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Sample records for age household income

  1. The Effects of Age and Household Income on the Use of Literate Language Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmon, Regina D.; McDade, Hiram L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of literate language features (LLFs) in the oral narratives of African American and Caucasian American preschoolers residing in either low- or middle-income homes to determine whether differences existed as a result of age or household income. The oral narratives of 96 preschoolers enrolled in public school programs and…

  2. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income. PMID:25393914

  3. Household after-tax income: 1985.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1987-06-01

    This report is the 6th in a series presenting estimates of household after-tax income and taxes paid by households. Data from the 1983 Annual Housing Survey, the Income Survey Development Program, and the Internal Revenue Service were combined with the March 1986 Current Population Survey data to derive the estimates shown in this report. Highlights of the data follow. 1) Mean household income after taxes was $22,650 in 1985, up by .9% over the 1984 figure after accounting for the 3.6% rise in consumer prices. The mean after-tax incomes of both white households ($23,480) and black households ($15,790) increased from 1984 to 1985. Hispanic household income ($17,920) showed no signicant change. 2) Mean after-tax income is highest in the West ($24,350); households in the Northeast had the largest increase in mean after-tax income for the period 1980-1985 (10.9%). 3) Mean after-tax incomes increased from 1984-1985 for married-couple family households with children to $28,390 and for female-maintained family households with no husband present to $13,090. There was no significant change among married-couple family households without children ($27,710). 4) Mean household income before taxes ($29,070) increased between 1984 and 1985 by 1.3% after adjusting for inflation. 5) Household paid an average of $6950 in taxes in 1985, $170 higher than the average taxes paid in 1984 after adjusting for price changes. 6) In 1985, 65% of households with incomes below the poverty level paid 1 or more of the types of taxes covered in this study. Taxes paid by poverty households amounted to 8% of the total money income received. 7) The average % of income paid in taxes ranged from 11% for households with incomes $10,000 to 29% for households with incomes of $50,000+. PMID:12268943

  4. Household After-Tax Incomes 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles T.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, mean after-tax household income increased faster than inflation for the fourth consecutive year. Mean household income after taxes was $22,650 in 1985, up by 0.9 percent over the 1984 figure. Mean household income before taxes ($29,070) increased by 1.3 percent after adjusting for inflation. The mean after-tax incomes of both White…

  5. Household income distribution in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiou, Costas J.; Wearne, Adam

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present an alternative model for the distribution of household incomes in the United States. We provide arguments from two differing perspectives which both yield the proposed income distribution curve, and then fit this curve to empirical data on household income distribution obtained from the United States Census Bureau.

  6. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1983.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1985-06-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $20,000 in 1983, up by 2.4% over the 1982 figure after accounting for the 3.2% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($25,400) increased between 1982 and 1983 by 1.2%; 3) taxes absorbed about 21% of the total money income received by households, down slightly from 22% in 1982; 4) households paid an average of $5890 in taxes in 1983, about $170 lower than paid in 1982; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1983 in the Northeast, South, and West regions, but in the Midwest region no significant increase was observed; 6) married couples with children recorded a real increase of 2.6% in mean after tax income, yet married couples without children had after tax incomes that were 3.3% higher in 1983; and 7) the mean income after taxes for households with a householder age 65 years and over showed no significant increase in 1983. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $463 billion in 1983. 92% of US households paid 1 or more of the taxes covered in this study in 1983. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on

  7. Household income and health care expenditures in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Parker, S W; Wong, R

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of household health expenditures in Mexico. Our analysis involves the estimation of household monetary health care expenditures, using the economic and demographic characteristics of the household as covariates. We pay particular attention to the impact of household income on health expenditures, estimating the elasticity of health care expenditures with respect to income for different income groups and according to health insurance status. For the empirical analysis, we use the Mexican National Survey of Income and Expenditures of 1989. Our principle findings show that monetary health expenditures by Mexican households are sensitive to changes in household income levels and that the group which is most responsive to changes in income levels in the lower-income uninsured group. This suggests that in times of economic crisis, these households reduce cash expenditures on health care by proportionately more than higher-income and insured households. PMID:10168755

  8. Household Income and Preschool Attendance in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Xin; Xu, Di; Han, Wen-Jui

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon the literature showing the benefits of high-quality preschools on child well-being to explore the role of household income on preschool attendance for a cohort of 3-to 6-year-olds in China using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1991-2006. Analyses are conducted separately for rural (N = 1,791) and urban…

  9. Income Elasticities of Educational Expenditure by Income Class: The Case of Japanese Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Keiji; Heath, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    Uses data from Japanese households to calculate the income elasticities of educational expenditure, allowing elasticities to vary nonmonotonically with household income. Explores whether income elasticities for education peak in the middle-income categories and diminish for the lower and upper ends of income distribution. Income elasticities do…

  10. Income incongruity, relative household income, and preterm birth in the Black Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ghasi S; Wise, Lauren A; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Stampfer, Meir J; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Relative income may be a better predictor of health outcomes than absolute income. We examined two measures of relative income—income incongruity and relative household income—in relation to preterm birth in a study of U.S. Black women. Income incongruity is a measure that compares the median household income of an individual’s residential area with that of others who have the same level of marital status and education, but who may live in different areas. Relative household income is a measure that compares an individual’s household income with the median household income of her residential area. We used data collected biennially (1997–2003) from participants in the Black Women’s Health Study: 6,257 singleton births were included in the income incongruity analyses and 5,182 in the relative household income analyses; 15% of the births were preterm. After adjusting for confounders, we found no overall association of income incongruity or relative household income with preterm birth. For relative household income, but not for income incongruity, there was suggestive evidence that neighborhood composition modified the association with preterm birth: higher relative household income was associated with higher risk of preterm birth in neighborhoods with a high percentage of Black residents, and higher relative household income was associated with lower risk in neighborhoods with a low percentage of Black residents. PMID:19394740

  11. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1984.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1986-07-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $21,560 in 1984, up by 2.7% over the 1983 figure after accounting for the 4.3% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($27,460) increased between 1983 and 1984 by 2.9%; 3) taxes absorbed about 22% of the total money income received by households; 4) households paid an average of $6400 in taxes in 1984, about $20 higher than paid in 1983; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1984 in the Northeast, South, and West regions; 6) in 1984, 64% of households with incomes below the poverty level paid 1 or more of the types of taxes covered in this study; and 7) the percentage of income paid in taxes ranged from 10% in households with incomes less than $10,000 to 28% in households with incomes of $50,000 or more. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $513 billion in 1984. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on base without families; and 3) returns of decedents. PMID:12280649

  12. Household income differences in food sources and food items purchased

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Methods Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. Subjects and Setting A community-based sample of 90 households. Results Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p < .001). Compared with lower income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p < .001) and sweets/snacks (17.3 versus 8.3, p < .001), but did not differ on home dollars spent on sugar sweetened beverages (2.0 versus 1.7, p < .46). The proportion of home beverages that were sugar sweetened beverages was significantly higher among lower income households (45% versus 26%, p < .01). Within eating out sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p < .01). No income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Conclusions Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages

  13. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children. PMID:20797479

  14. Maternal employment and income affect dietary calorie adequacy in households in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Ishara M; Weerahewa, Jeevika

    2005-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies among children and mothers in lower-income households in Sri Lanka continue to be a major obstacle to the country's social and economic development. This study investigates the factors affecting dietary caloric adequacy in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to maternal income. An econometric analysis was performed using a household data set collected from a sample of 183 low-income households in the urban, rural, and estate sectors. The results showed that on average, mothers and children in the sample did not consume adequate levels of calories according to the recommendations of the Medical Research Institute of Sri Lanka. The mother's income and educational status, the number of children and adults in the family, and the ages, sexes, and birth orders of the children significantly influenced household and individual caloric adequacy. Specifically, the mother's income had a significant positive effect on the total caloric intake (CI) and caloric adequacy ratio (CAR) of the household, mother, and children and a significant negative effect on the relative caloric allocation (RCA) of the children. The results imply that when maternal employment generates extra income, the CIs of all individuals increase, yet the allocation of calories to the children of the household is reduced. Thus, provision of employment opportunities for mothers, along with adequate child-care facilities and nutritional educational programs, is a possible strategy to improve caloric adequacy among low-income households in Sri Lanka. PMID:16060223

  15. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  16. Nutritional status of toddlers and preschoolers according to household income level: overweight tendency and micronutrient deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Shin, Sam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES The effects of malnutrition on growth of toddlers and preschoolers by socioeconomic status are not well known. This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary intake on growth outcomes in toddlers and preschoolers by household income level. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study population was a total of 1,687 children aged 1 to 5 years that participated in the KNHANES from 2009 to 2011. Growth of children was assessed by height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH). Children were classified into three groups according to children's HFA and WFH compared to the 10th and 90th percentiles of the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescent Growth Standard. Average monthly household income was divided into quartile groups. Dietary intake data were obtained by using the one day 24-hr recall method. Risks of inadequate intake of nutrients and unfavorable growth were estimated by using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, region, and energy intake. RESULTS The low HFA group (< 10th percentile) had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, and thiamin as compared with the high group (≥ 90th percentile). For WFH status, vitamin C intake was lower in the low group than in the high group. Household income level was related to WFH status but not HFA. Children from lower income households were more likely to have high WFH than those from higher income households (P for trend = 0.038). Household income status was also significantly related with risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients such as thiamin (P for trend = 0.032) and vitamin C (P for trend = 0.002), showing higher odds of inadequate intakes in children from lower income households. CONCLUSIONS Children from lower income households were prone to be overweight and to have inadequate intakes of micronutrients such as thiamin and vitamin C. To reduce nutritional and health disparities, collective action in the public sector is required from early life. PMID:26425286

  17. Household Expenditure for Dental Care in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries. PMID:25923691

  18. Household expenditure for dental care in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries. PMID:25923691

  19. Perceived Barriers to Savings among Low- to Moderate-Income Households that Do Not Save Regularly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Teresa; Bowen, Cathy Faulcon; Cheang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the differences in barriers to savings among low- to moderate-income households who do not save regularly. Characteristics associated with individuals who perceived they could and could not save included age, presence of child under 18 years of age, and gender. Having no money left over, being late on bills and/or…

  20. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  1. Eat, Drink, Man, Woman: Gender, Income Share and Household Expenditure in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerson, Elizabeth; Schneider, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how gendered household bargaining occurs in non-nuclear family households. We employ two South African data sets and use linear regression and household fixed effects to investigate the relationship between women's income shares and household expenditures. In married couple households, when women garner larger shares of income,…

  2. Severity of household food insecurity is sensitive to change in household income and employment status among low-income families.

    PubMed

    Loopstra, Rachel; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Cross-sectional studies have established a relationship between poverty and food insecurity, but little is known about the acute changes within households that lead to changes in food insecurity. This study examined how changes in income, employment status, and receipt of welfare related to change in severity of food insecurity during 1 y among low-income families. In 2005-2007, 501 families living in market and subsidized rental housing were recruited through door-to-door sampling in high-poverty neighborhoods in Toronto. One year later, families were re-interviewed. The final longitudinal analytic sample included 331 families. Within-household change in income, employment, and welfare receipt were examined in relation to change in severity of food insecurity. Severity was denoted by the aggregate raw score on the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM). Analyses were stratified by housing subsidy status owing to differences in characteristics between households. Food insecurity was a persistent problem among families; 68% were food insecure at both interviews. Severity was dynamic, however, as 73.4% answered more or fewer questions affirmatively on the HFFSM between baseline and follow-up. Among market-rent families, a $2000 gain in income during the year and gain of full-time employment were associated with a 0.29 and 1.33 decrease in raw score, respectively (P < 0.01). This study suggests that improvements in income and employment are related to improvements in families' experiences of food insecurity, highlighting the potential for income- and employment-based policy interventions to affect the severity of household food insecurity for low-income families. PMID:23761648

  3. Subsidized Housing and Household Hardship among Low-Income Single-Mother Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Heintze, Theresa; Naidich, Wendy B.; Meyers, Marcia K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate associations of housing assistance with housing and food-related hardship among low-income single-mother households using data from the National Survey of America's Families (N = 5,396). Results from instrumental variables models suggest that receipt of unit-based assistance, such as traditional public housing, is associated with a…

  4. 7 CFR 3560.153 - Calculation of household income and assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Occupancy § 3560.153 Calculation of household income and assets. (a) Annual income will be calculated in accordance with 24 CFR 5.609. (b) Adjusted income will be calculated in accordance with 24 CFR 5.611. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation of household income and assets....

