. Differences could be due to methodological issues; but may relate to variability in clinical practice. Continued provision of appropriate training and assessment is essential for health professionals responsible for collecting routine data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.

    1988-01-01

    We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

  1. Height, weight, and body mass index associations with gastric cancer subsites.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M Constanza; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Abnet, Christian C; Rabkin, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    Although excess body weight has been associated with cancers of the gastric cardia, relationships with gastric cancer at other anatomic subsites are not well defined. Furthermore, subsite-specific associations with attained height have not been fully assessed. In 1995-1996, 483,700 Whites enrolling in the multi-state NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study self-reported height and weight. Gastric cancers occurring through 31 December 2006 were ascertained from regional population-based registries. We used Cox regression models to estimate cancer hazard ratios (HRs) for sex-specific tertiles of height and weight and for body mass index (BMI) categories of the World Health Organization. One thousand incident cancers (48 % localized to the cardia, 4 % fundus, 6 % corpus, 3 % greater curvature, 6 % lesser curvature, 10 % antrum, 2 % pylorus, 5 % overlapping lesion, and 16 % unspecified) occurred an average of 5.4 years after enrollment. After controlling for effects of age, sex, education, and smoking, we found an inverse association between height and total noncardia cancers (i.e., fundus, corpus, greater and lesser curvatures, antrum, and pylorus), with HRs vs. tertile 1 of 0.65 and 0.71 for tertiles 2 and 3, respectively (p trend = 0.016). Trends were consistent for individual noncardia subsites. In contrast, although weight and BMI were each associated with risk of cardia cancer, neither was associated with total noncardia cancer nor individual subsites. Noncardia gastric cancer is associated with short stature but not with high body weight or obesity. The excess risk for shorter adults would be consistent with the known association of chronic H. pylori infection with growth retardation during childhood.

  2. Developing differential height, weight and body mass index references for girls that reflect the impact of the menarche.

    PubMed

    Mumm, R; Scheffler, C; Hermanussen, M

    2014-07-01

    Growth is both a matter of amplitude and tempo. We aimed to develop references for body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) with respect to tempo of maturity. Data obtained from the German KiGGS study (2003-2006) on body height, body weight and presence or absence of the menarche were re-analysed in 3776 girls, aged 10-17 years. We developed smoothed centiles for BMI-, body-height- and body-weight-for-age using the LMS method for premenarcheal and postmenarcheal girls. Body height, body weight and BMI differed significantly between premenarcheal and postmenarcheal girls. On average, postmenarcheal girls aged 11-17 years were 5.3 cm taller and 9.7 kg heavier, and their BMI was 2.9 kg/m² higher than in premenarcheal girls of the same calendar age. Adolescent BMI rises with calendar age and biological age. New reference charts for adolescent girls aged 10-18 years were generated to be inserted into the currently used references to avoid misclassifying underweight and overweight pubertal girls. © 2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Body mass index continues to accurately predict percent body fat as women age despite changes in muscle mass and height.

    PubMed

    Ablove, Tova; Binkley, Neil; Leadley, Sarah; Shelton, James; Ablove, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to predict obesity in clinical practice because it is suggested to closely correlate with percent body fat (%BF). With aging, women lose both lean mass and height. Because of this, many clinicians question whether BMI is an accurate predictor of obesity in aging women. In evaluating the equation for BMI (weight/height(2)), it is clear that both variables can have a dramatic effect on BMI calculation. We evaluated the relationship between BMI and %BF, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, in the setting of age-related changes in height loss and body composition in women. Our objective is to determine whether BMI continues to correlate with %BF as women age. Study participants were identified using data from five osteoporosis clinical trials, where healthy participants had full-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Deidentified data from 274 women aged between 35 and 95 years were evaluated. %BF, weight, age, tallest height, actual height, and appendicular lean mass were collected from all participants. BMI was calculated using the actual height and the tallest height of each study participant. %BF was compared with BMI and stratified for age. BMI calculated using the tallest height and BMI calculated using actual height both had strong correlations with %BF. Surprisingly, the effects of changes in height and lean body mass balance each other out in BMI calculation. There continues to be a strong correlation between BMI and %BF in adult women as they age.

  4. The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Zumoff, B

    1992-12-01

    The measurement called desirable body weight (DBW) was derived by actuaries to indicate that weight which is associated with the lowest mortality. Percent deviation from DBW has become a standard measure of fatness. A different obesity index, body mass index (BMI), is weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Many workers consider both measures inferior to the measurement of body fat content (BFC). We compared the three measures of fatness in 40 men aged 18-50 and 48 women aged 21-47, ranging from nonobese to extremely obese. Total BFC was determined by isotope dilution of 3H-labeled water. DBWs used were those listed in the US Air Force Examination Manual of 1971; these approximate the midpoint of the range of medium-frame values in the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables, but have the advantage of providing a single value for each height. We found nearly perfect correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between BMI and percent deviation from DBW in both men and women ranging from 14% below to 305% above DBW. Correlations between percent deviation from DBW and total BFC were extremely high: 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.94 (p < 0.001) for the women, essentially the same as correlations between BMI and BFC, which were 0.96 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the women. It appears that the two technically simple weight-height indices, BMI and percent deviation from DBW, give just as accurate a measurement of fatness as the technically complex measurement of total BFC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effects of economic status and education level on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada

    2005-08-01

    There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions.

  6. Change of patellar height with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Kar, Maitreyee Nandi; Bhakta, Abhijit; Mondal, Gopal Chandra; Bandyopadhyay, Maitreyi; Kar, Chinmaya; Nandi, Sujit Narayan

    2012-12-01

    Patellar height is one of the important parameter in patellar stability. Growth spurt or excessive physical strain can lead to high-riding patella or patella alta. But this is not yet proved. This study was mainly targeted at eliciting the influence of age on Insall-Salvati index, one of the important index to measure patellar height. As the present study is meant for measuring the patellar height separately in male and female, it is also to find out the effect of gender on patellar height if any. The study was been conducted in North Bengal Medical College and Hospital among 93 subjects covering both adult and adolescent age groups. Patellar height of respective subjects was measured radiologically using Insall-Salvati Index; results were extrapolated for statistical analysis. It revealed that value of Insall-Salvati index was higher in adult compared to adolescent group but the difference was not statistically significant. Statistical tests shows no significant difference in Insall-Salvati index according to sex. While screening the athletes patella alta must be kept in mind as this can be associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patellae, knees with apophysitis of tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schiatter disease). Not only that, significant cause of recurrent patellar dislocation can be associated with patella alta

  7. Comparison of Self-Reported and Measured Height and Weight in Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Susan L.; Whetstone, Lauren M.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Owen, Lynda J.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationships between self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of eighth-grade students. The study population consisted of eighth-grade students in eastern North Carolina who completed a cross-sectional survey, self-reported their height and weight, and had their…

  8. Is School-Based Height and Weight Screening of Elementary Students Private and Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Skay, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends school-based body mass index (BMI) screening as an obesity prevention strategy. While school nurses have provided height/weight screening for years, little has been published describing measurement reliability or process. This study evaluated the reliability of height/weight measures collected by school nurses…

  9. Comparison of Self-Reported and Measured Height and Weight in Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Susan L.; Whetstone, Lauren M.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Owen, Lynda J.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationships between self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of eighth-grade students. The study population consisted of eighth-grade students in eastern North Carolina who completed a cross-sectional survey, self-reported their height and weight, and had their…

  10. Height and Weight of Southeast Asian Preschool Children in Northern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Kathryn G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Anthropometric data were obtained from 526 Southeast Asian preschool children during 1980-84. Mean weights and heights were substantially below the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 50th percentile, but rates of weight and height gain were similar to reference values, indicating adequate growth after arrival in the United States.…

  11. Is School-Based Height and Weight Screening of Elementary Students Private and Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Skay, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends school-based body mass index (BMI) screening as an obesity prevention strategy. While school nurses have provided height/weight screening for years, little has been published describing measurement reliability or process. This study evaluated the reliability of height/weight measures collected by school nurses…

  12. Growing into obesity: Patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight or obese as young adults

    PubMed Central

    Stovitz, Steven D.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Hannan, Peter J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Himes, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. Study design A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years) and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in 3rd, 5th and 8th grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Results Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Conclusion Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. PMID:21630370

  13. [Prevalence of height-weight deficit in Tunisian boys of the Northern and Southern regions].

    PubMed

    Sana, Chaatani; Mohamed, Said; Wafa, Chaatani; Nizar, Souissi

    2014-05-01

    Malnutrition is owing to an alimentation regarding quantity and quality food. aim: To examine the different forms of malnutrition among Tunisian boys of the north and south regions, to form an idea about the state of their health and their living conditions. Our empirical investigation was carried out on 1082 northern boys and 1016 southern boys, aged from 10 to 14 years including 1057 non pubescent boys and 1041 prepubescent boys. Age, weight and height were recorded for the entire population according to the norms of the standard World Health Organization and the nutritional status of these young was described by two indices: Height for age and body mass index for age. The classification used to describe the build is the Cachera Rolland, Malnutrition are significantly more pronounced among the southern boys than their counterparts in the North. Particularly, short stature (19.2% vs 14.4%) and underweight (28% vs 22.5 %). However, the risk of overweight and obesity is more pronounced among the northern boys. However, the comparison between non pubescent and prepubescent boys shows that the prevalence of stunting increases with age. The mechanisms responsible for these inter-individual differences beings regions appear related to living conditions during the first year after birth, particularly, socio-economic status, family size, type of housing, and the education level of parents.

  14. Height, weight and body mass index of girls and boys in a rural school in Punjab India

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All the students at this Bhagat Puran Singh Memorial School in Punjab, India were educated about the importance of caloric intake and physical activity. Body weight and height were recorded once a month for 12 consecutive months for 632 students, age 8-23 years (7584 observations). For US and Euro...

  15. Food Insecurity and Obesity: A Comparison of Self-Reported and Measured Height and Weight

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ariel-Ann; Park, Jungwee; Nelson, Connie H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We used self-reported and measured height and weight data to examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. Methods. We defined food insecurity according to 3 different models. We used self-reported and measured height and weight from 2 versions of the Canadian Community Health Survey to calculate obesity rates. Results. When self-reported height and weight data were used in calculating obesity prevalence rates, rates were significantly higher among food-insecure respondents than among food-secure respondents; by contrast, when measured height and weight data were used, there were no significant differences. Female respondents classified as food insecure and experiencing mild hunger were at greater risk of obesity than were food-secure female respondents when measured height and weight were used. Conclusions. Associations between obesity and food insecurity are more pronounced when self-reported data on height and weight are used than when measured height and weight data are used. Caution should be used when using self-reported data to examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. PMID:17666697

  16. Accuracy of self-reported height and weight in women: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Janet L; Paterson, Susan A; Doherty, Anastasia; Trabulsi, Mary; Speer, Kara L

    2003-01-01

    Height and weight are two of the most commonly used anthropometric measurements in clinical practice and research. Self-reported height and weight measurement is a simple, efficient, inexpensive, and non-invasive method of collecting data from large numbers of people. This integrative review of the published research examined the accuracy of self-reported height and weight measurements in women. Twenty-six studies examined the accuracy of self-reported height in 39,244 women. Twenty-one of the studies found that women overestimate height. Thirty-four studies reviewed the accuracy of self-reported weight in 57,172 women, and all 34 studies reported that women underestimated weight. Although mean variations between self-reported and measured values were small, a significant percentage of women in study groups had very large errors. Inaccurate measurements of both height and weight can cause significant inaccuracies in calculation of body mass index, which is used as a guide for identifying persons at risk for disease. These findings indicate that direct measurement of height and weight should be performed whenever possible for optimal measurements in clinical practice and clinically oriented research.

  17. Using obese-specific charts of height and height velocity for assessment of growth in obese children and adolescents during weight excess reduction.

    PubMed

    Falorni, A; Galmacci, G; Bini, V; Faraoni, F; Molinari, D; Cabiati, G; Sanasi, M; Celi, F; Di Stefano, G; Berioli, M G; Contessa, G; Bacosi, M L

    1999-03-01

    The influence of weight excess reduction on height and height velocity of obese subjects should be evaluated on the basis of appropriate standards, since the pattern of growth of obese subjects is different from that of normal weight subjects. Height, weight and triceps skinfold thickness were recorded from 17987 school subjects (9256 males and 8731 females), 3-18 y of age, from three provinces of central Italy, and a growth reference curve of height was constructed. Using BMI (as computed using the tables of Rolland-Cachera et al) and triceps skinfold thickness, normal-weight subjects (NWS) and obese subjects (OS) were identified and specific reference curves (mean+/-s.d. every sixth month of age) were developed for both groups. Centiles of height were also calculated for OS. Various (2-4) measurements of height in school subjects were performed and a graph of height velocity (HV) was constructed in NWS and in OS using the JPPS method. The yearly mean +/-s.d. of HV was also calculated, based on square root transformed data (in order to realise a Gaussian distribution), deriving from successive measurements in total subjects, in NWS and in OS. The z-scores of height and of the square root of HV were calculated in 217 obese subjects (125 males and 92 females) before and during a weight excess reduction programme (WERP). Obese subjects in WERP who showed a reduction of z-score of BMI were considered as 'responsive'; those who either maintained or showed an increase of z-score of BMI were considered as 'non-responsive'. Obese subjects in WERP were followed for 1-4 y, giving the following results: 0-1 y, 142 responsives and 75 non-responsives; 0-2 y, 76 responsives and 33 non-responsives; 0-3 y, 35 responsives and 30 non-responsives; 0-4 y, 24 responsives and 18 non-responsives. Compared to NWS, OS showed a significantly greater HV in 4-9y males and in 4-8y females, but in older children the pubertal spurt was reduced and more precocious. As a result, the height of OS

  18. Two method measurement for adolescent obesity epidemiology: Reducing the bias in self report of height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Keith M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Dalton, Madeline A.; Langeloh, Gail; Peterson, Karen E.; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite validation studies demonstrating substantial bias, epidemiologic studies typically use self-reported height and weight as primary measures of body mass index due to feasibility and resource limitations. Purpose To demonstrate a method for calculating accurate and precise estimates that use body mass index when objectively measuring height and weight in a full sample is not feasible. Methods As part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1,840 adolescents (aged 12–18) self-reported their height and weight during telephone surveys. Height and weight was measured for 407 of these adolescents. Sex specific, age-adjusted obesity status was calculated from self-reported and from measured height and weight. Prevalence and predictors of obesity were estimated using 1) self-reported data, 2) measured data, and 3) multiple imputation (of measured data). Results Among adolescents with self-reported and measured data, the obesity prevalence was lower when using self-report compared to actual measurements (p < 0.001). The obesity prevalence from multiple imputation (20%) was much closer to estimates based solely on measured data (20%) compared to estimates based solely on self-reported data (12%), indicating improved accuracy. In multivariate models, estimates of predictors of obesity were more accurate and approximately as precise (similar confidence intervals) as estimates based solely on self-reported data. Conclusions The two-method measurement design offers researchers a technique to reduce the bias typically inherent in self-reported height and weight without needing to collect measurements on the full sample. This technique enhances the ability to detect real, statistically significant differences, while minimizing the need for additional resources. PMID:23684216

  19. Two-method measurement for adolescent obesity epidemiology: reducing the bias in self-report of height and weight.

    PubMed

    Drake, Keith M; Longacre, Meghan R; Dalton, Madeline A; Langeloh, Gail; Peterson, Karen E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L

    2013-09-01

    Despite validation studies demonstrating substantial bias, epidemiologic studies typically use self-reported height and weight as primary measures of body mass index because of feasibility and resource limitations. To demonstrate a method for calculating accurate and precise estimates that use body mass index when objectively measuring height and weight in a full sample is not feasible. As part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1,840 adolescents (ages 12-18) self-reported their height and weight during telephone surveys. Height and weight was measured for 407 of these adolescents. Sex-specific, age-adjusted obesity status was calculated from self-reported and from measured height and weight. Prevalence and predictors of obesity were estimated using self-reported data, measured data, and multiple imputation (of measured data). Among adolescents with self-reported and measured data, the obesity prevalence was lower when using self-report compared with actual measurements (p < .001). The obesity prevalence from multiple imputation (20%) was much closer to estimates based solely on measured data (20%) compared with estimates based solely on self-reported data (12%), indicating improved accuracy. In multivariate models, estimates of predictors of obesity were more accurate and approximately as precise (similar confidence intervals) as estimates based solely on self-reported data. The two-method measurement design offers researchers a technique to reduce the bias typically inherent in self-reported height and weight without needing to collect measurements on the full sample. This technique enhances the ability to detect real, statistically significant differences, while minimizing the need for additional resources. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. What's the Right Weight for My Height? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... compare with other people the same age and gender as you. Based on where your number is ... or two. Some people are underweight because of eating disorders, like anorexia or bulimia, that they need to ...

  1. Growth patterns of height and weight among three groups of Samoan preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Bindon, J R; Zansky, S M

    1986-01-01

    The Samoan population affords an excellent opportunity to study the influences of modernization and migration on growth. Moreover, since Samoan adults in some settings have very high rates of obesity, the childhood precursors to obesity can be studied among Samoans. This study reports the results of a survey of 786 Samoan children between 5.5 and 11.5 years of age living in traditional, modern or migrant situations. It was found that the children from Western Samoa (traditional) were significantly shorter, lighter and lighter for height than their counterparts in American Samoa (modern) and Hawaii (migrant). The major influence on height and weight appears to be modernization (Western versus American Samoa), with migration (American Samoa versus Hawaii) playing only a small incremental role (significant only for weight among boys). The influences of modernization are likely to be exerted through changes in diet and activity among the children. Modernization and migration are associated with obesity among Samoan adults, and this pattern also seems to be established in preadolescents.

  2. The Effect of Filtered Speech on Speaker Height and Weight Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports a study which shows that subjects can make discriminative judgments of a speaker's height and weight from his tape recorded speech. This ability is not altered by the filtering of the speech signal. (PMJ)

  3. Effects of Stimulants on Height and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Morley, Christopher P.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews existing literature on the effects of stimulant medications on the growth of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It concludes that treatment with stimulants in childhood results in moderate growth deficit in height and weight.

  4. Effects of Stimulants on Height and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Morley, Christopher P.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews existing literature on the effects of stimulant medications on the growth of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It concludes that treatment with stimulants in childhood results in moderate growth deficit in height and weight.

  5. Height, weight, body mass index and pubertal development reference values for children of Turkish origin in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fredriks, A Miranda; van Buuren, Stef; Jeurissen, Sara E R; Dekker, Friedo W; Verloove-Vanhorick, S Pauline; Wit, Jan Maarten

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide growth and sexual maturation reference data for Turkish children living in The Netherlands. We also compared these references with the reference data of children of Dutch origin and with Turkish reference data collected in Turkey and elsewhere in Europe. Cross-sectional growth and demographic data were collected from 2,904 children of Turkish origin and 14,500 children of Dutch origin living in the Netherlands in the age range 0-20 years. Growth references for length, height, weight for height, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference were constructed with the LMS method. Reference curves for sexual maturation and menarche were estimated by a generalised additive model. Predictive variables for height and BMI were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Young Turkish adults were 10 cm shorter than their Dutch contemporaries. Mean height was 174.0 cm for males and 160.7 cm for females. Height differences in comparison with Dutch children started at 3 years. Height SDS was predominantly associated with target height. The height of Turkish children living in the Netherlands was similar to Turkish children in Germany and to children from high socio-economic classes in Istanbul. Compared to Dutch children, maturation stages started 0.5-0.7 years later for both sexes. In girls, median age at menarche was 12.8 years, 5 months earlier than in Dutch girls. BMI of Turkish children was higher than that of Dutch children at all ages. BMI SDS was associated with birth weight and the duration of stay of the mother in the Netherlands. Turkish children are considerably shorter and more overweight than Dutch children. Separate growth charts for Turkish children in The Netherlands are useful for growth monitoring.

  6. Physical Growth of the Shuar: Height, Weight, and BMI References for an Indigenous Amazonian Population

    PubMed Central

    URLACHER, SAMUEL S.; BLACKWELL, AARON D.; LIEBERT, MELISSA A.; MADIMENOS, FELICIA C.; CEPON-ROBINS, TARA J.; GILDNER, THERESA E.; SNODGRASS, J. JOSH; SUGIYAMA, LAWRENCE S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Information concerning physical growth among small-scale populations remains limited, yet such data are critical to local health efforts and to foster basic understandings of human life history and variation in childhood development. Using a large dataset and robust modeling methods, this study aims to describe growth from birth to adulthood among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Methods Mixed-longitudinal measures of height, weight, and BMI were collected from Shuar participants (n = 2,463; age 0–29 years). Centile growth curves and tables were created for each anthropometric variable of interest using GAMLSS. Pseudo-velocity and LMS curves were generated to further investigate Shuar patterns of growth and to facilitate comparison with U.S. CDC and multinational WHO growth references. Results The Shuar are small throughout life and exhibit complex patterns of growth that differ substantially from those of international references. Similar to other Amazonians, Shuar growth in weight compares more favorably to references than growth in height, resulting in BMI curves that approximate international medians. Several additional characteristics of Shuar development are noteworthy, including large observed variation in body size early in life, significant infant growth faltering, extended male growth into adulthood, and a markedly early female pubertal growth spurt in height. Phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection in response to local environmental factors may explain many of these patterns. Conclusions Providing a detailed reference of growth for the Shuar and other Amazonian populations, this study possesses direct clinical application and affords valuable insight into childhood health and the ecology of human growth. PMID:26126793

  7. Analysis of the lifted weight including height and frequency factors for workers in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Robinson, Luisa; Quintana, Leonardo A J; Fortunato Leal, Luis Díaz; Niño, María

    2012-01-01

    Factors related to the height of the load and the frequency of handling have become a way to predict the acceptable standard weight lifted for workers whose main task is the manual lifting of materials and measuring the conditions is important to determine a maximum weight lifted. This study was conducted to twenty (20) workers between eighteen (18) and forty (40) years old with a minimum six months experience and belonging to the warehouse and packaging area of a dairy products company. Consideration was given to three different heights such as knuckle, shoulder and total height as well as frequencies of 2, 4 and 6 times per minute. Average values for lifted weight were 17.9306 ± 2.37 kg. The conclusions and recommendations included a review of legislation related to Colombian maximum acceptable weight of lifting due to the current law does not match the acceptable weight handled in this research.

  8. Use of self-reported measures of height, weight and body mass index in a rural population of Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Poliana Cardoso; de Carvalho, Maria Bernadete; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To assess the validity of using self-reported anthropometric data for diagnosis of nutritional status of adults in a rural population of northeast Brazil. A population-based survey was conducted on a sample of 797 individuals aged 18 years or more. The proportion of individuals who knew their anthropometric measures was calculated. For agreement analysis between those who reported their measures the following indicators were obtained: differences between averages (weight, height, body mass index), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Kappa statistic, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (VPN). Bland-Altman graphics were also obtained. More than half of the respondents (58.5%) did not know their weight or height. Weight was the most known measure among all. The magnitude of the mean difference for weight, height and body mass index (BMI) (0.43 kg, 0.31 cm, 0.32 kg/m2, respectively) was small, indicating good agreement, with a trend toward overestimation. ICC for weight, height and BMI were 0.96; 0.60; and 0.53, respectively. Kappa statistic indicated good agreement in all strata. General measures of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 84.2; 82; 90.7 and 71.3%, respectively. Elderly, those with low schooling and those who do not often weigh were less accurate on their measures. The use of self-reported measures should be done with caution in epidemiological studies in rural populations.

  9. Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Díez-Suárez, Azucena; Vallejo-Valdivielso, María; Marín-Méndez, Juan J; de Castro-Manglano, Pilar; Soutullo, César A

    2017-08-17

    To describe the methylphenidate (MPH) effects on weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) in a Spanish sample diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients (6-18 years) diagnosed with ADHD treated at our Unit with MPH in the last 10 years were included in an observational longitudinal study. Weight, height, and BMI Z scores were measured at baseline and at last follow-up. Three hundred forty-two patients (mean [standard deviation] age: 10.7 [3.8] years, 80% males) were included. Mean dose was 1.25 (0.40) mg/(kg·d). After 27 (14-41) months taking MPH, weight and BMI standard deviation score (SDS) were reduced by treatment (baseline weight-SDS: 0.34 [1.22], follow-up weight-SDS: -0.06 [1.38], t-test p < 0.001; baseline BMI-SDS: 0.35 [1.10], and follow-up BMI-SDS [SDS]: -0.23 [1.08], t-test p < 0.001). In the whole sample, no differences in height before and after treatment were observed. However, considering only the group of patients who were children 6-12 years (68.6%) when starting treatment, height was slightly affected (baseline height-SDS: 0.04 [1.14], follow-up: -0.10 [1.11], p < 0.001). This effect was not observed if treatment was started during adolescence. Linear regression analysis showed that age starting MPH (B = 0.07, p = 0.003), dose (B = -0.50, p = 0.001), and duration of treatment (B = 0.07, p = 0.031) affect follow-up height. MPH slightly decreased weight and BMI in this group of ADHD patients followed naturalistically over 2.2 years, and slightly affected height only if treatment was started before the age of 12. Girls, children who started treatment being younger or children on higher MPH doses, showed greater impact in height.

  10. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and differentiation. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register includes data on 320,425 Danish schoolchildren born between 1930 and 1989, with height and weight measurements from ages 7–13 years and parentally recorded birth weights. We prospectively evaluated associations between childhood height and BMI, birth weight, and adult glioma risk. During follow-up (1968–2010), 355 men and 253 women aged ≥18 years were diagnosed with glioma. In boys, height at each age between 7 and 13 years was positively associated with glioma risk; hazard ratios per standard-deviation score at ages 7 (approximately 5.1 cm) and 13 (approximately 7.6 cm) years were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), respectively. No associations were observed for childhood height in girls or for BMI. Birth weight was positively associated with risk (per 0.5 kg: hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.24). These results suggest that exposures associated with higher birth weight and, in boys, greater height during childhood may contribute to the etiology of adult glioma. PMID:25205831

  11. Don’t Always Believe What You Are Told: A Comparison of Self-Reported with Measured Weight and Height

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Self-reported weight and height are often used for eligibility screening in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials. However, prior studies suggest that individuals give biased reports of their weight and height. Our purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported weight and height and calculated ...

  12. Prediction of Body Mass Index Using Concurrently Self-Reported or Previously Measured Height and Weight

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhaohui; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Zeng, Donglin; French, Simone; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare alternative models for the imputation of BMIM (measured weight in kilograms/measured height in meters squared) in a longitudinal study. Methods We used data from 11,008 adults examined at wave III (2001–2002) and wave IV (2007–2008) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants were asked their height and weight before being measured. Equations to predict wave IV BMIM were developed in an 80% random subsample and evaluated in the remaining participants. The validity of models that included BMI constructed from previously measured height and weight (BMIPM) was compared to the validity of models that used BMI calculated from concurrently self-reported height and weight (BMISR). The usefulness of including demographics and perceived weight category in those models was also examined. Results The model that used BMISR, compared to BMIPM, as the only variable produced a larger R2 (0.913 vs. 0.693), a smaller root mean square error (2.07 vs. 3.90 kg/m2) and a lower bias between normal-weight participants and those with obesity (0.98 vs. 4.24 kg/m2). The performance of the model containing BMISR alone was not substantially improved by the addition of demographics, perceived weight category or BMIPM. Conclusions Our work is the first to show that concurrent self-reports of height and weight may be more useful than previously measured height and weight for imputation of missing BMIM when the time interval between measures is relatively long. Other time frames and alternatives to in-person collection of self-reported data need to be examined. PMID:27898706

  13. Relationship of body mass, height and weight gain to prostate cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of body size and prostate cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort, a longitudinal study of individuals aged 45–75 in Hawaii and California. Self-reported measures of height and weight were obtained at baseline. Of 83,879 men enrolled in 1993–1996, a total of 5,554 were diagnosed with prostate cancer during an average of 9.6 years of follow-up. The relationship of baseline weight and weight change since age 21 varied by ethnic group. Whites gaining more than 10 lbs had a non-linear, increased risk of advanced and high-grade prostate cancer (RR 2.12, 95% CI 1.19–3.78, for 25–39.9 lb, p trend 0.43; and RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.04–2.14, for ≥40 lb, p trend 0.20, respectively). African American men gaining 40 lb or more (relative to <10 lb) had a non-monotonic, increased risk of localized prostate cancers (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02–1.54, p trend 0.09) and those who gained 25 lbs or more were at increased risk of low-grade disease (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03–1.58, for ≥40 lb vs. 10 lb, respectively, p trend 0.07). Japanese men had a statistically significant, inverse association of weight gain and localized disease (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.99, for ≥40 lb vs. 10 lb, p trend 0.05). Our findings provide evidence that adiposity and changes in adiposity between younger and older adulthood influence the development of prostate cancer. Ethnic differences in risk may be explained by variation in the distribution of accumulated body fat that could differentially affect prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:19723920

  14. Height, weight, body composition, and waist circumference references for 7- to 17-year-old children from rural Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; Baxter-Jones, A; Souza, M; Santos, D; Maia, J

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to develop references of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat for rural Portuguese children and adolescents and (2) to compare these results with other international references. The sample comprised 3094 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from Vouzela, a central region in Portugal. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and body fat were measured. Centile curves were constructed using the LMS method. The Vouzela sample showed similar height median values compared to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) percentile curves but greater values for weight and BMI. Percent body fat 50th percentile was greater in Vouzela children and adolescents compared to their international peers, except for boys aged 8-12 years. Boys' waist circumference median values were similar to those from the USA, whilst girls were similar until 12 years of age, after which the differences increased with age. The percentile curves constructed provide population specific references for growth and body composition of children and adolescents from rural Portugal. It is expected that they will be a useful tool for clinical and public health settings in rural Portugal.

  15. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Material and methods: Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Results: Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95   %CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95   %CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95   %CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95   %CI: –1.15, –0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Conclusions: Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions.

  16. Correction equations to adjust self-reported height and weight for obesity estimates among college students.

    PubMed

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected self-reported measurements) provided a more accurate estimation of BMI classification than BMIc (from corrected self-reported measurements) and BMIs (from self-reported measurements) by showing a greater ability to predict cases with either a high or a low BMI category while still maintaining a high specificity. However, the equations are applicable only to Caucasian college student populations, so cross-validation in similar populations is needed before they are used more broadly.

  17. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  18. Height at Ages 7-13 Years in Relation to Developing Type 2 Diabetes Throughout Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Jensen, Britt W; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-07-01

    Short adults have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Although adult height results from childhood growth, the effects of height and growth trajectories during childhood are sparsely investigated. We investigated sex-specific associations between childhood height, growth and adult type 2 diabetes, including potential influences of birthweight and childhood body mass index (BMI). We followed 292 827 individuals, born 1930-83, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register in national registers for type 2 diabetes (11 548 men; 7472 women). Weights and heights were measured at ages 7-13 years. Hazard ratios (HR) of type 2 diabetes (age ≥30 years) were estimated without and with adjustment for birthweight and BMI. In men, associations between height and type 2 diabetes changed from inverse for below-average heights at age 7 years to positive for above-average heights at 13 years. No consistent associations were observed among women. These associations were not affected by birthweight. After adjustment for BMI, below-average childhood heights were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes among men (HR range: 0.91-0.93 per z-score) but above-average heights were not. Among women, after adjustment for BMI, below- and above-average heights in childhood were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR range: 0.91-0.95). Greater height growth from 7 to 13 years was positively associated with type 2 diabetes in men and women. After adjustment for BMI, short childhood height at all ages and greater growth during childhood are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that this period of life warrants mechanistic investigations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Length and weight of very low birth weight infants in Germany at 2 years of age: does it matter at what age they start complementary food?

    PubMed

    Spiegler, J; Eisemann, N; Ehlers, S; Orlikowsky, T; Kannt, O; Herting, E; Göpel, W

    2015-06-01

    We analysed at what age parents start complementary food in very low birth weight infants, determined risk factors for early introduction of complementary food (post-term age) and analysed whether the age at introduction of complementary food influences height or weight at 2 years of age. Parents of premature infants born in 2009-2011 answered questionnaires regarding introduction of complementary food in the first year of life (N=2262) and were followed up at a post-term age of 2 years (N=981). Length and weight were compared with full-term infants from the KiGGs study. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to study predictors for early introduction of complementary food and the influence of age at introduction of complementary food on later height and weight. Average age at introduction of complementary food was 3.5 months post-term age. The lower the gestational age at birth, the earlier (post-term age) vegetables and meat were introduced. Age at introduction of complementary food was influenced by intrauterine growth restriction, gestational age at birth, maternal education and a developmental delay perceived by the parents. Length and weight at a post-term age of 2 years was not negatively influenced by early introduction of complementary food. VLBW infants are introduced to complementary food on average before a post-term age of 4 months. There was no negative effect of early introduction of complementary food on height and weight at 2 years of age.

  20. Comparison of weight- and height-based indices for assessing the risk of death in severely malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Prudhon, C; Briend, A; Laurier, D; Golden, M H; Mary, J Y

    1996-07-15

    To compare the effectiveness of treating malnourished children in different centers, the authors believe there is a need to have a simple method of adjusting mortality rates so that differences in the nutritional status of the children are taken into account. The authors compared different anthropometric indices based on weight and height to predict the risk of death among severely malnourished children. Anthropometric data from 1,047 children who survived were compared with those of 147 children who died during treatment in therapeutic feeding centers set up in African countries in 1993. The optimal ratio of weight to height determined by logistic regression was weight (kg)/height (m)1.74 (95% confidence interval of beta estimate 1.65-1.84). The receiver operating curves (sensitivity vs. specificity) showed that the body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), optimal ratio of weight to height, and weight/height index expressed as the percentage of the median of the National Center for Health Statistics' standard were equivalent and superior to the weight/height index expressed as the z score of the National Center for Health Statistics' standard to predict death. As the optimal ratio of weight to height is easier to calculate than the weight/height index expressed as the percentage of the median or z score and does not depend upon either standards or tables, the optimal ratio of weight to height could be conveniently used to adjust mortality rates for nutritional status in therapeutic feeding centers.

  1. Predicting longitudinal growth curves of height and weight using ecological factors for children with and without early growth deficiency.

    PubMed

    Black, M M; Krishnakumar, A

    1999-02-01

    Growth curve models were used to examine the effect of genetic and ecological factors on changes in height and weight of 225 children from low income, urban families who were assessed up to eight times in the first 6 y of life. Children with early growth deficiency [failure to thrive (FTT)] (n = 127) and a community sample of children without growth deficiency (n = 98) were examined to evaluate how genetic, child and family characteristics influenced growth. Children of taller and heavier parents, who were recruited at younger ages and did not have a history of growth deficiency, had accelerated growth from recruitment through age 6 y. In addition, increases in height were associated with better health, less difficult temperament, nurturant mothers and female gender; increases in weight were associated with better health. Children with a history of growth deficiency demonstrated slower rates of growth than children in the community group without a history of growth deficiency. In the community group, changes in children's height and weight were related to maternal perceptions of health and temperament and maternal nurturance during feeding, whereas in the FTT group, maternal perceptions and behavior were not in synchrony with children's growth. These findings suggest that, in addition to genetic factors, growth is dependent on a nurturant and sensitive caregiving system. Interventions to promote growth should consider child and family characteristics, including maternal perceptions of children's health and temperament and maternal mealtime behavior.

  2. Weight gain and height velocity in young children 1 year following bone marrow transplant: a single institution study.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    The nutritional and growth effects on children following a bone marrow transplant (BMT) have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to describe the growth patterns of young children during the first year following BMT. A retrospective chart review was used to examine the nutritional status of 25 young children, 1 to 6 years of age, who received an allogeneic BMT. Nutritional data were reviewed prior to BMT and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months following BMT. The mean weight gain was 2.5 kg with a median weight gain of 2.3 kg (range, -1.2 to 9.4 kg). The mean height gain was 7 cm with a median height gain of 7.4 cm (range, 1.2 to 16.8 cm). Growth related to gender, age, and incidence of infection was similar to the overall average; however, children with graft-versus-host disease revealed poor weight and height gain. Nurses must learn to recognize patients at nutritional risk and intervene when necessary. More research is needed to address specific nutritional needs of the pediatric BMT patient.

  3. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  4. Establishing the Baseline Height and Weight Status of New Hampshire Head Start Children, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, David D.; Flynn, Regina T.; Martin, Nancy R.; Anderson, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    We report on a standardized survey of height and weight status of children attending the New Hampshire Head Start Program during the 2007-2008 school year. Baseline prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are needed for obesity prevention activities and intervention. We selected a random one-stage cluster sample and screened 629 children…

  5. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  6. Secular change in height and weight of indigenous school children in Oaxaca, Mexico, between the 1970s and 2007.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Chavez, Guillermo Bali; Little, Bertis B

    2011-11-01

    Information on secular change in indigenous children in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, is limited. To evaluate secular change in heights and weights of indigenous school children 6-14 years in four regions of the state of Oaxaca between the 1970s and 2007. Heights and weights of 2897 (1419 boys, 1478 girls) and 4305 (2368 boys, 1937 girls) school children 6-14 years of age were measured in the 1970s (1971-1978) and 2007, respectively. The sample was from 18 communities in the 1970s and from 58 communities in 2007 in four regions of Oaxaca. Sex-specific MANCOVA, with age of the child and altitude of each community as covariates, was used to compare size attained in the 1970s and 2007 in two age groups: 6-9 years and 10-14 years. Indigenous Oaxaca school children are taller and heavier in 2007 than the 1970s. Secular gains are larger in youth of 10-14 years than in children of 6-9 years, while sex differences are small. Improved growth status between the 1970s and 2007 presumably reflects better health and nutritional conditions in indigenous communities of Oaxaca. Mean heights in 2007, however, only approximate 5(th) percentiles of the US reference.

  7. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  8. Feeding problems, height and weight in different groups of disabled children.