  5. Low-income Children's participation in the National School Lunch Program and household food insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the impact of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) on household food insufficiency is critical to improve the implementation of public food assistance and to improve the nutrition intake of low-income children and their families. To examine the association of receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP with household food insufficiency among low-income children and their families in the United States, the study used data from four longitudinal panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008), which collected information on household food insufficiency covering both summer and non-summer months. The sample included 15, 241 households with at least one child (aged 5-18) receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP. A dichotomous measure describes whether households have sufficient food to eat in the observed months. Fixed-effects regression analysis suggests that the food insufficiency rate is .7 (95%CI: .1, 1.2) percentage points higher in summer months among NSLP recipients. Since low-income families cannot participate in the NSLP in summer when the school is not in session, the result indicates the NSLP participation is associated with a reduction of food insufficiency risk by nearly 14%. The NSLP plays a significant role to protect low-income children and their families from food insufficiency. It is important to increase access to school meal programs among children at risk of food insufficiency in order to ensure adequate nutrition and to mitigate the health problems associated with malnourishment among children. PMID:26722983

  6. Household income and health problems during a period of labour-market change and widening income inequalities - a study among the Finnish population between 1987 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Income inequalities widened considerably from 1987 to 2007 in Finland. We compared the association between household income and health problems across three periods and in several different ways of modelling the dependence. Our aim was to find out whether the change in the distribution of income might have led to wider income-related inequalities in health problems. The data represent an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population, and we restricted the analysed sample to those between 18 and 67 years of age and not in receipt of any pension in each of the three six-year periods examined (n between 280,106 and 291,198). The health outcome was sickness-allowance days compensated. Household-equivalent taxable income was applied with two different scale transformations: firstly, as real income adjusted for price level and secondly, as rank position on the income distribution. We used negative binomial regression models, with and without zero inflation, as well as decomposition analysis. We found that sickness-allowance days decreased with increasing income, while differences in the shape and magnitude of the association were found between the scales and the periods. During the study period the association strengthened considerably at both the lowest fifth and the top fifth of the rank scale, while the observed per-unit effect of real income changed less. Decomposition analysis suggested that slightly less than half of the observed increase in concentration of health problems at lower end of the rank scale could be accounted for by the change in real income distribution. The results indicate that widening differences in household consumption potential may have contributed to an intensified impact of household income on inequalities in health problems. Explaining the change only in terms of consumption potential, however, was problematic, and changes in the interdependence of labour-market advantage and health problems are likely to contribute as well. PMID

  7. Does Household Income Matter for Children's Schooling? Evidence for Rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Household income has been shown to matter for children's school enrolment, in particular in settings where households face tight liquidity constraints caused by the lack of insurance and limited possibilities to smooth consumption through credit and savings. However, so far only few studies have made an effort to quantify the income elasticity of…

  8. Utilization of Selected Vitality Staple Foods by Low Income Households in Ebonyi State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igba, Chimezie Elizabeth; Okoro, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the utilization of selected vitality foods among low income household in Ebonyi State. Specifically the study aimed at identifying vitality foods that are available, accessible and utilized by low income household in state. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study is 2,173,501 households…

  9. Low-Income Rural Wisconsin Households with Older Heads. Institute for Research on Poverty, Discussion Papers No. 206-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, William E.; McCabe, Bernard

    The characteristics, particularly those related to low income and poverty, of rural Wisconsin households (families and individuals living along) whose head was age 63 or older were studied. "Rural" was defined as towns of 2,500 population or less and the open countryside, including farms. Data were gathered in early 1968 through interviews in…

  10. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home

  11. Impact of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Treatment on Household Incomes in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Feulefack, Joseph F.; Luckert, Martin K.; Mohapatra, Sandeep; Cash, Sean B.; Alibhai, Arif; Kipp, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Though health benefits to households in developing countries from antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs are widely reported in the literature, specific estimates regarding impacts of treatments on household incomes are rare. This type of information is important to governments and donors, as it is an indication of returns to their ART investments, and to better understand the role of HIV/AIDS in development. The objective of this study is to estimate the impact of a community-based ART program on household incomes in a previously underserved rural region of Uganda. A community-based ART program, based largely on labor contributions from community volunteers, was implemented and evaluated. All households with HIV/AIDS patients enrolled in the treatment programme (n = 134 households) were surveyed five times; once at the beginning of the treatment and every three months thereafter for a period of one year. Data were collected on household income from cash earnings and value of own production. The analysis, using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions, identifies the impact of the ART program on household incomes over the first year of the treatment, while controlling for heterogeneity in household characteristics and temporal changes. As a result of the treatment, health conditions of virtually all patients improved, and household incomes increased by approximately 30% to 40%, regardless of household income quantile. These increases in income, however, varied significantly depending on socio-demographic and socio-economic control variables. Overall, results show large and significant impacts of the ART program on household incomes, suggesting large returns to public investments in ART, and that treating HIV/AIDS is an important precondition for development. Moreover, development programs that invest in human capital and build wealth are important complements that can increase the returns to ART programs. PMID:23840347

  12. Young Adult Obesity and Household Income: Effects of Unconditional Cash Transfers.

    PubMed

    Akee, Randall; Simeonova, Emilia; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E Jane

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the effect of household cash transfers during childhood on young adult body mass indexes (BMI). The effects of extra income differ depending on the household's initial socioeconomic status (SES). Children from the initially poorest households have a larger increase in BMI relative to children from initially wealthier households. Several alternative mechanisms are examined. Initial SES holds up as the most likely channel behind the heterogeneous effects of extra income on young adult BMI. (JEL D14, H23, H75, I12, J13, J15). PMID:24707346

  13. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, MR; Taylor, FC; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2014-01-01

    Background Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. PMID:25473147

  14. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in an Urban Supermarket by Low-Income Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Etienne J.; Stites, Shana D.; Wallace, Samantha L.; Braitman, Leonard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictors of fresh fruit and vegetable purchases in a low-income population and identify subgroups in which interventions to increase such purchases might prove useful. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 209 shopping transactions from 30 households. Individual and household characteristics obtained from primary…

  15. Young Adult Obesity and Household Income: Effects of Unconditional Cash Transfers†

    PubMed Central

    Akee, Randall; Simeonova, Emilia; Copeland, William; Angold, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of household cash transfers during childhood on young adult body mass indexes (BMI). The effects of extra income differ depending on the household’s initial socioeconomic status (SES). Children from the initially poorest households have a larger increase in BMI relative to children from initially wealthier households. Several alternative mechanisms are examined. Initial SES holds up as the most likely channel behind the heterogeneous effects of extra income on young adult BMI. (JEL D14, H23, H75, I12, J13, J15) PMID:24707346

  16. Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households.

    PubMed

    van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated. PMID:21566719

  17. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities. PMID:26813787

  18. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  19. Pathways among Caregiver Education, Household Resources, and Infant Growth in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bradley, Robert H.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver education is known to relate to the growth of children, but possible mediation mechanisms of this association are poorly characterized and generally lack empirical support. We test whether instructional capital (caregiver education) leads to improved infant growth through availability of physical capital (household resources) across a wide swath of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3), we explore relations among caregiver education, household resources, and infant (M age = .99 years) growth in 117,881 families living in 39 LMIC. Overall, household resources mediated 76% of the small association between caregiver education and infant growth. When disaggregated by countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development (as indexed by average life expectancy, education, and gross domestic product), household resources mediated 48% to 78% of the association between caregiver education and infant growth. Caregiver education had effects on infant growth through household resources in countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development; for girls and boys; and controlling for indexes of infant feeding and health. PMID:26273231

  20. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  1. 42 CFR 457.315 - Application of modified adjusted gross income and household definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of modified adjusted gross income and household definition. 457.315 Section 457.315 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES State...

  2. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  3. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management. PMID:22451986

  4. Household food insecurity is associated with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Latinas experience high rates of poverty, household food insecurity and prenatal depression. To date, only one USA study has examined the relationship between household food insecurity and prenatal depression, yet it focused primarily on non-Latina white and non-Latina black populations. Therefore, this study examined the independent association of household food insecurity with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas. This cross-sectional study included 135 low income pregnant Latinas living in Hartford, Connecticut. Women were assessed at enrolment for household food security during pregnancy using an adapted and validated version of the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. A cut-off of ≥21 was used to indicate elevated levels of prenatal depressive symptoms (EPDS). Multivariate backwards stepwise logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for EPDS. Almost one third of participants had EPDS. Women who were food insecure were more likely to experience EPDS compared to food secure women (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.03-6.52). Being primiparous, experiencing heartburn and reporting poor/fair health during pregnancy, as well as having a history of depression were also independent risk factors for experiencing EPDS. Findings from this study suggest the importance of assessing household food insecurity when evaluating depression risk among pregnant Latinas. PMID:20735732

  5. Income level, gender, ethnicity, and household composition as predictors of children's school-based competence.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C J; Kupersmidt, J B; Vaden, N A

    1990-04-01

    In the United States, being black, male, or growing up in a low-income and/or single-parent household have all been identified as risk factors for maladjustment during childhood. Interpretation of these findings is, however, often difficult because of the well-known associations among these variables. In the present study, we compared predictions of 3 different forms of children's competence from each of these 4 variables. In a sample of 868 black and white elementary school children from 2-parent and mother-headed 1-parent homes, we studied 3 aspects of school-based competence: conduct, peer relations, and academic achievement. Results showed that although the independent variables accounted for different amounts of variance in each domain of competence, income level and gender were better overall predictors of children's competence in conduct and peer relations than were ethnicity or household composition. Income level and ethnicity were better overall predictors of academic achievement than were gender or household composition, although each of the 4 variables made a significant contribution. Overall, income level and gender were thus the strongest predictors of children's competence. Black children were, however, more likely than white children to live in low-income homes. Our results thus highlighted some correlates of the unequal distribution of economic resources among black and white children growing up in the United States today. PMID:2344784

  6. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. PMID:24462491

  7. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  8. A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Emily R.; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40–69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children’s socioeconomic circumstances—particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education—in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

  9. Resource use of low-income households--approach for defining a decent lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Lettenmeier, Michael; Lähteenoja, Satu; Hirvilammi, Tuuli; Laakso, Senja

    2014-05-15

    A decent, or sufficient, lifestyle is largely considered an important objective in terms of a sustainable future. However, there can be strongly varying definitions of what a decent lifestyle means. From a social sustainability point of view, a decent lifestyle can be defined as the minimum level of consumption ensuring an acceptable quality of life. From an ecological sustainability point of view, a decent lifestyle can be defined as a lifestyle that does not exceed the carrying capacity of nature in terms of natural resource use. The paper presents results of a study on the natural resource use of 18 single households belonging to the lowest income decile in Finland. The yearly "material footprint" of each household was calculated on the basis of the data gathered in a questionnaire and two interviews. The results show that the natural resource use of the participating households was lower than the one of the average consumer. Furthermore, 12 of 18 households had a smaller material footprint than the "decent minimum" reference budget defined by a consumer panel. However, the resource use of all the households and lifestyles studied is still higher than long-term ecological sustainability would require. The paper concludes that the material footprint is a suitable approach for defining and measuring a decent lifestyle and provides valuable information on how to dematerialize societies towards sustainability. PMID:24355248

  10. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  11. The Quality of Life of Hong Kong's Poor Households in the 1990s: Levels of Expenditure, Income Security and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hung

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in the quality of life of poor households in Hong Kong in the late 1990s by analyzing their levels of expenditure, income security and poverty before and after 1997. Though there have been significant increases in the levels of expenditure among CSSA recipients, the expenditure among these poorest households in Hong…

  12. Households across All Income Quintiles, Especially the Poorest, Increased Animal Source Food Expenditures Substantially during Recent Peruvian Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L.; Behrman, Jere R.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. Objective To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. Methods The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Results Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Conclusions Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF

  13. Estimates of Year-to-Year Volatility in Earnings and in Household Incomes from Administrative,Survey, and Matched Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Molly; DeLeire, Thomas; Schwabish, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    We document trends in the volatility in earnings and household incomes between 1985 and 2005 in three different data sources: administrative earnings records, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to administrative earnings records, and SIPP survey data. In all data sources, we find a substantial amount of year-to-year…

  14. 77 FR 15376 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ..., 1988, at 53 FR 6824 and amended on October 15, 1999, at 64 FR 55858. Dated: March 7, 2012. Jeannie L... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2013 State Median Income Estimates for Use Under the...

  15. Review of the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption studies for low income households in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kolokotsa, D; Santamouris, M

    2015-12-01

    The term energy poverty is used to describe a situation of a household not able to satisfy socially and materially the required levels of its energy services. Energy and fuel poverty is an increasing problem in the European Union. Although the specific conditions vary from country to country the drivers defining fuel and energy poverty are similar in all Europe. This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the energy demand and indoor environmental quality of low income households in Europe. The characteristics of this specific population group are presented including details on the specific energy consumption, the indoor comfort and finally the impact of the specific living conditions on the occupants' health. PMID:26225739

  16. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning: A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dorahy, Martin J; Rowlands, Amy; Renouf, Charlotte; Hanna, Donncha; Britt, Eileen; Carter, Janet D

    2015-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms are common outcomes following earthquakes, and may persist for months and years. This study systematically examined the impact of neighbourhood damage exposure and average household income on psychological distress and functioning in 600 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand, 4-6 months after the fatal February, 2011 earthquake. Participants were from highly affected and relatively unaffected suburbs in low, medium and high average household income areas. The assessment battery included the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), along with single item measures of substance use, earthquake damage and impact, and disruptions in daily life and relationship functioning. Controlling for age, gender and social isolation, participants from low income areas were more likely to meet diagnostic cut-offs for depression and anxiety, and have more severe anxiety symptoms. Higher probabilities of acute stress, depression and anxiety diagnoses were evident in affected versus unaffected areas, and those in affected areas had more severe acute stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. An interaction between income and earthquake effect was found for depression, with those from the low and medium income affected suburbs more depressed. Those from low income areas were more likely, post-earthquake, to start psychiatric medication and increase smoking. There was a uniform increase in alcohol use across participants. Those from the low income affected suburb had greater general and relationship disruption post-quake. Average household income and damage exposure made unique contributions to earthquake-related distress and dysfunction. PMID:25267100

  17. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P < 0.05). Higher fast food and fruit and vegetable prices also contributed to higher risk of food insecurity (coefficient = 0.632, P < 0.01 for fast food; coefficient = 0.879, P < 0.01 for fruits and vegetables). However, increasing beverage prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices. PMID:23946342

  18. Gambling households in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  19. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    PubMed

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives. PMID:25875340

  20. Importance of Client Orientation Domains in Non-Clinical Quality of Care: A Household Survey in High and Low Income Districts of Mashhad.

    PubMed

    Fazaeli, Somayeh; Yousefi, Mehdi; Banikazemi, Seyed Hasan; Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Seyed Amir Hossein; Vakilzadeh, Ali Khorsand; Hoseinzadeh Aval, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Responsiveness introduced by WHO as a key indicator to assess the performance of health systems and measures by common set of domains that are categorized in to two main categories "Respect for persons" and "client orientation". This study measured importance of client orientation domains in high and low income districts of Mashhad. In this cross-sectional and explanatory study, Sample of 923 households were selected randomly from two high and low income districts of Mashhad. World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire was used for data collection. Standard frequency analyses and Ordinal logistic regression (OLR) was employed for data analysis. In general, respondents selected quality of basic amenities as the most important domain and access to social support networks was identified as the least important domain. Households in high income area scored higher domains of prompt attentions and choice Compared to low income. There was a significant relationship between variables of ages, having member that need to care and self-assessed health with the ranking of client orientation domains.Study of households' view on ranking of non-clinical aspects of quality of care, especially when faced with limited resources, can help to conduct efforts towards subjects that are more important, and lead to improve the health system performance and productivity. PMID:26925911

  1. The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2008-06-01

    In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

  2. Who Gains from the Demographic Dividend? Forecasting Income by Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the population age structure are known to influence the total income per person, but little is known about whether the changes are equally shared across the population or are concentrated on particular age groups and/or birth cohorts. The answer to this question has potentially important implications for income inequality, for human capital investment, and for fertility decision-making. We propose a new model of intergenerational transfers which distinguishes between the effects of changes in population structure and the effects of changes in family age structure. Using age-specific data from annual income and expenditure surveys of Taiwan between 1978 and 1998, we show that changes in age structure have had a very favorable effect on Taiwan's income growth. The gains are not equally shared by all age groups, however. Children and young adults have benefited the most, while the elderly have benefited the least. The population and family age structures have independent effects on per capita income; the effect of the population age structure is most important. Generational differences in per capita income are closely related to intergenerational differences in earnings, suggesting only a weak form of altruism. Finally, we predict that, on average, population aging will adversely influence per capita income growth in Taiwan in the coming decades. PMID:18443647

  3. The Effects of HIV/AIDS Scourge on Production and Income among Rural Households in Adamawa State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    I. B., Iya; G.S., Purokayo; Yusuf, Gabdo

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants and the impact of HIV/AIDS on households in Adamawa State. 120 respondents affected with HIV/AIDS were selected for interview using simple random sampling techniques. Both primary and secondary data were used in its analysis to determine the impact of the disease on household’s income. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive analytical techniques and a logistic regression model was employed to estimate the likelihood that a household witnessed a fall in income as a result of the disease. The paper revealed that HIV/AIDS had an adverse impact on household’s productivity, income, saving and capital formation. The paper, therefore recommends an intensive Aids education programme and Government at all level as well as NGO’s should endeavor to provide adequate HIV testing kits, medication and free counseling services to enable the households determine their HIV status. PMID:22980122

  4. Economic impacts of health shocks on households in low and middle income countries: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Poor health is a source of impoverishment among households in low -and middle- income countries (LMICs) and a subject of voluminous literature in recent years. This paper reviews recent empirical literature on measuring the economic impacts of health shocks on households. Key inclusion criteria were studies that explored household level economic outcomes (burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, labour supply responses and non-medical consumption) of health shocks and sought to correct for the likely endogeneity of health shocks, in addition to studies that measured catastrophic and impoverishment effects of ill health. The review only considered literature in the English language and excluded studies published before 2000 since these have been included in previous reviews. We identified 105 relevant articles, reports, and books. Our review confirmed the major conclusion of earlier reviews based on the pre-2000 literature - that households in LMICs bear a high but variable burden of OOP health expenditure. Households use a range of sources such as income, savings, borrowing, using loans or mortgages, and selling assets and livestock to meet OOP health spending. Health shocks also cause significant reductions in labour supply among households in LMICs, and households (particularly low-income ones) are unable to fully smooth income losses from moderate and severe health shocks. Available evidence rejects the hypothesis of full consumption insurance in the face of major health shocks. Our review suggests additional research on measuring and harmonizing indicators of health shocks and economic outcomes, measuring economic implications of non-communicable diseases for households and analyses based on longitudinal data. Policymakers need to include non-health system interventions, including access to credit and disability insurance in addition to support formal insurance programs to ameliorate the economic impacts of health shocks. PMID:24708831

  5. Economic impacts of health shocks on households in low and middle income countries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Poor health is a source of impoverishment among households in low -and middle- income countries (LMICs) and a subject of voluminous literature in recent years. This paper reviews recent empirical literature on measuring the economic impacts of health shocks on households. Key inclusion criteria were studies that explored household level economic outcomes (burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, labour supply responses and non-medical consumption) of health shocks and sought to correct for the likely endogeneity of health shocks, in addition to studies that measured catastrophic and impoverishment effects of ill health. The review only considered literature in the English language and excluded studies published before 2000 since these have been included in previous reviews. We identified 105 relevant articles, reports, and books. Our review confirmed the major conclusion of earlier reviews based on the pre-2000 literature--that households in LMICs bear a high but variable burden of OOP health expenditure. Households use a range of sources such as income, savings, borrowing, using loans or mortgages, and selling assets and livestock to meet OOP health spending. Health shocks also cause significant reductions in labour supply among households in LMICs, and households (particularly low-income ones) are unable to fully smooth income losses from moderate and severe health shocks. Available evidence rejects the hypothesis of full consumption insurance in the face of major health shocks. Our review suggests additional research on measuring and harmonizing indicators of health shocks and economic outcomes, measuring economic implications of non-communicable diseases for households and analyses based on longitudinal data. Policymakers need to include non-health system interventions, including access to credit and disability insurance in addition to support formal insurance programs to ameliorate the economic impacts of health shocks. PMID:24708831

  6. Household out-of-pocket medical expenditures and national health insurance in Taiwan: income and regional inequality

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tu-Bin; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2005-01-01

    Background Unequal geographical distribution of medical care resources and insufficient healthcare coverage have been two long-standing problems with Taiwan's public health system. The implementation of National Health Insurance (NHI) attempted to mitigate the inequality in health care use. This study examines the degree to which Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) has reduced out-of-pocket medical expenditures in households in different regions and varying levels of income. Methods Data used in this study were drawn from the 1994 and 1996 Surveys of Family Income and Expenditure. We pooled the data from 1994 and 1996 and included a year dummy variable (NHI), equal to 1 if the household data came from 1996 in order to assess the impact of NHI on household out-of-pocket medical care expenditures shortly after its implementation in 1995. Results An individual who was older, female, married, unemployed, better educated, richer, head of a larger family household, or living in the central and eastern areas was more likely to have greater household out-of-pocket medical expenditures. NHI was found to have effectively reduced household out-of-pocket medical expenditures by 23.08%, particularly for more affluent households. With the implementation of NHI, lower and middle income quintiles had smaller decreases in out-of-pocket medical expenditure. NHI was also found to have reduced household out-of-pocket medical expenditures more for households in eastern Taiwan. Conclusion Although NHI was established to create free medical care for all, further effort is needed to reduce the medical costs for certain disadvantaged groups, particularly the poor and aborigines, if equality is to be achieved. PMID:16137336

  7. Comparing Psychiatric Service Use among Low-Income Women and Women in a General Household Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel; Warner, Lynn A.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use of outpatient mental health services in a sample of low-income women (Mothers' Well-Being Study [MWS]) and compares the findings with a sample of similar-aged women in the general population (National Comorbidity Survey [NCS]). Overall, the prevalence of any 12-month mental health disorder was significantly greater…

  8. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    PubMed

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition. PMID:25500760

  9. The direct impact of landslides on household income in tropical regions: A case study from the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mertens, K; Jacobs, L; Maes, J; Kabaseke, C; Maertens, M; Poesen, J; Kervyn, M; Vranken, L

    2016-04-15

    Landslides affect millions of people worldwide, but theoretical and empirical studies on the impact of landslides remain scarce, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study proposes and applies a method to estimate the direct impact of landslides on household income and to investigate the presence of specific risk sharing and mitigation strategies towards landslides in a tropical and rural environment. An original cross-sectional household survey is used in combination with geographical data to acquire detailed information on livelihoods and on hazards in the Rwenzori mountains, Uganda. Ordinary least square regressions and probit estimations with village fixed effects are used to estimate the impact of landslides and the presence of mitigation strategies. Geographical information at household level allows to disentangle the direct impact from the indirect effects of landslides. We show that the income of affected households is substantially reduced during the first years after a landslide has occurred. We find that members of recently affected households participate more in wage-employment or in self-employed activities, presumably to address income losses following a landslide. Yet, we see that these jobs do not provide sufficient revenue to compensate for the loss of income from agriculture. Given that landslides cause localized shocks, finding a significant direct impact in our study indicates that no adequate risk sharing mechanisms are in place in the Rwenzori sub-region. These insights are used to derive policy recommendations for alleviating the impact of landslides in the region. By quantifying the direct impact of landslides on household income in an agricultural context in Africa this study draws the attention towards a problem that has been broadly underestimated so far and provides a sound scientific base for disaster risk reduction in the region. Both the methodology and the findings of this research are applicable to other tropical regions with high

  10. Surgical need in an aging population: a cluster based household survey in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Wong, Evan; Gupta, Shailvi; Bastola, Santosh; Shrestha, Sunil; Kushner, Adam; Nwomeh, Benedict C.