    PubMed

    Thommessen, M; Heiberg, A; Kase, B F; Larsen, S; Riis, G

    1991-05-01

    Two hundred and twenty-one disabled children from seven diagnostic groups have been examined with respect to height, weight and prevalence of four different feeding problems. Retarded growth and feeding problems were common in children with cerebral palsy, mental retardation, congenital heart disease and deaf-blindness, but rare in children with esophagus atresia, cystic fibrosis and epilepsy. Mean relative height and weight were significantly lower (p much less than 0.01) in children with mechanical feeding problems, such as impairment of self-feeding skills and oral-motor dysfunction, than in children without these problems, regardless of diagnostic group. Mean relative weight was also significantly lower in children with poor appetite than in children with good appetite. Feeding problems contribute to short stature and underweight in severely disabled children.

  9. An Anthropometric Risk Index Based on Combining Height, Weight, Waist, and Hip Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) can be considered an application of a power law model to express body weight independently of height. Based on the same power law principle, we previously introduced a body shape index (ABSI) to be independent of BMI and height. Here, we develop a new hip index (HI) whose normalized value is independent of height, BMI, and ABSI. Similar to BMI, HI demonstrates a U-shaped relationship to mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) population. We further develop a new anthropometric risk index (ARI) by adding log hazard ratios from separate nonlinear regressions of the four indicators, height, BMI, ABSI, and HI, against NHANES III mortality hazard. ARI far outperforms any of the individual indicators as a linear mortality predictor in NHANES III. The superior performance of ARI also holds for predicting mortality hazard in the independent Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. Thus, HI, along with BMI and ABSI, can capture the risk profile associated with body size and shape. These can be combined in a risk indicator that utilizes complementary information from height, weight, and waist and hip circumference. The combined ARI is promising for further research and clinical applications. PMID:27830087

  10. Age, weight and decompression sickness in rats.

    PubMed

    Buzzacott, Peter; Theron, Michael; Mazur, Aleksandra; Wang, Qiong; Lambrechts, Kate; Eftedal, Ingrid; Ardestani, Simin Berenji; Guerrero, François

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if, after controlling for weight, age is associated with decompression sickness (DCS) in rats. Following compression-decompression, male rats aged 11 weeks were observed for DCS. After two weeks recovery, surviving rats were re-dived using the same compression-decompression profile. In this experiment, there was a clear difference between DCS outcome at ages 11 or 13 weeks in matched rats (p = 0.002). Even with weight included in the model, age was significantly associated with DCS (p = 0.01), yet after removal of weight the association was much stronger (p = 0.002). We believe that age is likely to be found associated with the probability of DCS in a larger dataset with a wider range of parameters, after accounting for the effect of weight.

  11. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI). Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and BMI values of preschool children (3-7 y-old), when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were 297 Belgian preschool children (52.9% male). Participation rate was 73%. A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height, weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 73% and 47% when parents measured their child's height and weight, and 55% and 47% when parents estimated values without measurement. Specificity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 82% and 97% when parents measured the children, and 75% and 93% with parent estimations. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height of their children at home

  12. Height and weight differences among South African Urban schoolchildren born in various months of the year.

    PubMed

    Henneberg, Maciej; Louw, Graham J

    1990-01-01

    Among 1,165 subjects aged 6-18 years who were examined once cross-sectionally, a significant variation in body height and weight according to the month of birth of the subjects was found. All subjects belonged to the so-called Cape Coloured community, were born locally, and their parents belonged to the most affluent sector of the community. Individuals born in February to July were shorter and weighed less (by 13 to 17% of the standard deviation) than those born in August to January. These results are similar to those obtained for Canadian children, who were measured on their birthdays. Since our individuals were measured only once, at the same time of the year, observed differences cannot be ascribed to seasonal fluctuations of growth rates prior to measurement but must constitute a persistent effect of seasonal fluctuation in earlier growth. Immediate environmental conditions (food, temperature, rainfall, and insolation) in the Southern Hemisphere fluctuate seasonally 6 months out of phase from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus the similarity of our findings to those from the Northern Hemisphere suggests a factor common for the entire earth, possibly related to the ellipsoid shape of the orbit of the planet. Copyright © 1990 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. The Influence of Secular Trends in Body Height and Weight on the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lian Guo; Sun, Li Li; Wu, Shao Wei; Yang, Yi De; Li, Xiao Hui; Wang, Zheng He; Wu, Lu; Wang, Fu Zhi; Ma, Jun

    2016-12-01

    To explore the influence of secular trends in body height and weight on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. The data were obtained from five cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI-for-age Z-score of per the Wold Health Organization (WHO) reference values. Body height and weight for each sex and age were standardized to those reported in 1985 (standardized height: SHY; standardized weight: SWY) and for each sex and year at age 7 (standardized height: SHA; standardized weight: SWA) using the Z-score method. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in Chinese children was 20.2% among boys and 10.7% among girls in 2010 and increased continuously from 1985 to 2010. Among boys and girls of normal weight, SHY and SHA were significantly greater than SWY and SWA, respectively (P < 0.001). Among boys and girls with overweight/obesity, SHY was significantly lower than SWY (P < 0.001), and showed an obvious decreasing trend after age 12. SHA was lower than SWA among overweight boys aged 7-8 years and girls aged 7-9 years. SHY/SHW and SHA/SWA among normal-weight groups were greater than among overweight and obese groups (P < 0.001). The continuous increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Chinese children may be related to a rapid increase in body weight before age 9 and lack of secular increase in body height after age 12. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, H J; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M; Mednick, S A

    2006-07-01

    To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising individuals born between 1959 and 1961. In 1999, cases of schizophrenia were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the cases were compared with the cohort pool of controls with respect to height, weight, and BMI from draft records. The effect of low BMI was adjusted for parental social status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found. For each unit increase in BMI, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.93) and the risk of schizophrenia decreased by 19%. Excluding individuals who had been admitted to an in-patient facility before or within 5 years after appearing before the draft board, yielded virtually the same results. No significant differences between cases and controls were observed with respect to adult height. Independent of several possible confounders, an inverse relationship between young adult BMI and risk of later development of schizophrenia was demonstrated in this all-male sample.

  15. Sugar maple height-diameter and age-diameter relationships in an uneven-aged northern hardwood stand

    Treesearch

    Laura S. Kenefic; R.D. Nyland

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) height-diameter and age-diameter relationships are explored in a balanced uneven-aged northern hardwood stand in central New York. Results show that although both height and age vary considerably with diameter, these relationships can be described by statistically valid equations. The age-diameter relationship...

  16. Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5- to 18-year-old Indian children.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Vaman; Yadav, Sangeeta; Agrawal, K K; Tamboli, Suchit; Banerjee, Monidipa; Cherian, Alice; Goyal, Jagdish P; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Kumaravel, V; Mohan, V; Narayanappa, D; Ray, I; Yewale, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The need to revise Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) growth charts for 5- to 18-year-old Indian children and adolescents was felt as India is in nutrition transition and previous IAP charts are based on data which are over two decades old. The Growth Chart Committee was formed by IAP in January 2014 to design revised growth charts. Consultative meeting was held in November 2014 in Mumbai. Studies performed on Indian children's growth, nutritional assessment and anthropometry from upper and middle socioeconomic classes in last decade were identified. Committee contacted 13 study groups; total number of children in the age group of 5 to 18 years were 87022 (54086 boys). Data from fourteen cities (Agartala, Ahmadabad, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Madurai, Mumbai, Mysore, Pune, Raipur and Surat) in India were collated. Data of children with weight for height Z scores >2 SD were removed from analyses. Data on 33148 children (18170 males, 14978 females) were used to construct growth charts using Cole's LMS method. To construct revised IAP growth charts for 5-18 year old Indian children based on collated national data from published studies performed on apparently healthy children and adolescents in the last 10 years. The IAP growth chart committee recommends these revised growth charts for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) for assessment of growth of 5-18 year old Indian children to replace the previous IAP charts; rest of the recommendations for monitoring height and weight remain as per the IAP guidelines published in 2007. To define overweight and obesity in children from 5-18 years of age, adult equivalent of 23 and 27 cut-offs presented in BMI charts may be used. IAP recommends use of WHO standards for growth assessment of children below 5 years of age.

  17. [Self-reported weight and height for determining nutritional status of adults and elderly: validity and implications for data analysis].

    PubMed

    Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Santos, Janaína Vieira dos; Knuth, Alan Goularte; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira de; Araújo, Cora Luíza

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of self-reported weight and height for determining nutritional status and the implications of their use for analyzing associations with health outcomes. A population-based cross-sectional study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2007 (n = 2,986) drew a sub-sample of 276 individuals aged ≥ 20 years. Mean self-reported weight was similar to measured weight; height was overestimated in men (1.4 cm) and women (2.5 cm); real body mass index (BMI) was underestimated by about 1 kg/m(2). Even with small mean differences, data variability was great. The results were influenced by gender, age, and schooling. The use of self-reported measures underestimated prevalence of overweight and obesity, and unpredictable errors were found in the analysis of association with health outcomes (underestimation, overestimation, and reversal of real effect measures). Correction equations reduced the mean differences but did not resolve variability of the differences, classification errors, or biases in the associations.

  18. Age trends in genetic control of Juglans nigra L. height growth

    Treesearch

    George Rink; F. H. Kung

    1995-01-01

    Age-related trends in narrow-sense and family heritabilities for black walnut height and dbh from a southern Illinois open-pollinated progeny test are evaluated through age 20 years. Narrow-sense heritability for height tends to be relatively stable between ages 10 and 20 at 0.55 - 0.65 with similar patterns and values for family heritabilities for both height and dbh...

  19. Effect of concrete block weight and wall height on electromyographic activity and heart rate of masons.

    PubMed

    Anton, D; Rosecrance, J C; Gerr, F; Merlino, L A; Cook, T M

    2005-08-15

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common among construction workers, such as masons. Few interventions are available to reduce masons' exposure to heavy lifting, a risk factor for MSDs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether one such intervention, the use of light-weight concrete blocks (LWBs), reduces physiological loads compared to standard-weight blocks (SWBs). Using a repeated measures design, 21 masons each constructed two 32-block walls, seven courses (rows) high, entirely of either SWBs or LWBs. Surface electromyography (EMG), from arm and back muscles, and heart rate was sampled. For certain muscles, EMG amplitudes were slightly lower when masons were laying LWBs compared to SWBs. Upper back and forearm extensor EMG amplitudes were greater for the higher wall courses for both block weights. There were no significant differences in heart rate between the two blocks. Interventions that address block weight and course height may be effective for masons.

  20. Sarcopenia Defined by Combining Height- and Weight-Adjusted Skeletal Muscle Indices is Closely Associated With Poor Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Meng, Nai-Hsin; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Chang, Chin-Kai; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2015-10-01

    To compare muscle strength and physical performance among subjects with and without sarcopenia of different definitions. A population-based cross-sectional study. 857 community residents aged 65 years or older. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People consensus criteria. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean soft tissue mass. Sarcopenic participants with low height-adjusted or weight-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI) were classified as having h-sarcopenia or w-sarcopenia, respectively. Combined sarcopenia (c-sarcopenia) was defined as having either h- or w-sarcopenia. The participants underwent six physical performance tests: walking speed, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, single-leg stance, timed chair stands, and flexibility test. The strength of five muscle groups was measured. Participants with h-sarcopenia had lower weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and absolute muscle strength (p ≤ .001); those with w-sarcopenia had higher weight, BMI, fat mass (p < .001), and low relative muscle strength (p ≤ .003). Participants with c-sarcopenia had poorer performance in all physical performance tests, whereas h-sarcopenia and w-sarcopenia were associated with poor performance in four tests. Subjects with h- and w-sarcopenia differ significantly in terms of obesity indicators. Combining height- and weight-adjusted SMIs can be a feasible method to define sarcopenia.

  1. VHA Corporate Data Warehouse height and weight data: opportunities and challenges for health services research.

    PubMed

    Noël, Polly Hitchcock; Copeland, Laurel A; Perrin, Ruth A; Lancaster, A Elizabeth; Pugh, Mary Jo; Wang, Chen-Pin; Bollinger, Mary J; Hazuda, Helen P

    2010-01-01

    Within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), anthropometric measurements entered into the electronic medical record are stored in local information systems, the national Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW), and in some regional data warehouses. This article describes efforts to examine the quality of weight and height data within the CDW and to compare CDW data with data from warehouses maintained by several of VHA's regional groupings of healthcare facilities (Veterans Integrated Service Networks [VISNs]). We found significantly fewer recorded heights than weights in both the CDW and VISN data sources. In spite of occasional anomalies, the concordance in the number and value of records in the CDW and the VISN warehouses was generally 97% to 99% or greater. Implausible variation in same-day and same-year heights and weights was noted, suggesting measurement or data-entry errors. Our work suggests that the CDW, over time and through validation, has become a generally reliable source of anthropometric data. Researchers should assess the reliability of data contained within any source and apply strategies to minimize the impact of data errors appropriate to their study population.

  2. Variations in height-over-age curves for young longleaf pine plantations

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1983-01-01

    Abstract.Some environmental factors related to height growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations were identified by analyses of data from remeasured plots. A total of 660 plots, mostly from the Southwide Pine Seed Source Study, provided 2,737 height-over-age observations from age 3 through ages 15 or 20 to 22. A...

  3. Maternal height and its relationship to offspring birth weight and adiposity in 6- to 10-year-old Maya children from poor neighborhoods in Merida, Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Azcorra, Hugo; Dickinson, Federico; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between maternal height, offspring birth weight, and adiposity at 6-10 years of age in a sample of 197 mother-child dyads from Merida, Mexico. During 2008-2009 and 2011-2013, measurements were taken of maternal height and weight; and height, waist circumference (WC), and skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac) of their children. Participant body composition was estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. A questionnaire was applied to document household socioeconomic conditions. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the association between maternal height, offspring birth weight and fat mass index (FMI), WC, and sum of skinfolds (SumSkfZ) in boys and girls, separately. After adjusting for child age and household socioeconomic conditions, maternal height was identified to be significantly associated (p < .05) with FMI, WC, and SumSkf only in boys. In all models, child adiposity was inversely related to maternal height. Offspring birth weight was not associated with any adiposity parameter. The results suggest that maternal nutritional history as reflected in short maternal stature is associated with higher body fat in children, and that male offspring are more vulnerable to intergenerational influences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries123

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline HD; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. Objective: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. Design: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from −0.6 (Brazil) to −2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3–0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: −0.3 (Brazil) to −1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. Conclusions: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. PMID:25008854

  5. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height(2)), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αX(β)) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P < 0.05). Nationally representative powers for BW were (NHANES/KNHANES) 2.12 ± 0.05/2.11 ± 0.06 for men and 2.02 ± 0.04/1.99 ± 0.06 for women and for WC were 0.66 ± 0.03/0.67 ± 0.05 for men and 0.61 ± 0.04/0.56 ± 0.05 for women. Adult BW scales to height with a power of ∼2 across the 8 sex and race/ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a finding that has implications for defining body shape in

  6. Height gain at adult-height age in 184 short patients treated with growth hormone from prepubertal age to near adult-height age is not related to GH secretory status at GH therapy onset.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, A; Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Yeste, D; Gussinye, M; Campos, A; Albisu, M A; Clemente, M; Bel, J; Nosás, R; Rabanal, M; Del Pozo, C; Gómez, J M; Mesa, J

    2013-01-01

    GH release after stimuli classifies short children as severe idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IIGHD), mild IIGHD, dissociated GH release (DGHR) and normal GH release (NGHR) and anthropometric birth data as adequate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA). GH release after stimuli classifies AGA patients as IIGHD or as idiopathic short stature (ISS). To compare height gain induced by GH therapy (31.8 ± 3.5 µg/kg/day, 7.7 ± 1.6 years) started at prepubertal age and stopped at near adult-height age. A retrospective longitudinal multicenter study including 184 short patients classified as severe IIGHD n = 25, mild IIGHD n = 75, DGHR n = 55 and NGHR n = 29; or as IIGHD n = 78, ISS n = 57 and SGA n = 49. Height gain was evaluated throughout GH therapy and at adult-height age. Height-SDS gain at adult-height age was similar among severe IIGHD (1.8 ± 0.8 SDS), mild IIGHD (1.6 ± 0.6 SDS), DGHR (1.7 ± 0.7 SDS) and NGHR (1.6 ± 0.7 SDS), or among IIGHD (1.7 ± 0.7 SDS), ISS (1.7 ± 0.6 SDS) and SGA (1.6 ± 0.8 SD). GH-release stimuli are of little help for deciding on GH therapy in the clinical management of prepubertal children with IIGHD, ISS or SGA. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Factors associated with weight for height and skinfold thickness in British children.

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Tauleria, E; Rona, R J; Chinn, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the associations of social and biological factors with measures of obesity in children. DESIGN--The study had a cross sectional design. SETTING--The analyses were based on data from two national study of health and growth cross sectional surveys. The "representative sample" comprised 1990 data from 22 English areas and 1990-91 data from 14 Scottish areas; the "inner city sample" comprised 1991 data from 20 English areas. PARTICIPANTS--The subjects were primary school children aged mainly 5-11 years living in England and Scotland. The "representative" sample included 10,628 children--6463 living in England and 4165 living in Scotland. The "inner city" sample included 7049 children--2183 white, 1124 Afro-Caribbean, 2696 Indian subcontinent, and 1046 from other groups. Due to missing values on continuous variables, 8374 children were included in the analyses. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The relation between social environment and childhood overweight was studied using several indicators of obesity. Triceps, subscapular, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and weight for height were used as dependent variables. The analyses were carried out in two stages. Firstly, multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the factors associated with dependent variables treated as continuous. Secondly, multiple linear logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between independent factors and overweight and fatness defined as binary variables. Birth weight, mother's body mass index (BMI), and father's BMI were consistently associated (p < 0.001) in all models and were the variables that contributed most to the explained variation in the dependent variables. In the multiple regression analyses there was a consistent interaction between the effects of ethnic origin and family size on each outcome variable. In the logistic regression analyses the interaction was not significant, and highly significant associations

  8. Genetic influences on the difference in variability of height, weight and body mass index between Caucasian and East Asian adolescent twins.

    PubMed

    Hur, Y-M; Kaprio, J; Iacono, W G; Boomsma, D I; McGue, M; Silventoinen, K; Martin, N G; Luciano, M; Visscher, P M; Rose, R J; He, M; Ando, J; Ooki, S; Nonaka, K; Lin, C C H; Lajunen, H R; Cornes, B K; Bartels, M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Cherny, S S; Mitchell, K

    2008-10-01

    Twin studies are useful for investigating the causes of trait variation between as well as within a population. The goals of the present study were two-fold: First, we aimed to compare the total phenotypic, genetic and environmental variances of height, weight and BMI between Caucasians and East Asians using twins. Secondly, we intended to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to differences in variability of height, weight and BMI between Caucasians and East Asians. Height and weight data from 3735 Caucasian and 1584 East Asian twin pairs (age: 13-15 years) from Australia, China, Finland, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, Taiwan and the United States were used for analyses. Maximum likelihood twin correlations and variance components model-fitting analyses were conducted to fulfill the goals of the present study. The absolute genetic variances for height, weight and BMI were consistently greater in Caucasians than in East Asians with corresponding differences in total variances for all three body measures. In all 80 to 100% of the differences in total variances of height, weight and BMI between the two population groups were associated with genetic differences. Height, weight and BMI were more variable in Caucasian than in East Asian adolescents. Genetic variances for these three body measures were also larger in Caucasians than in East Asians. Variance components model-fitting analyses indicated that genetic factors contributed to the difference in variability of height, weight and BMI between the two population groups. Association studies for these body measures should take account of our findings of differences in genetic variances between the two population groups.

  9. Height-age and site index curves for Pacific silver fir in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Hoyer; Francis R. Herman

    1989-01-01

    Forty felled dominant and codominant Pacific silver fir trees (Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes) from 39 locations provided the basis for height-age and site index curves. Trees were from upper slope forests of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Trees ranged in age from 100 to 300 years and were identified by their height-growth trend as...

  10. Reference charts for height and weight of school children from west malaysia in comparison with the United States centers for disease control and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bong, Yb; Shariff, Aa; Majid, Am; Merican, Af

    2012-01-01

    Reference charts are widely used in healthcare as a screening tool. This study aimed to produce reference growth charts for school children from West Malaysia in comparison with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) chart. A total of 14,360 school children ranging from 7 to 17 years old from six states in West Malaysia were collected. A two-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to recruit the subjects. Curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method. The LOWESS method was used to smooth the data. The means and standard deviations for height and weight for both genders are presented. The results showed good agreement with growth patterns in other countries, i.e., males tend to be taller and heavier than females for most age groups. Height and weight of females reached a plateau at 17 years of age; however, males were still growing at this age. The growth charts for West Malaysian school children were compared with the CDC 2000 growth charts for school children in the United States. The height and weight for males and females at the start of school-going ages were almost similar. The comparison between the growth charts from this study and the CDC 2000 growth charts indicated that the growth patterns of West Malaysian school children have improved, although the height and weight of American school children were higher than those for West Malaysian school children.

  11. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature weight and height at puberty

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturing amongst breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fit to the nonlinear function: BW = f(t) = A – Bek(age) where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determi...

  12. Reference Charts for Height and Weight of School Children from West Malaysia in Comparison with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bong, YB; Shariff, AA; Majid, AM; Merican, AF

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reference charts are widely used in healthcare as a screening tool. This study aimed to produce reference growth charts for school children from West Malaysia in comparison with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) chart. Methods: A total of 14,360 school children ranging from 7 to 17 years old from six states in West Malaysia were collected. A two-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to recruit the subjects. Curves were adjusted using Cole’s LMS method. The LOWESS method was used to smooth the data. Results: The means and standard deviations for height and weight for both genders are presented. The results showed good agreement with growth patterns in other countries, i.e., males tend to be taller and heavier than females for most age groups. Height and weight of females reached a plateau at 17 years of age; however, males were still growing at this age. The growth charts for West Malaysian school children were compared with the CDC 2000 growth charts for school children in the United States. Conclusion: The height and weight for males and females at the start of school-going ages were almost similar. The comparison between the growth charts from this study and the CDC 2000 growth charts indicated that the growth patterns of West Malaysian school children have improved, although the height and weight of American school children were higher than those for West Malaysian school children. PMID:23113132

  13. Assortive mating for personaltiy traits, educational level, religious affiliation, height, weight, adn body mass index in parents of Korean twin sample.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2003-12-01

    The degree of assortative mating for psychological and physical traits in Asian societies in relatively unknown. The present study examined assortative mating for educational level, personality traits, religious affiliation, height, weight, and body mass index in a korean sample. Age-adjusted spouse correlations were high for educational level (r = .63) and religious affiliation (r = .67), modest for most personality traits (rs = -.01 to .26), and trivial for height (r = .04), weight (r = .05)m and body mass index (r = .11). These results were remarkably similar to those found from the western samples. Implications of the present findings in behavior genetic studies and human mating patterns were briefly discussed.

  14. The impact of adjustment of a weight-height index (W/H2) for frame size on the prediction of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Rookus, M A; Burema, J; Deurenberg, P; Van der Wiel-Wetzels, W A

    1985-09-01

    The impact of frame-size categories in weight-height tables was studied by comparing the efficiency of the body-mass index (weight/height2 (W/H2] and weight adjusted for body-height and a body-diameter, W/(H2Dp), in predicting body fatness. Body-weight, body-height, six body-diameters and four skinfold thicknesses were measured in ninety-five men and seventy women, aged between 23 and 35 years. Percentage of body fat was calculated from skinfold thicknesses using regression equations according to Durnin & Womersley (1974). The inclusion of a body-diameter increased the explained variation of body fatness from 57% to 62% (knee) and 63% (shoulder) in men and from 63% to 69% (knee) in women. It can be concluded that in the present population the efficiency of the prediction of percentage of body fat was not improved markedly by the inclusion of a body-diameter in the body-mass index, thus giving no support for the inclusion of frame-size categories in weight-height tables.

  15. Confirmation of delayed menarche based on regression evaluation of age at menarche for age at MPV of height in female ball game players.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Demura, Schinichi

    2005-01-01

    A general delay in menarche in female athletes has been confirmed based on comparisons of mean ages between athletes and non-athletes; however, it has not been possible to judge such delays individually. If delayed menarche could be evaluated for an individual, the athlete could be advised as to necessary precautions. In this study, the age at maximum peak velocity (MPV) of height, adopted as an index of physical maturation, was identified by the wavelet interpolation method (WIM). The relationship between the age at menarche and age at MPV of height in female athletes and non-athletes was then examined. For the athlete group, health examination records of 90 female ball game players in the first year of university in the Tokai area, all of whom had participated in national level competitions, were reviewed for the period from the first grade of elementary school until the final year of high school (from 1985 to 1996). A similar examination was conducted for the control group, among whom a final group of 78 female non-athletes were selected. The age at menarche was determined by questionnaires, and the longitudinal data for height and weight were obtained from the health examination records. Based on a comparison of the difference between the age at MPV of height and age at menarche in ball game players and the control group, a tendency was seen for the difference between the two ages to narrow as the age at MPV of height rose. A corrected regression evaluation of age at menarche against age at MPV of height was derived in the control group, and the evaluation system was applied to ball game players. The delay in menarche in ball game players could be individually evaluated.

  16. Sex and ethnic differences in validity of self-reported adult height, weight and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Describe self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) stratified by sex and ethnicity in the United States, explore ethnic variations in the likelihood of under-reporting BMI, and investigate pathways linking race/ethnicity to the underassessment of BMI. An observational study. The entire United States. Data were from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized civilian Americans. Objectively measured and subjectively reported BMI. Independent variables include race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and others), sex, age groups (age 20-29, 30-49, 50-69, and > or =70), marital status (currently married vs other marital categories), education (less than high school, high school graduate or equivalent, some college, college graduate or above), and poverty income ratio (PIR). This study confirmed that the use of reported BMI led to underestimates of the population prevalence of overweight and obesity due to the general tendency towards over-reporting height and under-reporting weight. Women were more likely than men to under-report BMI. And whites were more likely than Blacks and Hispanics to under-report BMI. Other factors positively associated with higher likelihood of under-reporting of BMI included overweight and obese weight status, aged > or =60 years, and college education. Among women, family income was an additional positive covariate. The results from this study underscore the need for frequently monitoring ethnic differences in validity of reported BMI and highlight the care which needs to be taken in making comparisons across sociodemographic groups based on reported BMI.

  17. Dietary pattern, height, weight centile and BMI of affluent school children and adolescents from three major cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sina; Umm-e-Rubab; Noorulain, Wajeeha; Majid, Rukhsana; Hosain, Kehkashan; Siddiqui, Intisar Ahmed; Manzoor, Shaheena

    2010-01-01

    To compare the dietary pattern, height, weight centile and BMI of affluent school children and adolescents from three major cities of Pakistan. Cross-sectional study. Private Schools of Karachi, Quetta and Lahore, from September 2007 to March 2008. The affluent socioeconomic group was identified by the monthly income of the parents (average>Rs.15,000 per month, $246); school fees of child (average>Rs.1,500 per month, $25) and household items such as computer, refrigerator, washing machine, television, car etc. A total of 652 healthy immunized children with no history of chronic infection, inducted through multistage stratified sampling were divided into groups A, B, and C by ages of 6-9, 10-13, and 14-17 years respectively. Height, weight and 24 hours diet recall was obtained. Centre for Disease Control and prevention (CDC), clinical charts with 5th and 95 percentile for standard height and weight were used. Food records subjected to USDA food exchange list were used. Forms were used as inputs to generate tables for Statistical Package for social sciences -SPSS, Window 13.0. In girls calories and food intake in group A and B of Quetta was lower (p<.005) vs. other cities. No significant difference was seen in group C. Fat intake was the same in the girls of all 3 groups. In boys caloric carbohydrates and protein intake of group A of Quetta vs. groups B and C was significant by different National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) height and weight in groups A and B were at the 50-90 centile and at 25-50 in group C, centile. BMI (kg/m2) in girls and boys of group A were not different. BMI was highest in group B girls (mean 22+/-5) and group C boys (25+/-4) of Quetta. Children of affluent schools of Karachi compared to Quetta are taking more junk food but their consumption of protein is lowered and of a poor quality. Overall fat is below normal recommended standards. However, minimum fat intake was seen in school children of Quetta when compared with Karachi and

  18. Comparison of height, weight, and body mass index data from state-mandated school physical fitness testing and a districtwide surveillance project.

    PubMed

    Khaokham, Christina B; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R

    2015-05-01

    Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade students. We compared height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to examine measurement differences between the projects. We assessed demographic characteristics and BMI category frequencies. We used paired t-tests to test continuous variables. κ statistics were used to assess categorical agreement. Of 3549 children assessed, 69% were Hispanic. Fifty-one percent were boys. Mean heights, weights, and BMIs were significantly different for each project (p < .0001). Surveillance height (106.7-165.1 cm) and weight (21.6-90.8 kg) ranges were lesser than PFT ranges (109.2-180.3 cm and 22.7-98.4 kg). The overall BMI category agreement was good (weighted κ = 0.77). Categorical percentage agreement was highest among normal weight children (94.9%) and lowest among underweight children (56.6%). Methodological differences might have resulted in the observed height, weight, and BMI differences. As school-based interventions become common, districts should carefully consider measurement reliability, training, and data-handling protocols to have confidence in their findings. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  19. Height growth to age 8 of larch species and hybrids in Wisconsin.

    Treesearch

    Don E. Riemenschneider; Hans Nienstaedt

    1983-01-01

    Height growth of tamarack; Siberian, European and Japanese larch; and hybrids between the European and Japanese larch were compared in an 8-year-old test in north-central Wisconsin. Hybrids were tallest and best reached 469 cm (15.4 feet) in mean height at age 8 years from seed. Hybrids exceeded European larch mean height by 12% and tamarack by 23%. Breeding...

  20. [Age-related changes in the physical development of Kabardin-Balkarian school-children living at various heights above sea level].

    PubMed

    Izaak, S I; Panasiuk, T V; Indreeva, A M

    2007-01-01

    Four and eighty-one schoolchildren aged 7-17 years, living at a height of 2100 m above sea level, and 1677 schoolchildren of the same age, living at a height of 100-400 m above sea level, from the Kabardin-Balkarian Republic were examined by the list of morphological indices of physical development (PD), such as height (cm), body weight (kg), and chest circumference (cm). The results were rated by using the 5-score scale, by calculating the integral indicator of PD (low, moderate, and high). The schoolchildren living at high heights were ascertained to have high values. In the schoolchildren living at low heights, PD is of more harmony; the altitude children have the developed chest along with the smaller height and lower body weight. The geographical differences in three parameters of PH between Kabardin-Balkarian schoolchildren were heterodirectional: the altitude children outrun the plain one in height during a short period of time (the boys outrun at the age of 10 to 13 years; the girls do at the age of 11 to 14 years). In terms of body weight, the children from the study groups either outrun, or lag each other, in the boys and girls, these variations being opposite in time. From the age of 10 years, the altitude children of both sexes surpass the plain ones in chest circumference.

  1. Height-age relationships for regeneration-size trees in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Dennis E. Ferguson; Clinton E. Carlson

    2010-01-01

    Regression equations were developed to predict heights of 10 conifer species inregenerating stands in central and northern Idaho, western Montana, and eastern Washington. Most sample trees were natural regeneration that became established after conventional harvest and site preparation methods. Heights are predicted as a function of tree age, residual overstory density...

  2. Children's height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Urban living affects children's nutrition and growth, which are determinants of their survival, cognitive development, and lifelong health. Little is known about urban–rural differences in children's height and weight, and how these differences have changed over time. We aimed to investigate trends in children's height and weight in rural and urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, and to assess changes in the urban–rural differentials in height and weight over time. Methods We used comprehensive population-based data and a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate trends in children's height-for-age and weight-for-age Z scores by rural and urban place of residence, and changes in urban–rural differentials in height and weight Z scores, for 141 low-income and middle-income countries between 1985 and 2011. We also estimated the contribution of changes in rural and urban height and weight, and that of urbanisation, to the regional trends in these outcomes. Findings Urban children are taller and heavier than their rural counterparts in almost all low-income and middle-income countries. The urban–rural differential is largest in Andean and central Latin America (eg, Peru, Honduras, Bolivia, and Guatemala); in some African countries such as Niger, Burundi, and Burkina Faso; and in Vietnam and China. It is smallest in southern and tropical Latin America (eg, Chile and Brazil). Urban children in China, Chile, and Jamaica are the tallest in low-income and middle-income countries, and children in rural areas of Burundi, Guatemala, and Niger the shortest, with the tallest and shortest more than 10 cm apart at age 5 years. The heaviest children live in cities in Georgia, Chile, and China, and the most underweight in rural areas of Timor-Leste, India, Niger, and Bangladesh. Between 1985 and 2011, the urban advantage in height fell in southern and tropical Latin America and south Asia, but changed little or not at all in most

  3. Measuring the accuracy of self-reported height and weight in a community-based sample of young people

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-reported anthropometric data are commonly used to estimate prevalence of obesity in population and community-based studies. We aim to: 1) Determine whether survey participants are able and willing to self-report height and weight; 2) Assess the accuracy of self-reported compared to measured anthropometric data in a community-based sample of young people. Methods Participants (16–29 years) of a behaviour survey, recruited at a Melbourne music festival (January 2011), were asked to self-report height and weight; researchers independently weighed and measured a sub-sample. Body Mass Index was calculated and overweight/obesity classified as ≥25kg/m2. Differences between measured and self-reported values were assessed using paired t-test/Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Accurate report of height and weight were defined as <2cm and <2kg difference between self-report and measured values, respectively. Agreement between classification of overweight/obesity by self-report and measured values was assessed using McNemar’s test. Results Of 1405 survey participants, 82% of males and 72% of females self-reported their height and weight. Among 67 participants who were also independently measured, self-reported height and weight were significantly less than measured height (p=0.01) and weight (p<0.01) among females, but no differences were detected among males. Overall, 52% accurately self-reported height, 30% under-reported, and 18% over-reported; 34% accurately self-reported weight, 52% under-reported and 13% over-reported. More females (70%) than males (35%) under-reported weight (p=0.01). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 33% based on self-report data and 39% based on measured data (p=0.16). Conclusions Self-reported measurements may underestimate weight but accurately identified overweight/obesity in the majority of this sample of young people. PMID:23170838

  4. Comparison of Updated Weight and Height Percentiles with Previous References in 6-17-Year-Old Children in Kayseri, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Zararsız, Gökmen; Çiçek, Betül; Kondolot, Meda; Mazıcıoğlu, M. Mümtaz; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare updated weight and height percentiles of 6-17-year-old children from all socio-economic levels in Kayseri with previous local references and other national/international data. Methods: The second study “Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study (DAMTCA II)” was conducted in Kayseri, between October 2007 and April 2008. Weight and height measurements from 4321 (1926 boys, 2395 girls) school children aged between 6 to 17 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Using these data, weight and height percentile curves were produced with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and compared with the most recent references. Results: Smoothed percentile curves including the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles were obtained for boys and girls. These results were compared with DAMTCA I study and with two national (İstanbul and Ankara) and international data from Asia and from Europe. Conclusion: This study provides updated weight and height references for Turkish school children aged between 6 and 17 years residing in Kayseri. PMID:27507256

  5. Child health in Peru: importance of regional variation and community effects on children's height and weight.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-12-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics. The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas.

  6. Age- and height-based prediction bias in spirometry reference equations.

    PubMed

    Quanjer, Philip H; Hall, Graham L; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J; Stocks, Janet

    2012-07-01

    Prediction bias in spirometry reference equations can arise from combining equations for different age groups, rounding age or height to integers or using self-reported height. To assess the bias arising from these sources, the fit of 13 prediction equations was tested against the Global Lungs Initiative (GLI) dataset using spirometric data from 55,136 healthy Caucasians (54% female). The effects on predicted values of using whole-year age versus decimal age, and of a 1% bias in height, were quantified. In children, the prediction bias relative to GLI ranged from -22% to +17%. Switching equations at 18 yrs of age led to biases of between -846 (-14%) and +1,309 (+38%) mL. Using age in whole years rather than decimal age introduced biases from -8% to +7%, whereas a 1% overestimation of height introduced bias that ranged from +1% to +40%. Bias was greatest in children and adolescents, and in short elderly subjects. Using a single spirometry equation applicable across all ages and populations reduces prediction bias. Measuring and recording age and height accurately are also essential if bias is to be minimised.