    2015-01-01

    Background With an aging global population comes significant non-communicable disease burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An unknown proportion of this burden is treatable with surgery. For health system planning, this study aimed to estimate the surgical needs of individuals over 50 years in Nepal. Methods A two-stage, cluster randomized, community-based survey was performed in Nepal using the validated Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool. SOSAS collects household demographics, randomly selects household members for verbal head-to-toe examinations for surgical conditions and completes a verbal autopsy for deaths in the preceding year. Only respondents older than 50 years were included in the analysis. Results The survey sampled 1,350 households, totaling 2,695 individuals (97% response rate). Of these, 273 surgical conditions were reported by 507 persons ages ≥50 years. Extrapolating, there are potentially 2.1 million people over age 50 with surgically treatable conditions needing care in Nepal (95%CI 1.8 – 2.4 million; 46,000 – 62,6000 per 100,000 persons). One in five deaths were potentially treatable or palliated by surgery. Though a growth or mass (including hernias and goiters) was the most commonly reported surgical condition (25%), injuries and fractures were also common and associated with the greatest disability. Literacy and distance to secondary and tertiary health facilities were associated with lack of care for surgical conditions (p<0.05). Conclusion There is a large unmet surgical need among the elderly in Nepal. Low literacy and distance from a capable health facility are the greatest barriers to care. As the global population ages, there is an increasing need to improve surgical services and strengthen health systems to care for this group. PMID:25934023

  11. Maternal Depressive Symptomatology, Social Support, and Language Development of Bilingual Preschoolers From Low-Income Households

    PubMed Central

    Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Method Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for 2 years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Results Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not affect children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal depression is 1 risk factor that contributes to less robust primary language development of bilingual children from low-income households. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed. PMID:25863774

  12. Obesity-Related Behaviors of US and Non-US Born Parents and Children in Low-income Households

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth M.; McDonald, Julia; Haines, Jess; Bottino, Clement J.; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in obesity-related behaviors by parental US born status among low-income, minority families participating in Healthy Habits, Happy Homes, an intervention trial to improve household routines for childhood obesity prevention. Evidence suggests lower obesity risk among adult immigrants, but research is inconclusive regarding the influence of having a non-US born parent on childhood obesity. Method We sampled 57 US born and 64 non-US born families of children ages 2–5.9 years living in the Boston area. At baseline, parents reported their own screen time, physical activity, diet, and sleep as well as their children’s behaviors. We used linear and logistic regression to examine the association of parental US born status with obesity-related behaviors. Results Mean (SD) BMI z-score was 0.94 (1.16) and did not differ between groups. After adjusting for parental education and child race/ethnicity, children of non-US (v. US) born parents had later bedtimes (0.81 hours later; 95% CI: 0.37, 1.25) and wake-up times (0.56 hours later; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95) and engaged in less active play (0.15 fewer hours/day; 95% CI: −0.28, −0.01). Non-US (v. US) born parents had less screen exposure. Conclusion In this cross-section of low-income, urban families, having a parent born outside the US was associated with a profile of risk and protective behavior; adjustment for education and race/ethnicity removed protective associations of parental nativity with child behavior. Obesity-related differences in behaviors and home environments should be considered when designing interventions targeting low-income communities with a high proportion of non-US born participants. PMID:24131876

  13. Importance of Client Orientation Domains in Non-Clinical Quality of Care: A Household Survey in High and Low Income Districts of Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Fazaeli, Somayeh; Yousefi, Mehdi; Banikazemi, Seyed Hasan; Hashemi, Seyed Amir Hossein Ghazizadeh; Vakilzadeh, Ali Khorsand; Aval, Narges Hoseinzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Responsiveness introduced by WHO as a key indicator to assess the performance of health systems and measures by common set of domains that are categorized in to two main categories “Respect for persons” and “client orientation”. This study measured importance of client orientation domains in high and low income districts of Mashhad. In this cross-sectional and explanatory study, Sample of 923 households were selected randomly from two high and low income districts of Mashhad. World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire was used for data collection. Standard frequency analyses and Ordinal logistic regression (OLR) was employed for data analysis. In general, respondents selected quality of basic amenities as the most important domain and access to social support networks was identified as the least important domain. Households in high income area scored higher domains of prompt attentions and choice Compared to low income. There was a significant relationship between variables of ages, having member that need to care and self-assessed health with the ranking of client orientation domains. Study of households’ view on ranking of non-clinical aspects of quality of care, especially when faced with limited resources, can help to conduct efforts towards subjects that are more important, and lead to improve the health system performance and productivity. PMID:26925911

  14. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security); conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the pilot data, the Friedman

  15. Catastrophic household expenditure for health care in a low-income society: a study from Nouna District, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Flessa, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of catastrophic household health care expenditure and determine the factors responsible for it in Nouna District, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We used the Nouna Health District Household Survey to collect data on 800 households during 2000-01 for our analysis. The determinants of household catastrophic expenditure were identified by multivariate logistic regression method. FINDINGS: Even at very low levels of health care utilization and modest amount of health expenditure, 6-15% of total households in Nouna District incurred catastrophic health expenditure. The key determinants of catastrophic health expenditure were economic status, household health care utilization especially for modern medical care, illness episodes in an adult household member and presence of a member with chronic illness. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the poorest members of the community incurred catastrophic health expenses. Setting only one threshold/cut-off value to determine catastrophic health expenses may result in inaccurate estimation leading to misinterpretation of important factors. Our findings have important policy implications and can be used to ensure better access to health services and a higher degree of financial protection for low-income groups against the economic impact of illness. PMID:16501711

  16. Reading and reading instruction for children from low-income and non-English-speaking households.

    PubMed

    Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes. Using key insights from this research base, she offers two explanations. The first is that reading is a dynamic and multifaceted process that requires continued development if students are to keep pace with the increasing demands of school texts and tasks. The second lies in the role of reading assessment and instruction in U.S. schools. Lesaux draws a distinction between the "skills-based competencies" that readers need to sound out and recognize words and the "knowledge-based competencies" that include the conceptual and vocabulary knowledge necessary to comprehend a text's meaning. Although U.S. schools have made considerable progress in teaching skills-based reading competencies that are the focus of the early grades, most have made much less progress in teaching the knowledge-based competencies students need to support reading comprehension in middle and high school. These knowledge-based competencies are key sources of lasting individual differences in reading outcomes, particularly among children growing up in low-income and non-English-speaking households. Augmenting literacy rates, Lesaux explains, will require considerable shifts in the way reading is assessed and taught in elementary and secondary schools. First, schools must conduct comprehensive reading assessments that discern learners' (potential) sources of reading difficulties--in both skills-based and knowledge-based competencies. Second, educators must implement instructional approaches that offer promise for

  17. The association between ownership of common household devices and obesity and diabetes in high, middle and low income countries

    PubMed Central

    Lear, Scott A.; Teo, Koon; Gasevic, Danijela; Zhang, Xiaohe; Poirier, Paul P.; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Seron, Pamela; Kelishadi, Roya; Tamil, Azmi Mohd; Kruger, Annamarie; Iqbal, Romaina; Swidan, Hani; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Kutty, V. Raman; Karsidag, Kubilay; Kumar, Rajesh; Li, Wei; Szuba, Andrzej; Avezum, Alvaro; Diaz, Rafael; Anand, Sonia S.; Rosengren, Annika; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Household devices (e.g., television, car, computer) are common in high income countries, and their use has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that device ownership is associated with obesity and diabetes and that these effects are explained through reduced physical activity, increased sitting time and increased energy intake. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study involving 153 996 adults from high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income countries. We used multilevel regression models to account for clustering at the community and country levels. Results: Ownership of a household device increased from low to high income countries (4% to 83% for all 3 devices) and was associated with decreased physical activity and increased sitting, dietary energy intake, body mass index and waist circumference. There was an increased odds of obesity and diabetes with the ownership of any 1 household device compared to no device ownership (obesity: odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32–1.55; diabetes: OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.28–1.50). Ownership of a second device increased the odds further but ownership of a third device did not. Subsequent adjustment for lifestyle factors modestly attenuated these associations. Of the 3 devices, ownership of a television had the strongest association with obesity (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.29–1.49) and diabetes (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23–1.44). When stratified by country income level, the odds of obesity and diabetes when owning all 3 devices was greatest in low income countries (obesity: OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.33–4.25; diabetes: OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.53–2.53) and decreased through country income levels such that we did not detect an association in high income countries. Interpretation: The ownership of household devices increased the likelihood of obesity and diabetes, and this was mediated in part by effects on physical

  18. Estimated Participation and Hours in Early Care and Education by Type of Arrangement and Income at Ages 2 to 4 in 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Steve; Nores, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    This working paper estimates participation in early childhood education (ECE) programs by child's age, program setting, family income level, and child's household language. To produce the best possible estimates of participation, the authors combined information from multiple data sets. In 2010, approximately 6.6 million between the ages of 2 and…

  19. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  20. Welfare: Relationships and Incomes in Households with AFDC Recipients and Others. Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report analyzes data from the April 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) on households comprised of both Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients and nonrecipients. Of the 3.7 million AFDC households, 32 percent consisted of AFDC recipients and their relatives, as opposed to only recipients. Analysis of the…

  1. A Multilevel Analysis of Individual, Household, and Neighborhood Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Low-Income Pregnant Women in Jefferson County, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Russell S.; Sigler, Robert T.; Hwang, Sean-Shong; LaGory, Mark E.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual, household, and neighborhood correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy. Methods. We used multilevel modeling to investigate IPV among 2887 pregnant women in 112 census tracts who sought prenatal care in 8 public clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama, from 1997 through 2001. Data were collected from the Perinatal Emphasis Research Center project, the 2000 Census, and the local Sheriff and Police Departments Uniform Crime Reports for 1997 through 2001. Results. Participants were predominantly young, African American, on Medicaid, and residents of low-income neighborhoods. The prevalence of past-year male partner–perpetrated physical or sexual violence was 7.4%. Neighborhood residential stability, women performing most of the housework (lack of involvement among partners), being unmarried (being in an uncommitted relationship), and alcohol use were positively associated with elevated IPV risk. Significant protective factors for IPV included older age at first vaginal intercourse and a greater sense of mastery (e.g., the perception of oneself as an effective person). Conclusions. Both neighborhood contextual and individual and household compositional effects are associated with IPV among low-income pregnant women. The results imply that combined interventions to improve neighborhood conditions and strengthen families may effectively reduce IPV. PMID:19696385

  2. Transitions in Income and Poverty Status: 1985-86. Current Population Reports: Household Economic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Kathleen S.; Littman, Mark S.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents data from the complete 1985 panel file of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) on changes between 1985 and 1986 in the income and poverty status of persons. SIPP data make it possible to gauge movement along the whole income distribution and into and out of poverty for the same persons in two consecutive…

  3. Household Income, Maternal Acculturation, Maternal Education Level and Health Behaviors of Chinese-American Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine factors associated with health behaviors, including physical activity and dietary intake, of Chinese women who have immigrated to the United States and their children. Participants Using convenience sampling, a total of 65 Chinese-American children and their mothers in the San Francisco Bay Area participated in the study. Measures Information related to children’s weight, height, level of physical activity (Caltrac accelerometer), and dietary intake (Kids’ food frequency questionnaire) was collected using standardized instruments. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding household income, their levels of education and acculturation (Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale), dietary intake (SWAN Food Frequency Questionnaire), and level of physical activity (Seven-day physical activity recall). Results 36.9% (n = 24) of the children were overweight (body mass index higher than the 85th percentile). A high household income was related to low maternal body mass index (R2 = .08, P= .04), high maternal fat intake (R2 = .21, P = .0001), and high maternal intake of sweets (R2 = .08, P = .033), and a high level of maternal acculturation was related to low body mass index in children (R2 = .07, P = .034). Conclusions The results suggest that an intervention aimed at reducing obesity and promoting health behaviors must be appropriate for different ethnic groups with various incomes and levels of acculturation. PMID:18306042

  4. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status. PMID:27467901

  5. Estimating the Scope of Household Water Treatment in Low- and Medium-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    For populations without reliable access to safe drinking water, household water treatment (HWT) provides a means of improving water quality and preventing disease. We extracted data on reported HWT practices from 67 national surveys and reports on the scope of HWT. An estimated 33.0% of the households (1.1 billion people) in these countries report treating their drinking water at home. The practice is widespread in the Western Pacific (66.8%) and Southeast Asia (45.4%) regions, and it is less common in the Eastern Mediterranean (13.6%) and Africa (18.2%). Boiling is the most dominant method with 21.0% of the study households (598 million people) using the method. Despite being at higher risk of waterborne disease because of lower coverage of improved water sources, African and rural households are less likely to practice HWT or use microbiologically adequate methods. Validation of the household surveys and further analysis of these data could help optimize HWT practices. PMID:20134007

  6. Does modifying the household food budget predict changes in the healthfulness of purchasing choices among low- and high-income women?

    PubMed

    Inglis, Victoria; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2009-04-01

    Food cost has a strong influence on food purchases and given that persons of low income often have more limited budgets, healthier foods may be overlooked in favour of more energy-dense lower-cost options. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modifications to the available household food budget led to changes in the healthfulness of food purchasing choices among women of low and high income. A quasi-experimental design was used which included a sample of 74 women (37 low-income women and 37 high-income women) who were selected on the basis of their household income and sent an itemised shopping list in order to calculate their typical weekly household shopping expenditure. The women were also asked to indicate those foods they would add to their list if they were given an additional 25% of their budget to spend on food and those foods they would remove if they were restricted by 25% of their budget. When asked what foods they would add with a larger household food budget, low-income women chose more foods from the 'healthier' categories whereas high-income women chose more foods from the less 'healthier' categories. However, making the budgets of low- and high-income women more 'equivalent' did not eradicate income differences in overall healthfulness of food purchasing choices. This study highlights the importance of cost when making food purchasing choices among low- and high-income groups. Public health strategies aimed at reducing income inequalities in diet might focus on promoting healthy diets that are low cost. PMID:19013206

  7. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    PubMed

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. PMID:19961886

  8. Fairness of Financial Contribution in Iranian Health System: Trend Analysis of National Household Income and Expenditure, 2003-2010

    PubMed Central

    Fazaeli, Amir Abbas; Seyedin, Hesam; Moghaddam, Abbas Vosoogh; Delavari, Alireza; Salimzadeh, H.; Varmazyar, Hasan; Fazaeli, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social systems are dealing with the challenge of achieving fairness in the distribution of financial burden and protecting the risk of financial loss. The purpose of this paper is to present a trend analysis for the indicators related to fairness in healthcare’s financial burden in rural and urban population of Iran during the eight years period of 2003 to 2010. Methods: We used the information gathered by statistical center of Iran through sampling processes for the household income and expenditures. The indicators of fairness in financial contribution of healthcare were calculated based on the WHO recommended methodology. The indices trend analysis of eight-year period for the rural, urban areas and the country level were computed. Results: This study shows that in Iran the fairness of financial contribution index during the eight-year period has been decreased from 0.841 in 2003 to above 0.827 in 2010 and The percentage of people with catastrophic health expenditures has been increased from 2.3% to above 3.1%. The ratio of total treatment costs to the household overall capacity to pay has been increased from 0.055 to 0.068 and from 0.072 to 0.0818 in urban and rural areas respectively. Conclusion: There is a decline in fairness of financial contribution index during the study period. While, a trend stability of the proportion of households who suffered catastrophic health expenditures was found. PMID:26156920

  9. Factors Influencing Household Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Debbi, Stanistreet; Elisa, Puzzolo; Nigel, Bruce; Dan, Pope; Eva, Rehfuess

    2014-01-01

    Household burning of solid fuels in traditional stoves is detrimental to health, the environment and development. A range of improved solid fuel stoves (IS) are available but little is known about successful approaches to dissemination. This qualitative systematic review aimed to identify factors that influence household uptake of IS in low- and middle-income countries. Extensive searches were carried out and studies were screened and extracted using established systematic review methods. Fourteen qualitative studies from Asia, Africa and Latin-America met the inclusion criteria. Thematic synthesis was used to synthesise data and findings are presented under seven framework domains. Findings relate to user and stakeholder perceptions and highlight the importance of cost, good stove design, fuel and time savings, health benefits, being able to cook traditional dishes and cleanliness in relation to uptake. Creating demand, appropriate approaches to business, and community involvement, are also discussed. Achieving and sustaining uptake is complex and requires consideration of a broad range of factors, which operate at household, community, regional and national levels. Initiatives aimed at IS scale up should include quantitative evaluations of effectiveness, supplemented with qualitative studies to assess factors affecting uptake, with an equity focus. PMID:25123070

  10. Health in Household Context: Living Arrangements and Health in Late Middle Age*

    PubMed Central

    HUGHES, MARY ELIZABETH; WAITE, LINDA J.

    2005-01-01

    People living in some arrangements show better health than persons in other living arrangements. Recent prospective studies document higher mortality among persons living in particular types of households. We extend this research by examining the influence of household structure on health using longitudinal data. We theorize that individuals experience role-based household relations as sets of resources and demands. In certain household structures, individuals are more likely to perceive that the demands made on them outweigh the resources available to them. This perceived imbalance poses a risk to individual health. We test our expectations by analyzing the relationship between living arrangements and health using data from waves 1 and 2 of the Health and Retirement Study. We focus on persons ages 51–61 and explore gender differences. We find prospective links between household structure and self-rated health, mobility limitation, and depressive symptoms. Married couples living alone or with children only are the most advantaged; single women living with children appear disadvantaged on all health outcomes. Men and women in other household types are disadvantaged on some health outcomes. Our results suggest that the social context formed by the household may be important to the social etiology of health. In addition, they qualify the well-known link between marital status and health: The effect of marital status on health depends on household context. PMID:11949193

  11. Wives' Relative Income Production and Household Male Dominance: Examining Violence among Asian American Enduring Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study integrates relative resource theory and cultural perspectives on husband-to-wife authority to examine male-to-female physical violence reported by Asian American wives in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Findings indicated that the association between marital violence and male household dominance is complicated by women's…

  12. Household Food Insecurity Is Not Associated with BMI for Age or Weight for Height among Brazilian Children Aged 0–60 Months

    PubMed Central

    Kac, Gilberto; Schlüssel, Michael M.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Velásquez-Melendez, Gustavo; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI), weight for height z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z) in a representative sample of children 0–60 months of age (n = 3,433) in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006–07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (ß coefficients and 95% CI) taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%), born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9%) and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%). The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119) and WHZ (P = 0.198). Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.19, 95% CI: −0.35 - −0.03, P = 0.047), and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.26, 95% CI: −0.42 - −0.09, P = 0.009). Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0–60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0–60 months. PMID:23029220

  13. Some Effects of Sex, Age, and Household Structure on Family Drawings of Barbadian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Monica A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of the family drawings of a nonclinical sample of 502 Barbadian children ages 7-11. Reveals a correlation among sex, age, and household structure and the inclusion or omission of figures, as well as the size and positioning of the figures of parent and self. (MJP)

  14. KEROSENE: A REVIEW OF HOUSEHOLD USES AND THEIR HAZARDS IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Smith, Kirk R.; Gauthier, Alison; Bates, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Kerosene has been an important household fuel since the mid-19th century. In developed countries its use has greatly declined because of electrification. However, in developing countries, kerosene use for cooking and lighting remains widespread. This review focuses on household kerosene uses, mainly in developing countries, their associated emissions, and their hazards. Kerosene is often advocated as a cleaner alternative to solid fuels, biomass and coal, for cooking, and kerosene lamps are frequently used when electricity is unavailable. Globally, an estimated 500 million households still use fuels, particularly kerosene, for lighting. However, there are few studies, study designs and quality are varied, and results are inconsistent. Well-documented kerosene hazards are poisonings, fires, and explosions. Less investigated are exposures to and risks from kerosene’s combustion products. Some kerosene-using devices emit substantial amounts of fine particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Studies of kerosene used for cooking or lighting provide some evidence that emissions may impair lung function and increase infectious illness (including tuberculosis), asthma, and cancer risks. However, there are few study designs, quality is varied, and results are inconsistent. Considering the widespread use in the developing world of kerosene, the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic investigations, the potential for harm, and the implications for national energy policies, researchers are strongly encouraged to consider collecting data on household kerosene uses in studies of health in developing countries. Given the potential risks of kerosene, policymakers may consider alternatives to kerosene subsidies, such as shifting support to cleaner technologies for lighting and cooking. PMID:22934567

  15. Energy Conservation for Low-Income Households: The Evaporative Cooler Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    An econometric analysis, using a research design based on the nonequivalent control group (NECG), assessed the effectiveness of a program offering free evaporative coolers to low-income families owning air conditioners. The NECG controls for serious threats to internal validity, except for self-selection. The program successfully reduced energy…

  16. Does Acculturation Matter?: Food Insecurity and Child Problem Behavior among Low-Income, Working Hispanic Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Kathleen S.; Zearley, Karli Kondo; Favasuli, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature has noted that in some cases, less acculturation may be protective against adverse outcomes. This study sought to clarify the relationships between acculturation, food insecurity, and child outcomes. A sample of 339 low-income participants, comprised of non-Hispanic Whites (n = 171), English-speaking Hispanics (n = 89), and…

  17. Laboratory assessment of a gravity-fed ultrafiltration water treatment device designed for household use in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Naranjo, Jaime; Frauchiger, Daniel; Gerba, Charles

    2009-05-01

    Interventions to improve water quality, particularly when deployed at the household level, are an effective means of preventing endemic diarrheal disease, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing world. We assessed the microbiologic performance of a novel water treatment device designed for household use in low-income settings. The device employs a backwashable hollow fiber ultrafiltration cartridge and is designed to mechanically remove enteric pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan cysts from drinking water without water pressure or electric power. In laboratory testing through 20,000 L (approximately 110% of design life) at moderate turbidity (15 nephelometric turbidity unit [NTU]), the device achieved log(10) reduction values of 6.9 for Escherichia coli, 4.7 for MS2 coliphage (proxy for enteric pathogenic viruses), and 3.6 for Cryptosporidium oocysts, thus exceeding levels established for microbiological water purifiers. With periodic cleaning and backwashing, the device produced treated water at an average rate of 143 mL/min (8.6 L/hour) (range 293 to 80 mL/min) over the course of the evaluation. If these results are validated in field trials, the deployment of the unit on a wide scale among vulnerable populations may make an important contribution to public health efforts to control intractable waterborne diseases. PMID:19407130

  18. A process evaluation of an intervention to promote home smoking bans among low income households.

    PubMed

    Escoffery, Cam; Bundy, Lujca; Haardoerfer, Regine; Berg, Carla J; Savas, Lara S; Williams, Rebecca S; Kegler, Michelle C

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke occurs primarily in the home due to passage of smoke-free legislation. Creation of a total household smoking ban can reduce associated health conditions such as asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and stroke. This paper describes the results of a randomized control trial of a minimal intervention to create smoke-free homes. 2-1-1 callers were invited to participate in the trial and were randomized to an intervention (mailings and a coaching call) or a control group (no intervention). We assessed reach, dose, fidelity, and receptivity to the intervention through program records and a 3-month follow-up survey with intervention participants. For the intervention materials, materials were mailed to 244 participants (99.2%) and 227 participants (92.3%) received the coaching call intervention. 92.3% received all intervention components. Participants who had full household bans at 3 months were more likely to conduct behaviors leading to a smoke-free home (i.e., making a list of reasons, having a family talk, posting a pledge) than were those with no/partial ban. The intervention materials also were rated higher in relevance and usefulness by non-smokers than smokers. Results demonstrate that this minimal intervention had high fidelity to the delivery of components and relatively high receptivity. PMID:26795538

  19. Short communication: black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Coull, Brent A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25-64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003-2004-2008-2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position. PMID:24704809

  20. Short-term and long-term associations between household wealth and physical growth: a cross-comparative analysis of children from four low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Aditi; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jong-koo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Perkins, Jessica M.; Heo, Jongho; Ro, Young Sun; Subramanian, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stunting, a form of anthropometric failure, disproportionately affects children in developing countries with a higher burden on children living in poverty. How early life deprivation affects physical growth over various life stages is less well-known. Objective We investigate the short- and long-run associations between household wealth in early life with physical growth in childhood in four low- and middle-income countries to understand the persistent implications of early life conditions of poverty and resource constraints on physical growth. Design Longitudinal study of eight cohorts of children in four countries – Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam (n=10,016) – ages 6 months to 15 years, using data from the Young Lives project, 2002–2009. Physical growth outcomes are standardized height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) and stunting. The key exposure is household wealth measured at baseline using a wealth index, an asset-based indicator. Covariates include child's age and sex, caregiver's educational status, household size, and place of residence. Results Baseline wealth index is significantly associated with higher physical growth rates as suggested by higher HAZ and lower odds of stunting. We found these associations in all four countries, for younger and older cohorts and for children who experienced changes in living standards. For the older cohort, despite the timing of the first survey at age 7–8 years, which is beyond the critical period of 1,000 days, there are lasting influences of early poverty, even for those who experienced changes in wealth. Conclusions Household wealth in early life matters for physical growth with conditions of poverty and deprivation influencing growth faltering even beyond the 1,000 days window. The influences of early childhood poverty, so prevalent among children in low- and middle-income countries, must be addressed by policies and programs targeting early life but also focusing on older children experiencing growth

  1. What are the economic consequences for households of illness and of paying for health care in low- and middle-income country contexts?