  7. You can be too thin (but not too tall): Social desirability bias in self-reports of weight and height.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary A; Carman, Katherine G

    2017-07-13

    Previous studies of survey data from the U.S. and other countries find that women tend to understate their body weight on average, while both men and women overstate their height on average. Social norms have been posited as one potential explanation for misreporting of weight and height, but lack of awareness of body weight has been suggested as an alternative explanation, and the evidence presented to date is inconclusive. This paper is the first to offer a theoretical model of self-reporting behavior for weight and height, in which individuals face a tradeoff between reporting an accurate weight (or height) and reporting a socially desirable weight (or height). The model generates testable implications that help us to determine whether self-reporting errors arise because of social desirability bias or instead reflect lack of awareness of body weight and/or other factors. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010, we find that self-reports of weight offer robust evidence of social desirability bias. However, lack of awareness of weight may also contribute to self-reporting biases, and this factor appears to be more important within some demographic groups than others. Among both women and men, self-reports of height exhibit significant social desirability bias only among those of below-average height, and very few individuals underreport their height. Implied self-reports of BMI exhibit gender-specific patterns similar to those observed for self-reporting of weight, and the inferred social norms for BMI (20.8 for women and 24.8 for men) are within the "normal" range established by public health institutions. Determining why individuals misreport their weight has important implications for survey design as well as for clinical practice. For example, our findings suggest that health care providers might take additional steps to increase self-awareness of body weight. The framework also helps to explain previous

  8. Comparison of two different formulas for body surface area in adults at extremes of height and weight.

    PubMed

    Fancher, Karen M; Sacco, Alicia J; Gwin, Robert C; Gormley, Luke K; Mitchell, Caitlin B

    2016-10-01

    Different equations for predicting body surface area have been derived. The DuBois and Mosteller body surface area equations are considered equivalent, but the accuracy in adult patients at extremes of height and weight is unknown. To compare body surface area in patients at extremes of height and weight using both formulas to determine whether a difference affected chemotherapy dose. Anthropometric data were extracted from the 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vital and Health Statistics. Data for both males and females were examined. The 50th percentiles of weight and height were used to calculate the body surface area with both formulas. Calculations were repeated using the 5th through 95th percentiles for weight, then the 5th through 95th percentiles for height, and so forth until all extremes of height and weight were examined. Each body surface area was used to calculate a chemotherapy dose. A difference of ≥4.5% in dose was considered clinically significant. Differences were apparent in both males and females. Dosing differences were most apparent in patients in the 50th, 75th or 95th percentile for both height and weight. Differences are also noted in other percentiles, suggesting that patients of smaller stature may also be affected. Guidelines recommend full doses of chemotherapy for patients with curative intent but do not specify which body surface area formula is preferred. Our results imply that the Mosteller equation provides a greater chemotherapy dose, and this difference may be clinically significant in patients who are in the 50th to 95th percentiles for height, weight or both. Further study is necessary to validate these results and determine the impact on patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Weight Estimation Tool for Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Limited-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Importance A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. Objective To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries. Design This was a retrospective observational study. Data were collected in 560 nutritional surveys during 1992–2006 using a modified Expanded Program of Immunization two-stage cluster sample design. Setting Locations with high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. Participants A total of 453,990 children met inclusion criteria (age 6–59 months; weight ≤ 25 kg; MUAC 80–200 mm) and exclusion criteria (bilateral pitting edema; biologically implausible weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) values). Exposures Weight was estimated using Broselow Tape, Hong Kong formula, and database MUAC alone, height alone, and height and MUAC combined. Main Outcomes and Measures Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight, proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% and ± 10% of true weight, weighted Kappa statistic, and Bland-Altman bias were reported as measures of tool accuracy. Standard deviation of mean percentage difference and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reported as measures of tool precision. Results Database height was a more accurate and precise predictor of weight compared to Broselow Tape 2007 [B], Broselow Tape 2011 [A], and MUAC. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight was +0.49% (SD = 10

  10. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-07-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective.

  11. Effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate on height and weight in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following up to four years of treatment.

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Yoldi-Petri, María Eugenia; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Zardoya-Santos, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    There is some controversy concerning \\the potential negative influence of methylphenidate on growth. The authors reviewed clinical records of 187 patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder under treatment with methylphenidate. The patients' weight, height, and body mass index were measured at diagnosis and during 4 years of follow-up. The dose of methylphenidate was gradually increased up to 1.31 ± 0.2 mg/kg/d. At diagnosis, mean weight value was lower than mean weight expected for age by 0.697 kg. This difference increased to 4.274 kg (at 30 months of treatment), although it subsequently decreased to 1.588 kg (at 48 months of treatment). Mean value of height was lower than expected mean height for age by 0.42 cm at diagnosis. This difference increased to 2.69 cm (at 30 months of treatment), but it subsequently decreased to 0.83 cm (at 48 months of treatment). The relationship between nutritional status and the negative effects on the height curve in those patients would require nutritional optimization to return anthropometric variables to normal.

  12. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  13. Historical trends in height, weight, and body mass: Data from U.S. Major League Baseball players, 1869–1983

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players – a select, healthy population – to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1 cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later. PMID:18753017

  14. Historical trends in height, weight, and body mass: data from U.S. Major League Baseball players, 1869-1983.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Krueger, Patrick M; Rogers, Richard G

    2008-12-01

    We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players - a select, healthy population - to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later.

  15. A comparison of height and weight velocity as a part of the composite endpoint in pediatric HIV.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Daniel K; Miller, Wiliam C; Benjamin, Daniel K; Ryder, Robert W; Weber, David J; Walter, Emmanuel; McKinney, Ross E

    2003-11-07

    HIV adversely affects growth in children. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (PACTG) protocols often use weight velocity [changes in weight z-score for age (WAZ)] as a part of the composite endpoint for phase II and III clinical trials. However, WAZ and height velocity (HAZ) have not been critically compared for their utility as part of the composite endpoint. HAZ and WAZ were compared to predict laboratory and clinical progression of HIV in a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected children with data from PACTG Protocol 300. In both bivariable and multivariable analyses, changes in HAZ were more closely linked to subsequent progression than WAZ. Children with improved HAZ were somewhat less likely to exhibit virological failure [odds ratio (OR), 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-1.14], than children with improved WAZ (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.99,2.11). Children who had improved HAZ were less likely to exhibit immunological failure (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.49-1.00), than children with improved WAZ (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.82-1.57). Children who had improved HAZ were less likely to have other forms of clinical progression of HIV (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.99), than children who had improved WAZ (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.58-1.94). Increases in HAZ were associated with reduced risk of subsequent clinical progression and subsequent immune reconstitution and weakly associated with declines in HIV RNA. Changes in WAZ were not associated with laboratory outcomes relevant to pediatric HIV infection. Height velocity should be considered as a component of a composite clinical endpoint in future PACTG trials.

  16. Maternal diabetes alters birth weight in glucokinase-deficient (MODY2) kindred but has no influence on adult weight, height, insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Velho, G; Hattersley, A T; Froguel, P

    2000-08-01

    Altered fetal insulin secretion caused by fetal or maternal glucokinase mutations influence birth weight. Here, we attempt to answer two additional questions: firstly, whether this variation in birth weight (from low birth weight to macrosomia) has an effect on adult height or weight. Secondly, whether maternal hyperglycaemia during fetal life has an effect on metabolic phenotypes of the adult offspring. We studied 447 family members from 37 MODY2 kindred, divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of a glucokinase mutation in the subject (S+ or S-, respectively) and his/her mother (M+ or M-). Birth weight data were obtained from a questionnaire sent to the mothers. Birth weight was reduced in the presence of a fetal mutation (M-S+) and increased in the presence of a maternal mutation (M+ S-). These effects are additive as similar birth weights were observed in M+ S+ and M-S- offspring. Adult height, weight or body mass index (weight/height2) were, however, similar in the four groups of subjects. Non-diabetic adult offspring, regardless of the glycaemic status of the mothers (M+ S- or M-S-), had similar insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, blood pressures and lipid profiles. These variables as well as the severity of hyperglycaemia were similar in adult M+ S+ and M-S+ MODY2 subjects. Maternal environment and fetal genotypes could alter growth in utero by changing fetal insulin secretion but these effects do not result in a persistent programming in latter life.

  17. Evolution of weight and height of children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Murilo Bertazzo; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho, Sírio; Beani, Lilian; Moscardini, Airton Camacho; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the height and weight development of children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgery with the goal of determining when they reach the threshold of normal development and whether there are differences between patients with developmental pattern below the level of normality preoperatively (z-score<-2 for the analyzed parameter) in comparison to the total group of cardiac patients. Methods We prospectively followed up 27 children undergoing operation into five time periods: preoperatively and at four subsequent outpatient appointments: 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and 12th month after hospital discharge. The anthropometric parameters used were median z-score (MZ), weight (WAZ), height (HAZ), subscapular skinfold (SSFAZ), upper arm circumference (UAC) and triceps skinfold (TSFAZ). The evolution assessment of the parameters was performed by analysis of variance and comparison with the general normal population from unpaired t test, both in the total group of cardiac patients, and in subgroups with preoperative parameters below the normal level (Zm<-2). Results In the total group there was no significant evolution of MZ of all parameters. WAZ was statistically lower than the normal population until the 1st month of follow-up (P=0.028); HAZ only preoperatively (P=0.044), SSFAZ in the first month (P=0.015) and at 12th month (P=0.038), UAC and TSFAZ were always statistically equal to the general population. In patients whose development was below the level of normality, there were important variation of WAZ (P=0.002), HAZ (P=0.001) and UAC (P=0.031) after the operation, and the WAZ was lower than the normal population until the 3rd month (P=0.015); HAZ and UAC, until the first month (P=0.024 and P=0.039 respectively), SSFAZ, up to the 12th month (P=0.005), the TSFAZ only preoperatively (P=0.011). Conclusion The operation promoted the return to normalcy for those with heart disease in general within up to three months, but for the group of

  18. Weight, Height and Body Mass Index Nomograms; Early Adiposity Rebound in a Sample of Children in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Hesamifard, Bahare; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Jafari, Nasim; Poorchaloo, Sakine Ranji; Ataei, Neamatollah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessing growth is a useful tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. The objective of this study was to construct growth reference curves of Iranian infants and children (0-6 years old) and compare them with previous and international references. Methods: Weight, height or length of 2107 Iranian infants and children aged 0-6 years old were measured using a cross-sectional survey in Tehran in 2010. Standard smooth reference curves for Iranian population were constructed and compared to multinational World Health Organization 2006 reference standards as well as a previous study from two decades ago. Results: Growth index references for Iranian girls are increased in compare to data from two decades ago and are approximately close to the international references. In boys; however, the increment was considerably large as it passed the international references. Not only the values for indexes was changed during two decades, but also the age at adiposity rebound came near the age of 3, which is an important risk factor for later obesity. Conclusions: During two decades, growth indexes of Iranian children raised noticeable. Risk factors for later obesity are now apparent and demand immediate policy formulations. In addition, reference curves presented in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring growth of Iranian children. PMID:24498497

  19. Weight, height and body mass index nomograms; early adiposity rebound in a sample of children in tehran, iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Hesamifard, Bahare; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Jafari, Nasim; Poorchaloo, Sakine Ranji; Ataei, Neamatollah

    2013-12-01

    Assessing growth is a useful tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. The objective of this study was to construct growth reference curves of Iranian infants and children (0-6 years old) and compare them with previous and international references. Weight, height or length of 2107 Iranian infants and children aged 0-6 years old were measured using a cross-sectional survey in Tehran in 2010. Standard smooth reference curves for Iranian population were constructed and compared to multinational World Health Organization 2006 reference standards as well as a previous study from two decades ago. Growth index references for Iranian girls are increased in compare to data from two decades ago and are approximately close to the international references. In boys; however, the increment was considerably large as it passed the international references. Not only the values for indexes was changed during two decades, but also the age at adiposity rebound came near the age of 3, which is an important risk factor for later obesity. During two decades, growth indexes of Iranian children raised noticeable. Risk factors for later obesity are now apparent and demand immediate policy formulations. In addition, reference curves presented in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring growth of Iranian children.

  20. Height and prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lulu; Shen, Lijun; Li, Hui; Liu, Bingqing; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Liang, Yuan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies reported that height was inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but the association between height and hypertension was unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between height and blood pressure or prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. A total of 33,197 participants aged 37 to 94 years were recruited from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study in Hubei province, China. All participants completed baseline questionnaires, medical examinations and provided blood samples. Hypertension was define as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 140 mmHg or/and a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over 90 mmHg, or current use of antihypertensive medication, or participants with self-reported physician diagnosis of hypertension. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of hypertension was 69.1% for men and 58.0% for women. Pulse pressure (PP) and SBP, but not DBP decreased linearly with increasing height among men and women. Comparing the highest with the shortest quartile of height, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.71, 0.91) for men and 0.83 (0.74, 0.92) for women. In conclusion, height was associated with reduced SBP, PP and prevalence of hypertension in a middle-aged and older Chinese population. PMID:28000763

  1. How do low/high height and weight variation affect upper limb movements during manual material handling of industrial boxes?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana B; Silva, Luciana C C B; Coury, Helenice J C G

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface height and load weight on upper limb movements and electromyographic (EMG) recordings during manual handling performed by both experienced and inexperienced lifter subjects. Sixteen experienced and sixteen inexperienced lifters handled a box (both 7 and 15 kg) from an intermediate height (waist level) to either a high or low surface. Electromyography and video images were recorded during the tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the deltoid and biceps muscles, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and elbow flexion movements. Groups, right/left sides, weights and heights were compared. There were no differences between either groups or sides. Weight and height variations affected EMG and posture, although weight had more impact on EMG. Shoulder abduction and flexion movements higher than 60º occurred, particularly for the higher surface. Shoulder flexion was also higher when the box was moved to the low height. This study provides new evidence as shoulder postures during boxes handling on low surfaces had not previously been evaluated. The high demand of upper limb in manual material handling tasks is clear, particularly for the shoulder. This knowledge can be used by physical therapists to plan better rehabilitation programs for manual material handling-related disorders, particularly focusing on return to work.

  2. Multiple imputation as one tool to provide longitudinal databases for modelling human height and weight development.

    PubMed

    Aßmann, C

    2016-06-01

    Besides large efforts regarding field work, provision of valid databases requires statistical and informational infrastructure to enable long-term access to longitudinal data sets on height, weight and related issues. To foster use of longitudinal data sets within the scientific community, provision of valid databases has to address data-protection regulations. It is, therefore, of major importance to hinder identifiability of individuals from publicly available databases. To reach this goal, one possible strategy is to provide a synthetic database to the public allowing for pretesting strategies for data analysis. The synthetic databases can be established using multiple imputation tools. Given the approval of the strategy, verification is based on the original data. Multiple imputation by chained equations is illustrated to facilitate provision of synthetic databases as it allows for capturing a wide range of statistical interdependencies. Also missing values, typically occurring within longitudinal databases for reasons of item non-response, can be addressed via multiple imputation when providing databases. The provision of synthetic databases using multiple imputation techniques is one possible strategy to ensure data protection, increase visibility of longitudinal databases and enhance the analytical potential.

  3. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18 kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness.

  4. Growing up before growing out: secular trends in height, weight and obesity in 5--6-year-old children born between 1970 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah M; Craig, Leone C A; Raja, Amalraj E; McNeill, Geraldine; Turner, Stephen W

    2013-04-01

    This was a whole-population study of height, weight and obesity prevalence in 5-6-year-old children born between 1970 and 2006 in the Grampian region, north east Scotland. Heights and weights collected as part of routine primary school medical entry were obtained from different sources. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI)≥98th centile. Anthropometric measurements were made in 194391 children, mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.8). The mean height z scores rose for those born between 1970-2000 respectively and were static thereafter. Obesity prevalence was non-linear over time and initially fell for birth years 1970-1977, rising between 1977 and 1998 before falling for those born between 1998 and 2006. For the whole population, the prevalence of obesity rose from 1.3% for those born in 1976 to 6.9% for those born in 1998 and fell back to 5.7% for children born in 2006. Obesity was initially highest in girls and most affluent communities but became most prevalent among boys and least affluent communities. The secular increase in height at school entry in children born in 1970 and afterwards was followed by an increase in weight leading to an initial reduction in obesity prevalence. Whole-population obesity prevalence for children born in the 2000s is now falling but prevalence remains considerably higher compared with those born in the 1970s. Obesity prevalence continues to rise among less affluent communities.

  5. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  6. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  7. Sex and ethnic disparities in weight and height among children of transnational couples, aborigines, and Han Chinese in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Lin, Yu-Ru

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we examined sex and ethnic disparities in growth and body mass index (BMI) status among schoolchildren of transnational families, the aborigines and Han Taiwanese in Nantou, Taiwan. We tested the hypothesis that cultural and social factors of the transnational couples could impact the growth status of their children. The study also determined the factors associated with the growth status of schoolchildren. A total of 1674 school age children in the county were cluster sampled, and their weight and height data were statistically analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance, chi(2) test, and linear regression analysis according to sex, ethnicity, and residential locations. The institutional review board of Asia University, Taiwan, ROC, approved the study protocol. Results showed that aboriginal boys were significantly shorter in stature than sons of the transnational couples and Han Taiwanese. However, weight and BMI were not different among the 3 groups. Daughters of the transnational couples were significantly shorter and lighter, whereas the aboriginal girls were shorter but not lighter and had significantly greater BMI compared with their Han Taiwanese counterparts. Regression analysis revealed significant associations of weight and BMI with sex and ethnicity. Results suggest that culture plays a role in sex disparity. Ethnic and sex disparities in growth status exist in Taiwan. Aboriginal boys and girls are shorter but not lighter compared with their Han Taiwanese counterparts, whereas daughters but not sons of transnational couples are shorter and lighter compared with Han Taiwanese counterparts. These findings are useful information for the educators and healthcare policy makers for improving diet and health.

  8. Associations among height, body mass index and intelligence from age 11 to age 78 years.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2016-09-29

    Intelligence is related to both height and body mass index (BMI) at various stages of life. Several studies have demonstrated longitudinal relationships between these measures, but none has established whether height and intelligence, or BMI and intelligence are linked from childhood through to older age. We assessed the relations between these measures over an interval of up to 67 years using data from the 36-Day Sample, an initially-representative sample of Scottish people born in 1936, assessed at age 11 years (N = 6,291) and again at 77-78 years (N = 722). This paper focuses on the 423 participants (6.7 % of the original sample) who provided relevant data in late adulthood. Height and intelligence were significantly positively associated in childhood (β = .23) and late adulthood (β = .21-.29). Longitudinal correlations also showed that childhood intelligence predicted late-adulthood height (β = .20), and childhood height predicted late-adulthood cognitive ability (β = .12-.14). We observed no significant relationship between BMI and intelligence either in childhood or in late adulthood, nor any longitudinal association between the two in this sample. Our results on height and intelligence are the first to demonstrate that their relationship spans almost seven decades, from childhood through to late adulthood, and they call for further investigation into the mechanisms underlying this lifelong association.

  9. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Visual and Auditory Cues on Speaker Height and Weight Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; Cott, Elizabeth G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an investigation comparing visual and auditory clues effect on estimates of speakers' heights and weights, to determine if voice alone conveys as much information as visual clues. The results indicate that the differences between estimates based on photographs and those based on speech recordings are, on the average, very small.…

  10. Distance, Weight, Height, Area and Temperature Percepts of School Children. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. XII. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Malcolm D.; Jones, Orville E.

    It is essential in communicative situations for teachers and students to have comparable percepts. A paucity of information is available on the percepts held by children regarding quantities and intervals of distance, height, weight, time, temperature and volume or on improvement (if any) that occurs as children mature. Teachers cannot be…

  11. Estimating radiation effective doses from whole body computed tomography scans based on U.S. soldier patient height and weight

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to explore how a patient's height and weight can be used to predict the effective dose to a reference phantom with similar height and weight from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan when machine-based parameters are unknown. Since machine-based scanning parameters can be misplaced or lost, a predictive model will enable the medical professional to quantify a patient's cumulative radiation dose. Methods One hundred mathematical phantoms of varying heights and weights were defined within an x-ray Monte Carlo based software code in order to calculate organ absorbed doses and effective doses from a chest abdomen pelvis scan. Regression analysis was used to develop an effective dose predictive model. The regression model was experimentally verified using anthropomorphic phantoms and validated against a real patient population. Results Estimates of the effective doses as calculated by the predictive model were within 10% of the estimates of the effective doses using experimentally measured absorbed doses within the anthropomorphic phantoms. Comparisons of the patient population effective doses show that the predictive model is within 33% of current methods of estimating effective dose using machine-based parameters. Conclusions A patient's height and weight can be used to estimate the effective dose from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan. The presented predictive model can be used interchangeably with current effective dose estimating techniques that rely on computed tomography machine-based techniques. PMID:22004072

  12. Use of National and International Growth Charts for Studying Height in European Children: Development of Up-To-Date European Height-For-Age Charts

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children’s linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. Methods and Findings In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade) and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990) national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (−1.91, 95% CI: −1.97 to −1.85) was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (−1.55, 95% CI: −1.61 to −1.49) (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth

  13. The treatment of parental height as a biological factor in studies of birth weight and childhood growth

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N; Logan, S

    2002-01-01

    Parental height is frequently treated as a biological variable in studies of birth weight and childhood growth. Elimination of social variables from multivariate models including parental height as a biological variable leads researchers to conclude that social factors have no independent effect on the outcome. This paper challenges the treatment of parental height as a biological variable, drawing on extensive evidence for the determination of adult height through a complex interaction of genetic and social factors. The paper firstly seeks to establish the importance of social factors in the determination of height. The methodological problems associated with treatment of parental height as a purely biological variable are then discussed, illustrated by data from published studies and by analysis of data from the 1958 National Childhood Development Study (NCDS). The paper concludes that a framework for studying pathways to pregnancy and childhood outcomes needs to take account of the complexity of the relation between genetic and social factors and be able to account for the effects of multiple risk factors acting cumulatively across time and across generations. Illustrations of these approaches are given using NCDS data. PMID:12193422

  14. Weight Gain in Pregnancy, Maternal Age and Gestational Age in Relation to Fetal Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p < 0.001. Body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy (pre-BMI), maternal height, parity were not independently associated with macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia. PMID:25954731

  15. Weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age in relation to fetal macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Li, Li

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p < 0.001. Body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy (pre-BMI), maternal height, parity were not independently associated with macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia.

  16. Age-related factors in the relationship between foot measurements and living stature and body weight.

    PubMed

    Atamturk, Derya; Duyar, Izzet

    2008-11-01

    The measurements of feet and footprints are especially important in forensic identification, as they have been used to predict the body height and weight of victims or suspects. It can be observed that the subjects of forensic-oriented studies are generally young adults. That is to say, researchers rarely take into consideration the body's proportional changes with age. Hence, the aim of this study is to generate equations which take age and sex into consideration, when stature and body weight are estimated from foot and footprints dimensions. With this aim in mind, we measured the stature, body weight, foot length and breadth, heel breadth, footprint length and breadth, and footprint heel breadth of 516 volunteers (253 males and 263 females) aged between 17.6 and 82.9 years using standard measurement techniques. The sample population was divided randomly into two groups. Group 1, the study group, consisted of 80% of the sample (n = 406); the remaining 20% were assigned to the cross-validation group or Group 2 (n = 110). In the first stage of the study, we produced equations for estimating stature and weight using a stepwise regression technique. Then, their reliability was tested on Group 2 members. Statistical analyses showed that the ratios of foot dimensions to stature and body weight change considerably with age and sex. Consequently, the regression equations which include these variables yielded more reliable results. Our results indicated that age and sex should be taken into consideration when predicting human body height and weight for forensic purposes.

  17. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. Results All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. PMID:26955278

  18. Effect of age and height on trunk sway during stance and gait.

    PubMed

    Hegeman, Judith; Shapkova, Elena Yu; Honegger, Flurin; Allum, John H J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported here was to quantify changes in balance control for stance and gait tasks with age and to pinpoint possible advantages and difficulties in using these tasks and measures derived from them to identify pathological balance control in patients. Some 470 normal subjects in the age range 6 to 82 were examined for a battery of 14 stance and gait tasks. During the tasks, angular velocity transducers mounted at lumbar 1-3 measured pitch and roll angular velocities of the body. A combination of outcome measures from several tasks was used to create an overall balance control index. Three types of sensory analyses on pitch angle and velocity amplitudes for stance trials were used to quantify possible changes in the contributions of visual, somatosensory and vestibular inputs to balance control with age for 2-legged stance tasks. Correlation analysis on task variables was used to determine the relationship of subjects' age and height on outcome measures. Outcome measures showed a characteristic "L" or "U" shaped profile with a rapid decrease in values between 7 and 25 years of age, a plateau until 55 then a gradual increase with age after 55 years of age for most stance and gait tasks. The sensory analysis technique using differences between stance tests indicated that visual contributions to balance control continuously increased with age between the ages of 15 and 80, and vestibular and lower leg somatosensory contributions remain relatively constant with age. Sensory analysis calculated as commonly-used quotients of outcome measures revealed large variance across all ages, asymmetric distributions, and no clear trends in sensory contributions to stance with age. A third technique based on a discriminant function analysis using measures from model patient populations indicated that proprioceptive but not vestibular contributions first increased with age and then decreased after 55 years of age. Correlations of outcome measures with age and

  19. Height and age adjustment for cross sectional studies of lung function in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No standard exists for the adjustment of lung function for height and age in children. Multiple regression should not be used on untransformed data because, for example, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), though normally distributed for height, age, and sex, has increasing standard deviation. A solution to the conflict is proposed. METHODS: Spirometry on representative samples of children aged 6.5 to 11.99 years in primary schools in England. After exclusion of children who did not provide two repeatable blows 910 white English boys and 722 girls had data on FEV1 and height. Means and standard deviations of FEV1 divided by height were plotted to determine whether logarithmic transformation of FEV1 was appropriate. Multiple regression was used to give predicted FEV1 for height and age on the transformed scale; back transformation gave predicted values in litres. Other lung function measures were analysed, and data on inner city children, children from ethnic minority groups, and Scottish children were described. RESULTS: After logarithmic (ln) transformation of FEV1 standard deviation was constant. The ratios of actual and predicted values of FEV1 were normally distributed in boys and girls. From the means and standard deviations of these distributions, and the predicted values, centiles and standard deviation scores can be calculated. CONCLUSION: The method described is valid because the assumption of stable variance for multiple regression was satisfied on the log scale and the variation of ratios of actual to predicted values on the original scale was well described by a normal distribution. The adoption of the method will lead to uniformity and greater ease of comparison of research findings. PMID:1440464

  20. Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad.

    PubMed

    Bégin, F; Frongillo, E A; Delisle, H

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic

  1. Incident Diabetes in Relation to Weight Patterns During Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E.; Eaton, Charles B.; Lasater, Thomas M.; Lapane, Kate L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between weight patterns during middle age and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus using a subset (n = 1,476) of the Framingham Heart Study original cohort limited-access data set (1948–2003). Participants diagnosed with diabetes before age 50 years were excluded. A functional principal components analysis of body mass index from age 40 years to age 50 years was used to define weight patterns in terms of overall weight status (normal weight, overweight, or obese), weight change (weight loss, stable weight, or weight gain), and weight cycling. Overall overweight and obesity were associated with higher rates of diabetes (for overall overweight, crude hazard ratio (HR) = 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3, 4.6; for overall obesity, crude HR = 8.8, 95% CI: 6.0, 12.8). Weight cycling was also associated with higher rates of diabetes (crude HR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.1). Neither weight loss nor weight gain was associated with incident diabetes. After adjustment for overall weight status, weight cycling was no longer associated with higher rates of diabetes. This study underscores the importance of obesity in diabetes risk and the importance of preventing the development of overweight and obesity earlier in life. PMID:20110286

  2. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  3. Poor Diet Reflected in Height, Weight of Low-Income Hispanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Among 152 low-income Mexican American mothers and 350 children in San Jose (California) and rural Tulare County, about half of mothers and 14% of children were overweight. Nine percent of rural children and 17% of urban children were unusually short. Maternal obesity was related to acculturation factors, whereas child height was related to…

  4. Poor Diet Reflected in Height, Weight of Low-Income Hispanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Among 152 low-income Mexican American mothers and 350 children in San Jose (California) and rural Tulare County, about half of mothers and 14% of children were overweight. Nine percent of rural children and 17% of urban children were unusually short. Maternal obesity was related to acculturation factors, whereas child height was related to…

  5. Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Naomi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Yamada, Michiko; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risk among Japanese men and women with height loss starting in middle age, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors. A total of 2498 subjects (755 men and 1743 women) aged 47 to 91 years old underwent physical examinations during the period 1994 to 1995. Those individuals were followed for mortality status through 2003. Mortality risk was estimated using an age-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to sex, adjustment factors such as radiation dose, lifestyle, and physical factors measured at the baseline--including smoking status, alcohol intake, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and diagnosed diseases--were used for analysis of total mortality and mortality from each cause of death. There were a total of 302 all-cause deaths, 46 coronary heart disease and stroke deaths, 58 respiratory deaths including 45 pneumonia deaths, and 132 cancer deaths during the follow-up period. Participants were followed for 20,787 person-years after baseline. Prior history of vertebral deformity and hip fracture were not associated with mortality risk. However, more than 2 cm of height loss starting in middle age showed a significant association with all-cause mortality among the study participants (HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.38, p = 0.0002), after adjustment was made for sex, attained age, atomic-bomb radiation exposure, and lifestyle and physical factors. Such height loss also was significantly associated with death due to coronary heart disease or stroke (HR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.63 to 6.86, p = 0.0010), as well as respiratory-disease death (HR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.22, p = 0.0130), but not cancer death. Continuous HL also was associated with all-cause mortality and CHD- or stroke-caused mortality. Association between height loss and mortality was still significant, even after excluding persons with vertebral deformity. Height loss of more than 2 cm starting in middle age

  6. Corrective Equations to Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among U.S. Adults: NHANES 1999-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Estimating obesity prevalence using self-reported height and weight is an economic and effective method and is often used in national surveys. However, self-reporting of height and weight can involve misreporting of those variables and has been found to be associated to the size of the individual. This study investigated the biases in…

  7. Corrective Equations to Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among U.S. Adults: NHANES 1999-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Estimating obesity prevalence using self-reported height and weight is an economic and effective method and is often used in national surveys. However, self-reporting of height and weight can involve misreporting of those variables and has been found to be associated to the size of the individual. This study investigated the biases in…

  8. Waist-to-height ratio as a predictor of serum testosterone in ageing men with symptoms of androgen deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Carolyn A; Peverill, Roger E; Strauss, Boyd JG; Forbes, Elise A; McLachlan, Robert I

    2011-01-01

    The decline in serum testosterone in ageing men may be mediated in part by obesity; however, it is uncertain which measure of adiposity is most closely associated with testosterone levels. We have examined the relationships of age, adiposity and testosterone levels in ageing men with symptoms consistent with hypoandrogenism but who were otherwise in good health. We conducted a cross-sectional study of non-smoking men aged ≥54 years recruited from the community and who were free of cancer or serious medical illness. Height (Ht), weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height (WHt) ratio were calculated. Two morning blood samples were collected for measurement of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess their relationship with measures of adiposity. Two hundred and seven men aged 54–86 years were studied. On univariate analysis WHt ratio was more strongly correlated with TT and cFT than either WC or BMI. Furthermore, in models of TT and cFT, the addition of Ht to WC resulted in an increase in the magnitude of the regression coefficients for both WC (inverse correlate) and Ht (positive correlate), with the contributions of both WC and Ht both being significant (P<0.05 for all). In conclusion, WHt ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of both TT and cFT in this group of healthy but symptomatic ageing men. PMID:21478893

  9. Reliability and validity of birth certificate prepregnancy weight and height among women enrolled in prenatal WIC program: Florida, 2005.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Sappenfield, William M; Bish, Connie; Bensyl, Diana M; Goodman, David; Menges, Jane

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) from birth certificates with directly measured values from the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. Florida birth certificate data were linked and compared with first trimester WIC data for women with a live birth during the last quarter of calendar year 2005 (n = 23,314 women). Mean differences for weight, height, and BMI were calculated by subtracting birth certificate values from WIC values. Reliability was estimated by Pearson's correlation. Validity was measured by sensitivity and specificity using WIC data as the reference. Overall mean differences plus or minus standard error (SE) were 1.93 ± 0.04 kg for weight, -1.03 ± 0.03 cm for height, and 1.07 ± 0.02 kg/m(2) for BMI. Pearson's correlation ranged from 0.83 to 0.95, which indicates a strong positive association. Compared with other categories, women in the second weight group (56.7-65.8 kg), the highest height group (≥167.6 cm), or BMI < 18.5 had the greatest mean differences for weight (2.2 ± 0.08 kg), height (-2.4 ± 0.05 cm), and BMI (1.5 ± 0.06), respectively. Mean differences by maternal characteristics were similar, but statistically significant, likely in part from the large sample size. The sensitivity for birth certificate data was 77.3% (±1.42) for underweight (BMI < 18.5) and 76.4% (±0.51) for obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Specificity was 96.8% (±0.12) for underweight and 97.5% (±0.12) for obesity. Birth certificate data had higher underweight prevalence (6 vs. 4%) and lower obesity prevalence (24 vs. 29%), compared with WIC data. Although birth certificate data overestimated underweight and underestimated obesity prevalence, the difference was minimal and has limited impact on the reliability and validity for population-based surveillance and research purposes related to recall or reporting bias.

  10. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor H.; Costa, Patrício S.; Santos, Nadine C.; Cunha, Pedro G.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  11. Adult Body Height Is a Good Predictor of Different Dimensions of Cognitive Function in Aged Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vitor H; Costa, Patrício S; Santos, Nadine C; Cunha, Pedro G; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Palha, Joana A; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult height, weight, and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment, and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aimed to assess the value of height, weight, and abdominal perimeter to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals. Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age) and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years, and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β = 0.139; p < 0.001) and memory (β = 0.099; p < 0.05). No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied. Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and

  12. Effects of height and load weight on shoulder muscle work during overhead lifting task.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Desmoulins, L; Allard, P; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-01-01

    Few musculoskeletal models are available to assess shoulder deeper muscle demand during overhead lifting tasks. Our objective was to implement a musculoskeletal model to assess the effect of lifting height and load on shoulder muscle work. A musculoskeletal model scaled from 15 male subjects was used to calculate shoulder muscle work during six lifting tasks. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12 and 18 kg) were lifted by the subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. After optimisation of the maximal isometric force of the model's muscles, the bio-fidelity of the model was improved by 19%. The latter was able to reproduce the subjects' lifting movements. Mechanical work of the rotator cuff muscles, upper trapezius and anterior deltoid was increased with lifting load and height augmentation. In conclusion, the use of a musculoskeletal model validated by electromyography enabled to evaluate the muscle demand of deep muscles during lifting tasks.

  13. Revised Height/Weight Sizing Programs for Men’s Protective Flight Garments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    shirt sized on neck circum- ference and sleeve length may be made in 20 sizes with four sleeve lengths for each of five neck sizes. By doubling the...Lateral Malleolus Height 21. Neck Circumference, Maximum 22. Shoulder Circumference 27. Wrist Circumference 29 A® ) 23. Scye Circumference 24. Biceps...ference 35. Upper Thigh Circum- ference, Sitting 36. Knee Circumference 31 I® 37. Kee Circuference , Sitting 38. Calf Circumference ൯- Ankle

  14. Geoid height-age relation from Seasat altimeter profiles across the Mendocino Fracture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Schubert, G.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-eight Seasat altimeter profiles crossing the Mendocino Fracture Zone are used together with seafloor ages determined from magnetic lineations to estimate the change in oceanic geoid height with age, between ages of 15 and 135 m.y. An unbiased estimate of the overall geoid offset along each profile is determined from a least-squares fit of the along-track derivative of the geoid to the geoid slope predicted from a simple two-layer gravitational edge effect model. Uncertainties based upon the statistical properties of each profile are also determined. A geoid slope-age relation is constructed by normalizing the geoid offsets and uncertainties by the age offsets. The results are in agreement with geoid slope-age relations determined from symmetrically spreading ridges (Sandwell and Schubert, 1980). However, the fracture zone estimates have smaller uncertainties and show less scatter. A comparison of these results with the geoid slope-age prediction of the boundary layer cooling model shows that the thermal structure begins to deviate from this model at an early age (20-40 m.y.). A plate cooling model with a thickness of 125 km is most compatible with the geoid slope-age estimates, although significant deviations occur; these may indicate that the lithospheric thermal structure is not entirely age dependent.

  15. Geoid height-age relation from Seasat altimeter profiles across the Mendocino Fracture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Schubert, G.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-eight Seasat altimeter profiles crossing the Mendocino Fracture Zone are used together with seafloor ages determined from magnetic lineations to estimate the change in oceanic geoid height with age, between ages of 15 and 135 m.y. An unbiased estimate of the overall geoid offset along each profile is determined from a least-squares fit of the along-track derivative of the geoid to the geoid slope predicted from a simple two-layer gravitational edge effect model. Uncertainties based upon the statistical properties of each profile are also determined. A geoid slope-age relation is constructed by normalizing the geoid offsets and uncertainties by the age offsets. The results are in agreement with geoid slope-age relations determined from symmetrically spreading ridges (Sandwell and Schubert, 1980). However, the fracture zone estimates have smaller uncertainties and show less scatter. A comparison of these results with the geoid slope-age prediction of the boundary layer cooling model shows that the thermal structure begins to deviate from this model at an early age (20-40 m.y.). A plate cooling model with a thickness of 125 km is most compatible with the geoid slope-age estimates, although significant deviations occur; these may indicate that the lithospheric thermal structure is not entirely age dependent.

  16. Using weight-for-age percentiles to screen for overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both p<0.001). Following Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the 90th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles were chosen as appropriate cutoffs for obesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.

  17. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…

  18. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…

  19. Temperament and Body Weight from ages 4 to 15

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Kerr, Jessica A.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight management strategies in adolescence. Subjects/Methods Participants (N=4,153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. At age 14-15, study children (n=2,975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight management strategies. Results Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at age 4-5 were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating, and use of unhealthy weight management strategies at ages 14-15. Conclusions Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age. PMID:28280272

  20. Intra- and intergenerational social mobility in relation to height, weight and body mass index in a British national cohort.

    PubMed

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2011-09-01

    Using a sample of 2090 father and son pairs, the extent of intra- and inter-generational social mobility (migration between social classes) was examined over a 42-year period in a British cohort in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). The mean height difference between the highest and lowest social class decreased from about 4 cm in the fathers' generation to about 3 cm in the sons' generation, indicating a decline in heterogeneity in height between classes. For fathers downward intra-generational social mobility ranged between 11% and 18% while between 16% and 26% were upwardly mobile; for sons 15% were downwardly mobile and 21% upwardly mobile. On average downwardly mobile fathers were shorter by between 0.1 cm and 0.7 cm while upwardly mobile fathers were taller by, on average, 0.6 cm to 1.7 cm. For sons, the downwardly mobile were on average 0.7 cm shorter and the upwardly mobile 0.8 cm taller. For weight and BMI there were no consistent relationships with intra-generational mobility in either the fathers' or sons' generations. Inter-generationally, between 18% and 19% of sons were downwardly mobile and between 39% and 40% were upwardly mobile; the downwardly mobile were shorter by about 0.9 cm and the upwardly taller by between 0.6 cm and 1.2 cm. Sons with higher BMI were more likely to be inter-generationally downwardly mobile.

  1. Age and height dependence of lung clearance index and functional residual capacity.

    PubMed

    Lum, Sooky; Stocks, Janet; Stanojevic, Sanja; Wade, Angie; Robinson, Paul; Gustafsson, Per; Brown, Meghan; Aurora, Paul; Subbarao, Padmaja; Hoo, Ah-Fong; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) is more sensitive than spirometry in detecting abnormal lung function in children with cystic fibrosis. LCI is thought to be independent of age, but recent evidence suggests that the upper limit of normal is higher in infants and preschool children than in older subjects. This study examines whether LCI remains independent of body size throughout childhood. Multiple-breath washout data from healthy children and adolescents were collated from three centres using the mass spectrometer system and the inert gas sulfur hexafluoride. Reference equations for LCI and functional residual capacity (FRC) were constructed using the LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method. Data were available from 497 subjects (2 weeks to 19 years of age) tested on 659 occasions. LCI was dependent on body size, decreasing in a nonlinear pattern as height increased. Changes were particularly marked in the first 5 years of life. Height, age and sex were all independent predictors of FRC. Minimal between-centre differences allowed unified reference equations to be developed. LCI is not independent of body size. Although a constant upper normal limit would suffice for cross-sectional clinical assessments from 6 years of age, appropriate reference equations are essential for accurate interpretation of results during early childhood.

  2. Scientists Weight Facts, Theories on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some of the current theories on aging, such as biological time clocks for certain cells and on-off switches for genes, that were offered as explanations at the 140th annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (JR)

  3. Scientists Weight Facts, Theories on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some of the current theories on aging, such as biological time clocks for certain cells and on-off switches for genes, that were offered as explanations at the 140th annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (JR)

  4. Birth weight, early life weight gain and age at menarche: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Juul, F; Chang, V W; Brar, P; Parekh, N

    2017-11-01

    Adiposity in pre- and postnatal life may influence menarcheal age. Existing evidence is primarily cross-sectional, failing to address temporality, for which the role of adiposity in early life remains unclear. The current study sought to systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating the associations between birth weight and infant/childhood weight status/weight gain in relation to menarcheal age. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health (Ovid) and CINAHL were systematically searched. Selected studies were limited to English-language articles presenting multi-variable analyses. Seventeen studies reporting risk estimates for birth weight (n = 3), infant/childhood weight gain/weight status (n = 4) or both (n = 10), in relation to menarcheal age were included. Lower vs. higher birth weight was associated with earlier menarche in nine studies and later menarche in one study, while three studies reported a null association. Greater BMI or weight gain over time and greater childhood weight were significantly associated with earlier menarche in nine of nine and six of seven studies, respectively. Studies suggested that lower birth weight and higher body weight and weight gain in infancy and childhood may increase the risk of early menarche. The pre- and postnatal period may thus be an opportune time for weight control interventions to prevent early menarche, and its subsequent consequences. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Birth weight, postnatal growth, and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Terry, Mary Beth; Ferris, Jennifer S; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wei, Ying; Flom, Julie D

    2009-07-01

    Larger body size in childhood is correlated with earlier age at menarche; whether birth and infant body size changes are also associated with age at menarche is less clear. The authors contacted female participants enrolled in the New York site of the US National Collaborative Perinatal Project born between 1959 and 1963 (n = 262). This racially and ethnically diverse cohort (38% white, 40% African American, and 22% Puerto Rican) was used to investigate whether maternal (body size, pregnancy weight gain, age at menarche, smoking) and birth (birth weight, birth length, placental weight) variables and early infant body size changes were associated with age at menarche even after considering later childhood body size. Higher percentile change in weight from ages 4 months to 1 year was associated with earlier age at menarche even after adjustment for later childhood growth (beta = -0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.27, -0.02 years per 10-percentile change in weight from ages 4 months to 1 year). The association was in the same direction for all 3 racial/ethnic groups but was largest for the white group. These New York Women's Birth Cohort Adult Follow-up data (2001-2006) suggest that infant weight gain, in addition to childhood weight gain, may be associated with earlier age at menarche.

  6. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.

  7. Predictive value of weight-for-age to identify overweight children.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Nicolas; Zomorrodi, Arezoo; Posner, Jill C

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to assess the predictive value of weight-for-age to identify overweight children and adolescents in the unusual research or public health situations where height is not available to calculate BMI. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004 were used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of selected weight-for-age cut-off points to identify overweight children and adolescents (as defined by BMI >or=95th percentile). Positive and negative predictive values are dependent on prevalence and are reported here for this study population only. The 50th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles had good sensitivity (100% and 99.6%, respectively), but poor positive predictive value (23.7% and 37.0%, respectively), while the 95th and 97th percentiles had reasonable positive predictive value (80.3% and 91.5%, respectively), but limited sensitivity (82.0% and 66.7%, respectively) to identify overweight subjects. The properties of weight-for-age percentiles to identify overweight subjects differed between sex, age, and race/ethnicity but remain within a relatively narrow range. No single weight-for-age cut-off point was found to identify overweight children and adolescents with acceptable values for all properties and, therefore, cannot be used in the clinical setting. Furthermore, the positive predictive values reported here may be lower in populations with a lower prevalence of obesity. However, in unusual research or public health situations where height is not available, such as existing databases, weight-for-age percentiles may be useful to target limited resources to groups more likely to include overweight children and adolescents than the general population.

  8. Does the 65 cm height cut-off as age proxy exclude children eligible for nutritional assessment in Bangladesh?

    PubMed

    Ali, E; Zachariah, R; Hinderaker, S G; Satyanarayana, S; Kizito, W; Alders, P; Shams, Z; Allaouna, M; Draguez, B; Delchevalerie, P; Enarson, D A

    2012-12-21

    Kamrangirchar slum, Dhaka, Bangladesh. During nutritional surveys and in circumstances when it is difficult to ascertain children's age, length/height cut-offs are used as proxy for age to sample children aged 6-59 months. In a context of prevalent stunting, using data from primary health care centres where age and height parameters were well-recorded, we assessed the proportion of children aged between 6 and 59 months who would be excluded from nutritional assessment using a height cut-off of 65 cm as a proxy for age ≥6 months. This was a secondary data analysis of primary health centre data. A total of 2060 children were included in the analysis, with a median age of 24 months and a median height of 78 cm (SD 12.1, range 50-109 cm). There were 240 (12%, 95%CI 10-13) children aged between 6 and 29 months, with a height <65 cm. The majority (59%) of these children were females; 97.5% were aged 6-17 months. In an urban slum setting in Bangladesh, the use of the current height cut-off as a proxy for age excludes vulnerable children from nutritional assessment and could also lead to underestimation of the prevalence of malnutrition in nutritional surveys.

  9. No evidence of carbon limitation with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes limited with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain limitation in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain limitation is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C limitation. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C limitation is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. δ13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277

  10. Age-related Changes in Energy Intake and Weight in Community-dwelling Middle-aged and Elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, R; Kato, Y; Nishita, Y; Tange, C; Tomida, M; Nakamoto, M; Imai, T; Ando, F; Shimokata, H

    2016-04-01

    This study attempts to describe trends in energy intake and weight change over 12 years according to age at first participation in the study. Prospective cohort study. The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA), a community-based study. Participants included 922 men and 879 women who participated in the first study-wave (age 40-79 years) and also participated in at least one study-wave from the second to seventh study-wave. Each study-wave was conducted biennially. For individuals, the entire follow-up period was 12 years. Energy intake was calculated from 3-day dietary records with photographs. Weight and height were measured under a fasting state. To estimate linear changes in energy intake and weight over 12 years according to age at first study-wave, we used the mixed-effects model. Mean (SD) follow-up time and number of study-wave visits were 9.5 (3.7) years and 5.4 (1.8) times, respectively. The fixed effect of the interaction of age and time in energy intake and weight was statistically or marginally statistically significant both in men (p<0.01) and in women (p<0.06). In men, when energy intake was estimated according to age, the rate of decrease in energy intake increased from -6.8 to -33.8 kcal/year for ages 40-79 years. In women, the rate of decrease in energy intake slightly increased in older age groups (-9.1 to -16.7 kcal/year for ages 40-79 years). Weight increased in males in their 40s (0.07 kg/year from age 40) and started to decline by age 53. In women, weight started to decline around age 47 (-0.04 kg/year). Twelve-year longitudinal data showed energy intake declined both in men and women in their 40s, and the rate of decrease increased in older males. Weight started to decline in men in their mid-50s and women in their late 40s. Further studies that focus on energy intake and weight reduction are needed to prevent weight loss or underweight in an increasingly aging society.

  11. Preschool-Age Chinese Children's Weight Status: WHO Classification, Parent Ratings, Child/Family Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang Heng; Tan, Tony Xing; Cheah, Charissa S L

    We aimed to compare preschool-age Chinese children's weight status based on the WHO guidelines with parental ratings on their children's body type, and child/family demographic characteristics. The sample included 171 preschool-age children (M=60.5months, SD=6.7; boys: 46.8%) randomly selected from 23 classrooms. Based on BMIs from their height and weight from physical examinations, the children were divided into three groups using the 2006 WHO guidelines: underweight (n=46), normal weight (n=65), and overweight (n=60). Data on the parental ratings of children's current body type, ideal body type and child/family demographic characteristics were collected with surveys. Parents' accurately classified 91.1% of the underweight children, 52.3% of the normal weight children, and 61.7% of the overweight children. In terms of ideal body shape for their children, parents typically wanted their children to have normal weight or to remain underweight. Most of the child and family demographic characteristics were not different across children who were underweight, had normal weight, and were overweight. Because parents tended to underestimate their children's weight status, it is important to increase Chinese parents' knowledge on what constitutes healthy weight, as well as the potential harm of overweight status for children's development. Training healthcare providers in kindergartens and pediatric clinics to work with parents to recognize unhealthy weight status in children is valuable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using height-for-age differences (HAD) instead of height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) for the meaningful measurement of population-level catch-up in linear growth in children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Ruel, Marie; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-06

    Evidence from studies conducted in nutritionally deprived children in low- and middle-income countries (LIMC) in past decades showed little or no population-level catch-up in linear growth (mostly defined as reductions in the absolute height deficit) after 2 years of age. Recent studies, however, have reported population-level catch-up growth in children, defined as positive changes in mean height-for-age z-scores (HAZ). The aim of this paper was to assess whether population-level catch-up in linear growth is found when height-for-age difference (HAD: child's height compared to standard, expressed in centimeters) is used instead of HAZ. Our premise is that HAZ is inappropriate to measure changes in linear growth over time because they are constructed using standard deviations from cross-sectional data. We compare changes in growth in populations of children between 2 and 5 years using HAD vs. HAZ using cross-sectional data from 6 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and longitudinal data from the Young Lives and the Consortium on Health-Orientated Research in Transitional Societies (COHORTS) studies. Using HAD, we find not only an absence of population-level catch-up in linear growth, but a continued deterioration reflected in a decrease in mean HAD between 2 and 5 years; by contrast, HAZ shows either no change (DHS surveys) or an improvement in mean HAZ (some of the longitudinal data). Population-level growth velocity was also lower than expected (based on standards) in all four Young Lives data sets, confirming the absence of catch-up growth in height. We show no evidence of population-level catch-up in linear growth in children between 2 to 5 years of age when using HAD (a measure more appropriate than HAZ to document changes as populations of children age), but a continued deterioration reflected in a decrease in mean HAD. The continued widening of the absolute height deficit after 2 years of age does not challenge the critical importance of investing in

  13. [Relationship between body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in middle aged Chinese people].

    PubMed

    Zhao, L C; Zhou, L; Li, Y; Guo, M; Wu, Y F

    2016-08-24

    To explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status and body weight changes from early adulthood to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Data were obtained from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology Study, which was conducted in 1998, 15 participants population samples aged from 35-59 years old from 12 provinces were selected by random cluster sampling. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample population were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, body weight at age 25 from all participants were also obtained. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 25 years was calculated with the weight at 25 years and the height measured during the survey, participants were divided into underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2), n=1 331), normal-weight (18.5 kg/m(2)≤BMI <24 kg/m(2), n=10 400), overweight (24 kg/m(2)≤BMI<28 kg/m(2), n=2 019) and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m(2), n=133) groups. Weight change was defined as the difference between the body weight at the age of 25 and at the survey and was grouped into<-7.5 kg (n=903), -7.5--2.6 kg (n=1 883), -2.5-2.5 kg (n=2 573), 2.6-7.5 kg (n=2 786), 7.6-12.5 kg (n=2 674) and>12.5 kg (n=3 064). The association of body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change from early adulthood to middle age with HDL-C level was examined by logistic regression model. The prevalence of low HDL-C in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups at age of 25 years were 10.7%(143/1 331), 15.5%(1 612/10 400), 16.3%(330/2 019) and 24.8%(33/133), respectively(P for trend <0.01). The prevalence of low HDL-C for adult weight change were 8.8%(79/903), 8.0%(151/1 883), 10.5%(269/2 573), 13.4%(373/2 786), 19.1%(511/2 674), and 24.0%(735/3 064)(P for trend <0.01)for weight change of <-7.5 kg, -7.5--2.6 kg, -2.5-2.5 kg, 2.6-7.5 kg, 7.6-12.5 kg and>12.5 kg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity at age of 25 years and

  14. Genetic contributions to the association between height and intelligence: Evidence from Dutch twin data from childhood to middle age.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, K; Posthuma, D; van Beijsterveldt, T; Bartels, M; Boomsma, D I

    2006-11-01

    A positive association between intelligence (IQ) and height has been reported previously. It is generally assumed that this association reflects the effect of childhood environment on IQ, but there is still little research supporting directly this hypothesis. We studied the association between height and IQ in 209 Dutch twin pairs at the ages of 5, 7, 10 and 12 years, 208 twin pairs at 16 and 18 years of age and 567 twin pairs and their siblings in adulthood. The heritability of height was high in all cohorts and across all ages (a2 = 0.93 - 0.96). In adulthood, heritability was also high for full-scale IQ (FSIQ: a2 = 0.83-0.84) and somewhat lower for verbal IQ (VIQ: a2 = 0.66-0.84). In early childhood, the heritability was lower, and common environmental factors had a substantial effect on FSIQ and VIQ. A positive association of height and IQ was found in early childhood and adolescence. In adulthood, a correlation was found between height and FSIQ in young adulthood and between height and VIQ in middle age. All correlations could be ascribed to genetic factors influencing both height and IQ. Thus, these results show that the association between height and IQ should not be directly regarded as evidence for childhood living conditions affecting IQ, but the effect of genetic factors affecting independently or interacting with environmental factors should be considered as well.

  15. Height growth and site index curves for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    James W. Barrett

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents height growth and site index curves and equations for even-aged, managed stands of ponderosa pine east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington where height growth has not been suppressed by high density or related factors.

  16. Critical evaluation of frame size determination in the 1983 Metropolitan Life weight for height tables.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, R A; Bailey, D A

    1989-01-01

    According to Metropolitan Life, the criteria used in placing individuals into frame size classes on the basis of elbow breadth should result in a 25-50-25% (small-medium-large) distribution. This assumption was evaluated using a large sample of Canadians (n = 19,305). Results indicated that the hypothesized distribution was not achieved in either males or females; few subjects were classified as large frame. The small percentage of subjects classified as large frame resulted in a skewing of the weight categorizations in males, but not in females.

  17. Relationship between perceived body weight and body mass index based on self- reported height and weight among university students: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite low rates of obesity, many university students perceive themselves as overweight, especially women. This is of concern, because inappropriate weight perceptions can lead to unhealthy behaviours including eating disorders. Methods We used the database from the Cross National Student Health Survey (CNSHS), consisting of 5,900 records of university students from Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Spain and Turkey to analyse differences in perceived weight status based on the question: "Do you consider yourself much too thin, a little too thin, just right, a little too fat or much too fat?". The association between perceived weight and body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height was assessed with generalized non-parametric regression in R library gam. Results Although the majority of students reported a normal BMI (72-84% of males, 65-83% of females), only 32% to 68% of students considered their weight "just right". Around 20% of females with BMI of 20 kg/m2 considered themselves "a little too fat" or "too fat", and the percentages increased to 60% for a BMI of 22.5 kg/m2. Male students rarely felt "a little too fat" or "too fat" below BMI of 22.5 kg/m2, but most felt too thin with a BMI of 20 kg/m2. Conclusions Weight ideals are rather uniform across the European countries, with female students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too fat" at a normal BMI, while male students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too thin". Programs to prevent unhealthy behaviours to achieve ill-advised weight ideals may benefit students. PMID:20105333

  18. Comparison of intelligence, weight and height in children after general anesthesia with and without perioperative desaturation in non-cardiac surgery: a historical and concurrent follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Oofuvong, Maliwan; Geater, Alan Frederick; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chanchayanon, Thavat; Worachotekamjorn, Juthamas; Sriyanaluk, Bussarin; Saefung, Boonthida; Nuanjun, Kanjana

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether perioperative desaturation (PD) in preschool children undergoing non-cardiac surgery is associated with subsequent impairment of intelligence or subsequent change in age-specific weight and height percentile. A historical-concurrent follow-up study was conducted in children aged ≤ 60 months who underwent general anesthesia (GA) for non-cardiac surgery between January 2008 and December 2011 at Songklanagarind Hospital. Children who developed PD (PD group) and children who did not develop perioperative respiratory events (no-PRE group) were matched on sex, age, year of having index GA, type of surgery and choice of anesthesia. The children's age-specific weight and height percentile and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores by Standford Binet-LM or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition 12-60 months after GA were compared using Student's t- test and Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Multivariate linear regression models for standardized IQ and multivariate mixed effects linear regression models for the change of age-specific weight and height percentile from the time of index GA to the time of IQ test were performed to identify independent predictors. The coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were displayed and considered significant if the F test p-values were < 0.05. Of 103 subjects in each group (PD vs no-PRE), there were no statistically significant differences in IQ (94.7 vs 98.3, p = 0.13), standardized IQ (-0.1 vs 0.1, p = 0.14) or age-specific weight percentile (38th vs 63th, p = 0.06). However, age-specific height percentile in the PD group at the time of IQ test was significantly lower (38th vs 50th, p = 0.02). In the multivariate analysis, PD was not a significant predictor for standardized IQ (coefficient: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.3, 0.19, p = 0.57), change in age-specific weight percentile (coefficient: 4.66, 95% CI: -2.63, 11.95, p = 0.21) or change in age-specific height percentile

  19. Height, weight and body mass index in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Camilla; Rinnström, Daniel; Dellborg, Mikael; Thilén, Ulf; Sörensson, Peder; Nielsen, Niels-Erik; Christersson, Christina; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    High BMI is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and, in contrast, low BMI is associated with worse prognosis in heart failure. The knowledge on BMI and the distribution in different BMI-classes in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are limited. Data on 2424 adult patients was extracted from the Swedish Registry on Congenital Heart Disease and compared to a reference population (n=4605). The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was lower in men with variants of the Fontan procedure, pulmonary atresia (PA)/double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and aortic valve disease (AVD) (Fontan 22.0% and PA/DORV 15.1% vs. 43.0%, p=0.048 and p<0.001) (AVD 37.5% vs. 49.3%, p<0.001). Overt obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was only more common in women with AVD (12.8% vs. 9.0%, p=0.005). Underweight (BMI<18.5) was generally more common in men with CHD (complex lesions 4.9% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001 and simple lesions 3.2% vs. 0.6%, <0.001). Men with complex lesions were shorter than controls in contrast to females that in general did not differ from controls. Higher prevalence of underweight in men with CHD combined with a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in men with some complex lesions indicates that men with CHD in general has lower BMI compared to controls. In women, only limited differences between those with CHD and the controls were found. The complexity of the CHD had larger impact on height in men. The cause of these gender differences as well as possible significance for prognosis is unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relative importance of expertise, lifting height and weight lifted on posture and lumbar external loading during a transfer task in manual material handling.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, André; Larivière, Christian; Delisle, Alain; Denis, Denys; Gagnon, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect size of three important factors in manual material handling, namely expertise, lifting height and weight lifted. The effect of expertise was evaluated by contrasting 15 expert and 15 novice handlers, the effect of the weight lifted with a 15-kg box and a 23-kg box and the effect of lifting height with two different box heights: ground level and a 32 cm height. The task consisted of transferring a series of boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Lifting height and weight lifted had more effect size than expertise on external back loading variables (moments) while expertise had low impact. On the other hand, expertise showed a significant effect of posture variables on the lumbar spine and knees. All three factors are important, but for a reduction of external back loading, the focus should be on the lifting height and weight lifted. The objective was to measure the effect size of three important factors in a transfer of boxes from a conveyor to a hand trolley. Lifting height and weight lifted had more effect size than expertise on external back loading variables but expertise was a major determinant in back posture.

  1. Nonnative Cattle Ownership, Diet, and Child Height-for-Age: Evidence from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Fierstein, Jamie L; Eliasziw, Misha; Rogers, Beatrice Lorge; Forrester, Janet E

    2017-01-11

    In underresourced settings where domestic animals and children often cohabitate, there is limited evidence about the net impact of domestic animal ownership on child health. We analyzed the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey to determine whether household ownership of native cattle, goats, sheep, chickens, pigs, and nonnative cattle was associated with child height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), and to assess the influence of diet on this association in rural and urban environments. Using weighted multivariable linear regression, we found that nonnative cattle ownership was positively associated with HAZ in rural children 0 to < 2 years of age (+1.32 standard deviations [SD], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2-2.5) and 2 to < 5 years of age (+0.58 SD, 95% CI = 0.003-1.2), and urban children 2 to < 5 years of age (+1.08 SD, 95% CI = 0.38-1.8). Sheep ownership was positively associated with HAZ in rural children 2 to < 5 years of age (+0.29 SD, 95% CI = 0.002-0.58) and goat ownership was positively associated with HAZ in rural children 0 to < 2 years of age (+0.27 SD, 95% CI = 0.003-0.55). We observed no other significant associations. Children who lived in households that owned nonnative cattle consumed dairy more frequently; however, the relationship between child HAZ and nonnative cattle ownership was not mediated by child dairy consumption. These findings suggest that domestic animal ownership may not be detrimental to child HAZ, and that nonnative cattle ownership is beneficial for child HAZ through pathways other than dairy consumption. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Restricted joint range of motion in patients with MPS II: correlation with height, age and functional status.

    PubMed

    Marucha, Jolanta; Jurecka, Agnieszka; Syczewska, Małgorzata; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The aims of the study were to assess shoulder range of motion (ROM) in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) and to correlate joint mobility with patients' height, age and functional status. Passive ROM and Z-score of height were followed in 29 patients with MPS II (mean age 11.5 years, range 2-29 years) between the years 2005 and 2010. Passive ROM was measured by a goniometer, and height, by a stadiometer. Functional status was assessed by an age-appropriate health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). (i) A strong correlation was observed between patients' age and Z-score of patients' height (R = 0.78, p < 0.001). (ii) A medium correlation was observed between Z-score of patients' height and passive shoulder flexion and abduction (R = 0.697, p < 0.001 and R = 0.63, p < 0.001, respectively). The progression of restriction was slower in attenuated patients. (iii) Restrictions in shoulder flexion and abduction were already observed before the second year of life. (iv) ROM limitations intensified and became more severe with age. (v) Activities of daily living depended on cognitive impairment of patients with MPS II. Range of motion limitations in patients with MPS II correlate with patients' height, increase with patients' age and are more pronounced in a severe form of MPS II. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Influence of height on attained level of education in males at 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Szklarska, Alicja; Kozieł, Sławomir; Bielicki, Tadeusz; Malina, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    In this study it is hypothesized that taller individuals are more likely to move up the scale of educational attainment compared with shorter individuals from the same social background. Three national cohorts of 19-year-old males were considered: 29,464 born in 1967 and surveyed in 1986, 31,062 born in 1976 and surveyed in 1995, and 30,851 born in 1982 and surveyed in 2001. Four social variables were used to describe the social background of each conscript in the three surveys: degree of urbanization, family size, and parental and maternal educational status. The educational status of each conscript was classified into two groups: (1) those who were secondary school students or graduates, or who had entered college, and (2) those who had completed their education at the primary school level or who had gone to a basic trade school. Multiple binomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the relative risk of achieving higher educational status by 19-year-old males relative to height and the four social factors. Consistently across the three cohorts the odd ratios (ORs) indicate that height exerts an independent and significant effect on the attained level of education at the age of 19 years in males (1986: OR=1.24, p<0.001; 1995: OR=1.24, p <0.001; 2001: OR=1.20, p<0.001). Two possible, not mutually exclusive, selective mechanisms are postulated and discussed: 'passive' and 'active' action.

  4. Height and weight of urban preschool children in relation to their mothers' educational levels and employment status in Rasht City, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Mohsen; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Rashidi, Arash; Karandish, Majid

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the relationship between anthropometric status of 3-5-year-old urban children and theirs mothers' educational levels and employment status in Rasht City, northern Iran. A total of 1319 children (638 girls and 681 boys) at the ages of 3 and 6 years in all day-care centres in Rasht City were studied, using a cross-sectional design. Height and weight of the children were measured, and data on mothers' educational levels, employment status and duration of any breastfeeding were collected. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height of the children were compared with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population of the United States, and z-values 12 years of schooling, OR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.08-2.4) had higher relative risk for underweight than children of mothers with an intermediate level of education (5-12 years of schooling). Children of mothers with college education were also more at risk for development of stunting (OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.14-4.22). In addition, children of employed mothers were more likely to be underweight (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.05-2.31), stunted (OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.21-6.35) and wasted (OR = 3.35; 95% CI: 1.21-5.58) than children of non-employed mothers. The relative risk for undernutrition was higher in the children of both less and highly educated mothers compared with children of mothers with an intermediate level of education. Mothers' employment was also negatively related to nutritional status of these children in day-care centres in Rasht City.

  5. Blood pressure, height, weight and body mass index of primary school students in a low socio-economic district in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bayat, M; Erdem, E; Barik, O; Başer, M; Taşci, S

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and blood pressure measurements of the students. School health services are important to evaluate, protect and to improve the health status of the students. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and blood pressure measurements of the students who were registered in a primary school with low socio-economic level in Kayseri Province in Türkiye between 1 April 2004 and 30 May 2004. The data were collected using questionnaire and health-screening forms. It was determined that the average age was 9.77 +/- 2.41 in girls and 10.16 +/- 14.70 in boys. It was observed that the average height was 137.95 +/- 14.70 cm, and the average weight was 33.07 +/- 10.08 kg for all students. The girls between 10 years and 12 years old had a better average body mass index (kg/m(2)) (BMI) compared with boys. Boys between 6 years and 9 years old had a better BMI than the girls. The difference between the groups was considered statistically important (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, 4.9% of the students were underweight and 2.2% of the students were obese. It was thought that there was a positive correlation among height, weight, BMI, age and the blood pressure values; and as BMI and age increased, so did the blood pressure value. Cooperation and dialogue need to be established among the school directorate, the families and the students to promote and encourage proper growth development and nutrition of the students within the school health services.

  6. The relationship of height and body fat to gender-assortative weight gain in children. A longitudinal cohort study (EarlyBird 44).

    PubMed

    Ajala, Olubukola; Fr Meaux, Alissa E; Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Voss, Linda D; Wilkin, Terence J

    2011-08-01

    Height, body fat and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in children, so we hypothesized that the gender-assortative associations in BMI recently reported in contemporary children might extend to their height and body fat. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. A total of 226 healthy trios (mother, father and child) from a 1995?1996 birth cohort randomly recruited in the city of Plymouth, UK. Height, weight, and BMI (kg/m(2)) were measured in each of the parents and, in addition, sum of five skin-folds (SF) in their children at 5, 6, 7 and 8 y. BMI and SF were strongly height-dependent in the children by 8 y (r = 0.41-0.56). SF was gender-assortative insofar as the mean SF was significantly greater in the daughters (but not the sons) of obese mothers (obese vs. normal weight: +2.5 cm p < 0.001) and in the sons (but not the daughters) of obese fathers (obese vs. normal: +1.3 cm p < 0.001). As expected, offspring height correlated with that of their parents, but overweight/obese children were systematically taller than normal weight children (boys: +1.02 SDS, girls: +1.14 SDS, p < 0.01), and this difference was independent of parental height or BMI. Height is transmitted by both parents, and the body fat of overweight/obese children largely by the same-sex parent, but the extra height associated with more fat in the child is unrelated to the height or weight of either parent. The secular trend in height among contemporary children may simply reflect their rising body fat. Excess fat is unhealthy, so the trend in height may not be healthy either.

  7. Proper catheter selection for needle thoracostomy: a height and weight-based criteria.

    PubMed

    Powers, William F; Clancy, Thomas V; Adams, Ashley; West, Tonnya C; Kotwall, Cyrus A; Hope, William W

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the incidence of mortality in trauma patients. Current Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines recommend using a 5-cm catheter at the second intercostal (ICS) space in the mid-clavicular line to treat tension pneumothoraces. Our study purpose was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) predicted the catheter length needed for needle thoracostomy. We retrospectively reviewed trauma patients undergoing chest computed tomography scans January 2004 through September 2006. A BMI was calculated for each patient, and the chest wall thickness (CWT) at the second ICS in the mid-clavicular line was measured bilaterally. Patients were grouped by BMI as underweight (≤ 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.6-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), or obese (≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Three hundred twenty-six patients were included in the study; 70% were male. Ninety-four percent of patients experienced blunt trauma. Sixty-three percent of patients were involved in a motor vehicle collision. The average BMI was 29 [SD 7.8]. The average CWT was 6.2 [SD 1.9]cm on the right and 6.3 [SD 1.9]cm on the left. As BMI increased, a statistically significant (p<0.0001) CWT increase was observed in all BMI groups. There were no significant differences in ISS, ventilator days, ICU length of stay, or overall length of stay among the groups. As BMI increases, there is a direct correlation to increasing CWT. This information could be used to quickly select an appropriate needle length for needle thoracostomy. The average patient in our study would require a catheter length of 6-6.5 cm to successfully decompress a tension pneumothorax. There are not enough regionally available data to define the needle lengths needed for needle thoracostomy. Further study is required to assess the feasibility and safety of using varying catheter lengths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of maximal mouth opening for healthy Indian children: Percentiles and impact of age, gender, and height.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shital M; Patel, Nehal H; Khaitan, Geet Gunjana A; Thanvi, Rashmi S; Patel, Parth; Joshi, Rajesh N

    2016-01-01

    Maximal mouth opening (MMO) is used as a marker of masticatory pathology. However, MMO among children varies considerably with their age, height, sex, and race. While accurate percentile of normal mouth opening and relationship with anthropometric measurement are not precisely defined for the Indian population, we designed prospective, observational study to define the percentiles for normal MMO in our children. A total of 985 children, 560 males and 425 females, in the age range of 5-18 years attending the pediatric clinic in a tertiary care center in Western India were studied. In addition to the basic demographic data, MMO was measured in these children. The children were asked to open their mouth maximally until no further opening was possible. The distance from the incisal edge of the upper incisor teeth to the incisal edge of the lower incisor teeth was measured using a calibrated fiber ruler. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the impact of other anthropometric measures such as age, gender, and height on MMO. The mean MMO for males was 44.24 (±5.84) mm and for females was 43.5 (±5.19) mm. Age- and height-related percentiles were created for girls and boys separately, showing the 5(th), 10(th), 25(th), 50(th), 75(th), 90(th), and 95(th) percentiles from 5 through 18 years of age with 86-185 cm height. The MMO percentile range for different age and height groups is established for the normal children. The mouth opening seems to increase with the age and especially with the height as per the skeletal growth. Height affects mouth opening more than the age.

  9. Changes in sapwood permeability and anatomy with tree age and height in the broad-leaved evergreen species Eucalyptus regnans.

    PubMed

    England, Jacqueline R; Attiwill, Peter M

    2007-08-01

    Increases in plant size and structural complexity with increasing age have important implications for water flow through trees. Water supply to the crown is influenced by both the cross-sectional area and the permeability of sapwood. It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conductivity within sapwood increases with age. We investigated changes in sapwood permeability (k) and anatomy with tree age and height in the broad-leaved evergreen species Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. Sapwood was sampled at breast height from trees ranging from 8 to 240 years old, and at three height positions on the main stem of 8-year-old trees. Variation in k was not significant among sampling height positions in young trees. However, k at breast height increased with tree age. This was related to increases in both vessel frequency and vessel diameter, resulting in a greater proportion of sapwood being occupied by vessel lumina. Sapwood hydraulic conductivity (the product of k and sapwood area) also increased with increasing tree age. However, at the stand level, there was a decrease in forest sapwood hydraulic conductivity with increasing stand age, because of a decrease in the number of trees per hectare. Across all ages, there were significant relationships between k and anatomy, with individual anatomical characteristics explaining 33-62% of the variation in k. There was also strong agreement between measured k and permeability predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. The results support the hypothesis of an increase in sapwood permeability at breast height with age. Further measurements are required to confirm this result at other height positions in older trees. The significance of tree-level changes in sapwood permeability for stand-level water relations is discussed.

  10. Comparison of Mid-Upper Arm Circumference and Weight-for-Height to Diagnose Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Study in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Amare Worku; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2017-03-11

    Weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) are two independent anthropometric indicators for diagnosing and admitting children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) for treatment. While severely wasted children are at high risk of mortality, MUAC and WHZ do not always identify the same population of children as having SAM. Understanding how this discrepancy relates to age and sex may provide valuable information for care programmes for children with SAM. Age and sex distribution for differences between children identified as SAM by MUAC and WHZ were examined and the degree of agreement calculated. Children (n = 4297) aged 6-59 months with validated anthropometric measures were recruited from a population-based survey conducted in rural southern Ethiopia. MUAC < 115 mm and WHZ < -3 were used to define severe wasting as per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The kappa coefficient (κ) was calculated. There was fair agreement between the MUAC and WHZ definitions of severe wasting in boys (κ = 0.37) and children younger than 24 months (κ = 0.32) but poor agreement in girls (κ = 0.15) and children aged 24 months and above (κ = 0.13). More research is needed on response to treatment and prediction of mortality using different anthropometric measurements in relation to ages and sex of children.

  11. Comparison of Mid-Upper Arm Circumference and Weight-for-Height to Diagnose Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Study in Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Amare Worku; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) are two independent anthropometric indicators for diagnosing and admitting children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) for treatment. While severely wasted children are at high risk of mortality, MUAC and WHZ do not always identify the same population of children as having SAM. Understanding how this discrepancy relates to age and sex may provide valuable information for care programmes for children with SAM. Age and sex distribution for differences between children identified as SAM by MUAC and WHZ were examined and the degree of agreement calculated. Children (n = 4297) aged 6–59 months with validated anthropometric measures were recruited from a population-based survey conducted in rural southern Ethiopia. MUAC < 115 mm and WHZ < −3 were used to define severe wasting as per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The kappa coefficient (κ) was calculated. There was fair agreement between the MUAC and WHZ definitions of severe wasting in boys (κ = 0.37) and children younger than 24 months (κ = 0.32) but poor agreement in girls (κ = 0.15) and children aged 24 months and above (κ = 0.13). More research is needed on response to treatment and prediction of mortality using different anthropometric measurements in relation to ages and sex of children. PMID:28287482

  12. [P wave dispersion increased in childhood depending on blood pressure, weight, height, and cardiac structure and function].

    PubMed

    Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Anatomy of the larynx and pharynx: effects of age, gender and height revealed by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Y; Saitoh, E; Okada, S; Kagaya, H; Shibata, S; Baba, M; Onogi, K; Hashimoto, S; Katada, K; Wattanapan, P; Palmer, J B

    2015-09-01

    Although oropharyngeal and laryngeal structures are essential for swallowing, the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy is not well understood, due in part to limitations of available measuring techniques. This study uses 3D images acquired by 320-row area detector computed tomography ('320-ADCT'), to measure the pharynx and larynx and to investigate the effects of age, gender and height. Fifty-four healthy volunteers (30 male, 24 female, 23-77 years) underwent one single-phase volume scan (0.35 s) with 320-ADCT during resting tidal breathing. Six measurements of the pharynx and two of larynx were performed. Bivariate statistical methods were used to analyse the effects of gender, age and height on these measurements. Length and volume were significantly larger for men than for women for every measurement (P < 0.05) and increased with height (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was performed to understand the interactions of gender, height and age. Gender, height and age each had significant effects on certain values. The volume of the larynx and hypopharynx was significantly affected by height and age. The length of pharynx was associated with gender and age. Length of the vocal folds and distance from the valleculae to the vocal folds were significantly affected by gender (P < 0.05). These results suggest that age, gender and height have independent and interacting effects on the morphology of the pharynx and larynx. Three-dimensional imaging and morphometrics using 320-ADCT are powerful tools for efficiently and reliably observing and measuring the pharynx and larynx.