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Diane; Thiede, Michael; Dahlgren, Göran; Whitehead, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of a critical review of studies carried out in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) focusing on the economic consequences for households of illness and health care use. These include household level impacts of direct costs (medical treatment and related financial costs), indirect costs (productive time losses resulting from illness) and subsequent household responses. It highlights that health care financing strategies that place considerable emphasis on out-of-pocket payments can impoverish households. There is growing evidence of households being pushed into poverty or forced into deeper poverty when faced with substantial medical expenses, particularly when combined with a loss of household income due to ill-health. Health sector reforms in LMICs since the late 1980s have particularly focused on promoting user fees for public sector health services and increasing the role of the private for-profit sector in health care provision. This has increasingly placed the burden of paying for health care on individuals experiencing poor health. This trend seems to continue even though some countries and international organisations are considering a shift away from their previous pro-user fee agenda. Research into alternative health care financing strategies and related mechanisms for coping with the direct and indirect costs of illness is urgently required to inform the development of appropriate social policies to improve access to essential health services and break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty. PMID:16099574

  2. Division of Household Labor and the Well-Being of Retirement-Aged Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Darlene L.; Bengtson, Vern L.

    1995-01-01

    A model specifying that certain subjective beliefs and structural conditions affect the symbolic meaning wives give to their household labor divisions was tested on 144 retirement-age married women. Results indicate that wives perceive less spousal support when housework divisions are more unequal, and that this lack of spousal support leads to…

  3. Housing Quality of U.S. Elderly Households: Does Aging in Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golant, Stephan M.; LaGreca, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Investigates whether older people who have lived longer in their dwellings are more likely to occupy physically deficient accommodations. Overall, of the 12,859 aged 60-and-older households analyzed, length of residence was poor predictor of housing quality, only certain subgroups of longtime dwellers were more likely to occupy physically…

  4. Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin

    2010-11-30

    The potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops on income, poverty and nutrition in developing countries continue to be the subject of public controversy. Here, a review of the evidence is given. As an example of a first-generation GM technology, the effects of insect-resistant Bt cotton are analysed. Bt cotton has already been adopted by millions of small-scale farmers, in India, China, and South Africa among others. On average, farmers benefit from insecticide savings, higher effective yields and sizeable income gains. Insights from India suggest that Bt cotton is employment generating and poverty reducing. As an example of a second-generation technology, the likely impacts of beta-carotene-rich Golden Rice are analysed from an ex ante perspective. Vitamin A deficiency is a serious nutritional problem, causing multiple adverse health outcomes. Simulations for India show that Golden Rice could reduce related health problems significantly, preventing up to 40,000 child deaths every year. These examples clearly demonstrate that GM crops can contribute to poverty reduction and food security in developing countries. To realise such social benefits on a larger scale requires more public support for research targeted to the poor, as well as more efficient regulatory and technology delivery systems. PMID:20643233

  5. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects. PMID:25317118

  6. Evidence on access to medicines for chronic diseases from household surveys in five low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Vialle-Valentin, Catherine E; Serumaga, Brian; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 United Nations (UN) General Assembly Political Declaration on Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) brought NCDs to the global health agenda. Essential medicines are central to treating chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Our study aimed to quantify access to essential medicines for people with chronic conditions in five low- and middle-income countries and to evaluate how household socioeconomic status and perceptions about medicines availability and affordability influence access. We analysed data for 1867 individuals with chronic diseases from national surveys (Ghana, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines and Uganda) conducted in 2007-10 using a standard World Health Organization (WHO) methodology to measure medicines access and use. We defined individuals as having access to medicines if they reported regularly taking medicine for a diagnosed chronic disease and data collectors found a medicine indicated for that disease in their homes. We used logistic regression models accounting for the clustered survey design to investigate determinants of keeping medicines at home and predictors of access to medicines for chronic diseases. Less than half of individuals previously diagnosed with a chronic disease had access to medicines for their condition in every country, from 16% in Uganda to 49% in Jordan. Other than reporting a chronic disease, higher household socioeconomic level was the most significant predictor of having any medicines available at home. The likelihood of having access to medicines for chronic diseases was higher for those with medicines insurance coverage [highest adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.12 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.38, 7.07)] and lower for those with past history of borrowing money to pay for medicines [lowest adjusted OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.92)]. Our study documents poor access to essential medicines for chronic conditions in five resource-constrained settings. It highlights the importance of

  7. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P < .05). Significant differences across subgroups existed for prevalence of overweight or obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. PMID:26603573

  8. Perceived benefits and challenges for low-income mothers of having family meals with preschool-aged children: childhood memories matter.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Khushi; Herman, Allison N; Wright, Gretchen; Bruton, Yasmeen; Fisher, Jennifer O; Whitaker, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Eating regular family meals is associated with a lower risk of obesity among preschool-aged children. Children in lower-income households are at higher risk for obesity, but there is little information about their mothers' perceptions of family meals, and such information could improve nutrition counseling. To identify the perceived benefits and challenges of having family meals, four focus groups were conducted with 20 mothers of preschool-aged children living in low-income households in Philadelphia, PA. Three authors independently analyzed verbatim transcripts using an inductive method of open coding, and themes were established by consensus among all authors. Of the 20 mothers, 18 were black, 11 had education beyond high school, and 12 were living with an adult partner or husband. Mothers' strong childhood memories of mealtimes, both negative and positive, motivated them to have family meals because of the opportunities afforded by mealtimes to build strong relationships with their children. However, mothers also described needing help, especially from other household adults, in preparing meals and establishing calm and order with their children during mealtimes. To identify what motivates the mothers of low-income, preschool-aged children to have family meals, registered dietitians can benefit from asking about the mothers' own childhood experiences of family meals. Studies are needed to examine whether such an approach to identifying maternal motivations, when combined with practical advice about overcoming challenges with meal preparation and managing children's mealtime behavior, could lead to more frequent and nutritious family meals in this population. PMID:24144074

  9. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  10. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  11. Do Age-Friendly Characteristics Influence the Expectation to Age in Place? A Comparison of Low-Income and Higher Income Detroit Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lehning, Amanda J.; Smith, Richard J.; Dunkle, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place. PMID:24652879

  12. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  13. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, James P.; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Sharma, Narottam D.; Woodruff, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0–35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana’s rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana’s anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana’s public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  14. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  15. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  16. Changes in the carbon footprint of Japanese households in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Shigetomi, Yosuke; Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Tohno, Susumu

    2014-06-01

    As the aging and low birthrate trends continue in Japan, and as changes in the working population and consumption patterns occur, new factors are expected to have an impact on consumption-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We present the impacts of changes in the composition of Japanese households on GHG emission structures using current (2005) consumption-based accounting on the commodity sectors that are expected to require priority efforts for reducing emissions in 2035. This is done using the Global Link Input-Output model (GLIO) and domestic household consumption data and assuming that recent detailed consumption expenditures based on the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) will continue into the future. The results show that consumption-based GHG emissions derived from Japanese household consumption in 2035 are estimated to be 1061 Mt-CO2eq (4.2% lower than in 2005). This study can be used to reveal more information and as a resource in developing policies to more meticulously and efficiently reduce emissions based on emission and import rates for each domestic and overseas commodity supply chain. PMID:24798825

  17. Household income disparities in fruit and vegetable consumption by state and territory: results of the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Kirsten A; Foltz, Jennifer L; Blanck, Heidi M; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2012-12-01

    Few studies take into account the influence of family size on household resources when assessing income disparities in fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption. Poverty income ratio (PIR) is a measure that utilizes both reported income and household size. We sought to examine state-specific disparities in meeting Healthy People 2010 objectives for F/V consumption by percent PIR. This analysis included 353,005 adults in 54 states and territories reporting data to the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in the United States. Percent PIR was calculated using the midpoint of self-reported income range and family size. The prevalences consuming at least two fruits and at least three vegetables per day were examined by percent PIR (<130% [greatest poverty], 130% to <200%, 200% to <400%, and ≥ 400% [least poverty]). The percent of adults consuming vegetables at least three times daily was significantly lower (21.3%) among those living at greatest poverty (<130% PIR) compared with 30.7% among those with least poverty (≥ 400% PIR). Daily consumption of vegetables at least three times was significantly lower among those with greatest poverty in a majority of states and territories surveyed (43 of 54). The overall percent of adults consuming fruits at least 2 times daily was also lower among those living at greatest vs least poverty, but the difference was smaller (32.0% vs 34.2%), with 14 states reporting a difference that was significantly lower among those with greatest poverty. Our study revealed that in 2009 a significantly lower proportion of US adults living at greatest poverty consumed fruits at least two times daily or vegetables at least three times daily compared with those with the least poverty, with greater disparity in vegetable intake. Policy and environmental strategies for increased affordability, access, availability, and point-of-decision information are approaches that may help disparate households purchase and consume F/V. PMID:23174688

  18. Effect of Using a Poverty Definition Based on Household Income. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Jack; And Others

    This technical report describes the impact that a definition of poverty based on the household unit, instead of on the currently used family unit, would have on the status of unrelated individuals and on the status of those family members who live in a household in which unrelated individuals are present. This information is based on a special…

  19. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A.; Cohen, Daniel D.; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food. PMID:24514426

  20. Going beyond the surface: gendered intra-household bargaining as a social determinant of child health and nutrition in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Richards, Esther; Theobald, Sally; George, Asha; Kim, Julia C; Rudert, Christiane; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    A growing body of research highlights the importance of gendered social determinants of child health, such as maternal education and women's status, for mediating child survival. This narrative review of evidence from diverse low and middle-income contexts (covering the period 1970-May 2012) examines the significance of intra-household bargaining power and process as gendered dimensions of child health and nutrition. The findings focus on two main elements of bargaining: the role of women's decision-making power and access to and control over resources; and the importance of household headship, structure and composition. The paper discusses the implications of these findings in the light of lifecycle and intersectional approaches to gender and health. The relative lack of published intervention studies that explicitly consider gendered intra-household bargaining is highlighted. Given the complex mechanisms through which intra-household bargaining shapes child health and nutrition it is critical that efforts to address gender in health and nutrition programming are thoroughly documented and widely shared to promote further learning and action. There is scope to develop links between gender equity initiatives in areas of adult and adolescent health, and child health and nutrition programming. Child health and nutrition interventions will be more effective, equitable and sustainable if they are designed based on gender-sensitive information and continually evaluated from a gender perspective. PMID:22809796

  1. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  2. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5–15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT. PMID:26688747

  3. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  4. Income and heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Design Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Setting Saskatchewan. Participants A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Main outcome measures Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. Results The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Conclusion Household

  5. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  6. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  7. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  8. Determinants of Thailand household healthcare expenditure: the relevance of permanent resources and other correlates.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Albert A; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Benson, David A

    2010-03-01

    Several papers in the leading health economics journals modeled the determinants of healthcare expenditure using household survey or family budgets data of developed countries. Past work largely used self-reported current income as the core determinant, whereas the theoretically correct concept of household resource constraint is permanent or long-run income (á lá Milton Friedman). This paper strives to rectify the theoretical oversight of using current income by augmenting the model with household asset. Using longitudinal data, we constructed 'wealth index' as a distinct covariate to capture the households' tendency to liquidate assets when defraying necessary healthcare liabilities after exhausting cash incomes. (Current income and assets together capture the household expanded resource base). Using 98 632 household observations from Thailand Socio-Economic Surveys (1994-2000 biennial data cycles) we found, using a double-hurdle model with dependent errors, that out-of-pocket healthcare spending behaves as a technical necessity across income quintiles and household sizes. Pre-1997 economic shock income elasticities are smaller than the post-shock estimates across income quintiles for large and small households. Proximity to death, median age, and assets are also among other significant determinants. Our novel findings extend the theoretical consistency of a multi-level decision model in household healthcare expenditure in the developing Asian country context. PMID:19405046

  9. [Population aging and health information from the National Household Sample Survey: contemporary demands and challenges. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Veras, Renato

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the new demographic and epidemiological reality in Brazil, based on data collected and organized in the Health Supplement of the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD-Health). It highlights the urgency of changes and innovations in health care paradigms for the elderly population with a preventive approach based on comprehensive education and care. As key concepts, the article emphasizes the need to preserve autonomy, participation, care, self-satisfaction, and the possibility of elder citizens being active in various social contexts. It also discusses the contribution by various authors to the discussion forum on Human Aging and the National Household Sample Surveys, coordinated by Cadernos de Saúde Pública/Reports in Public Health, featuring studies on access to and utilization of health services by the elderly, the epidemiological pattern of breast cancer in elderly women, and the validity of using proxy respondents in research on self-perceived health status, concluding that the PNAD data are consistent and can be used by the scientific community. PMID:17891305