  14. Secular trends in social class differences of height, weight and BMI of boys from two schools in Lisbon, Portugal (1910-2000).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Caninas, Madalena

    2010-03-01

    Data on the physical growth of children can provide useful information about the temporal changes in the economic conditions of the society in which they live and the extent of social inequalities within that society as well. Several studies have documented secular changes in the physical growth of children or of adult height, but seldom have the socioeconomic differences in secular trend been reported. The aim of this study is to examine differences in the secular trend of height, weight and BMI of 10-16-year-old boys enrolled in two schools of opposite socioeconomic makeup in Lisbon, Portugal, in the early and late 20th century. The samples from the upper-middle class come from the Colégio Militar, a military boarding school, and the lower-class samples come from the Casa Pia de Lisboa, a residential school for underprivileged boys. While boys from both schools show an approximate increase of 13.6cm in height, 13.5kg in weight and 2.4kg/m(2) in BMI, the Casa Pia students were shorter and lighter than their Colégio Militar counterparts throughout the 90-year period. Social class differences in mean height, weight and BMI tend to be greater in 1910 than in 2000, but results are statistically significant for height alone. When the two periods are taken together, Colégio Militar boys differ from their Casa Pia counterparts by approximately 6.4cm in height, 4.8kg in weight and 0.4kg/m(2) in BMI. Both samples show a considerable increase in height, weight and BMI but class differences in height, weight and BMI decreased slightly if at all, throughout the 90-year period. This suggests that socioeconomic disparities are persistent, having diminished only slightly since the early 20th century. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships of tree height and diameter at breast height revisited: analyses of stem growth using 20-year data of an even-aged Chamaecyparis obtusa stand

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Akihiro; Miyaura, Tomiyasu; Torii, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Stem diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H) are commonly used measures of tree growth. We examined patterns of height growth and diameter growth along a stem using a 20-year record of an even-aged hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.) stand. In the region of the stem below the crown (except for the butt swell), diameter growth rates (ΔD) at different heights tended to increase slightly from breast height upwards. This increasing trend was pronounced in suppressed trees, but not as much as the variation in ΔD among individual trees. Hence, ΔD below the crown can be regarded as generally being represented by the DBH growth rate (ΔDBH) of a tree. Accordingly, the growth rate of the stem cross-sectional area increased along the stem upwards in suppressed trees, but decreased in dominant trees. The stem diameter just below the crown base (DCB), the square of which is an index of the amount of leaves on a tree, was an important factor affecting ΔDBH. DCB also had a strong positive relationship with crown length. Hence, long-term changes in the DCB of a tree were associated with long-term changes in crown length, determined by the balance between the height growth rate (ΔH) and the rising rate of the crown base (ΔHCB). Within the crown, ΔD's were generally greater than the rates below the crown. Even dying trees (ΔD ≈ 0 below the crown) maintained ΔD > 0 within the crown and ΔH > 0 until about 5 years before death. This growth within the crown may be related to the need to produce new leaves to compensate for leaves lost owing to the longevity of the lower crown. These results explain the different time trajectories in DBH–H relationships among individual trees, and also the long-term changes in the DBH–H relationships. The view that a rise in the crown base is strongly related to leaf turnover helps to interpret DBH–H relationships. PMID:23303367

  16. Birth weight <1501 g and respiratory health at age 14

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, L; Cheung, M; Ford, G; Olinsky, A; Davis, N; Callanan, C

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the respiratory health in adolescence of children of birth weight <1501 g, and to compare the results with normal birthweight controls.
METHODS—Prospective cohort study of children born in the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Two cohorts of preterm children (86 consecutive survivors 500-999 g birth weight, and 124 consecutive survivors 1000-1500 g birth weight) and a control group of 60 randomly selected children >2499 g birth weight were studied. Children were assessed at 14 years of age. A paediatrician determined the clinical respiratory status. Lung function was measured according to standard guidelines.
RESULTS—Of 180 preterm children seen at age 14, 42 (23%) had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the newborn period. Readmission to hospital for respiratory ill health was infrequent in all groups and the rates of asthma were similar (15% in the 500-999 g birth weight group, 21% in the 1000-1500 g birth weight group, 21% in controls; 19% BPD, 18% no BPD). Overall, lung function was mostly within the normal range for all cohorts; few children had lung function abnormalities in clinically significant ranges. However, the preterm children had significantly lower values for variables reflecting flow. Lung function in children of 500-999 g birth weight was similar to children of 1000-1500 g birth weight. Preterm children with BPD had significantly lower values for variables reflecting flow than children without BPD.
CONCLUSIONS—The respiratory health of children of birth weight <1501 g at 14 years of age is comparable to that of term controls.

 PMID:11124782

  17. Implicit Weight Bias in Children Age 9 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Payne, Keith; Perrin, Andrew J; Panter, Abigail T; Howard, Janna B; Bardone-Cone, Anna; Bulik, Cynthia M; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M

    2017-07-01

    Assess implicit weight bias in children 9 to 11 years old. Implicit weight bias was measured in children ages 9 to 11 (N = 114) by using the Affect Misattribution Procedure. Participants were shown a test image of a child for 350 milliseconds followed by a meaningless fractal (200 milliseconds), and then they were asked to rate the fractal image as "good" or "bad." We used 9 image pairs matched on age, race, sex, and activity but differing by weight of the child. Implicit bias was the difference between positive ratings for fractals preceded by an image of a healthy-weight child and positive ratings for fractals preceded by an image of an overweight child. On average, 64% of abstract fractals shown after pictures of healthy-weight children were rated as "good," compared with 59% of those shown after pictures of overweight children, reflecting an overall implicit bias rate of 5.4% against overweight children (P < .001). Healthy-weight participants showed greater implicit bias than over- and underweight participants (7.9%, 1.4%, and 0.3% respectively; P = .049). Implicit bias toward overweight individuals is evident in children aged 9 to 11 years with a magnitude of implicit bias (5.4%) similar to that in studies of implicit racial bias among adults. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Association between socioeconomic status, weight, age and gender, and the body image and weight control practices of 6- to 19-year-old children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, J A; Caputi, P

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and had their height and weight measured. Participants (n = 1131) were aged 6-19 years from 12 schools in New South Wales. SES, age, gender, body weight, body image, skipping breakfast, physical self-esteem, attempts to lose or gain weight, and dietary and weight control advice received from others were examined. Log-linear, chi 2 and MANOVA analyses were used to determine interactions between variables. Low SES children were more likely to be overweight, to skip breakfast, to perceive themselves as 'too thin', to be trying to gain weight and less likely to receive dietary or weight control advice. Physical self-esteem was lowest among overweight girls of middle/upper SES and greatest among boys of low SES, despite the latter being more likely to be overweight. Being overweight does not appear to adversely affect the physical self-esteem of children of low SES, particularly boys. Health educators should examine these issues with young people to help make health education and nutrition education most relevant and appropriate.

  19. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  20. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppönen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jørgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M.T.; Tönjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Körner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Mònica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widén, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, André G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood1. Previous genome-wide association studies identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes, and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits2. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study (up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of genome-wide significant loci to seven, accounting for a similar proportion of variance to maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes; ADRB1 with adult blood pressure; and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism. PMID:23202124

  1. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  2. Predictors of birth weight and gestational age among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-10-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.

  3. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender.

  4. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight--factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Viktoria; Lundborg, Linda; Cao, Yingting; Nowicka, Paulina; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja

    2011-12-08

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a

  5. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods: Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010–2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008–2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Results: Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53–2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65–16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30–67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72–114.87) in class III obese. Conclusions: Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public

  6. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-05-01

    Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010-2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008-2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53-2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65-16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30-67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72-114.87) in class III obese. Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public policy and highlight the need for effective interventions

  7. Twin’s birth-order differences in height and body mass index from birth to old age: a pooled study of 26 twin cohorts participated in the CODATwins project

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were not statistically significant anymore. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first and second born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. PMID:26996222

  8. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  9. Waist-to-height ratio and its association with TV viewing in a sample of Portuguese children aged 7-9 years.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Fernandes, Romulo; Gama, Augusta; Mourao, Isabel; Nogueira, Helena; Marques, Vitor; Padez, Cristina

    2017-09-10

    During the past decades, increased TV viewing and reduced physical activity (PA) levels may have contributed to the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity. This study aimed to analyze the association between TV viewing and central adiposity risk in Portuguese children. The sample comprised 3987 children (1997 girls and 1990 boys) aged 7-9 years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated as the ratio of waist/height with a cut-off of 0.5 used to define risk of abdominal obesity. WHtR does not depend on sex- or age-specific reference criteria. TV viewing and PA were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions were used, with adjustments for age, PA, and parental education. This study revealed a positive significant association between central adiposity risk and sedentary behaviors in Portuguese boys. In addition, the final model showed an important inverse association between PA and the risk of abdominal obesity in both boys and girls (males: β = -0.01 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.00; females: β = -0.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00). Findings revealed that associations between TV viewing and obesity risk could be highly influenced by socioeconomic factors. Future research should extend a similar design to children in other geographic contexts, and incorporate other behavioral variables in the statistical models, to confirm or not some of the aforementioned findings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Relation of arterial stiffness with gestational age and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Wong, K; Lam, B.; Tsoi, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: The cardiovascular risk of individuals who are born small as a result of prematurity remains controversial. Given the previous findings of stiffer peripheral conduit arteries in growth restricted donor twins in twin–twin transfusion syndrome regardless of gestational age, we hypothesised that among children born preterm, only those with intrauterine growth retardation are predisposed to an increase in cardiovascular risks. Aim: To compare brachioradial arterial stiffness and systemic blood pressure (BP) among children born preterm and small for gestational age (group 1, n = 15), those born preterm but having birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 2, n = 36), and those born at term with birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 3, n = 35). Methods: Systemic BP was measured by an automated device (Dinamap), while stiffness of the brachioradial arterial segment was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV). The birth weight was adjusted for gestational age and expressed as a z score for analysis. Results: The 86 children were studied at a mean (SD) age of 8.2 (1.7) years. Subjects from group 1, who were born at 32.3 (2.0) weeks' gestation had a significantly lower z score of birth weight (-2.29 (0.63), p<0.001), compared with those from groups 2 and 3. They had a significantly higher mean blood pressure (p<0.001) and their diastolic blood pressure also tended to be higher (p = 0.07). Likewise, their brachioradial PWV, and hence arterial stiffness, was the highest of the three groups (p<0.001). While subjects from group 2 were similarly born preterm, their PWV was not significantly different from that of group 3 subjects (p = 1.00) and likewise their z score of birth weight did not differ (-0.01 (0.71) v -0.04 (1.1), p = 1.00). Brachioradial PWV correlated significantly with systolic (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), diastolic (r = 0.38, p<0.001), and mean (0.47, p<0.001) BP, and with z score of birth weight (r = -0.43, p<0

  11. Influence of Perceived Height, Masculinity, and Age on Each Other and on Perceptions of Dominance in Male Faces.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined the individual effects of facial cues to height, masculinity, and age on interpersonal interactions and partner preferences. We know much less about the influence of these traits on each other. We, therefore, examined how facial cues to height, masculinity, and age influence perceptions of each other and found significant overlap. This suggests that studies investigating the effects of one of these traits in isolation may need to account for the influence of the other two traits. Additionally, there is inconsistent evidence on how each of these three facial traits affects dominance. We, therefore, investigated how varying such traits influences perceptions of dominance in male faces. We found that increases in perceived height, masculinity, and age (up to 35 years) all increased facial dominance. Our results may reflect perceptual generalizations from sex differences as men are on average taller, more dominant, and age faster than women. Furthermore, we found that the influences of height and age on perceptions of dominance are mediated by masculinity. These results give us a better understanding of the facial characteristics that convey the appearance of dominance, a trait that is linked to a wealth of real-world outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Evaluation of skeletal and dental age using third molar calcification, condylar height and length of the mandibular body

    PubMed Central

    Kedarisetty, Sunil Gupta; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Rayapudi, Naveen; Korlepara, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To identify the most reliable method for age estimation among three variables, that is, condylar height, length of mandibular body and third molar calcification by Demirjian's method. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomograms and lateral cephalograms of 60 patients with equal gender ratio were included in the study, among each gender 15 subjects were below 18 years and 15 subjects were above 18 years. Lateral cephalograms were traced, height of condyle and mandibular body are measured manually on the tracing paper, OPG's were observed on radiographic illuminator and maturity score of third molar calcification was noted according to Demirjian's method. All the measurements were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results obtained are of no significant difference between estimated age and actual age with all three parameters (P > 0.9780 condylar height, P > 0.9515 length of mandibular body, P > 0.8611 third molar calcification). Among these three, length of mandibular body shows least standard error test (i.e. 0.188). Conclusion: Although all three parameters can be used for age estimation, length of mandibular body is more reliable followed by height of condyle and third molar calcification. PMID:26005300

  13. Birth weight, gestational age, fetal growth and childhood asthma hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma may have a fetal origin through fetal growth and development of the immunocompetence or respiratory organs. Objective We examined to which extent short gestational age, low birth weight and fetal growth restriction were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization in childhood. Methods We undertook a cohort study based on several national registers in Denmark, Sweden and Finland. We included all live singleton born children in Denmark during 1979-2005 (N = 1,538,093), in Sweden during 1973-2004 (N = 3,067,670), and a 90% random sample of singleton children born in Finland during 1987-2004 (N = 1,050,744). The children were followed from three years of age to first hospitalization for asthma, emigration, death, their 18th birthday, or the end of study (the end of 2008 in Denmark, and the end of 2007 in Sweden or Finland), whichever came first. We computed the pseudo-values for each observation and used them in a generalized estimating equation to estimate relative risks (RR) for asthma hospitalization. Results A total of 131,783 children were hospitalized for asthma during follow-up. The risk for asthma hospitalization consistently increased with lower birth weight and shorter gestational age. A 1000-g decrease in birth weight corresponded to a RR of 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.18). A one-week decrease in gestational age corresponded to a RR of 1.05 (95% CI 1.04-1.06). Small for gestational age was associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalization in term but not in preterm born children. Conclusions Fetal growth and gestational age may play a direct or indirect causal role in the development of childhood asthma. PMID:24602245

  14. The relationship between weight, height and body mass index with hemodynamic parameters is not same in patients with and without chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Soypacaci, Zeki; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Although anthropometric measurements are related with clinical outcomes; these relationships are not universal and differ in some disease states such as in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current study was aimed to analyze the relationship between height, weight and BMI with hemodynamic and arterial stiffness parameters both in normal and CKD patients separately. This cross-sectional study included 381 patients with (N 226) and without CKD (N 155) with hypertension. Routine laboratory and 24-h urine collection were performed. Augmentation index (Aix) which is the ratio of augmentation pressure to pulse pressure was calculated from the blood pressure waveform after adjusted heart rate at 75 [Aix@75 (%)]. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple measure of the time taken by the pressure wave to travel over a specific distance. Both [Aix@75 (%)] and PWV which are measures of arterial stiffness were measured by validated oscillometric methods using mobil-O-Graph device. In patients without CKD, height is inversely correlated with [Aix@75 (%)]. Additionally, weight and BMI were positively associated with PWV in multivariate analysis. However, in patients with CKD, weight and BMI were inversely and independently related with PWV. In CKD patients, as weight and BMI increased stiffness parameters such as Aix@75 (%) and PWV decreased. While BMI and weight are positively associated with arterial stiffness in normal patients, this association is negative in patients with CKD. In conclusion, height, weight and BMI relationship with hemodynamic and arterial stiffness parameters differs in patients with and without CKD.

  15. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Jon M.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Richardson, Liana J.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objectives We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference—as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2)—were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37% vs. 29%) and central obesity (47% vs. 38%) was higher in Add Health than in NHANES while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality. PMID:26146486

  16. Correlation between age and weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Juan Eduardo; Santander, Carmen; Court, Ismael; Bravo, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding age as a predictive factor in excess weight loss after bariatric surgery. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate differences in excess BMI loss (%EBMIL) 1 year after surgery in patients older and younger than 45 years. Adult obese patients fulfilling selection criteria underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy and were grouped according to age < and ≥45 years with follow-up at least 1 year. Both groups were compared in terms of excess BMI loss (%EBMIL) and other clinical outcomes. Possible relationship between %EBMIL, age, surgical technique, and presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension (HT), and dyslipidemia (DL) was searched. Three hundred thirty-seven patients (72.5 % female), 196 (50.1 %) younger than 45 years and 141 (49.9 %) with age ≥45 years. There was significant difference between age group and %EBMIL 12 months after surgery (p < 0.001), showing better results in younger patients. No differences were found in terms of gender, preoperative body mass index (BMI), surgical technique, nor presence of DL. Using multiple regression, we found significant interaction effect between age group (p < 0.001), presence of HT (p = 0.001), and %EBMIL at follow-up. Patients younger than 45 years lose greater amount of excess BMI than older patients after bariatric surgery. This tendency might be useful as a preoperative weight loss predictor in bariatric patients.

  17. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and cardiovascular dysfunction: focus on high molecular weight AGEs.

    PubMed

    Deluyker, Dorien; Evens, Lize; Bito, Virginie

    2017-07-14

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a group of proteins and lipids becoming glycated and oxidized after persistent contact with reducing sugars or short-chain aldehydes with amino group and/or high degree of oxidative stress. The accumulation of AGEs in the body is a natural process that occurs with senescence, when the turnover rate of proteins is reduced. However, increased circulating AGEs have been described to arise at early lifetime and are associated with adverse outcome and survival, in particular in settings of cardiovascular diseases. AGEs contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction by two major mechanisms: cross-linking of proteins or binding to their cell surface receptor. Recently, growing evidence shows that high-molecular weight AGEs (HMW-AGEs) might be as important as the characterized low-molecular weight AGEs (LMW-AGEs). Here, we point out the targets of AGEs in the heart and the mechanisms that lead to heart failure with focus on the difference between LMW-AGEs and the less characterized HMW-AGEs. As such, this review is a compilation of relevant papers in the form of a useful resource tool for researchers who want to further investigate the role of HMW-AGEs on cardiac disorders and need a solid base to start on this specific topic.

  18. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. Study design Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother–child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. Results Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. Conclusion Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23477997

  19. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  20. Geographical Differences in the Population-Based Cross-Sectional Growth Curve and Age at Peak Height Velocity with respect to the Prevalence Rate of Overweight in Japanese Children.

    PubMed

    Yokoya, Masana; Higuchi, Yukito

    2014-01-01

    The School Health Examination Survey is a nationwide examination carried out annually in Japan, and the results are entered into a prefectural-level physical measurement database. We used this database to determine the geographical differences in a population-based cross-sectional growth curve and investigated the association between age at peak height velocity (PHV) and the prevalence rate of overweight in children among Japanese prefectures. Mean prefectural-level age at PHV was estimated by the cubic spline-fitting procedure using cross-sectional whole-year prefectural mean height data (5-17 years, 2006-2013), and 8-year (2006-2013) means of the standardized prevalence rates of overweight children and other anatomical data (8-year standardized weight and height) were recalculated. Mean prefectural age at PHV was more strongly correlated with the mean prefectural prevalence rate of overweight (age 5-8 years) than with other weights or heights in both sexes. On the basis of these findings and their confirmation by multiple regression analysis, the prevalence rate of overweight was selected as a primary factor to explain the geographical difference in age at PHV. These findings suggest that childhood overweight is a dominant factor responsible for the observed geographical differences in onset of puberty in Japan.

  1. Comparison of circumference measures and height-weight tables with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessment of body composition in r.o.t.c. Cadets.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Kelly L; Mitchell, Katherine M; Pritchett, Robert C; Gee, David L

    2017-03-13

    Height-weight tables and circumference measures are used by the U.S. Army to predict body composition because they require little equipment/expertise. However, agreement between the Army's new 2002 circumference equation and an established laboratory technique has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to quantify agreement in body fat percentages between the Army's circumference measures (taping) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); second to determine categorical agreement between height-weight tables and DXA. Male Reserve Officer Training Corps (R.O.T.C.) cadets (N=23; 20.6 ± 1.6 years, 179.1 ± 6.6 cm; 81.4 ± 10.3 kg) were taped according to Army protocol to predict body fat. % body fat prediction was compared to DXA via a Bland-Altman Plot with ±2-4% body fat established as a zone of agreement (ZOA). 13/23 cadets fell outside the ZOA. No cadet was over the compliance threshold (20-22% fat) using the tape method, however with DXA, 7/23 cadets were non-compliant. Height-weight tables provided a moderate level of categorical agreement with DXA. The results depict poor agreement between taping and DXA, as taping generally underestimated % body fat. Compared to taping, heightweight tables were better able to identify excess fat weight.

  2. Seniors' body weight dissatisfaction and longitudinal associations with weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity: results from the NuAge Study.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Morais, José A; Payette, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between weight dissatisfaction, weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity among 1,793 seniors followed over 4 years between 2003 and 2009. Obesity prevalence (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) and prevalence/incidence of weight dissatisfaction, anorexia of aging (self-reported appetite loss), and weight changes ≥5% were assessed. Predictors of weight loss ≥5%, anorexia of aging, and weight dissatisfaction were examined using logistic regressions. Half of seniors experienced weight dissatisfaction (50.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [48.1, 53.1]). Anorexia of aging and obesity prevalence was 7.0% (95% CI = [5.7, 8.3]) and 25.1% (95% CI = [22.9, 27.3]), whereas incidence of weight gain/loss ≥5% was 6.6% (95% CI = [1.3, 11.9]) and 8.8% (95% CI = [3.3, 14.3]). Weight gain ≥5% predicts men's subsequent weight dissatisfaction (odds ratio [OR] = 6.66, 95% CI = [2.06, 21.60]). No other association was observed. Weight dissatisfaction is frequent but not associated with subsequent eating disorders. In men, weight gain predicted weight dissatisfaction. Seniors' weight dissatisfaction does not necessarily equate weight changes. Due to its high prevalence, it is of public health interest to understand how seniors' weight dissatisfaction may impact health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A new family of mathematical models describing the human growth curve-Erratum: direct calculation of peak height velocity, age at take-off and associated quantities.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Adrian; Baines, Mike; Tilling, Kate

    2013-05-01

    A new family of mathematical functions to fit longitudinal growth data was described in 1978. The ability of researchers to directly use parameters as estimates of age at peak height velocity resulted in them overlooking the possibility of directly calculating these quantities after model estimation. This erratum has corrected three mistakes in the original manuscript in the direct calculation of peak height velocity and age at take-off and has implemented the solutions in a STATA program which directly calculates the estimates, standard errors and confidence intervals for age, height and velocity at peak height velocity.

  4. Gestational age-dependency of height and body mass index trajectories during the first 3 years in Japanese small-for-gestational age children

    PubMed Central

    Maeyama, Kaori; Morioka, Ichiro; Iwatani, Sota; Fukushima, Sachiyo; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Nishida, Kosuke; Ohyama, Shohei; Fujioka, Kazumichi; Awano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Nozu, Kandai; Nagase, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Shirai, Chika; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-01-01

    Gestational age (GA) is thought to affect height growth in small-for-gestational age (SGA) children. However, the GA-specific trajectories in body mass index (BMI) and early appearances of adiposity rebound (AR) have not been fully investigated in a cohort of Japanese SGA children. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 1063 SGA children born in Kobe, Japan, with sufficient records from birth to 3 years of age. Subjects were divided into subgroups based on GA: 39–41 weeks GA (n = 723), 37–38 weeks GA (n = 256), 34–36 weeks GA (n = 62), and <34 weeks GA (n = 22). Height and BMI were assessed at 4 months, 9 months, 1.5 years, and 3 years of age. The catch-up rate for height was GA-dependent. Most children with 39–41 weeks GA (91%) caught up by 4 months of age; however, lower GA was associated with a slower elevation in the catch-up rate. The BMI trajectory during the first 3 years was also GA-dependent, with a change in GA dependency at a boundary of 37 weeks GA. Approximately 7% of SGA children had already developed AR before 3 years of age. In conclusion, growth patterns during infancy and early childhood in SGA children differ depending on GA. PMID:27934914

  5. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature body weight and height at puberty.

    PubMed

    Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturation among breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fitted to the nonlinear function BW = f(age) = A - Be(k×age), where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determines the rate that BW or height moves from B to A. Cows represented progeny from 28 Hereford, 38 Angus, 25 Belgian Blue, 34 Brahman, 8 Boran, and 9 Tuli sires. Bulls from these breeds were mated by AI to Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite (1/4 Angus, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Red Poll, and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows to produce calves in 1992, 1993, and 1994. These matings resulted in 516 mature cows whose growth curves were subsequently evaluated. Hereford-sired cows tended to have heavier mature BW, as estimated by parameter A, than Angus- (P=0.09) and Brahman-sired cows (P=0.06), and were heavier than the other breeds (P < 0.001). Angus-sired cows were heavier than Boran- (P < 0.001) and Tuli-sired cows (P < 0.001), and tended to be heavier than Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.097). Angus-sired cows did not differ from Brahman-sired cows (P=0.94). Brahman-sired cows had a heavier mature BW than Boran- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P < 0.001), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P < 0.04). Angus-sired cows matured faster (k) than cows sired by Hereford (P=0.03), Brahman (P < 0.001), Boran (P=0.03), and Tuli (P < 0.001) sires, but did not differ from Belgian Blue-sired (P=0.13) cows. Brahman-sired cows took longer to mature than Boran- (P=0.03) or Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.003). Belgian Blue-sired cows were faster maturing than Tuli-sired cows (P=0.02). Brahman-sired cows had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P=0.003), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P=0.001). Boran-sired cows tended to have reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Angus-sired cows (P=0.09), and had reached a greater proportion of their

  6. Another definition of forest canopy height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, T.; Sumida, A.; Kodama, Y.; Hara, T.

    2008-12-01

    Forest canopy height, the height of the highest vegetation components above ground level, is essential in normalizing micrometeorological parameters and in estimating forest biomass and carbon pools, but previous definitions of forest canopy height from inventory data bear uncertainties owing to arbitrary criteria of tall trees accounting for top height (i.e. mean height of tall trees selected by a certain definition) or to the effect of many shorter understory trees on Lorey's mean height (i.e. mean height weighted by basal area). We proposed a new concept of forest canopy height: the representative height of taller trees composing the crown surface or the upper canopy layer estimated on the basis of cumulative basal area from the shortest tree plotted against corresponding individual tree height. Because tall trees have large basal area, the cumulative basal area showing a sigmoidal curve would have an inflection point at a height class where many tall trees occur. Hence the forest canopy height is defined as the inflection point of the sigmoid function fitted to the cumulative basal area curve. This new forest canopy height is independent of the presence or absence of many shorter understory trees unlike Lorey's mean height, and is free from the definition of selecting the trees composing the upper canopy to determine their mean height. Applying this concept to actual forests, we found the new canopy height was larger than the arithmetic mean height and Lorey's mean height, and it was close to the aerodynamic canopy height determined by micrometeorological method, not only in the birch forest (even-aged pure stand) but also in the complex mixed forest of evergreen conifer and deciduous broadleaf species. Therefore the new canopy height would be suitable for intersite comparison studies and ground truth for remote sensing such as airborne laser scanning (ALS).

  7. Influence of Maternal Height and Weight on Low Birth Weight: A Cross-Sectional Study in Poor Communities of Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Revilane Parente de Alencar; Florêncio, Telma Maria Toledo; Benedito Silva, Ana Amelia; Sesso, Ricardo; Cavalcante, Jairo Calado; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with an increased risk of mortality, adverse metabolic conditions, and long-term chronic morbidities. The relationship between LWB and short maternal stature coupled with nutritional status was investigated in poor communities. Methods/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based study involving 2226 mother-child pairs was conducted during the period 2009-2010 in shantytowns of Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Associations between LBW and maternal sociodemographics, stature and nutritional status were investigated. The outcome variable was birth weight (< 2500g and ≥ 2500g). The independent variables were the age, income, educational background, stature and nutritional status (eutrophic, underweight, overweight and obese) of the mother. The frequency of LBW was 10%. Short-statured mothers (1st quartile of stature ≤ 152cm) showed a tendency of increased risk of LBW children compared to mothers in the 4th quartile of stature (>160.4cm) (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.09, p = 0.078). Children from short-statured mothers weighed an average of 125g less than those from taller mothers (3.18±0.56kg vs. 3.30±0.58kg, respectively p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that short stature, age < 20y (OR: 3.05, 95% CI:1.44 - 6.47) or were underweight (OR: 2.26, 95% CI:0.92 - 5.95) increased the risk of LBW, while overweight (OR: 0.38, 95% CI:0.16 - 0.95) and obesity (OR: 0.39, 95% CI:0.11 - 1.31) had lower risk for LBW. In taller mothers, lower income and underweight were associated with LBW (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.07 - 3.29 and 2.85, 95% CI:1.09 - 7.47, respectively), and obese mothers showed a trend of increased risk of LBW (OR: 1.66, 95% CI:0.84 - 3.25). Conclusions/Significance Overweight was found to have a protective effect in short-statured mothers, indicating that a surplus of energy may diminish the risk of LBW. Short-statured younger mothers, but not taller ones, showed higher risk of LBW. The mother being

  8. Influence of maternal height and weight on low birth weight: a cross-sectional study in poor communities of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Britto, Revilane Parente de Alencar; Florêncio, Telma Maria Toledo; Benedito Silva, Ana Amelia; Sesso, Ricardo; Cavalcante, Jairo Calado; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with an increased risk of mortality, adverse metabolic conditions, and long-term chronic morbidities. The relationship between LWB and short maternal stature coupled with nutritional status was investigated in poor communities. A cross-sectional population-based study involving 2226 mother-child pairs was conducted during the period 2009-2010 in shantytowns of Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Associations between LBW and maternal sociodemographics, stature and nutritional status were investigated. The outcome variable was birth weight (< 2500 g and ≥ 2500 g). The independent variables were the age, income, educational background, stature and nutritional status (eutrophic, underweight, overweight and obese) of the mother. The frequency of LBW was 10%. Short-statured mothers (1(st) quartile of stature ≤ 152 cm) showed a tendency of increased risk of LBW children compared to mothers in the 4(th) quartile of stature (>160.4 cm) (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.09, p = 0.078). Children from short-statured mothers weighed an average of 125 g less than those from taller mothers (3.18 ± 0.56 kg vs. 3.30 ± 0.58 kg, respectively p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that short stature, age < 20 y (OR: 3.05, 95% CI:1.44 - 6.47) or were underweight (OR: 2.26, 95% CI:0.92 - 5.95) increased the risk of LBW, while overweight (OR: 0.38, 95% CI:0.16 - 0.95) and obesity (OR: 0.39, 95% CI:0.11 - 1.31) had lower risk for LBW. In taller mothers, lower income and underweight were associated with LBW (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.07 - 3.29 and 2.85, 95% CI:1.09 - 7.47, respectively), and obese mothers showed a trend of increased risk of LBW (OR: 1.66, 95% CI:0.84 - 3.25). Overweight was found to have a protective effect in short-statured mothers, indicating that a surplus of energy may diminish the risk of LBW. Short-statured younger mothers, but not taller ones, showed higher risk of LBW. The mother being underweight, regardless of stature, was associated with

  9. Estimating the weight of children in Kenya: do the Broselow tape and age-based formulas measure up?

    PubMed

    House, Darlene R; Ngetich, Eric; Vreeman, Rachel C; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Validated methods for weight estimation of children are readily available in developed countries; however, their utility in developing countries with higher rates of malnutrition and infectious disease is unknown. The goal of this study is to determine the validity of a height-based estimate, the Broselow tape, compared with age-based estimations among pediatric patients in Western Kenya. A prospective cross-sectional study of all sick children presenting to the emergency department of a government referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya, was performed. Measured weight was compared with predicted weights according to the Broselow tape and commonly used advanced pediatric life support (APLS) and Nelson's age-based formulas. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to determine agreement between each method and actual weight. The method for weight prediction was determined a priori to be equivalent to the actual weight if the 95% confidence interval for the mean percentage difference between the predicted and actual weight was less than 10%. Nine hundred sixty-seven children were included in analysis. The overall mean percentage difference for the actual weight and Broselow predicted weight was -2.2%, whereas APLS and Nelson's predictions were -5.2% and -10.4%, respectively. The overall agreement between Broselow color zone and actual weight was 65.5%, with overestimate typically occurring by only 1 color zone. The Broselow tape and APLS formula predict the weights of children in western Kenya. According to its better performance, ease of use, and provision of drug dosing and equipment size, the Broselow tape is superior to age-based formulas for estimation of weight in Kenyan children. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Maternal pregravid weight, age, and smoking status as risk factors for low birth weight births.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, C; Nelson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Public Health, in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitors trends in the prevalence of prenatal risk factors that are major predictors of infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW). Analyzed data from CDC are available to the department annually. During 1988, a total of 26,767 records of Illinois women giving birth were submitted to CDC. These surveillance data support the fact that women older than 30 years who smoke and enter pregnancy underweight are at greatest risk of delivering LBW babies. Overall, 13.9 percent of underweight smokers had LBW infants compared with 8 percent of underweight nonsmokers. Prevalence of LBW among underweight and smoking women older than 34 years was much higher (29.6 percent) than among those between ages 30 and 34 (15.2 percent). The prevalence of LBW decreased as the pregravid weight increased among normal weight smokers (10 percent) and overweight smokers (8.6 percent). PMID:1333619

  11. Aging and partial body weight support affects gait variability

    PubMed Central

    Kyvelidou, Anastasia; Kurz, Max J; Ehlers, Julie L; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Background Aging leads to increases in gait variability which may explain the large incidence of falls in the elderly. Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and minimize falls. However, before initiating rehabilitation protocols, baseline studies are needed to identify the effect of body weight support on elderly gait variability. Our purpose was to determine the kinematic variability of the lower extremities in young and elderly healthy females at changing levels of body weight support during walking. Methods Ten young and ten elderly females walked on a treadmill for two minutes with a body weight support (BWS) system under four different conditions: 1 g, 0.9 g, 0.8 g, and 0.7 g. Three-dimensional kinematics was captured at 60 Hz with a Peak Performance high speed video system. Magnitude and structure of variability of the sagittal plane angular kinematics of the right lower extremity was analyzed using both linear (magnitude; standard deviations and coefficient of variations) and nonlinear (structure; Lyapunov exponents) measures. A two way mixed ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of age and BWS on variability. Results Linear analysis showed that the elderly presented significantly more variability at the hip and knee joint than the young females. Moreover, higher levels of BWS presented increased variability at all joints as found in both the linear and nonlinear measures utilized. Conclusion Increased levels of BWS increased lower extremity kinematic variability. If the intent of BWS training is to decrease variability in gait patterns, this did not occur based on our results. However, we did not perform a training study. Thus, it is possible that after several weeks of training and increased habituation, these initial increased variability values will decrease. This assumption needs to be addressed in future investigation with both "healthy" elderly and elderly fallers. In addition, it is possible that BWS training can

  12. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    PubMed

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life.

  13. Organ weights in human fetuses after formalin fixation: standards by gestational age and body weight.

    PubMed

    Guihard-Costa, Anne-Marie; Ménez, Françoise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise

    2002-01-01

    This study provides new standards of fetal organ weights (brain, heart, liver, pancreas, spleen, lungs, kidneys, adrenals, thymus, and thyroid) and body dimensions (crown-heel and crown-rump lengths, head circumference, and foot length). Subjects came from a large dataset including more than 4,000 fetuses autopsied in fetopathology units of pediatric hospitals in Paris between 1986 and 2001. From this dataset, 673 subjects were carefully selected by exclusion of multiple pregnancies, macerated and malformed fetuses, subjects with abnormal karyotypes, and those with severe infections. Fetal age ranged from 9 to 42 gestational weeks, with a very large sample of fetuses in the first half of gestation. Each organ was weighed after fixation in formalin. The standards were computed in relation to age and body weight. The mathematical models used to fit the percentile growth curves were carefully selected for each organ or dimension. This study, based on reliable methodology, affords a whole set of accurate growth standards useful for pathologists.

  14. Child Weight Growth Trajectory and its Determinants in a Sample of Iranian Children from Birth until 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sayed-Mohsen; Maracy, Mohamad-Reza; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth is one of the most important indices in child health. The best and most effective way to investigate child health is measuring the physical growth indices such as weight, height and head circumference. Among these measures, weight growth is the simplest and the most effective way to determine child growth status. Weight trend at a given age is the result of cumulative growth experience, whereas growth velocity represents what is happening at the time. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted among 606 children repeatedly measured from birth until 2 years of age. We used linear mixed model to analyze repeated measures and to determine factors affecting the growth trajectory. LOWESS smooth curve was used to draw velocity curves. Results: Gender, child rank, birth status and feeding mode had a significant effect on weight trajectory. Boys had higher weight during the study. Infants with exclusive breast feeding had higher weight than other infants. Boys had higher growth velocity up to age 6 month. Breast fed infants had higher growth velocity up to 6 month, but thereafter the velocity was higher in other infants. Conclusions: Many of the studies have investigated child growth, but most of them used cross-sectional design. In this study, we used longitudinal method to determine effective factors on weight trend in children from birth until 2-year-old. The effects of perinatal factors on further growth should be considered for prevention of growth disorders and their late complications. PMID:24829720

  15. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles.

  16. Quantitative body mass characterization before and after head and neck cancer radiotherapy: A challenge of height-weight formulae using computed tomography measurement.

    PubMed

    Chamchod, Sasikarn; Fuller, Clifton D; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Grossberg, Aaron; Messer, Jay A; Heukelom, Jolien; Gunn, G Brandon; Kantor, Micheal E; Eichelberger, Hillary; Garden, Adam S; Rosenthal, David I

    2016-10-01

    We undertook a challenge to determine if one or more height-weight formula(e) can be clinically used as a surrogate for direct CT-based imaging assessment of body composition before and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, who are at risk for cancer- and therapy-associated cachexia/sarcopenia. This retrospective single-institution study included 215 HNC patients, treated with curative radiotherapy between 2003 and 2013. Height/weight measures were tabulated. Skeletal muscle mass was contoured on pre- and post-treatment CT at the L3 vertebral level. Three common lean body mass (LBM) formulae (Hume, Boer, and James) were calculated, and compared to CT assessment at each time point. 156 patients (73%) had tumors arising in the oropharynx and 130 (61%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Mean pretreatment body mass index (BMI) was 28.5±4.9kg/m(2) in men and 27.8±8kg/m(2) in women. Mean post-treatment BMI were 26.2±4.4kg/m(2) in men, 26±7.5kg/m(2) in women. Mean CT-derived LBM decreased from 55.2±11.8kg pre-therapy to 49.27±9.84kg post-radiation. Methods comparison revealed 95% limit of agreement of ±12.5-13.2kg between CT and height-weight formulae. Post-treatment LBM with the three formulae was significantly different from CT (p<0.0001). In all instances, no height-weight formula was practically equivalent to CT within±5kg. Formulae cannot accurately substitute for direct quantitative imaging LBM measurements. We therefore recommend CT-based LBM assessment as a routine practice of head and neck cancer patient body composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship of Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index with Fracture Risk at Different Sites in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)

    PubMed Central

    Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hosmer, David W; Watts, Nelson B; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Nieves, Jeri W; Netelenbos, J Coen; March, Lyn; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Hooven, Frederick H; Greenspan, Susan L; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Cooper, Cyrus; Chapurlat, Roland D; Boonen, Steven; Anderson, Frederick A; Adami, Silvano; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, rib, upper arm/shoulder, clavicle, ankle, lower leg, and upper leg fractures, we modeled the time to incident self-reported fracture over a 3-year period using the Cox proportional hazards model and fitted the best linear or non-linear models containing height, weight, and BMI. Of 52,939 women, 3628 (6.9%) reported an incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. Linear BMI showed a significant inverse association with hip, clinical spine, and wrist fractures: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per increase of 5 kg/m2 were 0.80 (0.71–0.90), 0.83 (0.76–0.92), and 0.88 (0.83–0.94), respectively (all p < 0.001). For ankle fractures, linear weight showed a significant positive association: adjusted HR per 5-kg increase 1.05 (1.02–1.07) (p < 0.001). For upper arm/shoulder and clavicle fractures, only linear height was significantly associated: adjusted HRs per 10-cm increase were 0.85 (0.75–0.97) (p = 0.02) and 0.73 (0.57–0.92) (p = 0.009), respectively. For pelvic and rib fractures, the best models were for non-linear BMI or weight (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively), with inverse associations at low BMI/body weight and positive associations at high values. These data demonstrate that the relationships between fracture and weight, BMI, and height are site-specific. The different associations may be mediated, at least in part, by effects on bone mineral density, bone structure and geometry, and patterns of falling. PMID:23873741

  18. Fruit and nut weight in pecan trees canopies in relation to the severity of pecan scab at different heights

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusicladium effusum is the cause of pecan scab, the most destructive disease of pecan in the southeastern US. This study addressed the distribution of scab and measures of yield in relation to sample height in tall trees (14 to 16 m tall) in three experiments in 2010 and 2011 with trees receiving fu...

  19. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Impact of social mobility and geographical migration on variation in male height, weight and body mass index in a British cohort.

    PubMed

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2012-03-01

    Using a sample of 2090 British father and son pairs the relationships between social and geographical intra- and inter-generational mobility were examined in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). There was much more social mobility than geographical (regional) migration. Social mobility and geographical migration were not independent: socially non-mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be geographical non-migrants, and upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be regional migrants. Upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were, on average, taller and had a lower BMI than non-mobile and downwardly mobile fathers and sons. In general, no significant associations were found between geographical migration and height or weight. Migrating fathers had a lower BMI than sedentes, as did their sons who migrated between 1965 and 1991. There was no significant interaction that indicated that social mobility and geographical migration were acting in a simple additive way on height, weight and BMI.

  1. QALYs and ageism: philosophical theories and age weighting.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    2000-01-01

    QALY maximization is sometimes criticized for being 'ageist', because, other things being equal, the elderly, with a shorter life expectancy, will be given lower priority. On the other hand, there are philosophical arguments that, for different reasons, advocate rationing health care to the elderly, even when the size of the expected benefits in QALY terms is the same across older and younger patients. This paper examines six proposals, both from the philosophical and the health economics literature, that will lead to such conclusions. These are: two variants of the so-called fair innings argument, the fair innings weights, the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) age weighting, the biographical life span, and the prudential lifetime account. Two questions are addressed with regard to each of these. First, what is the reason for choosing the younger patient when the QALY gains are equal; second, will the younger patient continue to be chosen even when the QALY gains to the older patient are larger. The paper studies the relationship between the six proposals and explores their possible implications for QALY maximization. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  3. Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    Siu, Jessica; Giskes, Katrina; Shaw, Jonathan; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs). Data were used from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Mid-aged men and women with measured weights at both baseline (1999-2000) and follow-up (2004-2005) were included. Percent weight change over the five-year interval was calculated and perceived weight status, WCBs and highest attained education were collected at baseline. Low-educated men and women were more likely to be obese at baseline compared to their high-educated counterparts. Women with a certificate-level education had a greater five-year weight gain than those with a bachelor degree or higher. Perceived weight status or WCBs did not differ by education among men and women, however participants that perceived themselves as very overweight had less weight gain than those perceiving themselves as underweight or normal weight. WCBs were not associated with five-year weight change. The higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among low-educated women may be a consequence of greater weight gain in mid-adulthood. Education inequalities in overweight/obesity among men and women made be due (in part) to overweight or obese individuals in low-educated groups not perceiving themselves as having a weight problem. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Height gain after two-years-of-age is associated with better cognitive capacity, measured with Raven's coloured matrices at 15-years-of-age in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Teivaanmäki, Tiina; Bun Cheung, Yin; Pulakka, Anna; Virkkala, Jussi; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per

    2017-04-01

    Stunting is a measure of chronic undernutrition, and it affects approximately 160 million children worldwide. Cognitive development of stunted children is compromised, but evidence about the association between height gain in late childhood and adolescent cognitive capacity is scarce. We aimed to determine the association between height gains at different ages, including late childhood, and cognitive capacity at 15-years-of-age. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a rural African setting in Southern Malawi. The study cohort was enrolled between June 1995 and August 1996. It originally comprised mothers of 813 fetuses, and the number of children born live was 767. These children were followed up until the age of 15 years. The anthropometrics were measured at one and 24-months-of-age and 15-years-of-age, and cognitive capacity of participants was assessed at 15-years-of-age with Raven's Coloured Matrices score, mathematic test score, median reaction time (RT) (milliseconds) and RT lapses. The associations between growth and the outcome measures were assessed with linear regression. Raven's Coloured Matrices score was predicted by height gain between 24 months and 15-years-of-age (coefficient 0.85, P = 0.03) and (coefficient 0.69, P = 0.06), but not by earlier growth, when possible confounders were included in the model. The association weakened when school education was further added in the model (coefficient = 0.69, P = 0,060). In conclusion, in rural Malawi, better growth in late childhood is likely to lead to better cognitive capacity in adolescence, partly through more school education. In light of these results, growth promotion should not only be limited to early childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Self-reported body weight and height: an assessment tool for identifying children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors clustering.

    PubMed

    Chan, Noel P T; Choi, Kai C; Nelson, E Anthony S; Sung, Rita Y T; Chan, Juliana C N; Kong, Alice P S

    2013-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used for assessing body fat. Self-reported body weight and height derived BMI (SRDBMI) is a simple, low cost and non-invasive assessment tool and it may be a useful self-reported assessment tool to monitor the prevalence of overweight/obesity in community settings and for epidemiological research. We assessed the agreement of BW and BH between assessor measured and child self-reported values and evaluated the diagnostic ability of SRDBMI to identify children with overweight/obesity status and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) clustering. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school settings using a cluster sampling method. A total of 1,614 children aged 6-18 years were included in the analysis. Children were given a questionnaire to complete at home prior to the anthropometric measurements and blood taking at the schools. There was almost perfect agreement on BW, BH and BMI between self-reported and measured values [intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 (95% CI: 0.93-0.94) to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99)]. About half of the children reported their BW and BH absolute values within 1 kg and 2 cm of measured values, respectively. The SRDBMI demonstrated good diagnostic ability for identifying children with overweight/obesity status (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged from 0.83 to 0.98) and CMRFs clustering (AUC-ROCs values of BMI between measured and self-reported values were close ranging from 0.85 to 0.89). Self-reported BW and BH demonstrated almost perfect agreement with measured values and could substantially identify children with overweight/obesity status and CMRFs clustering.

  6. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49–79

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p = 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated

  7. Height, socioeconomic and subjective well-being factors among U.S. women, ages 49-79.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49-79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p= 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance 'once a week or more often' were taller than those who reported 'none' and 'once to 3 times a month'. Means in inches are respectively for: White women-63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs-yes vs. no-63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given 'a little' strength and comfort from religion' compared to 'none' and 'a great deal', 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health-excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor-63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities -frequent attendance clubs/lodges/groups", and with 'a little' vs. 'none' or 'great deal

  8. Effect of empty fruit bunch to the accumulated plant height, mass of fresh and dry weight of tomato plant treated with organic and inorganic fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Aishah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan

    2016-11-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of different type of compost and fertilizers on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments. Compost of Empty fruit bunch (EFB) and cow dung is mixed in the ratio of 3:2:1 (soil: compost: sand) and put into 25.4 mm2 polyethylene bag. Organic fertilizer of 10 ml were added twice a week, while inorganic fertilizer was applied at the rate of 3 g per polyethylene bag of soil three weeks after sowing. Treatment without fertilizer application was established as a control. The treatments were laid in a split-split plot design with three replications. Plant growth was assessed using accumulating plant height, fresh weight and dry weight. The application of organic plus inorganic fertilizer had significant effects on plant height. The application of organic fertilizer combination with cow dung gave significant difference to plant mass (fresh and dry). The data obtained from these treatments were significantly higher than the data obtained from the control (without fertilizer). In conclusion, the type of compost did not gave significant difference towards plant height while it only gave significant difference towards plant mass.

  9. Menopause Weight Gain: Stop the Middle Age Spread

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain, step up your activity level and enjoy a healthy diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff As you ... and exercise habits. Commit to lifestyle changes and enjoy a healthier you. References Changes in weight and fat ...

  10. Site index and height growth curves for managed, even-aged stands of white or grand fir east of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    P. H. Cochran

    1979-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations for white or grand fir growing in managed, even-aged pure stands or mixed with other conifers east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington are presented. Data were collected in stands where height growth apparently has not been suppressed by high density or top damage.

  11. Site index and height growth curves for managed, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir east of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    P. H. Cochran

    1979-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations for managed, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziezii (Mirb.) Franco) east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington are presented. Data were collected in stands where height growth apparently has not been suppressed by high density or top damage.

  12. Age and height distribution of holocene transgressive deposits in eastern North Island, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ota, Y.; Berryman, K.R.; Hull, A.G.; Miyauchi, T.; Iso, N.

    1988-01-01

    Holocene transgressive deposits are frequently exposed near the present-day coastline of the study area along eastern North Island, New Zealand. They occur in sites of former estuaries that were filled during the postglacial rise in sea level. We present one hundred radiocarbon dates of Holocene transgressive deposits from the study area, ranging in age from ca. 10,000 to 5500 yr B.P. Relative sea level curves up to ca. 6000 yr B.P. were reconstructed for six locations. The curves have similar slopes prior to about 7000 yr B.P., indicating that sea level rise was much more rapid than any tectonic uplift at that time. The postglacial rise in sea level in New Zealand is considered, in general, to have culminated at about 6500 yr B.P. but the upper limit ages of transgressive deposits in our study area vary from ca. 5500 to 7000 yr B.P. At sites where the uplift rate is high the postglacial transgression culminated rather earlier than ca. 6500 yr B.P., and at sites where there is subsidence or there is very low uplift the culmination is later than ca. 6500 yr B.P. Nine of fourteen dates from fossil trees in growth position, that grew in and were buried by estuarine silt, cluster in the age range ca. 8000-8400 yr B.P. These data support the view that there was a minor regression or stillstand in the eustatic sea level rise at that time. Eleven tectonic subregions are recognized in the study area on the basis of average uplift rate. Most of these subregions coincide with those established from the number and ages of younger Holocene marine terraces of probable coseismic origin. ?? 1988.

  13. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  14. Molecular mapping and characterization of genes governing time to flowering, seed weight, and plant height in an intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    PubMed

    Jamalabadi, Javad Ghorbani; Saidi, Abbas; Karami, Ezzat; Kharkesh, Mehrab; Talebi, Reza

    2013-06-01

    Drought is the major constraint to chickpea productivity worldwide. Utilizing early flowering genotypes and larger seed size have been suggested as strategies for breeding in drought zones. Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential markers linked to days-to-flowering, 100-seed weight, and plant height in a chickpea intraspecific F(2:3) population derived from the cross ILC3279 × ICCV2. A closely linked marker (TA117) on linkage group LG3 was identified for the days-to-flowering trait, explaining 33% of the variation. In relation to plant height, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) was located in LG3, close to the Ts5 marker, that explained 29% of phenotypic variation. A QTL for 100-seed weight located in LG4, close to TA176, explained 51% of variation. The identification of a locus linked both to high 100-seed weight and days-to-flowering may account for the correlation observed between these traits in this and other breeding attempts.

  15. Relations of body weight status in early adulthood and weight changes until middle age with hypertension in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Wu, Yangfeng; Zhao, Liancheng

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult participants from the China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology to explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status, body weight change from age 25 to middle age and hypertension in the Chinese population. Self-reported weight was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) at age 25. The association between BMI at age 25, subsequent weight change and hypertension was examined using a logistic regression model. Of the 14 635 study participants sampled in 1998, 3525 were diagnosed with hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex and other potential confounding factors, both the BMI at age 25 and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of hypertension (P for trend <0.001). Weight loss could more effectively reduce the risk of hypertension for participants with a higher BMI (BMI⩾24 kg m(-)(2)) at age 25 than for those who experienced a weight change of -2.5-2.5 kg. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for a weight change of -7.5 to -2.6 kg were 0.63 (0.46-0.86); for a weight change of <-7.5 kg, these statistics were 0.45 (0.32-0.63). For participants who had a lower BMI (18.5-20.9 kg m(-)(2)) at age 25, the OR and 95% CI were 0.86 (0.58-1.26) for a weight change of -7.5 to -2.6 kg and 0.95 (0.44-2.05) for a weight change of <-7.5 kg. Being overweight and obesity in early adulthood and adult weight gain were both independently associated with marked increase in the risk of hypertension in middle-aged men and women. Weight loss may be a protective factor against hypertension for people who were overweight or obese in early adulthood.

  16. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  17. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  18. Site index and height growth curves for unmanaged even-aged stands of western hemlock and Sitka spruce in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Wilbur A. Farr

    1984-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations are presented for unmanaged even-aged stands of western hemlock and Sitka spruce in southeast Alaska. Data were mostly collected in stands that developed after logging.

  19. A case study on the association of variation of bitter-taste receptor gene TAS2R38 with the height, weight and energy intake in Japanese female college students.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroko; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko; Suzuki, Yuichi; Nakano, Teruyo; Hayashi, Hisayoshi; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    One of the critical factors that determines individual differences in dietary behavior and nutritional status is the sensory-affecting quality of food, in particular its taste. Variation of one bitter taste receptor gene, TAS2R38, which is associated with the differential sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), has been demonstrated to affect the dietary intake pattern. A case study was performed to examine the association of the TAS2R38 genotypes/haplotypes with the body size (height, weight and BMI) and with the food and nutrient intake. Eighty-four college students, all females, with an age range of 18-21 y were recruited from the University of Shizuoka. The genotypes of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R38 (A49P and I296V) were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The height, weight and body mass index (BMI), and (in a subgroup of 47 subjects) food and nutrition intake estimated from 3 d of food recording, were compared between homozygotes for the PTC/PROP-nontaster haplotype (AI haplotype) and carriers with the PTC/PROP-taster haplotype (PV haplotype). The results show that the homozygotes with AI haplotype were taller and heavier than the carriers of PV haplotype, while BMI values were similar between them. The former group also had higher energy and carbohydrate intakes than the latter group. Neither vegetable nor dairy product intake was different between the homozygotes with AI haplotype and the carriers of PV haplotype. In conclusion, the PTC/PROP-nontaster TAS2R38 genotype/haplotype was associated with height and weight but not with BMI, which may in turn have influenced the energy and carbohydrate intakes.

  20. Randomised trial of LHRH analogue treatment on final height in girls with onset of puberty aged 7.5-8.5 years

    PubMed Central

    Cassio, A.; Cacciari, E.; Balsamo, A.; Bal, M.; Tassinari, D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the effectiveness of luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues in improving final height in girls affected by early puberty.
PATIENTS—Forty six consecutive girls with onset of puberty aged 7.5-8.5 years randomly divided into two groups: one treated with 3.75 mg triptorelin intramuscularly every four weeks (group 1); and the other with no treatment (group 2).
RESULTS—Mean (SD) chronological age at onset of menarche was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (11.9 (1.0) v 10.8 (0.7) years). However, mean (SD) height at menarche (152.7 (7.2) v 152.5(5.7) cm) and mean (SD) growth after menarche (4.9 (3.0) v 5.4(2.2) cm) were similar in both groups. The mean (SD) final height was similar in the two groups (group 1, 158.1 (6.2) cm; group 2, 158.6 (6.0) cm) and not significantly different from target height. Fourteen of 20 patients in group 1 and 12 of 18 patients in group 2 showed final height equal to or higher than target height. Final heights of girls with poor initial height prognosis were significantly lower than those of girls with good prognosis, but in patients with the same initial height prognosis, both groups showed final heights similar and not significantly different from their target heights.
CONCLUSIONS—LHRH analogue has no apparent effect on final height in subjects with onset of puberty between 7.5 and 8.5years.

 PMID:10490438

  1. Changes in Body Weight From Young Adulthood to Middle Age and Its Association With Blood Pressure and Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hong Kong Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yao Jie; Ho, Suzanne C; Su, Xuefen; Liu, Zhao-Min

    2016-01-06

    Few studies have examined the associations of weight changes from young adulthood to middle age with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension among Hong Kong Chinese women. Weight at age 18 (W18), current weight (Wcurrent), height, BP, demographics, and lifestyle factors were obtained from 1253 female nurses (35-65 years) by a self-administered questionnaire through mail survey in Hong Kong. The conditional relative weight (CRW; a residual of Wcurrent regressed on W18) was used to express the relative weight change from age 18 to current age. The study results show that from young adulthood to middle age, 76.9%, 15.1%, and 8.0% of women had weight gain, weight loss, and stable weight, respectively. Women in the weight loss group had heavier W18 than those in the weight gain group (P<0.05). Higher weight gain was associated with higher BP (P for trend <0.01). Women who belonged to the heaviest 10% both at age 18 and at present had highest BP than women in other weight categories. By giving W18, a 1-kg increase in weight change predicted 0.63 and 0.42 mm Hg increases in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively (both P<0.001) and 12% greater odds of being hypertension (95% confidence interval, 1.08, 1.17). The CRW was positively associated with BP and hypertension; no interaction was found between CRW and Wcurrent on BP/hypertension. A majority of Chinese women tended to become heavier throughout adult life. More weight gain led to the higher BP. Weight change is an independent predictor for later-life BP and hypertension. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Beverage intake of girls at age 5 y predicts adiposity and weight status in childhood and adolescence123

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Michele; Francis, Lori A; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased consumption of sweetened beverage has been linked to higher energy intake and adiposity in childhood. Objective: The objective was to assess whether beverage intake at age 5 y predicted energy intake, adiposity, and weight status across childhood and adolescence. Design: Participants were part of a longitudinal study of non-Hispanic white girls and their parents (n = 170) who were assessed biennially from age 5 to 15 y. At each assessment, beverage intake (milk, fruit juice, and sweetened beverages) and energy intake were assessed by using three 24-h recalls. Percentage body fat and waist circumference were measured. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate body mass index. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict the girls’ adiposity. In addition, at age 5 y, girls were categorized as consuming <1, ≥1 and <2, or ≥2 servings of sweetened beverages. A mixed modeling approach was used to assess longitudinal differences and patterns of change in sweetened beverage and energy intake, adiposity, and weight status by frequency of sweetened beverage intake. Results: Sweetened beverage intake at age 5 y, but not milk or fruit juice intake, was positively associated with adiposity from age 5 to 15 y. Greater consumption of sweetened beverages at age 5 y (≥2 servings/d) was associated with a higher percentage body fat, waist circumference, and weight status from age 5 to 15 y. Conclusion: These findings provide new longitudinal evidence that early intake of sweetened beverages predicts adiposity and weight status across childhood and adolescence. PMID:19692492

  3. Inconsistent diagnosis of acute malnutrition by weight-for-height and mid-upper arm circumference: contributors in 16 cross-sectional surveys from South Sudan, the Philippines, Chad, and Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Dominique; Huybregts, Lieven; Lachat, Carl; Vrijens, France; Kolsteren, Patrick; Guesdon, Benjamin

    2015-08-25

    The two anthropometric indicators of acute malnutrition in children under 5 years, i.e. a Mid-Upper Arm Circumference < 125 mm (MUAC125) or a Weight-for-Height Z-score<-2 (WHZ-2), correlate poorly. We aimed at assessing the contribution of age, sex, stunting (Height-for-Age HAZ<-2), and low sitting-standing height ratio Z-score (SSRZ in the 1st tertile of the study population, called hereafter 'longer legs') to this diagnosis discrepancy. Data from 16 cross-sectional nutritional surveys carried out by Action Against Hunger International in South Sudan, the Philippines, Chad, and Bangladesh fed multilevel, multivariate regression models, with either WHZ-2 or MUAC125 as the dependent variable and age, sex, stunting, and 'longer legs' as the independent ones. We also compared how the performance of MUAC125 and WHZ-2 to detect slim children, i.e. children with a low Weight-for-Age (WAZ<-2) but no linear growth retardation (HAZ≥-2), was modified by the contributors. Overall 23.1% of the 14,409 children were identified as acutely malnourished by either WHZ-2 or MUAC125, but only 28.5% of those (949/3,328) were identified by both indicators. Being stunted (+17.8%; 95 % CI: 14.8%; 22.8%), being a female (+16.5%; 95 % CI: 13.5%; 19.5%) and being younger than 24 months (+33.6%; 95 % CI: 30.4%; 36.7%) were factors strongly associated with being detected as malnourished by MUAC125 and not by WHZ-2, whereas having 'longer legs' moderately increased the diagnosis by WHZ-2 (+4.2%; 95 % CI: 0.7%; 7.6%). The sensitivity to detect slim children by MUAC125 was 31.0% (95 % CI: 26.8%; 35.2%) whereas it was 70.6% (95 % CI: 65.4%; 75.9%) for WHZ-2. The sensitivity of MUAC125 was particularly affected by age (57.4% vs. 18.1% in children aged < 24 months vs. ≥ 24 months). Specificity was high for both indicators. MUAC125 should not be used as a stand-alone criterion of acute malnutrition given its strong association with age, sex and stunting, and its low sensitivity to detect slim

  4. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    PubMed

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  5. Relationships between body dimensions, body weight, age, gender, breed and echocardiographic dimensions in young endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, D S; Giraudet, A; Maso, D; Hervé, G; Hauri, D D; Barrey, E; Robert, C

    2016-10-10

    The heart's physiological adaptation to aerobic training leads to an increase in heart chamber size, and is referred to as the Athlete's heart. However, heart dimensions are also related to body weight (BWT), body size, growth and (in some species) breed. There are few published data on the relationships between heart dimensions and growth or aerobic training in Arabian and Arabian-related endurance horses. Therefore the objective of the present study was to describe the influence of body dimensions (body length (BL), thoracic circumference (TC), withers height (WH)), BWT, age, gender, breed (purebred Arabians, part-bred Arabians, Anglo-Arabians, and Others) and the initiation of endurance training on echocardiographic measurements in competition-fit endurance horses aged 4 to 6 years. Most left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) dimensions increased with age, whereas LA and LV functional indices did not. Although there was no gender difference for LV dimensions, females had larger LA dimensions. In terms of breed, Anglo-Arabians had the largest LV dimensions. Regression models indicated that the included explanatory factors had a weak influence on heart dimensions. Age, body dimensions, breed and gender showed the most consistent influence on LA dimensions, whereas BWT, breed and kilometres covered in competition showed the most consistent influence on LV dimensions. The increase in echocardiographic dimensions with age indicates on-going growth in our population of 4 to 6 year-old horses. We also observed small changes associated with the initiation of endurance training. Morphometric dimensions had a greater influence on LA dimensions, whereas LV dimensions were also influenced (albeit weakly) by parameters associated with exercise intensity. These results may therefore reflect early adaptations linked to the initiation of endurance training.

  6. Effect of rotation age and physiographic region on weight per cubic foot of planted loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Richard F. Daniels; Bruce E. Borders

    2006-01-01

    Most harvested southern pine is sold by weight. We discuss how the weight of wood and bark per cubic foot of wood (the weight scaling factor) for plantation-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) varies with tree age across the coastal and inland regions of the Southern United States. To determine the weight scaling factor for plantation trees in the...

  7. Countermovement jump peak force relative to body weight and jump height as predictors for sprint running performances: (in)homogeneity of track and field athletes?

    PubMed

    Markström, Jonas L; Olsson, Carl-Johan

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate: (a) If variables from 1-leg drop jump (DJ), DJ, squat jump (SJ), and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests can predict sprint performances for sprinters. (b) If sprinters and jumpers can be distinguished based on variables from 1-leg DJ, DJ, SJ, and CMJ tests, also if sprinters and throwers can be distinguished based on variables from stiff leg jump (SLJ), SJ, and CMJ tests. A single linear regression and multiple linear regression analysis approach with models including 2 or 3 variables were used when predicting sprint performances. Five elite sprinters (1 woman) participated in the first subexamination and 5 sprinters (1 woman) vs. 5 jumpers and 6 sprinters vs. 6 throwers (4 women) participated in the second. The force variable CMJ peak force (PF) relative to body weight significantly predicted the sprint performances maximal running velocity through 10-m (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max10m) and 60-m time. The Vmax10m was also predicted by CMJ height. Jump heights from SJ and DJ did not predict sprint performances. The between-group analysis of the athletes showed a nonsignificant group difference with respect to the jump variables. However, planned comparisons between sprinters and throwers showed significant differences in a number of SLJ variables. When constructing training programs for sprinters, the aim should be to improve CMJ PF and CMJ height because of the prediction of Vmax10-m and 60-m time, presumably because of velocity specificity components.

  8. Measured Parental Weight Status and Familial Socio-Economic Status Correlates with Childhood Overweight and Obesity at Age 9

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568). Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82%) and age eligible children (response rate 57%) were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3%) or obese (6.6%). Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. Conclusions/Significance Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due to the high

  9. Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9.

    PubMed

    Keane, Eimear; Layte, Richard; Harrington, Janas; Kearney, Patricia M; Perry, Ivan J

    2012-01-01

    Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES) play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568). Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82%) and age eligible children (response rate 57%) were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3%) or obese (6.6%). Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due to the high prevalence of obesity in parents and children, population based

  10. The association of birth weight and postnatal growth with energy intake and eating behavior at 5 years of age - a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Deutekom, Arend W; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2016-02-04

    Low and high birth weight and accelerated postnatal weight gain are associated with an increased risk of obesity. Perinatal effects on energy intake and eating behavior have been proposed as underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to examine the independent associations of birth weight and postnatal weight and height gain with childhood energy intake and satiety response. In a birth cohort study, we used data from 2227 children (52% male), mean age 5.6 (±0.4) years. Mean daily energy intake and satiety response were parent-reported through validated questionnaires. Exposures were birth weight z-score and conditional weight and height gain between 0-1, 1-3, 3-6, 6-12 months and 12 months to 5 years. Conditional weight and height are residuals of current weight and height regressed on prior growth data, to represent deviations from expected growth. Analyses were adjusted for a set of potential confounding variables. Conditional weight gain between 1-3, 3-6 months and 12 months to 5 years was significantly associated with energy intake, with 29.7 (95%-CI: 4.6; 54.8), 24.0 (1.8; 46.1) and 79.5 (29.4; 129.7) kcal/day more intake for each Z-score conditional weight gain between 1-3, 3-6 months and 12 months to 5 years, respectively. Conditional height gain between 0-1, 1-3 months and 12 months to 5 years was negatively associated with energy intake (β: -42.0 [66.6; -17.4] for 0-1 months, -35.1 [-58.4; -11.8] for 1-3 months and -37.4 [-72.4; -2.3] for 12 months to 5 years). Conditional weight gain in all periods was negatively associated with satiety response, with effect sizes from - 0.03 (-0.06; -0.002) in early infancy to -0.12 (-0.19; -0.06) in childhood. Birth weight was not associated with energy intake or satiety response. Our findings suggest that accelerated infant and childhood weight gain are associated with increased energy intake and diminished satiety response at 5 years. Accelerated height gain seems to be beneficial for childhood energy intake

  11. Obesity in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the Minnesota cohort: importance of adjusting body mass index for height-age.

    PubMed

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Forlenza, Gregory P; Yaw Addo, O; Kyllo, Jennifer; Lteif, Aida; Hindmarsh, P C; Petryk, Anna; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria Teresa; Miller, Bradley S; Thomas, William

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate obesity and overweight in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and associations with glucocorticoids, fludrocortisone and disease control. Adjusting body mass index-for-height-age (BMIHA ) percentile is proposed to correct misclassification of obese/overweight status in CAH children with advanced bone age and tall-for-age stature. Longitudinal. One hundred and ninety-four children with CAH seen from 1970 to 2013: 124 salt wasting (SW); 70 simple virilizing (SV); 102 females. Body mass index (BMI) end-points were overweight (85-94 percentile) and obese (≥95 percentile). Approximately 50% of the children had at least one BMI measurement ≥95 percentile and about 70% had at least one ≥85 percentile. Using BMIHA percentiles, obesity incidence decreased slightly in SW children (47-43%) and markedly in SV children (50-33%); however, overweight status was not reduced. Only 6% of SW and 1% of SV children were persistently obese (≥3 clinic visits) when BMIHA was applied, whereas overweight status persisted in 35% of SW and 33% of SV children. Most obesity or overweight when using BMIHA occurred before age 10 and there was no association with hydrocortisone (HC) or fludrocortisone dosing. Adiposity rebound for SW children occurred by 3·3 years and in SV females by age 3·8 years, over a year earlier than the adiposity rebound for healthy children. Children with CAH are at higher risk for early onset obesity and overweight with or without using BMIHA but rates of persistent obesity were lower than previously reported. Careful HC dosing during early childhood is needed to prevent increased weight gain and an early adiposity rebound. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Using Child Age or Weight in Selecting Type of In-Vehicle Restraint: Implications For Promotion And Design

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert W. G.; Hutchinson, T. Paul; Edwards, Sally A.

    2007-01-01

    A survey of motor vehicle child restraint use found around 28% of children under the age of six using weight-inappropriate restraints. Many parents did not know when a child was likely to outgrow a booster seat nor the weight of their child, but they did know the child’s age. Anthropometric data show that, if advice on restraint transition, given solely in terms of age (6 months, 4 years, 8 years) were followed in Australia, incorrect restraint selection would occur in 5% of children under the age of six. Further analysis suggests how rewriting the Standard could reduce this number. We present an argument for placing age-based transitions at the heart of the strategy to improve child restraint compliance. This may be superior to one based on the child’s weight or other anthropometric measurement. Our argument may be summarized as follows: 1 Age-based rules for selecting child restraints are simple, require less information to be retained, and might be more natural criteria for parents. They might have a greater chance of being adopted as norms, and of encouraging good peer cues. Anthropometric rules, on the other hand, assume that parents know the current dimensions of their children and have the tools at their disposal to measure these dimensions. 2 The consequences of age-based promotion for the proportion of children in a restraint suitable for their weight can be estimated for alternative regulatory frameworks. We will report such Calculations below and show that this rate can potentially be very high. The rate would be even higher if child restraint design standards were drafted with age-based transitions in mind. Age-based transitions imply restraint specifications (weight and height limits) that can be determined from anthropometric survey data. 3 Such standards would necessarily imply overlapping anthropometric ranges for the different types of restraint. However, we emphasize that these overlaps would exist to facilitate age-based transitions, not to

  13. Interactions between Smoking and Weight in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia and Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Bass, Debra; Klebanoff, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking protects against preeclampsia but increases the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA). Regarding body weight, the converse is true: obesity elevates rates of preeclampsia but reduces rates of SGA. The authors assessed the combined effects of smoking and weight among US women developing preeclampsia or SGA, studying 7,757 healthy, primigravid women with singleton pregnancies in 1959–1965. Smoking (never, light, heavy), stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)2); underweight, overweight, obese), was examined in relation to preeclampsia and SGA. Among underweight (BMI <18.5) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) women, smoking decreased the risk of preeclampsia (for heavy smoking, light smoking, nonsmoking, test for trend p = 0.002 for underweight and p = 0.009 for normal weight) after adjustment for age, race, and socioeconomic status. However, among overweight/obese women (BMI ≥25), this trend was not apparent (p = 0.4). Among both underweight and overweight women, smoking significantly increased SGA risk (trend p < 0.001 for underweight and p = 0.02 for overweight/obese). Obesity eliminated the inverse association between smoking and preeclampsia but did not substantially alter the positive association between smoking and SGA. A possible unifying biologic explanation is discussed in this paper. PMID:18558661

  14. Interactions between smoking and weight in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age birth.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Zhang, Jun; Bass, Debra; Klebanoff, Mark A

    2008-08-15

    Cigarette smoking protects against preeclampsia but increases the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA). Regarding body weight, the converse is true: obesity elevates rates of preeclampsia but reduces rates of SGA. The authors assessed the combined effects of smoking and weight among US women developing preeclampsia or SGA, studying 7,757 healthy, primigravid women with singleton pregnancies in 1959-1965. Smoking (never, light, heavy), stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)); underweight, overweight, obese), was examined in relation to preeclampsia and SGA. Among underweight (BMI <18.5) and normal-weight (BMI 18.5-24.9) women, smoking decreased the risk of preeclampsia (for heavy smoking, light smoking, nonsmoking, test for trend p = 0.002 for underweight and p = 0.009 for normal weight) after adjustment for age, race, and socioeconomic status. However, among overweight/obese women (BMI >or=25), this trend was not apparent (p = 0.4). Among both underweight and overweight women, smoking significantly increased SGA risk (trend p < 0.001 for underweight and p = 0.02 for overweight/obese). Obesity eliminated the inverse association between smoking and preeclampsia but did not substantially alter the positive association between smoking and SGA. A possible unifying biologic explanation is discussed in this paper.

  15. Derivation of an Age and Weight Handicap for the 5K Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.; Laubach, Lloyd L.

    2007-01-01

    The adverse effect of increasing age and/or body weight on distance run performance has been well documented. Accordingly, nearly all five kilometer (5K) road races employ age categories and, sometimes, a heavier body weight classification. Problems with such conventions include small numbers of runners within older age categories and the…

  16. Derivation of an Age and Weight Handicap for the 5K Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.; Laubach, Lloyd L.

    2007-01-01

    The adverse effect of increasing age and/or body weight on distance run performance has been well documented. Accordingly, nearly all five kilometer (5K) road races employ age categories and, sometimes, a heavier body weight classification. Problems with such conventions include small numbers of runners within older age categories and the…

  17. Blood pressure percentiles by age and height for non-overweight Chinese children and adolescents: analysis of the china health and nutrition surveys 1991–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important health problem in China and raised blood pressure in children may lead to future hypertension. Accordingly we aimed to provide a reference blood pressure table for age, gender and height in Chinese children. Methods A reference sample of subjects was drawn from the Chinese Health and National Survey 1999–2009 aged 7–17 years after excluding overweight and obese children, the 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)are presented corrected for height and age by gender. These values are compared with existing Chinese and US recommendations. Results Results for the 50th, 90th and 95th percentile of SBP and DBP for 6245 boys and 5707 girls were presented by age and height percentiles. These observations were lower than existing Chinese recommendations before 13 years of age at median heightbut went higher in those >13 years old. At same age and height, SBP levels of American children were overall higher than Chinese counterparts from this study by average 9–10 mm Hg, but DBP did not show overall or significant difference. Conclusions The first height-specific blood pressure reference values are proposed for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years. These are lower than existing US reference values and current Chinese cutoffs. PMID:24274040

  18. Normal values of posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve conduction study related to age, gender, height, and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Simin; Mansoori, Korosh; Raissi, Gholam R; Emami Razavi, Seyede Z; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have proposed posterior antebrachial cutaneous (PABC) nerve could help in interpretation of some conditions in upper limb electrodiagnostic study. This study aimed to establish these normal values and to assess the effect of sex, age, height, and body mass index on these normal values. Eligible participants were 84 healthy adult people aged between 22 and 75 years who underwent PABC nerve conduction studies. The mean ± SD values of the base-to-peak amplitude, peak latency, and nerve conduction velocity of all participants were 10.95 ± 2.90 μV, 2.08 ± 0.20 milliseconds, and 57.85 ± 7.83 m/second, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the subjects' age and the PABC onset latency, peak latency, and nerve conduction velocity (r = 0.64, P < 0.001; r = 0.6, P < 0.001; and r = 0.44, P < 0.001, respectively). A significant negative correlation was observed between age and base-to-peak amplitude and peak-to-peak amplitude of participants, as well (r = -0.38, r = -0.41, P < 0.001, respectively). The correlation of body mass index with base-to-peak amplitude and peak-to-peak amplitude were r = -0.36, P < 0.001 and r = -0.40, P < 0.001, respectively. This study has established normal values for PABC nerve conduction studies. Furthermore, age and body mass index must be taken into account for making diagnostic conclusion in PABC nerve conduction studies.