  10. Food discard practices of householders.

    PubMed

    Van Garde, S J; Woodburn, M J

    1987-03-01

    Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252

  11. Lung cancer treatment is influenced by income, education, age and place of residence in a country with universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Yngvar; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Fjellbirkeland, Lars; Bartnes, Kristian; Brustugun, Odd Terje; O'Connell, Dianne L; Yu, Xue Qin; Møller, Bjørn

    2016-03-15

    Selection of lung cancer treatment should be based on tumour characteristics, physiological reserves and preferences of the patient. Our aims were to identify and quantify other factors associated with treatment received. Lung cancer patient data from 2002 to 2011 were obtained from the national population-based Cancer Registry of Norway, Statistics Norway and the Norwegian Patient Register. Multivariable logistic regression examined whether year of diagnosis, age, sex, education, income, health trust, smoking status, extent of disease, histology and comorbidities were associated with choice of treatment; surgery or radical or palliative radiotherapy, within 1 year of diagnosis. Among the 24,324 lung cancer patients identified, the resection rate remained constant while the proportion of radical radiotherapy administered increased from 8.6 to 14.1%. Older patients, those with lower household incomes and certain health trusts were less likely to receive any treatment. Lower education and the male gender were identified as negative predictors for receiving surgery. Smoking history was positively associated with both radical and palliative radiotherapy, while comorbidity and symptoms were independently associated with receiving surgery and palliative radiotherapy. Although Norway is a highly egalitarian country with a free, universal healthcare system, this study indicates that surgery and radical and palliative radiotherapy were under-used among the elderly, those with a lower socioeconomic status and those living in certain health trusts. PMID:26421593

  12. Basic Facts on College-Going Rates by Income, Race, Sex, and Age, 1970 to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol

    Data on the income, race, sex, and age of college students from 1970 to 1980 are presented, and policy implications of the trends are considered. The most significant finding is that the college-going rates for full-time students from the lowest incomes (under $5,000) increased measurably (9.5 percent in 1974 to 14.3 percent in 1980). The…

  13. Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school-aged children.

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, K; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A; Briefel, R R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between family income, food insufficiency, and health among US preschool and school-aged children. METHODS: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Children were classified as food insufficient if the family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. Regression analyses were conducted with health measures as the outcome variables. Prevalence rates of health variables were compared by family income category, with control for age and gender. Odds ratios for food insufficiency were calculated with control for family income and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Low-income children had a higher prevalence of poor/fair health status and iron deficiency than high-income children. After confounding factors, including poverty status, had been controlled, food-insufficient children were significantly more likely to have poorer health status and to experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than food-sufficient children; preschool food-insufficient children had more frequent colds. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency and low family income are health concerns for US preschool and school-aged children. PMID:11344887

  14. Parents’ Incomes and Children's Outcomes: A Quasi-Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Akee, Randall K.Q.; Copeland, William E.; Keeler, Gordon; Angold, Adrian; Costello, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the role that an exogenous increase in household income due to a government transfer unrelated to household characteristics plays in children's long run outcomes. Children in affected households have higher levels of education in their young adulthood and a lower incidence of criminality for minor offenses. Effects differ by initial household poverty status. An additional $4000 per year for the poorest households increases educational attainment by one year at age 21 and reduces having ever committed a minor crime by 22% at ages 16−17. Our evidence suggests that improved parental quality is a likely mechanism for the change. PMID:20582231

  15. HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION FROM INDOOR PEST CONTROL APPLICATIONS IN URBAN LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING DWELLINGS: A COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

    2013-01-01

    We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results in order to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 µg/m2, respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market, however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children’s bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls. PMID:23363037

  16. Household pesticide contamination from indoor pest control applications in urban low-income public housing dwellings: a community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chensheng; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen R; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

    2013-02-19

    We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 μg/m(2), respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market; however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children's bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls. PMID:23363037

  17. Sense of Community within Oxford House Recovery Housing: Impact of Resident Age and Income.

    PubMed

    Graham, B C; Jason, L A; Ferrari, J F

    2009-01-01

    The experience of psychological sense of community (PSOC) can play an important role in the substance abuse recovery process. This study explored the relationship between PSOC and setting-level variables of age and income amongst residents living in Oxford House, a communal, self-governed recovery housing model (n = 70). Age and income variables were not related to an overall PSOC or components such as shared common mission or feelings of reciprocal responsibility. However, both age and income variables were significant predictors of the harmony felt within these houses. The role that PSOC may play in recovery facilities and other co-housing arrangements was discussed, and implications for future research and application were outlined. PMID:20657670

  18. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1) prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2) use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3) be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1) being nagged by children’s food requests, 2) being undermined by other

  19. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  20. Food insufficiency in the households of reproductive-age Ecuadorian women: association with food and nutritional status indicators.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Maria Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of Ecuadorian households with reproductive-aged women (n = 10,784) were used to analyze the prevalence of household food insufficiency (HFI) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, food acquisition and expenditure patterns, dietary diversity, and anthropometric indicators. Fifteen percent of households had food insufficiency and 15% had marginal food sufficiency. HFI was associated with poverty-linked indicators. Marginally food sufficient households reported social and economic capital than food which appeared protective against HFI. Food insufficiency was associated with reduced household acquisition/expenditures on high quality protein and micronutrient-rich food sources. HFI was not associated with adult or adolescent female overweight/obesity but was associated with short adult stature (< 1.45 m). The ongoing nutrition transition in Ecuador is expected to continue to modify population food security, diet, and nutrition. Systematic surveillance of household level food security is needed to inform recent food-related policies and programs implemented by the Ecuadorian government. PMID:25347579

  1. Serving low income households in a competitive environment: It's a tough job, but someone's got to do it

    SciTech Connect

    Kushler, M.G.; Malinowski, J.P.; Hall, N.P.

    1998-07-01

    In the brave new world of a more competitive electricity market, low income customers are destined to be the forgotten market segment. Given the endemic challenges of minimal incomes, high turnover, payment problems, security risks, etc., this is the last place where ambitious power marketers (or the new competitively oriented utilities) are going to look for profits. Consequently, whereas private sector research devoted to potentially profitable segments of the residential market has picked up speed (especially regarding those higher socio-economic status early adopter types who participate in pilot programs), little or no market research has been focused on the low income population. The only trouble with this scenario is that the problem of needing to serve low income customers is not going to disappear after deregulation. If anything, it will likely intensify. In recognition of these circumstances, the purpose of this paper is to focus attention on the issue of providing energy efficiency services to low income customers in a restructured electricity market. The vehicle for doing so is to present some highlight results of an extensive sequence of research focused on the low income area, conducted for the Detroit Edison Evaluation Collaborative. This research includes an evaluation of a rather innovative in-home education and energy efficiency program operated by Detroit Edison, together with what the authors believe to be an unprecedented investigation and market assessment of the low income customer population of that major Midwestern utility. The paper then concludes with some more general observations regarding the need for and feasibility of providing energy efficiency services to this customer segment.

  2. The Relationship between Type D Personality and Suicidality in Low-Income, Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and educational attainment, were gathered. Beck's 19-item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) was applied to evaluate suicidality, and the DS14 was used to assess type D personality. Results Unemployment (p<0.01) and absence of spouse (p=0.03) predicted higher SSI scores independent of other socioeconomic factors. All type D personality scores [i.e., negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and total score] predicted higher SSI scores independent of all socioeconomic factors (all, p<0.001). Subjects with type D personality had higher SSI scores (p<0.001), and the association between suicidality and socio-demographic factors (employment or physical health) could be found only in subjects without type D personality. Conclusion Type D personality was a risk factor for suicide in low-income Koreans, independently from socio-economic factors. In addition, the socio-demographic factors were less prominently associated with suicidality in those with type D personality. PMID:25670941

  3. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R

    2016-08-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5-14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20-29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5-9 (0.70), 10-14 (0.64), and 15-19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2-4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5-19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  4. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5–14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  5. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... public retirement system income. 1.37-3 Section 1.37-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... age 65 who have public retirement system income. (a) In general. This section provides rules for the... includes retirement income within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section (i.e., under a...

  6. Measles Vaccination Coverage among Latino Children Aged 12 to 59 Months in Los Angeles County: A Household Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Donnell P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the results of a household survey of measles vaccination coverage among Hispanic American children aged 12 to 59 months. Between 81 percent and 91 percent of the children have been vaccinated, a percentage insufficient to stop the high rate of measles transmission within this population. Recommends that public health efforts be focused on…

  7. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  8. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  9. 78 FR 28597 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... regulations were published in the Federal Register on March 3, 1988, (53 FR 6827) and amended on October 15, 1999 (64 FR 55858). Dated: May 8, 2013. Jeannie L. Chaffin, Director, Office of Community Services... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families State Median Income Estimates for a...

  10. Colorectal cancer screening awareness and intentions among low income, sociodemographically diverse adults under age 50.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Karen; Puleo, Elaine; McNeill, Lorna H; Bennett, Gary; Chan, Sophia; Syngal, Sapna

    2008-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the US are suboptimal, particularly among lower income and racial/ethnically diverse groups. If specific populations have limited awareness of screening when they reach age 50, there may be delays in screening adoption. This study investigated sociodemographic and social contextual factors associated with awareness of CRC and intentions to be screened at age 50 among 692 low income, racial, and ethnic minority adults living in low income housing. The majority of respondents (62%) were between ages 30 and 49, and 94% had some form of health insurance (e.g., Medicaid). About 70% reported having heard about CRC screening; 66% reported intentions to be screened at age 50. In multivariable analyses, screening awareness was associated with age and education. Immigrants who had English as a second language had lower awareness. Females tended to have higher awareness if they had private insurance; there were no differences among males. Multivariable analyses found that screening intentions were higher among men, those with more role responsibilities, more role conflicts, and higher levels of social cohesion. It is important to identify opportunities for maximizing screening uptake among those who become age-eligible for screening if we are to make a significant impact on CRC disparities. PMID:18478340

  11. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. PMID:24984907

  12. Household Crowding and Food Insecurity Among Inuit Families With School-Aged Children in the Canadian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Ayotte, Pierre; Riva, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation of household crowding to food insecurity among Inuit families with school-aged children in Arctic Quebec. Methods. We analyzed data collected between October 2005 and February 2010 from 292 primary caregiver–child dyads from 14 Inuit communities. We collected information about household conditions, food security, and family socioeconomic characteristics by interviews. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between household crowding and food insecurity. Results. Nearly 62% of Inuit families in the Canadian Arctic resided in more crowded households, placing them at risk for food insecurity. About 27% of the families reported reducing the size of their children’s meals because of lack of money. The likelihood of reducing the size of children’s meals was greater in crowded households (odds ratio = 3.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.12). After we adjusted for different socioeconomic characteristics, results remained statistically significant. Conclusions. Interventions operating across different levels (community, regional, national) are needed to ensure food security in the region. Targeting families living in crowded conditions as part of social and public health policies aiming to reduce food insecurity in the Arctic could be beneficial. PMID:25602890

  13. Liminality and low-income aging families by choice: meanings of family and support.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Susan; Gazso, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Through the lens of individualization, aging families demonstrate changes both in family composition and in meanings of family and support. So, also, do low-income families that - in order to survive - choose flexible, sometimes novel, social-support relations, including kin and non-kin: these are aging families by choice. Applying the concept of liminality (transitional states of being) created through individualization, we explored the experiences of close relations in low-income families consisting of aging kin and non-kin members. Qualitative interviews with respondents representing two or three generations of aging families of choice illustrated how these families perceive the meanings of family and social support. We find that reciprocity is less vital to relationships of older with younger members in familial networks than may be expected. Liminality contours meanings and exchanges in low-income aging families of choice such that no matter how tenuous relations may be, they provide a sense of belonging and meaning. PMID:25298078

  14. [Changes in employment, retirement age and fertility: their effects on economic dependency and per capita income].