  19. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    PubMed

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the multivariable linear regression model, better wealth index was significantly associated with higher mathematics score (ß = 0.63; 95 % CI: 0.12-0.74). Similarly a unit change in height for age z score resulted in 2.11 unit change in mathematics score (ß = 2.11; 95 % CI: 0.002-4.21). A single unit change of wealth index resulted 0.53 unit changes in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0

  20. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  1. The international growth standard for children and adolescents project: environmental influences on preadolescent and adolescent growth in weight and height.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2006-12-01

    This review has two aims. The first is to identify important environmental influences on the growth of children aged 1 to 9 years and of adolescents, defined as those aged 10 to 19 years. The second is to identify possible environmentally based criteria for the selection of individuals and populations for data collection in the development of an international growth reference for these age ranges. There are many common environmental influences on the growth of children between the ages of 1 and 19 years; the examination and description of these forms the main body of this review. Subsequently, environmental factors influencing adolescent growth only are considered. In both cases, possible selection criteria are put forward. The most important inclusion criteria for both preadolescence and adolescence are good nutrition, lack of infection, and socioeconomic status that does not constrain growth. Additionally, low birthweight, catchup growth, breastfeeding, and early adiposity rebound have impacts on growth and/or body composition into puberty. Exclusion of children born at low birth and/or experiencing catch-up growth could be most realistically operationalized if populations in which secular trends in growth were either completed or minimal were selected. Although an effect of hypoxia on child and adolescent growth, independent of nutrition, is small at most, many high-altitude populations have high prevalances of low birthweight and should be excluded on this basis. Since all populations are exposed to pollutants, contaminants, and toxicants in varying degrees, they cannot be realistically excluded from the sample frame. However, it may be desirable to exclude populations that are habitually exposed to extremely high levels of environmental pollution, including air pollution, and those living in close proximity to toxic waste. It is impossible to exclude populations and individuals on the basis of their exposure to aflatoxin contamination of food. However

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of different body weight and height-based definitions of childhood obesity in identifying overfat among Chinese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen

    2015-08-20

    Various body weight and height-based references are used to define obese children and adolescents. However, no study investigating the diagnostic accuracies of the definitions of obesity and overweight in Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents has been conducted. The current study aims to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of BMI-based definitions and 1993 HK reference in screening excess body fat among Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 2,134 participants (1,135 boys and 999 girls) were recruited from local schools. The foot-to-foot BIA scale was applied to assess %BF using standard methods. The criterion of childhood obesity (i.e., overfat) was defined as over 25 %BF for boys and over 30 %BF for girls. Childhood obesity was also determined from four BMI-based references and the 1993 HK reference. The diagnostic accuracy of these existing definitions for childhood obesity in screening excess body fat was evaluated using diagnostic indices. Overall, %BF was significantly correlated with anthropometry measurements in both genders (in boys, r = 0.747 for BMI 0.766 for PWH; in girls, r = 0.930 for BMI 0.851 for PWH). The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity determined by BMI-based references were similar with the prevalence rates of obesity in the 1993 HK reference in both genders. All definitions for childhood obesity showed low sensitivity (in boys, 0.325-0.761; in girls, 0.128-0.588) in detecting overfat. Specificities were high for cut-offs among all definitions for childhood obesity (in boys, 0.862-0.980; in girls, 0.973-0.998). In conclusion, prevalence rates of childhood obesity or overweight varied widely according to the diagnostic references applied. The diagnostic performance for weight and height-based references for obesity is poorer than expected for both genders among Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents. In order to improve the diagnosis accuracy of childhood obesity, either cut-off values of body weight and

  3. Associations of Linear Growth and Relative Weight Gain in Early Life with Human Capital at 30 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Victora, Cesar G; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Barros, Fernando C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the associations of birthweight, nutritional status and growth in childhood with IQ, years of schooling, and monthly income at 30 years of age. In 1982, the 5 maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Brazil, were visited daily and 5914 live births were identified. At 30 years of age, 3701 subjects were interviewed. IQ, years of schooling, and income were measured. On average, their IQ was 98 points, they had 11.4 years of schooling, and the mean income was 1593 reais. After controlling for several confounders, birthweight and attained weight and length/height for age at 2 and 4 years of age were associated positively with IQ, years of years of schooling, and income, except for the association between length at 2 years of age and income. Conditional growth analyses were used to disentangle linear growth from relative weight gain. Conditional length at 2 years of age ≥1 SD score above the expected value, compared with ≥1 SD below the expected, was associated with an increase in IQ (4.28 points; 95% CI, 2.66-5.90), years of schooling (1.58 years; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08), and monthly income (303 Brazilian reais; 95% CI, 44-563). Relative weight gain, above what would be expected from linear growth, was not associated with the outcomes. In a middle-income setting, promotion of linear growth in the first 1000 days of life is likely to increase adult IQ, years of schooling, and income. Weight gain in excess of what is expected from linear growth does not seem to improve human capital. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Investigation of Indicators of Growth and Behavioral Disorders in Children with Normal, Low, and Very Low Birth Weight at Pre-school Age in Isfahan during 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Marzieh; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI)] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight) at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents’ and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009) and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10). The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49). Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children. PMID:28382052

  5. Eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, weight change and DMPA use predict bone density change in college-aged women.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W; Ruffing, Jamie A; Zion, Marsha; Tendy, Susan; Yavorek, Trudy; Lindsay, Robert; Cosman, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    There are limited longitudinal studies that have evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) changes in college-aged women. Our objective was to simultaneously evaluate factors influencing 4-year BMD change. This was a longitudinal cohort study of healthy, physically active women in the US Military Academy (n=91; average age=18.4years). Assessments over four years included: height, weight, calcium intake, physical fitness, menstrual function (annual number cycles), oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use, and eating disorder behavior (Eating Disorder Inventory; (EDI)). BMD was measured annually at the lumbar spine and total hip by dual X-ray absorptiometry and calcaneal BMD by PIXI. Slope of 4year BMD change at each skeletal site (spine total hip and calcaneus) was calculated for each woman. BMD gains occurred at the spine in 50% and the hip in 36% of women. In unadjusted analyses, spine bone gain was positively related to menstrual cycle frequency (p=0.04). Spine and hip BMD loss occurred in those using DMPA (p<0.01) and those with the highest EDI quartile scores (p<0.05). BMD change was unrelated to OC use. Hip and calcaneus BMD decreased with weight loss (average 4.8+2.2lb/year) as compared to those with stable weight/weight gain (p<0.05). In multivariable analysis, spine BMD increase was significantly related to African American (AA) race, normal EDI score and normal menses. Hip BMD increase was related to AA race, weight increase and normal menses. DMPA use was associated with spine, hip, and calcaneus bone loss. On average, BMD may modestly increase in college-aged women, in the absence of risk factors. However, risk factors including subclinical eating disorders, weight loss, menstrual dysfunction and DMPA use can have significant detrimental effects on BMD in young healthy physically active women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Final height in elite male artistic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Koukkou, Eftychia; Leglise, Michel; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    Elite male artistic gymnasts (AG) are exposed to high levels of physical and psychological stress during adolescence and experience a significant late maturation in both linear growth and pubertal development. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of intensive physical training on the adult final height in elite male AG. This study is unique in character, as all variables were measured on the field of competition. The study was prospective and longitudinal; however, the current analysis of data is cross-sectional. Data from 86 elite male AG were obtained during the gymnastics competitions of European and World Championships. Clinical evaluation included height and weight measurements, as well as assessment of pubic hair and genital development according to Tanner's stages of pubertal development. The laboratory investigation included determination of skeletal maturation. All athletes completed a questionnaire that included questions on personal (onset and intensity of training, number of competitions per year) and family data (paternal and maternal heights). Male AG were below the 50th percentile for both final height and weight. Elite male AG had final height standard deviation score (SDS) lower than their genetic predisposition. Final height SDS was correlated positively with target height SDS (r = 0.430, p < 0.001) and weight SDS (r = 0.477, p < 0.001) and negatively to the intensity of training (r = -0.252, p = 0.022). The main factors influencing final height, by multiple regression analysis were weight SDS (p < 0.001) and target height SDS (p = 0.003). In elite maleAG, final height falls short of genetic predisposition, still well within normal limits. Considering medical and psychological risks in general, and based on the results of this research project, the International Federation of Gymnastics has increased the age limit for participants in international gymnastics competitions by 1 year.

  7. Body weight status and onset of cognitive impairment among U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaoling; An, Ruopeng

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between body weight status and onset of cognitive impairment among U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Study sample came from 1996 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, consisting of 6739 community-dwelling adults born between 1931 and 1941 who were free from cognitive impairment in 1996. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Cognitive impairment was defined by a composite score of 11 or lower on the immediate and delayed word recall, serial 7's, and backwards counting tests. Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards model were performed to examine the association between base-year body weight status and future onset of cognitive impairment. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for cognitive impairment incidence was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.38-3.00), 1.15 (1.02-1.29), 1.28 (1.14-1.43), and 1.59 (1.33-1.92) among underweight (BMI<18.5), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), class I obese (30 ≤ BMI < 35), and class II obese or above (BMI ≥ 35) participants, respectively. The unadjusted relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment onset appeared stronger among females than among males. After adjusting for base-year individual sociodemographics, functional limitations and chronic conditions, the estimated associations between body weight status and cognitive impairment were attenuated but remained statistically significant for underweight participants. Underweight is a robust risk factor for onset of cognitive impairment in later life. Weight management programs targeting middle-aged and older adults should focus on achieving and maintaining optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the Moyo chart-a novel, low-cost, weight-for-height slide chart for the improved assessment of nutritional status in children.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Catherine; Kerac, Marko; Fikremariam, Martha; Seal, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The Moyo chart is a novel weight-for-height slide chart. We explore the hypothesis that it improves accuracy, speed and ease of nutritional assessment compared with traditional lookup tables. In a crossover randomised controlled trial, 61 medical students in Ethiopia diagnosed hypothetical cases of severe acute malnutrition, moderate acute malnutrition and normal nutrition in children. Mean accuracy of nutritional status diagnosis was 83.2% using the Moyo chart and 76.1% using lookup tables (P = 0.011). There was a trend towards a reduced time per correct diagnosis using the Moyo chart and 78% of participants preferred using it. These preliminary results suggest that the Moyo chart may aid frontline health workers classifying child nutritional status. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age.

    PubMed

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Ageberg, Eva; Englund, Martin

    2017-10-01

    To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data on isometric knee extensor strength, weight, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, parental education and adult occupation from Swedish registries. We identified participants diagnosed with knee OA or knee injury from 1987 to 2010 through the National Patient Register. We estimated the HR of knee OA using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional regression model. To assess the influence of adult knee injury and occupation, we performed a formal mediation analysis. The mean (SD) knee extensor strength was 234 (47) Nm, the mean (SD) weight was 66 (9.3) kg. During 24 years (median) of follow-up starting at the age of 35 years, 2049 persons were diagnosed with knee OA. The adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident knee OA was 1.12 (1.06 to 1.18) for each SD of knee extensor strength and 1.18 (1.15 to 1.21) per 5 kg of body weight. Fifteen per cent of the increase in OA risk due to higher knee extensor strength could be attributed to knee injury and adult occupation. Higher knee extensor strength in adolescent men was associated with increased risk of knee OA by middle age, challenging the current tenet of low muscle strength being a risk factor for OA. We confirmed higher weight to be a strong risk factor for knee OA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Arm span and ulnar length are reliable and accurate estimates of recumbent length and height in a multiethnic population of infants and children under 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Forman, Michele R; Zhu, Yeyi; Hernandez, Ladia M; Himes, John H; Dong, Yongquan; Danish, Robert K; James, Kyla E; Caulfield, Laura E; Kerver, Jean M; Arab, Lenore; Voss, Paula; Hale, Daniel E; Kanafani, Nadim; Hirschfeld, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Surrogate measures are needed when recumbent length or height is unobtainable or unreliable. Arm span has been used as a surrogate but is not feasible in children with shoulder or arm contractures. Ulnar length is not usually impaired by joint deformities, yet its utility as a surrogate has not been adequately studied. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the accuracy and reliability of ulnar length measured by different tools as a surrogate measure of recumbent length and height. Anthropometrics [recumbent length, height, arm span, and ulnar length by caliper (ULC), ruler (ULR), and grid (ULG)] were measured in 1479 healthy infants and children aged <6 y across 8 study centers in the United States. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models for recumbent length and height were developed by using ulnar length and arm span as surrogate measures. The agreement between the measured length or height and the predicted values by ULC, ULR, ULG, and arm span were examined by Bland-Altman plots. All 3 measures of ulnar length and arm span were highly correlated with length and height. The degree of precision of prediction equations for length by ULC, ULR, and ULG (R(2) = 0.95, 0.95, and 0.92, respectively) was comparable with that by arm span (R(2) = 0.97) using age, sex, and ethnicity as covariates; however, height prediction by ULC (R(2) = 0.87), ULR (R(2) = 0.85), and ULG (R(2) = 0.88) was less comparable with arm span (R(2) = 0.94). Our study demonstrates that arm span and ULC, ULR, or ULG can serve as accurate and reliable surrogate measures of recumbent length and height in healthy children; however, ULC, ULR, and ULG tend to slightly overestimate length and height in young infants and children. Further testing of ulnar length as a surrogate is warranted in physically impaired or nonambulatory children.

  12. Bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements of phase angle and height for age are predictive of outcome in children following surgery for congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Marino, L V; Meyer, R; Johnson, M; Newell, C; Johnstone, C; Magee, A; Sykes, K; Wootton, S A; Pappachan, J V

    2017-06-28

    Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often growth restricted (low weight- and/or height-for-age) which may increase risk of poor post operative resilience. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used to determine body composition in different clinical settings and has been shown to mark differences in nutritional state and clinical outcome. In disease conditions were fluid is not normally distributed it is proposed that raw impedance values and BIS derived phase-angle may serve as prognostic indicators of clinical outcome. We sought to describe the relationship between nutritional status, phase-angle and post-operative outcomes in children with congenital heart disease. Single centre prospective cohort study. Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), Southampton Children's Hospital. 122 children with CHD following cardiac surgery (March 2015-April 2016). Outcome variables included growth, mechanical-ventilation, PICU length of stay (PICU-LOS) and phase-angle at 50 Hz. BIS measurements were taken before and on the day of surgery (day 0), day 2 post-operatively and on discharge from hospital. Pre-operative moderate malnutrition defined as height-for-age-z-score (HAZ) ≤-2 was observed in 28.5% of infants and 20.6% of children. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between phase-angle, HAZ and clinical outcomes. Moderate-malnutrition (HAZ ≤-2) was associated with an increased PICU-LOS (odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 1.8; 1.1-2.7, p = 0.008) whilst a low phase-angle (≤2.7° on day 2 was associated with longer PICU-LOS (OR 7.8; 2.7-22.45, p < 0.001)); When the model was adjusted for age, known risk factors and length of surgery, HAZ ≤-2 and phase-angle ≤2.7° on day 2 were associated with longer PICU-LOS (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04 respectively) and together explained 81.7% of the variability in PICU-LOS. Moderate malnutrition (HAZ ≤-2) in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery is

  13. Revision 1 Size and position of the healthy meniscus, and its Correlation with sex, height, weight, and bone area- a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Meniscus extrusion or hypertrophy may occur in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, currently no data are available on the position and size of the meniscus in asymptomatic men and women with normal meniscus integrity. Methods Three-dimensional coronal DESSwe MRIs were used to segment and quantitatively measure the size and position of the medial and lateral menisci, and their correlation with sex, height, weight, and tibial plateau area. 102 knees (40 male and 62 female) were drawn from the Osteoarthritis Initiative "non-exposed" reference cohort, including subjects without symptoms, radiographic signs, or risk factors for knee OA. Knees with MRI signs of meniscus lesions were excluded. Results The tibial plateau area was significantly larger (p < 0.001) in male knees than in female ones (+23% medially; +28% laterally), as was total meniscus surface area (p < 0.001, +20% medially; +26% laterally). Ipsi-compartimental tibial plateau area was more strongly correlated with total meniscus surface area in men (r = .72 medially; r = .62 laterally) and women (r = .67; r = .75) than contra-compartimental or total tibial plateau area, body height or weight. The ratio of meniscus versus tibial plateau area was similar between men and women (p = 0.22 medially; p = 0.72 laterally). Tibial coverage by the meniscus was similar between men and women (50% medially; 58% laterally), but "physiological" medial meniscal extrusion was greater in women (1.83 ± 1.06mm) than in men (1.24mm ± 1.18mm; p = 0.011). Conclusions These data suggest that meniscus surface area strongly scales with (ipsilateral) tibial plateau area across both sexes, and that tibial coverage by the meniscus is similar between men and women. PMID:22035074

  14. Age and gender correlation of gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Leversha, Jodi; McKeough, Glen; Myrteza, Adriana; Skjellrup-Wakefiled, Hannah; Welsh, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine if mandibular parameters (gonial angle, bigonial width and ramus height) measured from panoramic radiographs, can be used to determine a correlation with an individual’s age and gender in dentate subjects in Far North Queensland. Material and Methods The study utilised 2699 randomly selected panoramic radiographs of patients between the ages of 19-69 years, from which 220 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each panoramic radiograph was analysed and the above three parameters recorded and measured. These values were collated into appropriate age and gender groups and subjected to statistical analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.1±14.41, with males being shown to have a statistically significant larger ramus height and bigonial width than females (P<0.0001 for both). Females, on the other hand, were shown to have a significantly larger gonial angle than males (P<0.0002). General trends revealed gonial angle to increase with age, whilst bigonial width and ramus height were shown to decrease with age. Conclusions The assessment of mandibular morphology through radiographic measurements may be useful in estimating an individual’s age and gender when comparing to a known population standard. Key words:Bigonial width, gonial angle, panoramic radiograph, ramus height. PMID:26855706

  15. From the lab - New Discovery About Middle-Age Weight Gain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Middle-Age Weight Gain Follow us Photo: AdobeStock New Discovery About Middle-Age Weight Gain A TEAM ... findings could lead to the development of a new type of weight-loss medication. SOURCE: NIH Research ...

  16. Trying to lose weight: the association of income and age to weight-loss strategies in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Gauvin, Lise; Barnett, Tracie A; Paradis, Gilles

    2014-06-01

    Two thirds of the U.S. population is overweight or obese, but those living in poverty are disproportionately affected. Although 30%-50% of Americans report currently trying to lose weight, some strategies may be counterproductive. Little is known about how income may be associated with weight-loss strategies. This study aims to determine the association between income and weight-loss strategies in the general U.S. population. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were collected in 1999-2010 and analyzed in 2012. Annual household income was categorized as <$20,000, $20,000-$44,999, $45,000-$74,999, ≥$75,000 (ref). Analyses were stratified by age (youth: aged 8-19 years, n=3,184; adults: aged ≥20 years, n=5,643) and included sampling weights. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the likelihood of using specific strategies and utilizing strategies consistent with recommendations (such as exercising or reducing fat or sweets) and inconsistent (such as skipping meals or fasting) and adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, and whether the person was overweight or obese. Analyses among adults were also adjusted for marital status and education. Compared to the ref, both youth and adults with household income <$20,000/year were 33% (95% CI=0.5, 0.9) and 50% (95% CI=0.4, 0.6) less likely to use strategies consistent with recommendations to lose weight, respectively. Youth from households with income <$20,000/year were 2.5 times (95% CI=1.8, 3.5) more likely to use inconsistent strategies, but this association was not observed among adults. Stronger efforts to emphasize weight-loss strategies consistent with recommendations and the distinction between consistent and inconsistent strategies are needed, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: A study of the CODATwins project

    PubMed Central

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    A trend towards greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the CODATwins project and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from age 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Likewise, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes. PMID:26337138

  18. Genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight and age at first calving in Brown Swiss cattle in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura-Correa, José C; Chin-Colli, Ricardo C; Magaña-Monforte, Juan G; Núñez-Domínguez, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations between birth weight (n = 13,741), adjusted 240-day weaning weight (WW, n = 8,806) and age at first calving (AFC, n = 3,955) of Brown Swiss cattle in Mexico were estimated. Data from 91 herds located in 19 of 32 states of Mexico from 1982 to 2006 were provided by the Mexican Brown cattle Breeder Association. Components of (co)variance, direct and maternal heritabilities were estimated for birth weight, WW and AFC using bivariate animal models. Direct and maternal heritabilities were 0.21 and 0.05 for birth weight, 0.40 and 0.05 for WW, whereas direct heritability for AFC was 0.08. The correlations between direct and maternal effects for birth weight and WW were -0.49 and -0.64, respectively. The genetic correlations between birth weight-WW and WW-AFC were 0.36 and -0.02, respectively. Under the conditions of this study, selection for increasing birth weight would increase WW, but increasing WW will not change AFC.

  19. Influence of maternal stature, pregnancy age, and infant birth weight on growth during childhood in Yucatan, Mexico: a test of the intergenerational effects hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Azcorra, Hugo; Dickinson, Federico; Bogin, Barry; Frisancho, A R

    2009-01-01

    In developing nations, obesity has increased dramatically in the last decade, but a high prevalence of stunting still coexists. The intergenerational influences hypothesis (IIH) is one explanation for this. We test the IIH regarding variation in maternal stature, mother's age at pregnancy, and infant birth weight in relation to risk for overweight and stunting in 206 Maya children (4-6 years old) from Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico. The Maya children are compared with growth references (Frisancho 2008: Anthropometric Standards: An Interactive Nutritional Reference of Body Size and Body Composition for Children and Adults. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. 335 pp) for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Almost 70% of the mothers are shorter than 150 cm. Mothers' height and child's birth weight predict overweight. Children with a mother shorter than 150 cm are less than half as likely (OR = 0.44) to be overweight compared to children whose mothers are equal to or taller than 150 cm. Children with birth weights below 3,000 g are only a third as likely to be overweight (OR = 0.28) than their peers within the range of normal birth weight (3,000-3,500 g). Sex of the child, mother's height, and birth weight predict stunting. Girls are only 40% as likely as boys to be stunted. Children with a mother below 150 cm are 3.6 times more likely of being stunted. Children with birth weights below 3000 g are over 3 times more likely to be stunted relative to children with birth weights within the normal range. Mother's age at pregnancy is not a predictor of overweight or stunting. Our findings conform the IIH and with similar studies of populations undergoing nutritional/epidemiological transitions from traditional to globalized lifestyles.

  20. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  1. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-01

    To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm(2) for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm(2) for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm(2) for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm(2) for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm(2) /kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were

  2. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-01

    To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm2 for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm2 for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm2 for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm2 for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm2/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were obtained at the

  3. Aging, Weight, and Health Among Adult Lesbian and Bisexual Women: A Metasynthesis of the Multisite "Healthy Weight Initiative" Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Garbers, Samantha; McDonnell, Cheryl; Fogel, Sarah C; Eliason, Michele; Ingraham, Natalie; McElroy, Jane A; Radix, Anita; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2015-06-01

    Adult lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are more likely to be obese than adult heterosexual women. Achieving a healthy weight reduces health risks and improves quality of life, but the evidence based on successful weight interventions is limited. To inform a national initiative, a metasynthesis (a form of qualitative meta-analysis) of focus group data was conducted to gather lesbian and bisexual womens' perspectives. Analysis used de-identified transcripts and narrative reports from 11 focus groups guided by different semi-structured discussion guides with 65 participants from five locations. A literature search was conducted to identify existing themes in published literature and unpublished reports. Six key themes were identified: aging; physical and mental health status; community norms; subgroup differences; family and partner support; and awareness and tracking of diet and physical activity. Participants expressed feeling unprepared for age-related changes to their health and voiced interest in interventions addressing these issues. Their perspectives on community acceptance of body size shifted as they aged. Participants cited age, class, race, ethnicity, sexual identity, and gender expression as potential characteristics that may influence participation in interventions. Families were both a barrier to and a facilitator of health behaviors. Awareness and tracking of dietary habits, stressors, and physical activity levels emerged as a theme in more than half of the groups. An unsolicited, overarching theme was aging and its influence on the participants' perspectives on health and weight. Interventions should be tailored to the needs, goals, and community norms of LB women.

  4. Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mokha, Jasmeet S; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Dasmahapatra, Pronabesh; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Xu, Jihua; Berenson, Gerald S

    2010-10-11

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values. Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male), 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles) and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile). The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR (<0.5, no central obesity versus ≥ 0.5, central obesity) were compared. 9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5) and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR < 0.5). On multivariate analysis the normal weight centrally obese children were 1.66, 2.01, 1.47 and 2.05 times more likely to have significant adverse levels of LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin, respectively. In addition to having a higher prevalence of parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the normal weight central obesity group showed a significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, those without central obesity were 0.53 and 0.27 times less likely to have significant adverse levels of HDL cholesterol and HOMA-IR, respectively (p < 0.05), as compared to those with central obesity. These overweight/obese children without central obesity also showed significantly lower prevalence of parental history of hypertension (p = 0.002), type 2

  5. Dietary protein intake is associated with body mass index and weight up to 5 y of age in a prospective cohort of twins.

    PubMed

    Pimpin, Laura; Jebb, Susan; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-02-01

    Few large epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of postweaning protein intake in excess weight and adiposity of young children, despite children in the United Kingdom consistently consuming protein in excess of their physiologic requirements. We investigated whether a higher proportion of protein intake from energy beyond weaning is associated with greater weight gain, higher body mass index (BMI), and risk of overweight or obesity in children up to 5 y of age. Participants were 2154 twins from the Gemini cohort. Dietary intake was collected by using a 3-d diet diary when the children had a mean age of 21 mo. Weight and height were collected every 3 mo, from birth to 5 y. Longitudinal models investigated associations of protein intake with BMI, weight, and height, with adjustment for age at diet diary, sex, total energy intake, birth weight/length, and rate of prior growth and clustering within families. Logistic regression investigated protein intake in relation to the odds of overweight or obesity at 3 and 5 y of age. A total of 2154 children had a mean ± SD of 5.7 ± 3.2 weight and height measurements up to 5 y. Total energy from protein was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.043; 95% CI: 0.011, 0.075) and weight (β = 0.052; 95% CI: 0.031, 0.074) but not height (β = 0.088; 95% CI: -0.038, 0.213) between 21 mo and 5 y. Substituting percentage energy from fat or carbohydrate for percentage energy from protein was associated with decreases in BMI and weight. Protein intake was associated with a trend in increased odds of overweight or obesity at 3 y (OR = 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.22, P = 0.075), but the effect was not statistically significant at 5 y. A higher proportion of energy from protein during the complementary feeding stage is associated with greater increases in weight and BMI in early childhood in this large cohort of United Kingdom children.

  6. Dietary protein intake is associated with body mass index and weight up to 5 y of age in a prospective cohort of twins12

    PubMed Central

    Pimpin, Laura; Jebb, Susan; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few large epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of postweaning protein intake in excess weight and adiposity of young children, despite children in the United Kingdom consistently consuming protein in excess of their physiologic requirements. Objective: We investigated whether a higher proportion of protein intake from energy beyond weaning is associated with greater weight gain, higher body mass index (BMI), and risk of overweight or obesity in children up to 5 y of age. Design: Participants were 2154 twins from the Gemini cohort. Dietary intake was collected by using a 3-d diet diary when the children had a mean age of 21 mo. Weight and height were collected every 3 mo, from birth to 5 y. Longitudinal models investigated associations of protein intake with BMI, weight, and height, with adjustment for age at diet diary, sex, total energy intake, birth weight/length, and rate of prior growth and clustering within families. Logistic regression investigated protein intake in relation to the odds of overweight or obesity at 3 and 5 y of age. Results: A total of 2154 children had a mean ± SD of 5.7 ± 3.2 weight and height measurements up to 5 y. Total energy from protein was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.043; 95% CI: 0.011, 0.075) and weight (β = 0.052; 95% CI: 0.031, 0.074) but not height (β = 0.088; 95% CI: −0.038, 0.213) between 21 mo and 5 y. Substituting percentage energy from fat or carbohydrate for percentage energy from protein was associated with decreases in BMI and weight. Protein intake was associated with a trend in increased odds of overweight or obesity at 3 y (OR = 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.22, P = 0.075), but the effect was not statistically significant at 5 y. Conclusion: A higher proportion of energy from protein during the complementary feeding stage is associated with greater increases in weight and BMI in early childhood in this large cohort of United Kingdom children. PMID:26718416

  7. Participation in Aesthetic Sports and Girls’ Weight Concerns at Ages 5 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Method Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls’ weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Results Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Discussion Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. PMID:11920993

  8. Participation in aesthetic sports and girls' weight concerns at ages 5 and 7 years.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B; Birch, Leann L

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls' weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nonviolent civil insecurity is negatively associated with subsequent height-for-age in children aged <5 y born between 1998 and 2014 in rural areas of Africa.

    PubMed

    Darrouzet-Nardi, Amelia F

    2017-02-01

    Civil wars and wars between states have occurred less frequently since the start of the 21st century, but civil insecurity outside the contexts of official wars continues to plague many parts of the world. The nutritional consequences of civil insecurity may disproportionately affect children, especially if experienced during sensitive developmental periods. This study estimated the associations between localized nonviolent and violent civil insecurity during key child nutritional periods and subsequent height-for-age z scores (HAZs) in 145,948 children born between 1998 and 2014 in Africa and examined the type of place of residence as a mediating factor. A collection of 61 geo-referenced Demographic and Health Surveys implemented between 1998 and 2014 were merged with data from the high-resolution Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project to construct a repeat cross-sectional database, which was analyzed by using a difference-in-differences model with maternal fixed-effects. Exposure to 1 nonviolent localized civil insecurity event (mean ± SD: 0.42 ± 1.87 events) during pregnancy for children living in rural areas was associated with a reduction of 0.01 SD in HAZ (P = 0.024). Exposure to 5 localized civil conflict fatalities (mean ± SD: 1.41 ± 10.21 fatalities) for children living in rural areas during the complementary feeding stage was associated with a 0.002-SD decrease in HAZ (P = 0.030). There were no measurable associations between civil insecurity and child heights in urban areas, even though children in urban areas experience more civil insecurity. Exposure to both violent and nonviolent civil insecurity had negative associations with subsequent HAZ, but only in rural areas. The associations found were small in magnitude but still meaningful from a child-development perspective, because these events do not necessarily occur in the context of official wars, they are often nonviolent, and they are endemic to the region. © 2017 American Society for

  10. Determinants of age at natural menopause in the Isparta Menopause and Health Study: premenopausal body mass index gain rate and episodic weight loss.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Zeynep D

    2010-01-01

    The influence of body weight and weight change on age at natural menopause (ANM) is controversial. We aimed to explore these associations by overcoming two possible reasons for inconsistent findings: (1) a lack of information on weight change from a fixed time point up until menopause and (2) a possibility of capturing a spurious association between later ANM and greater weight gain because of a longer time span. Cross-sectionally, we evaluated static (body mass index [BMI] at age 25 y and height) and dynamic (history of premenopausal episodic weight loss and BMI gain rate) anthropometric indicators as predictors of ANM in Cox proportional hazards models. BMI gain rate was calculated based on weight change from age 25 y to menopause (or to current age in premenopausal women). Of 1,106 women, 46% were postmenopausal. Dynamic anthropometric indicators were stronger determinants of ANM compared with static indicators. Being in the higher quartile of BMI gain rate and having a history of episodic weight loss of more than 5 kg were independently associated with later ANM (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.832 [0.765-0.905] and 0.433 [0.344-0.546], respectively). After controlling for history of episodic weight loss of more than 5 kg, smoking and premenopausal type 2 diabetes emerged as time-dependent predictors of ANM (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.371 [1.093-1.720] and 1.640 [1.141-2.356], respectively). Premenopausal BMI gain rate and premenopausal history of episodic weight loss of more than 5 kg are independently associated with later ANM. Smoking predicts an earlier menopause after the age of initiation and type 2 diabetes predicts an earlier menopause after the age of diagnosis. The latter two associations are significant only after adjusting for a history of episodic weight loss of more than 5 kg.

  11. Manifestations of Proprioception During Vertical Jumps to Specific Heights

    PubMed Central

    Struzik, Artur; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Winiarski, Sławomir; Juras, Grzegorz; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Artur, S, Bogdan, P, Kawczyński, A, Winiarski, S, Grzegorz, J, and Andrzej, R. Manifestations of proprioception during vertical jumps to specific heights. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1694–1701, 2017—Jumping and proprioception are important abilities in many sports. The efficiency of the proprioceptive system is indirectly related to jumps performed at specified heights. Therefore, this study recorded the ability of young athletes who play team sports to jump to a specific height compared with their maximum ability. A total of 154 male (age: 14.8 ± 0.9 years, body height: 181.8 ± 8.9 cm, body weight: 69.8 ± 11.8 kg, training experience: 3.8 ± 1.7 years) and 151 female (age: 14.1 ± 0.8 years, body height: 170.5 ± 6.5 cm, body weight: 60.3 ± 9.4 kg, training experience: 3.7 ± 1.4 years) team games players were recruited for this study. Each participant performed 2 countermovement jumps with arm swing to 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum height. Measurements were performed using a force plate. Jump height and its accuracy with respect to a specified height were calculated. The results revealed no significant differences in jump height and its accuracy to the specified heights between the groups (stratified by age, sex, and sport). Individuals with a higher jumping accuracy also exhibited greater maximum jump heights. Jumps to 25% of the maximum height were approximately 2 times higher than the target height. The decreased jump accuracy to a specific height when attempting to jump to lower heights should be reduced with training, particularly among athletes who play team sports. These findings provide useful information regarding the proprioceptive system for team sport coaches and may shape guidelines for training routines by working with submaximal loads. PMID:28538322

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged 0-5 years from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Clariana V; Dumith, Samuel C; César, Juraci A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of excess weight and low height, and identify associated factors among children younger than five years. Cross-census study. A total of 1,640 children from two municipalities in Piauí, Brazil were included. The prevalence of low height was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.3 to 12.4), inversely associated with mother's younger age and low level of education, lower socioeconomic status, mothers who had fewer than six prenatal consultations, and households that had more than one child younger than 5 years. Excess weight prevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2 to 21.0), and remained inversely associated with lower maternal age, low maternal education, and cesarean delivery. Stunting was greater in children aged between 12 and 23 months, while excess weight decreased with age. It is noteworthy that the stunting rate, although decreasing, is still high, while the prevalence of excess weight, even in this very poor area, already exceeds the expected percentage for a population with better socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Infant temperament and eating style predict change in standardized weight status and obesity risk at 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Faith, M S; Hittner, J B

    2010-10-01

    Little research has addressed the relationships among infant temperament, eating styles and obesity risk. To address this gap, we tested whether infant temperament and eating patterns at the age of 1 year are associated with a greater increase in standardized weight status, and greater obesity risk at 6 years of age. A secondary, prospective analysis of the Colorado Adoption Study was conducted. The main predictor variables were infant temperament (that is, emotionality, activity, attention span-persistence, reaction to food and soothability) and eating domains (that is, reactivity to food, predictable appetite and distractability at mealtime) at the age of 1 year, along with the body mass index (BMI) of biological mothers. The outcome measures were child weight and height (length) assessed at ages 1 through 6 years, from which weight-for-length and BMI were computed along with the standardized indexes (z-scores) and percentiles. Overweight/obesity status was computed at each year as well. A primarily White sample of 262 boys and 225 girls, assessed at ages 1 through 6 years, along with their mothers. Among boys, greater attention span-persistence was associated with reduced standardized weight status gain (β=-0.15, P<0.05) and reduced obesity risk (odds ratio (OR)=0.46, P=0.06). Among girls, greater soothability and negative reaction to food were associated with greater standardized weight status gain (β=0.19, P<0.01; and β=0.16, P<0.05, respectively) and increased obesity risk (OR=3.72, P=0.03; and OR=2.81, P=0.08, respectively). Biological mothers' obesity status predicted obesity risk in boys (OR=3.07, P=0.01) and girls (OR=5.94, P=0.03). Male infants with less attention span, and female infants with greater soothability or a more negative food reaction, showed greater increases in standardized weight and were more likely to be overweight/obese at the age of 6 years. The role of infant temperament in pediatric obesity onset warrants greater research.

  14. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. Methods This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. Results The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey’s post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey’s post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p

  15. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-10-01

    In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey's post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey's post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p = 0.000). Based on the results of

  16. Birth weight centiles by gestational age for twins born in south India.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mathews, Jiji; Benjamin, Santhosh; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Kuruvilla, Anil; Mathai, Mathews

    2016-03-24

    Birth weight centile curves are commonly used as a screening tool and to assess the position of a newborn on a given reference distribution. Birth weight of twins are known to be less than those of comparable singletons and twin-specific birth weight centile curves are recommended for use. In this study, we aim to construct gestational age specific birth weight centile curves for twins born in south India. The study was conducted at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, south India. The birth records of all consecutive pregnancies resulting in twin births between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed. Only live twin births between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation were included. Birth weight centiles for gestational age were obtained using the methodology of generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Centiles curves were obtained separately for monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Of 1530 twin pregnancies delivered during the study period (1991-2005), 1304 were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks (1st quartile 34, 3rd quartile 38 weeks). Smoothed percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age increased progressively till 38 weeks and levels off thereafter. Compared with dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins had lower birth weight for gestational age from after 27 weeks. We provide centile values of birth weight at 24 to 42 completed weeks of gestation for twins born in south India. These charts could be used both in routine clinical assessments and epidemiological studies.

  17. The relation between birth weight and intima-media thickness in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Tilling, Kate; Smith, George Davey; Chambless, Lloyd; Rose, Kathryn; Stevens, June; Lawlor, Debbie; Szklo, Moyses

    2004-09-01

    Birth weight has been found to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, although the mechanisms for this association remain unclear. Here, we investigate the relation between reported birth weight and atherosclerosis in middle age. We included the 9817 participants (age 44-65) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were neither a twin nor born prematurely. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed as intima-media thickness measured by B-mode ultrasound. We studied the association with recalled exact birth weight, and for those unable to recall exact birth weight, with recalled birth weight category. Mean intima-media thickness (+/- standard deviation) was 0.73 +/- 0.17 mm. Mean birth weight for the 4635 participants recalling exact birth weight was 3.49 +/- 0.71 kg. A further 4946 participants recalled birth weight category, with 4730 (96%) reporting "medium" birth weight. In univariate analysis, birth weight and intima-media thickness were positively related. However, adjustment for confounding factors reduced the association to only a 0.004 mm higher intima-media thickness (95% CI = - 0.003 to 0.011) mm per 1 kg of birth weight. The same pattern of univariate positive relationship and attenuation with adjustment was seen for birth weight category and intima-media thickness. There was no evidence of interaction between adult body mass index (BMI) and birth weight, or of interaction between category of adult BMI and birth weight category. An inverse relation between birth weight category and intima-media thickness was seen only for those in the lowest category of adult BMI (BMI <25 kg/m). We found no evidence of a clinically significant relation between birth weight and carotid atherosclerosis.

  18. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    DOE PAGES

    Nakashima, Eiji; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hsu, Wan-Ling

    2015-01-01

    For youngmore » atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α 1 globulin, and α 2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α 2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.« less

  19. Individual tree height increment model for managed even-aged stands of ponderosa pine throughout the western United States using linear mixed effects models

    Treesearch

    Fabian Uzoh; William W. Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A height increment model is developed and evaluated for individual trees of ponderosa pine throughout the species range in western United States. The data set used in this study came from long-term permanent research plots in even-aged, pure stands both planted and of natural origin. The data base consists of six levels-of-growing stock studies supplemented by initial...

  20. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  1. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Knops, Noël BB; Sneeuw, Kommer CA; Brand, Ronald; Hille, Elysee TM; den Ouden, A Lya; Wit, Jan-Maarten; Verloove-Vanhorick, S Pauline

    2005-01-01

    Background Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of these children and aim to identify factors associated with postnatal catch-up growth. Methods 1338 children born with a gestational age <32 weeks and/or a birth weight of <1500 grams were followed during a Dutch nationwide prospective study (POPS). Subgroups were classified as appropriate for gestational age and <32 weeks (AGA) or small for gestational age (<32 wks SGA and ≥32 wks SGA). Data were collected at different intervals from birth until 10 years for the 962 survivors and compared to reference values. The correlation between several factors and growth was analysed. Results At 10 years the AGA children had attained normal height, whereas the SGA group demonstrated stunting, even after correction for target height (AGA: 0.0 SDS; SGA <32 wks: -0.29SDS and ≥32 wks: -0.13SDS). Catch-up growth was especially seen in the SGA children with a fast initial weight gain. BMI was approximately 1 SD below the population reference mean. Conclusion At 10 years of age, children born very preterm AGA show no stunting. However, many children born SGA, especially the very preterm, show persistent stunting. Early weight gain seems an important prognostic factor in predicting childhood growth. PMID:16033642

  2. Body weight status and onset of functional limitations in U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Shi, Yuyan

    2015-07-01

    The sweeping obesity epidemic could further increase the incidence of functional limitations in the U.S. rapidly aging population. To examine the relationship between body weight status and onset of functional limitations in U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Study sample came from 1992 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Functional limitations were classified into physical mobility limitation (PM), large muscle function limitation (LMF), activities of daily living limitation (ADL), gross motor function limitation (GMF), and fine motor function limitation (FMF). Mixed-effect logistic regressions were performed to estimate the relationship between prior-wave body weight status and current-wave onset of functional limitations, adjusted for individual characteristics and survey design. Prior-wave body weight status prospectively predicted onset of functional limitation, and the relationship showed a U-shaped pattern. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, the odds ratios (ORs) in underweight (BMI < 18.5) and obese (BMI ≥ 30) adults were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) and 2.31 (2.11-2.52) for PM, 1.20 (0.96-1.50) and 1.63 (1.49-1.79) for LMF, 2.02 (1.66-2.46) and 1.40 (1.28-1.54) for ADL, 1.96 (1.60-2.39) and 1.77 (1.62-1.93) for GMF, and 1.66 (1.37-2.02) and 1.34 (1.22-1.46) for FMF, respectively. For PM, LMF and GMF, the impact of obesity appeared more pronounced in women, whereas that of underweight more pronounced in men. Proper weight management during aging is crucial in preventing functional limitations in middle-aged and older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of women age 15-24 at risk for excess weight gain during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tammy; Moniz, Michelle H.; Plegue, Melissa A.; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Excess weight gain during pregnancy is a serious health concern among young pregnant women in the US. This study aimed to characterize young women at highest risk for gaining over the recommended amount of weight during pregnancy. Methods Using a database that is representative of births in large U.S. cities, The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we identified mothers of singleton term-infants age 15–24 years at the time of delivery. Institute of Medicine guidelines were used to categorize each mother’s weight gain as less than, within, or more than recommended during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression models for weight gain category were performed, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, federal poverty level (FPL), health status, and prepregnancy BMI. Results Among the weighted sample (n = 1,034, N = 181,375), the mean (SD) age was 21 (3) years, 32% were black, 39% were Hispanic, 44% reported income under the Federal Poverty Level, 45% were overweight or obese before pregnancy, and 55% gained more weight than recommended during pregnancy. Women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy were at increased risk for gaining more pregnancy weight than recommended, compared to normal-weight women (adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 3.82, p = 0.01; RRR = 3.27, p = 0.03, respectively). Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanics to gain more weight than recommended (RRR = 0.39, p = 0.03). Conclusions The majority of mothers ages 15–24 gained excess weight during pregnancy, a strong risk factor for later obesity. Prepregnancy overweight or obesity and non-Hispanic ethnicity predicted excess pregnancy weight gain. Interventions and policies should target these high-risk young women to prevent excess weight gain. PMID:28291802

  4. Effect of consanguinity on birth weight for gestational age in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Ghina; Tamim, Hala; Kanaan, Mona; Khawaja, Marwan; Khogali, Mustafa; Wakim, Gerard; Yunis, Khalid A

    2007-04-01

    Consanguinity, the marriage between relatives, has been associated with adverse child health outcomes because it increases homozygosity of recessive alleles. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of consanguinity on the birth weight of newborns in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. Cross-sectional data were collected on 10,289 consecutive liveborn singleton newborns admitted to eight hospitals belonging to the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network during the years 2000 and 2001. Birth weight was modeled by use of the fetal growth ratio, defined as the ratio of the observed birth weight to the median birth weight for gestational age. A mixed-effect multiple linear regression model was used to predict the net effect of first- and second-cousin marriage on the birth weight for gestational age, accounting for within-hospital clustering of data. After controlling for medical and sociodemographic covariates, the authors found a statistically significant negative association between consanguinity and birth weight at each gestational age. No significant difference was observed in the decrease in birth weight between the first- and second-cousin marriages. Overall, consanguinity was associated with a decrease in birth weight for gestational age by 1.8% (beta = -0.018, 95% confidence interval: -0.027, -0.008). The largest effects on fetal growth were seen with lower parity and smoking during pregnancy.

  5. Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

    2010-08-01

    To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Manifestations of proprioception during vertical jumps to specific heights.

    PubMed

    Artur, Struzik; Bogdan, Pietraszewski; Adam, Kawczyñski; Sławomir, Winiarski; Grzegorz, Juras; Andrzej, Rokita

    2017-02-23

    Jumping and proprioception are important abilities in many sports. The efficiency of the proprioceptive system is indirectly related to jumps performed at specified heights. Therefore, this study recorded the ability of young athletes who play team sports to jump to a specific height compared to their maximum ability. A total of 154 male (age: 14.8±0.9 years, body height: 181.8±8.9 cm, body weight: 69.8±11.8 kg, training experience: 3.8±1.7 years) and 151 female (age: 14.1±0.8 years, body height: 170.5±6.5 cm, body weight: 60.3±9.4 kg, training experience: 3.7±1.4 years) team games players were recruited for this study. Each participant performed two countermovement jumps with arm swing to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum height. Measurements were performed using a force plate. Jump height and its accuracy with respect to a specified height were calculated. The results revealed no significant differences in jump height and its accuracy to the specified heights between the groups (stratified by age, gender and sport). Individuals with a higher jumping accuracy also exhibited greater maximum jump heights. Jumps to 25% of the maximum height were approximately two times higher than the target height. The decreased jump accuracy to a specific height when attempting to jump to lower heights should be reduced with training, particularly among athletes who play team sports. These findings provide useful information regarding the proprioceptive system for team sport coaches and may shape guidelines for training routines by working with submaximal loads.

  7. Prospective associations of appetitive traits at 3 and 12 months of age with body mass index and weight gain in the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Quah, Phaik Ling; Chan, Yiong Huak; Aris, Izzuddin M; Pang, Wei Wei; Toh, Jia Ying; Tint, Mya Thway; Broekman, Birit F P; Saw, Seang Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Yap, Fabian K P; van Dam, Rob M; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Mary F F

    2015-10-12

    Appetitive traits in childhood such as food responsiveness and enjoyment of food have been associated with body mass index (BMI) in later childhood. However, data on appetitive traits during infancy in relation to BMI in later childhood are sparse. We aimed to relate appetitive traits in infancy to subsequent BMI and weight gain up to 24 months of age. Data of 210 infants from the Singapore GUSTO mother-offspring cohort was obtained. The Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire (BEBQ) and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) were administered to mothers when their offspring were aged 3 and 12 months respectively. Height and weight of offspring were measured at ages 3, 6, 9,12,15,18 and 24 months. The association of appetitive traits with both BMI z-score and weight gain were evaluated using multivariate linear regression. Food responsiveness at 3 months was associated with higher BMI from 6 months up to 15 months of age (p < 0.01) and with greater weight gain between 3 and 6 months of age (p = 0.012). Slowness in eating and satiety responsiveness at 3 months was significantly associated with lower BMI at 6 months (p < 0.01) and with less weight gain between 3 to 6 months of age (p = 0.034). None of the appetitive traits at 12 months were significantly associated with BMI or weight gain over any time period. Early assessment of appetitive traits at 3 months of age but not at 12 months of age was associated with BMI and weight gain over the first two years of life. Clinical Trials identifier NCT01174875.

  8. Median ages at stages of sexual maturity and excess weight in school children.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Alexandre P; Benedet, Jucemar; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; de Souza Almeida, Fernando; de Vasconcelos, Francisco A G; Adami, Fernando

    2013-10-19

    We aimed to estimate the median ages at specific stages of sexual maturity stratified by excess weight in boys and girls. This was a cross-sectional study made in 2007 in Florianopolis, Brazil, with 2,339 schoolchildren between 8 to 14 years of age (1,107 boys) selected at random in two steps (by region and type of school). The schoolchildren were divided into: i) those with excess weight and ii) those without excess weight, according to the WHO 2007 cut-off points for gender and age. Sexual maturity was self-evaluated by the subjects according to the Tanner sexual development stages, and utilizing median ages for the genitalia, breasts, and pubic hair stages. In the boys with excess weight, precocity was observed in the stages 4 for genitals and pubic hair and 2 for pubic hair, with the values for excess and normal weight. The median ages at the beginning of puberty (stage 2-sexual development) for boys and girls in Florianopolis were 10.8 and 10.3 years, respectively. Excess weight is associated with lower median ages in the sexual maturity stages in boys and girls and that it should be taken into account when evaluating sexual maturity in children and adolescents.

  9. Body weight at developmental age in siblings born to mothers before and after surgically induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    Barisione, Michela; Carlini, Flavia; Gradaschi, Raffaella; Camerini, Giovanni; Adami, Gian Franco

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the role of epigenetic factors in determining body weight in adolescence, we studied the body weight of siblings born to the same mother before and after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for obesity. The study was performed in a university hospital during a 20-year period. The siblings born before and after BPD were retrospectively rated by their mother as normal, overweight, or obese at 1, 6, and 12 years. At 1 and 6 years, the body weight was rated as similar in the subsets. However, at 12 years of age, a greater percentage of those born before BPD were considered overweight (42% versus 33%) and obese (22% versus 3%; P <.009) than their counterparts born after BPD. Considering only the subjects aged 21-25 years at the study period, the body weight and body mass index in subjects born before BPD were greater (P <.02 and P <.012, respectively) than in those born after BPD (79.5 ± 16.5 kg versus 66.7 ± 11.8 kg, and 27.5 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) versus 23.4 ± 3.7 kg/m(2), respectively). The results of the present study, in which the influences of the genetic pattern and environmental and educational factors were minimized, show that adolescents born to post-BPD mothers weigh less than their siblings born to the same mother before BPD when she was still obese. An insulin-resistant milieu during pregnancy could account for the greater body weight later in adolescence. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictive ability of waist-to-height in relation to adiposity in children is not improved with age and sex-specific values.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Grant, Andrea M; Taylor, Barry J; Goulding, Ailsa

    2011-05-01

    A waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥0.5 indicates increased health risk in children and adults. However, because of residual correlation between WHtR and height in children, dividing waist circumference by height to the power of one may be insufficient to correctly adjust for height during growth. This study aimed to determine whether age and sex-specific exponents which properly adjust for height affect the predictive ability of WHtR to correctly discriminate between children with differing fat distribution. Total and regional body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 778 (49% male) children and adolescents. WHtR was calculated as waist/height(1) (WHtR(a)), and using two published age and sex-specific exponents for height (WHtR(b)) (1) (WHtR(c)) (2), and compared with various DXA indexes of body composition using receiver operating curve analysis. 15% of males and 17% of females had a WHtR(a) ≥0.5, with corresponding figures of 8% and 27% for WHtR(b), and 23% and 17% for WHtR(c). WHtR(a) was significantly different from WHtR(b) (males only, P < 0.001) but not WHtR(c) (P = 0.121). Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for WHtR(a) were significantly higher than AUCs for WHtR(b) or WHtR(c) in relation to DXA-measured body composition (AUCs ≥0.89 for WHtR(a) compared with AUCs of 0.71-0.84 for WHtR(b) and WHtR(c)). Simply dividing waist circumference by height (WHtR(a)) correctly discriminates between children and adolescents with low and high levels of total and central fat at least 90% of the time. Keeping your waist circumference to less than half your height provides an effective screening index of body composition during growth.

  11. A regression method including chronological and bone age for predicting final height in Turner's syndrome, with a comparison of existing methods.

    PubMed

    van Teunenbroek, A; Stijnen, T; Otten, B; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S; Naeraa, R W; Rongen-Westerlaken, C; Drop, S

    1996-04-01

    A total of 235 measurement points of 57 Dutch women with Turner's syndrome (TS), including women with spontaneous menarche and oestrogen treatment, served to develop a new Turner-specific final height (FH) prediction method (PTS). Analogous to the Tanner and Whitehouse mark 2 method (TW) for normal children, smoothed regression coefficients are tabulated for PTS for height (H), chronological age (CA) and bone age (BA), both TW RUS and Greulich and Pyle (GP). Comparison between all methods on 40 measurement points of 21 Danish TS women showed small mean prediction errors (predicted minus observed FH) and corresponding standard deviation (ESD) of both PTSRUS and PTSGP, in particular at the "younger" ages. Comparison between existing methods on the Dutch data indicated a tendency to overpredict FH. Before the CA of 9 years the mean prediction errors of the Bayley and Pinneau and TW methods were markedly higher compared with the other methods. Overall, the simplest methods--projected height (PAH) and its modification (mPAH)--were remarkably good at most ages. Although the validity of PTSRUS and PTSGP remains to be tested below the age of 6 years, both gave small mean prediction errors and a high accuracy. FH prediction in TS is important in the consideration of growth-promoting therapy or in the evaluation of its effects.

  12. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project.

    PubMed

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.

  13. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  14. [Average body weight and height gain rate in children from 2 to 10 years old in a rural area of the Marinilla municipality, Antioquia, Colombia. 1996-1999].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia; Montoya Puerta, Elizabeth Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the average growth rate (AGR) in 2 to 10 years old children (n = 259) belonging to rural families from the municipality of Marinilla (Colombia). The results will be taking into account in order to define public health polices aimed to improve the life quality conditions in rural communities. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study a representative sample from rural horticulture families having children aged 2 to 10 years old were selected. The confidence interval, alpha error, and over sample were 95.5 and 20%, respectively. The AGR for weight and high were evaluated according to the method by Baumgarthner, and the results were compared with the Fels Longitudinal Study reference values. For AGR for weight 26.8 and 28.9% of boys and girls classified in the lower 25 percentile, respectively: 60.9 and 62.8% within the 25 and 75 percentiles, and 12.3 and 8.2% in the upper percentile of boys and girls, respectively. On the other hand, for AGR for high 44.9 and 33.1% of boys and girls classified in the lower 25 percentile, 44.9 and 52.9% within the 25 and 75 percentiles, and 10.2 and 14.1% in the upper percentile of boys and girls, respectively. These results showed that the AGR of children in this study could not overcome their delayed weight and high measures.

  15. Effects of pubertal development, height, weight, and grip strength on the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and hip in peripubertal Japanese children: Kyoto kids increase density in the skeleton study (Kyoto KIDS study).

    PubMed

    Naka, Hiroshi; Iki, Masayuki; Morita, Akemi; Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    The effects of growth and pubertal development on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip in peripubertal Japanese children were studied as a basis for evaluating the effects of modifiable factors on bone mass gain. The study comprised bone mass measurements in the lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck, and total hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as well as body size measurements and detailed interviews on medical history and pubertal status. The subjects were 404 first-grade students in three junior high schools (129 boys and 275 girls, mean age 12.8 +/- 0.3 years) with no diseases or medication that would affect bone metabolism. BMD at each site showed an increasing trend with physical growth and sexual maturity. Significant positive correlations were observed between BMD at every skeletal site and height, weight, and grip strength in pre- and postpubertal boys and girls. In multiple regression analyses, pubertal development had a significant positive independent effect on BMD at every skeletal site in girls, but not in boys. Physical and pubertal development showed major effects on BMD, but the magnitude of these effects differed in boys and girls, even if they were of the same age. We conclude that confounding factors due to physical and pubertal development should be taken into consideration in different ways for boys and girls in investigations on the effects of environmental or behavioral factors on bone mass acquisition in peripubertal children.

  16. Candidate Gene Association Study of BMI-Related Loci, Weight, and Adiposity in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies are confined to middle-aged populations. It is unclear whether associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity persist in old age. We aimed to relate 10 body mass index (BMI)–associated SNPs to weight, BMI, % fat, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in Health ABC and AGES-Reykjavik comprising 4,846 individuals of European Ancestry, and 1,139 African Americans over age 65. SNPs were scaled using effect estimates from candidate SNPs. In Health ABC, a SNP near GNPDA2 was modestly associated with weight and SAT area (p = .008, p = .001). Risk score (sum of scaled SNPs) was associated with weight, BMI, and SAT area (p < .0001 for all), but neither GNPDA2 nor risk score was associated with weight, BMI, visceral adippose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, or % fat in AGES-Reykjavik. In African Americans, a SNP near SEC16B was weakly associated with weight (p = .04). In this sample of older adults, no BMI-associated SNPs were associated with weight or adiposity. PMID:23160366

  17. Diagnostic test characteristics of placental weight in the prediction of small-for-gestational-age neonates.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Bass, Debra; Hill, Lyndon; Klebanoff, Mark A; Zhang, Jun

    2007-09-01

    To assess the diagnostic test characteristics of placental weight as a clinical predictor of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates. Placentas were weighed at 45,846 deliveries. Predictive values and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated assessing placental weight (lowest tertile vs. top 2 or mid/high tertiles) as a predictor of SGA both overall and by maternal age, gestational age, maternal weight, reported early pregnancy smoking, race, neonatal sex and parity. Although the positive predictive value (PPV) of low placental weight was poor (0.19), the negative predictive value (NPV) was high (0.97). Both NPV and LR- were powerfully predictive in women at earlier gestational ages. At gestational ages <32 weeks, LR-was 0.11, showing that among women with mid/high placental weight, the proportion with SGA (false negative) was about 1/10 that without SGA (true negative). Placental weight in the mid or upper tertile has strong NPV and LR- for delivery of an SGA neonate. Further study of the value of placental size in prediction of SGA is warranted.

  18. The effect of exercise training on body weight and peptide hormone patterns in normal weight college-age men.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R S; Bossetti, B M; O'Dorisio, T M; Tenison, E B; Welch, M A; Rice, R R

    1991-03-01

    Resting and peak glucose, insulin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels were evaluated pretraining, 3 weeks and 10 weeks posttraining in seven college age males. The exercise consisted of thrice weekly session of jogging at 70% VO2max for 20 minutes plus warmup and cool down. Following the 10 weeks, VO2max increased significantly. Body weight remained constant and body fat decreased significantly. Fasting and peak blood glucose levels were normal at the beginning of the study yet improved with training. As expected, fasting and peak insulin levels decreased significantly with training. Although GIP did not change significantly with training, an uncoupling of GIP and insulin peak responses was observed. Glucagon levels were essentially unchanged. Fasting and peak PP levels increased slightly as training occurred. These hormone responses suggest that perhaps body weight and/or changes in body fat stores and fuel use might influence peptide hormone responses with training.

  19. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  20. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  1. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (<38 weeks) with full-term infants (38 and 42 weeks) of normal birth weight (32.500g), low birth weight (< 2.500g) and very low birth weight (<1.500g), in order to evaluate if premature birth and low birth weight would affect tooth eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  3. Diet quality is independently associated with weight status in children aged 9-10 years.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; Welch, Ailsa; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Griffin, Simon J; Cassidy, Aedín

    2011-03-01

    Although energy imbalance is key to the development of childhood obesity, the association between different dietary components, reflected in diet quality scores, and children's weight status has not been extensively studied. The current study determined if diet quality, characterized according to 3 predefined scores, was associated with weight status in a population-based sample of 9- to 10-y-old British children, independently of factors previously associated with weight status. In a cross-sectional study of 1700 children (56% girls), data from 4-d food diaries were used to calculate 3 diet quality scores modified to be reflective of children's diets: the Diet Quality Index (DQI), Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Physical activity was measured with 7-d accelerometery, and height, weight, waist, and bio-impedance were objectively measured and used to calculate weight status variables. After multiple adjustments, including physical activity and overall energy density, higher DQI and HDI scores were significantly associated with improved weight status. Comparing extreme quintiles of the scores revealed the DQI and HDI were associated with lower waist circumference (-3.0%, P = 0.005 and -2.5%, P = 0.033, respectively), and lower body fat (-5.1%, P = 0.023 and -4.9%, P = 0.026, respectively). The DQI was also associated with lower weight (-5.9%; P = 0.002) and BMI (-4.2%; P = 0.004). No significant associations were observed with the MDS. These findings suggest that diet quality is independently associated with children's weight status. Future work should consider if diet quality scores could be key components of interventions designed to reduce obesity in children.

  4. Association of birth weight and breast-feeding with coronary heart disease risk factors at the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, I; Gunnarsdottir, I; Palsson, G I

    2003-10-01

    It has been shown that early growth and nutrition affect health in childhood and later life. The aim of this study was to assess the association of birth weight and breast-feeding in infancy with body mass index (BMI) and serum lipids at the age of six years. The contributions of current macronutrient intake, maternal age and BMI were assessed. This was a longitudinal observational study of 120 randomly chosen children whose birth weight and duration of breast-feeding had been recorded. At the age of six years, their weight and height, and serum cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL) and triglyceride levels were measured at healthcare centres in Iceland. Dietary intake at six years was estimated using 3-day weighed food records. The duration of breast-feeding negatively correlated with BMI in 6-year-old boys (B = -0.19 +/- 0.07, p = 0.011) but not in girls; after adjusting for maternal BMI, the relationship in boys was of borderline significance (p = 0.087). The 6-year-old boys who had been breast-fed for < 6 months had a significantly higher BMI (18.0 +/- 2.5 kg/m2) than those breast-fed for 8-9 months (15.8 +/- 1.2 kg/m2, p = 0.006) or > or = 10 months (15.7 +/- 1.2 kg/m2, p = 0.005). A longer duration of breast-feeding was related to higher HDL-cholesterol levels in 6-year-old girls (B = 0.03 +/- 0.01, p = 0.032), but not boys. Birth weight was not related to BMI or serum lipid levels at the age of 6 years. In this high birth weight population, a longer duration of breast-feeding may be effective in preventing childhood overweight, at least among boys. Breast-feeding also seems to be related to an improved lipid profile in girls.

  5. Ramelteon attenuates age-associated hypertension and weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F; Summergrad, Paul

    2010-06-01

    The neuroendocrine theory of aging suggests the common mechanisms of developmental (prereproductive) and aging (postreproductive) processes and identified a cluster of conditions (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, menopause, late onset depression, vascular cognitive impairment, impairment of immune defense, and some forms of cancer) as age-associated neuroendocrine disorders (AAND). Obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes were later described as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because melatonin attenuated development of MetS is age-dependent, that is, in young and old, but not in middle-aged rats, we studied the effect of the selective melatonin agonist, Ramelteon, on the two core symptoms of MetS/AAND: hypertension and body weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto male rats (WKY). SHR rats developed hypertension at the time of maximal weight gain that coincided with the onset of reproductive activity (8-10 weeks old). Chronic (but not acute) administration of Ramelteon (in drinking water, 8 mg/kg/day, from 4 to 12 weeks of age) attenuated age-associated increase of systolic blood pressure (tail-cuff method) by 45%, and age-associated body weight gain by 30%. Acute and chronic Ramelteon did not affect blood pressure and body weight in normotensive WKY rats. Ramelteon-induced attenuation of age-associated hypertension and weight gain suggests that Ramelteon might attenuate the other symptoms of MetS/AAND and might be useful in the treatment of MetS/AAND during puberty, menopause, and old age.

  6. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  7. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  8. Validation of the ICEsat vegetation product using crown-area-weighted mean height derived using crown delineation with discrete return lidar data

    Treesearch

    Yong Pang; Michael Lefsky; Hans-Erik Andersen; Mary Ellen Miller; Kirk. Sherrill

    2008-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), a spaceborne light detection and ranging (lidar) sensor, has acquired over 250 million lidar observations over forests globally, an unprecedented dataset of vegetation height information. To be useful, GLAS must be calibrated to measurements of height used in forestry inventory and ecology. Airborne discrete return lidar (...

  9. Girls at Risk for Overweight at Age 5 Are at Risk for Dietary Restraint, Disinhibited Overeating, Weight Concerns, and Greater Weight Gain from 5 to 9 Years

    PubMed Central

    SHUNK, JENNIFER A.; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the emergence of dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, weight concerns, and body dissatisfaction among girls from 5 to 9 years old, and to assess whether girls at risk for overweight at age 5 were at greater risk for the emergence of restraint, disinhibited overeating, weight concerns, and body dissatisfaction. Design Longitudinal data were used to assess the relationship between weight status and the development of dietary restraint, aspects of disinhibited overeating, weight concern, and body dissatisfaction at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. Subjects Participants were 153 girls from predominately middle class and exclusively non-Hispanic white families living in central Pennsylvania. Statistical Analyses Differences in weight status, dietary restraint, disinhibition, weight concern, and body dissatisfaction between girls at risk (>85th percentile body mass index) or not at risk for overweight at age 5 were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. Results Girls who were at risk for overweight at age 5 reported significantly higher levels of restraint, disinhibition, weight concern, and body dissatisfaction by age 9. Girls at risk for overweight at age 5 also showed greater increases in weight status from 5 to 9 years of age. Conclusions Higher levels of dietary restraint, weight concern, and body dissatisfaction among young girls at risk for overweight were accompanied by greater weight gain from 5 to 9 years of age, consistent with other recent findings suggesting that youths’ attempts at weight control may promote weight gain. Positive alternatives to attempts at dietary restriction are essential to promoting healthful weight status among children, and should include encouraging physical activity, promoting children’s acceptance of a variety of low–energy-density foods, and providing guides to appropriate portion sizes. PMID:15215771

  10. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincón, Emiliano; Calderón, Francisco J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics. The study consisted of 119 overweight participants (18-50 years old, body mass index >25 and <29.9 kg·m(-2)), who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment programs, namely, strength training (n = 30), endurance training (n = 30), a combination of strength training and endurance training (n = 30), and a careful treatment including diet and physical recommendations (n = 29). Each of the training groups exercised 3 times per week for 24 weeks, and their daily diet was restricted to a specific protocol during the testing period and controlled carefully. Body weight changes in the participants were evaluated every 15 days. Based on this study, we developed and validated different sets of equations to accurately capture the weight-loss dynamics. There were no significant differences in terms of global body weight changes from the statistical viewpoint, either regarding the carried out treatment or the individuals' ages. However, significant differences in weight-loss tendency were found depending on participant sex. We concluded that the effectiveness of different possible treatments for weight loss varies by sex and, based on our experimental observations, a quadratic function provides the most accurate model for capturing specific weight-loss dynamics. This trial is registered at Clinical Trials Gov.: number NCT01116856.

  11. Serum Trans Fatty Acids Are Not Associated with Weight Gain or Linear Growth in School-Age Children123

    PubMed Central

    Baylin, Ana; Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Animal and human adult studies indicate that long-term intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) may be associated with weight gain. High intake of fast foods and snacks, which are rich in TFAs, is linked to overweight status among school-age children. However, the specific effects of TFAs in this population are unknown. Objective: We examined whether serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of intake, are associated with faster weight gain and linear growth during school years. Methods: We quantified TFAs by GLC in serum samples of 668 children aged 5–12 y at the time of recruitment into an ongoing cohort study performed in Bogota (Colombia) since 2006. Serum proportions of trans palmitoleic acid (16:1t), trans oleic acid (18:1t), trans linoleic acid (18:2t), and total TFAs were used as biomarkers of intake. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 mo. Body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZs) and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) were calculated with the use of the WHO reference. We estimated mean changes in BAZs and HAZs over follow-up according to quartiles of each TFA at baseline by using mixed-effects regression models with restricted cubic splines. Results: Proportions of trans palmitoleic acid, trans oleic acid, trans linoleic acid, and total TFAs (mean ± SD, % of total serum FAs), were 0.22 ± 0.06, 0.91 ± 0.37, 0.96 ± 0.27, and 2.10 ± 0.59, respectively. Serum TFAs were not associated with changes in BAZs and HAZs after adjusting for sex, baseline age, and socioeconomic status. In a subgroup analysis by sex, serum trans palmitoleic acid was positively associated with the estimated change in HAZs from ages 6 to 14 y in boys (with use of the first quartile as the reference, differences in HAZs for trans palmitoleic acid quartiles were 0.73, 0.53, and 0.70, P-trend = 0.03). Conclusions: Proportions of serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of TFA intake, were not associated with weight gain in children aged 6–14 y in low- and middle

  12. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Avijit; Pal, Prasenjit; Datta, M.; Paul, Rajesh; Pal, Saumen K.; Majumdar, Debasis; Biswas, Chanchal K.; Pan, Subhransu

    2014-01-01

    Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010) and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i) to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii) to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year), higher parity order (>2.31), more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg) and larger previous litter size (>1.65) showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm), body length (>54.86 cm), withers height (>48.85 cm), croup height (>50.67 cm), distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm) and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm) for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus. PMID:25049997

  13. Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of maternal exposures on gestational age and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational age or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational age. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational age among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB exposure, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero exposure to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441

  14. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance.

  15. Intake of Dietary Fibre and Its Sources Related to Adolescents' Age and Gender, but Not to Their Weight.

    PubMed

    Wuenstel, Justyna W; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowinska, Małgorzata A; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Kurp, Lidia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this observational study was to investigate the intake of dietary fibre and its sources among Polish adolescents according to prevalence of overweight after adjustment for age and gender. The study sample consisted of 1,565 students, including 48% boys and 52% girls aged 13-18 with normal weight, overweight and obesity. Dietary information was reported using the Block Screening Questionnaire for Fruit/Vegetable/Fibre Intake. The nutritional status was assessed on the basis of body mass and height measurements. The statistical analysis used one-factor logistic regression, multiple linear regression, trend estimation and a comparison of mean values. Adolescents consuming white bread and rolls with a frequency ≥4 times/week had OR=0.74 (95% CI 0.56-0.97) for overweight and obesity compared to adolescents with less frequent consumption. For other fibre sources and overall dietary fibre no significant differences were noted in consumption frequency between adolescents with normal weight and overweight/obesity. Overall, boys were more often overweight and obese than girls. Girls had a higher intake of dietary fibre, fruit, fresh vegetables, dark bread and rolls, and lower intake of potatoes, beans and white bread and rolls than boys. Older age was associated with a decrease in the consumption of fruit juices, fruit, potatoes, white bread and rolls, and dietary fibre in girls and a decrease in fruit and fresh vegetable consumption in boys. The intake of dietary fibre was not associated with the prevalence of overweight. As to the fibre sources, only a higher consumption of white bread and rolls decreased the chance of the occurrence of adolescent overweight. The consumption of dietary fibre and its sources was related to the age and gender of adolescents.

  16. The effects of age, weight, and sire on pregnancy rate in cattle.

    PubMed

    Shorten, P R; Morris, C A; Cullen, N G

    2015-04-01

    The goal was to estimate the heritabilities and genetic variances for pregnancy rate (PR) and calving date (CD) in Angus cattle along with the effect of weight, age, and sire on PR and CD. The data consisted of 4,999 records on PR and CD. Statistical models included year as a fixed effect; premating/postmating weight and age as covariates; and sire of embryo, maternal grandsire (MGS), and permanent maternal environmental effects as random effects. The models also included the interactions between herd and weight (weight change). Direct and maternal effects on PR and CD were estimated using sire MGS and animal models in REML. Pregnancy rate increased from age 2 to 6 and decreased from age 7 to 11 (P < 0.01) and this effect was independent of the culling strategy. There was a quadratic effect of premating cow weight independent of age on PR, with lower PR for low weights (P < 0.01). Overall, cows with a premating weight of 550 kg had the greatest PR. Cows that lost weight during mating had lower PR (P < 0.01). The maternal additive heritability for PR was 0.001 ± 0.012 and the direct additive heritability was 0.024 ± 0.020. The ratio of permanent maternal environmental variance to phenotypic variance was significant (0.048 ± 0.017; P < 0.01). This demonstrates that permanent maternal environmental effects play a major role in the repeatability of PR (0.049 ± 0.015; P < 0.01). The maternal additive heritability for CD was 0.040 ± 0.022, and the direct additive heritability was 0.076 ± 0.045. The ratio of permanent maternal environmental variance to phenotypic variance was low (0.014 ± 0.017) and the repeatability for CD was significant (0.0544 ± 0.0180; P < 0.01). This suggests that maternal genetic effects are as important as direct genetic effects on CD. There was a positive quadratic relationship between premating cow weight and CD with delayed calving for low/high weights (P < 0.01). Cows that lost weight over mating also had a later CD (P < 0

  17. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    PubMed Central

    Angrisani, Rosanna M. Giaffredo; Bautzer, Ana Paula D.; Matas, Carla Gentile; de Azevedo, Marisa Frasson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) in preterm (PT) and term (T) newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I) than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups. PMID:24473955

  18. The effects of gestational age and birth weight on false-positive newborn-screening rates.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Jonathan L; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Rose, Susan R; Leslie, Nancy D; Chandrasekar, Ram; Linard, Sharon M; Akinbi, Henry T

    2010-11-01

    Newborn-screening false-positive rates (FPRs) are disproportionately increased in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to determine variation in newborn screening FPRs according to birth weight and gestational age. Our secondary objective was to examine the effect of postnatal age on FPRs in preterm infants. The Ohio State Newborn Screening Program Database was analyzed to determine the overall and birth weight-specific FPRs for 18 analytes. Data were stratified into birth weight categories (<1000 g, 1000-1499 g, 1500-2499 g, 2500-3999 g, and >4000 g). In addition, to examine the effect of postnatal age on FPRs, we examined the 2 analytes with the highest FPRs, thyrotropin with back-up thyroxine and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, in infants whose gestational age was <32 weeks, determined on the basis of postnatal age at screening. Data from 448 766 neonates were reviewed. Infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) comprised 1.9% of the study cohort, but accounted for 18% of false-positive results. For 14 of 18 analytes studied, FPRs increased with decreasing birth weight/gestational age and were significantly increased in infants with VLBW compared with infants who weighed 2500 to 3999 g (P < .001). Thyrotropin/back-up thyroxine and 17-hydroxyprogesterone accounted for 62% of total false-positive results in VLBW infants. When blood specimens were collected at a postnatal age of ≥ 48 hours in infants born at <32 weeks, a 44% relative reduction in 17-hydroxyprogesterone false-positive results was detected. False-positive newborn-screening rates are disproportionately increased in VLBW infants. FPRs may be reduced by delaying screening of <32 weeks' gestation, preterm infants until 24 to 48 hours' postnatal age.

  19. School-age outcomes of extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Esther A; De Luca, Cinzia R; Doyle, Lex W; Roberts, Gehan; Anderson, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    Research is required to monitor changes in the nature of neurobehavioral deficits in extremely preterm (EP) or extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors. This study examines cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes at age 8 years for a regional cohort of EP/ELBW children born in 1997. The EP/ELBW cohort comprised all live births with a gestational age <28 weeks (EP) or birth weight <1000 g (ELBW) born in the state of Victoria, Australia, in 1997. Of 317 live births, 201 (63.4%) survived to 2 years of age.A term/normal birth weight (T/NBW) cohort was recruited comprising 199 infants with birthweights ≥2500 g or gestational age ≥37 weeks [corrected]. Measures of intellectual ability, educational achievement, and behavior were administered at age 8. Retention was 94% for the EP/ELBW group and 87% for the T/NBW group. The EP/ELBW group performed poorer than the T/NBW group on measures of IQ, educational achievement, and certain behavioral domains, even after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and exclusion of children with neurosensory impairment. The rate of any neurobehavioral impairment was elevated in the EP/ELBW group (71% vs 42%), and one-half of subjects had multiple impairments. The outcomes for those with <750 g birth weight or <26 weeks' gestational age were similar to those with a birth weight of 750 to 999 g or a gestational age of 26 to 27 weeks, respectively. Despite ongoing improvements in the management of EP/ELBW infants, the rate of neurobehavioral impairment at school-age remains too high relative to controls.

  20. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  1. The young hunter hypothesis: age-related weight gain--a tribute to the thrifty theories.

    PubMed

    Vardi, P; Pinhas-Hamiel, O

    2000-12-01

    A gradual and persistent physiologic increase in body weight of 3-5 kg per decade occurs between the third to the fifth decade. The thrifty genotype theory explains weight gain in large populations, the thrifty phenotype theory explains weight gain in subjects with intrauterine growth retardation. The young hunter theory explains the physiologic age-related weight gain. We believe this is nature's method of preservation by default. According to the young hunter theory, in the past food providers needed an appropriate muscular apparatus to cope with continual hunting expeditions to ensure maximal survival. At the end of the chronological 'hunting' age, there was a gradual redirection of metabolic processes toward energy conservation in anticipation of aging. According to our hypothesis, muscle loss allows for the full expression of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which allows the fuel previously directed to the muscle to be deposited as adipose tissue. Thus, weight gain is an adaptive process engineered to compensate for adult muscle mass loss, guaranteeing survival and longevity beyond the age of hunting.

  2. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developin