    PubMed

    Bravo, J H

    1991-04-01

    This article provides a very simplified analysis of the impact of changes in unemployment, retirement age, and fertility on economic dependency and per capita income in Latin America. The macroeconomic consequences of variations in age structure have received a little recent attention among Latin American researchers and policymakers, partly because of the lack of simple but rigorous analytical models to orient research. This analysis is simplified in that it focuses on changes in age distribution but does not explicitly consider effects of changes in population size, even though in reality the 2 types of changes are interrelated. The analysis has also been simplified by not taking into account any type of causal interaction between the demographic and economic variables analyzed; only the most elementary accounting relations between them are utilized. The 1st section defines the concept of economic dependency, specifies the effects of changes in its demographic and economic components, and establishes a simple link between the dependency ratio and per capita income. These and other derivations in the following sections permit evaluation of the impact of changes in employment, retirement age, and fertility on the dependency ratio and per capita income. The work concludes with a synthesis and general discussion, including a theoretical consideration of the effects of interactions among components. Only the most important equations are presented in the main text, but all variables, equations, and relations are defined and derived in the appendix. 6 countries were studied to illustrate the relationships in the context of the demographic diversity of Latin America. Argentina and Cuba represented countries in an advanced stage of the demographic transition, Chile and Mexico represented an intermediate phase, and Bolivia and Peru represented countries at the beginning of the transition. Results of decomposition of changes in dependency and income due to each of the

  15. Involuntary Underemployment Among Heads of Households. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Timothy

    Utilizing a data file extracted from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center's Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examines the work experiences of a national sample of non-aged heads of households. This data source, which describes heads of households and structural characteristics of labor markets, is unique in that…

  16. 20 CFR 416.1866 - Deciding whether you are a child: Are you the head of a household?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416... basis is the head of his or her own household. Who Is Considered a Student for Purposes of the...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1866 - Deciding whether you are a child: Are you the head of a household?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416... basis is the head of his or her own household. Who Is Considered a Student for Purposes of the...

  18. Use of an Income-Equivalence Scale to Understand Age-Related Changes in Financial Strain

    PubMed Central

    FRANCOEUR, RICHARD BENOIT

    2007-01-01

    Income-equivalence scales (IES) provide distinct advantages over poverty indices to adjust family income for differences in family size, including improved specification of hypothesized causal relationships involving objective measures of economic well-being. In a novel IES application, cancer patients' out-of-pocket health costs are adjusted for differences in family income and size and, along with five other subindices, contribute to an overall index of “objective family financial stress.” Age-related changes are modeled simultaneously within relationships between overall objective family financial stress and subjective patient perceptions about financial strain. Among the findings, the impact of age on one area of subjective financial strain, “difficulty paying bills,” is negative and curvilinear. Regardless of adjusted out-of-pocket costs, as age advances, patients appear increasingly likely to accommodate to financial stress by reporting less difficulty paying bills. This phenomenon could serve to mask and isolate older adults who are foregoing needed yet unaffordable medical care and prescriptions. PMID:18443643

  19. A multilevel analysis of the effects of neighbourhood income inequality on individual self-rated health in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Irene O L; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lo, Su-Vui; Leung, Gabriel M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect on self-rated health of neighbourhood-level income inequality in Hong Kong, which has a high and growing Gini coefficient. Data were derived from two population household surveys in 2002 and 2005 of 25,623 and 24,610 non-institutional residents aged 15 or over. We estimated neighbourhood-level Gini coefficients in each of 287 Government Planning Department Tertiary Planning Units. We used multilevel regression analysis to assess the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual self-perceived health status. After adjustment for both individual- and household-level predictors, there was no association between neighbourhood income inequality, median household income or household-level income and self-rated health. We tested for but did not find any statistical interaction between these three income-related exposures. These findings suggest that neighbourhood income inequality is not an important predictor of individual health status in Hong Kong. PMID:18995943

  20. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  1. Scope sensitivity in households' willingness to pay for maintained and improved water supplies in a developing world urban area: Investigating the influence of baseline supply quality and income distribution upon stated preferences in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto Montes de Oca, Gloria; Bateman, Ian J.

    2006-07-01

    We present the first assessment of willingness to pay (WTP) for water supply change to be conducted in the largest city in the developing world: Mexico City. Two large sample contingent valuation surveys are conducted to investigate WTP for two levels of water service quality: maintenance of or improvement over current provision levels. This study design permits one of the first tests of the "scope sensitivity" of WTP responses to different levels of baseline supply provision. This testing is complicated within the present case because as our study confirms, higher-income households typically enjoy better levels of current provision, while poorer households generally endure lower current standards of water supply. We incorporate this heterogeneity of service and correlation with income within a suite of novel scope sensitivity tests. These confirm prior expectations that richer households enjoying higher baseline service levels would prefer programs to maintain the status quo, while poorer households enduring lower initial quality of service would prefer schemes which improve the quality of supplies. The implications of these findings are further investigated by contrasting conventional benefit-cost analysis aggregation procedures with an equity weighting approach which confirms the difference in priorities according to initial supply conditions. In this case, the ranking of programs changes when the ability to pay is equalized across society. In fiscal terms, aggregate WTP figures show that authorities could collect the resources necessary to fund households' preferred schemes and simultaneously substantially reduce current subsidies.

  2. What users want in e-commerce design: effects of age, education and income.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Nancy J

    2003-01-15

    Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction. PMID:12554404

  3. Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

  4. The elasticity of demand for health care in Burkina Faso: differences across age and income groups.

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Latimer, E

    1994-06-01

    Like many other developing countries, Burkina Faso has been exploring how community resources can be tapped to co-finance health services. Although revenue generation is important for the viability of health services, effects on utilization and on equity of access to health care must also be considered. The authors present a logistic regression model to derive price elasticities of demand for health care based on cross-sectional survey data. While demand for health care appears inelastic overall (-0.79), subgroup analysis reveals differences in elasticity across age and income groups. Elasticities of demand for infants and children (-3.6 and -1.7) and for the lowest income quartile (-1.4) are substantially greater than overall elasticity. The method used is unusual in that it allows estimation of elasticities before the introduction of user fees. This increases the value of the information to policy makers. PMID:15726780

  5. Parameters of Household Composition as Demographic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data, such as Census statistics, enable the re-enactment of household lifecourse through the construction of the household composition matrix, a tabulation of persons in households by their age and by the age of their corresponding household-heads. Household lifecourse is represented in the household composition matrix somewhat…

  6. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  7. Understanding the Barriers that Reduce the Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies for Puerto Rican Women Living in Low-income Households in Ponce, PR: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, S.; Sala, A. C.; Candelaria, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been strongly felt in Hispanic/Latino communities. Estimates of AIDS prevalence among Latinos in the US reveal that just nine States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico account for 89% of the Latinos living with AIDS in 2004. Previous research reveals social and cultural factors play an important role in HIV prevention. Methods Four focus groups were conducted, with 39 women, ages 21–67, participating in the discussions. The objectives of this research were to assess knowledge regarding HIV transmission among women living in low-income households, to ascertain barriers to safe sex in this population, and to elicit opinions about effective prevention strategies. Results Our results suggest that participants recognized HIV/AIDS modes of transmission and risk behaviors, as well as their barriers to practicing safe sex. They identified promiscuity, unprotected sex, infidelity, drug and alcohol use, and sharing syringes as behaviors which would place them at risk of HIV/AIDS transmission. They specifically identified lack of negotiating skills, fear of sexual violence, partner refusal to use condoms, and lack of control over their partner’s sexual behavior as barriers to practicing safe sex. Finally results also indicate that current HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Puerto Rico are inadequate for these women. Discussion To address these issues the authors suggest cultural and social factors to be considered for the development of more effective HIV/AIDS prevention programs. PMID:18712603

  8. Socioemotional Effects of Fathers' Incarceration on Low-Income, Urban, School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Marani, Jodi E.; Appugliese, Danielle; Woods, Ryan; Siegel, Jane A.; Cabral, Howard J.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal was to evaluate whether children of incarcerated fathers are more likely to report or exhibit behavioral symptoms than their equally disadvantaged peers without an incarcerated father. METHODS During an ongoing longitudinal study of intrauterine cocaine exposure involving 102 children (50% male and 89% black) from urban, low-income homes, questions regarding incarceration of the child's father were asked of the child's primary caregiver at each visit during school age. Children were administered the Children's Depression Inventory between the ages of 6 and 11 years, and their primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In addition, the children's teachers completed the Teacher Report Form. Children's Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist, and Teacher Report Form data obtained at the oldest available age after the first report of paternal incarceration were analyzed. RESULTS In bivariate analyses, children whose fathers were in jail had higher Children's Depression Inventory total scores compared with children without incarcerated fathers, indicating more depressive symptoms. This finding was robust in multivariate analyses after adjustment for children's age, gender, prenatal cocaine and alcohol exposure, and school-age violence exposure. Teachers reported higher Teacher Report Form externalizing scores for children whose fathers were in jail, after adjustment for age, gender, prenatal cocaine and marijuana exposure, and school-age violence exposure. CONCLUSIONS Children of incarcerated fathers reported more depressive symptoms and their teachers noted more externalizing behaviors, after controlling for other biopsychosocial risks. Interventions targeted to ameliorate the distress of children with incarcerated fathers should be considered. PMID:17766508

  9. Food Patterns in an Urban Population: Age and Sociodemographic Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined age and sociodemographic differentials in food intake and eating patterns in households in a midwestern metropolitan county. Meat was the only food consumed with recommended frequency by all ages. Food intake and eating pattern differences by age remained when effects of income, education, household composition, and gender were…

  10. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  11. Trade as a structural driver of dietary risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in the Pacific: an analysis of household income and expenditure survey data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases are a health and development challenge. Pacific Island countries are heavily affected by NCDs, with diabetes and obesity rates among the highest in the world. Trade is one of multiple structural drivers of NCDs in the Pacific, but country-level data linking trade, diets and NCD risk factors are scarce. We attempted to illustrate these links in five countries. The study had three objectives: generate cross-country profiles of food consumption and expenditure patterns; highlight the main ‘unhealthy’ food imports in each country to inform targeted policymaking; and demonstrate the potential of HCES data to analyze links between trade, diets and NCD risk factors, such as obesity. Methods We used two types of data: obesity rates as reported by WHO and aggregated household-level food expenditure and consumption from Household Income and Expenditure Survey reports. We classified foods in HIES data into four categories: imported/local, ‘unhealthy’/’healthy’, nontraditional/traditional, processed/unprocessed. We generated cross-country profiles and cross-country regressions to examine the relationships between imported foods and unhealthy foods, and between imported foods and obesity. Results Expenditure on imported foods was considerable in all countries but varied across countries, with highest values in Kiribati (53%) and Tonga (52%) and lowest values in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu (30%). Rice and sugar accounted for significant amounts of imported foods in terms of expenditure and calories, ranking among the top 3 foods in most countries. We found significant or near-significant associations in expenditure and caloric intake between ‘unhealthy’ and imported foods as well as between imported foods and obesity, though inferences based on these associations should be made carefully due to data constraints. Conclusions While additional research is needed, this study supports previous findings on trade as a structural

  12. Waiting to inhale: An exploratory review of conditions that may predispose to pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure in persons exposed to household air pollution in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Lagat, David K.; Akwanalo, O. Constantine; Carter, E. Jane; Lugogo, Njira; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Velazquez, Eric J.; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Sherman, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    The health effects of exposure to household air pollution are gaining international attention. While the bulk of the known mortality estimates due to these exposures are derived from respiratory conditions, there is growing evidence of adverse cardiovascular health effects. Pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure are common conditions in low- and middle-income countries whose etiology may be related to common exposures in these regions such as schistosomiasis, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis infections and other causes. While little is known of the interplay between exposure to household air pollution, right heart function and such conditions, the large burden of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure in regions where there is significant exposure to household air pollution raises the possibility of a linkage. This review is presented in three parts. First, we explore what is known about pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure in low- and middle-income countries by focusing on eight common causes thereof. We then review what is known of the impact of household air pollution on pulmonary hypertension and posit that when individuals with one of these eight common comorbidities are exposed to household air pollution they may be predisposed to develop pulmonary hypertension or right heart failure. Lastly, we posit that there may be a direct link between exposure to household air pollution and right heart failure independent of pre-existing conditions which merits further investigation. Our overall aim is to highlight the multifactorial nature of these complex relationships and offer avenues for research in this expanding field of study. PMID:23687634

  13. Single parent households and increased child asthma morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Moncrief, Terri; Beck, Andrew F.; Simmons, Jeffrey M.; Huang, Bin; Kahn, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize whether single parent households are associated with pediatric asthma-related repeat healthcare utilization and to examine family-level psychosocial variables that may explain this relationship. Methods We analyzed a prospective cohort of 526 children aged 1–16 years hospitalized for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing whose caregivers self-reported their marital status. Those reporting being “single” were considered the at-risk category. The outcome was repeat asthma-related utilization (emergency room (ER) revisit or hospital readmission) within 12 months. We assessed, a priori, four psychosocial variables (household income, caregiver risk of psychological distress, ratio of in-home children to adults, and regular attendance at childcare or a secondary home). Results Among all children enrolled in the cohort, 40% returned to the ER or hospital for asthma within 12 months. Of all caregivers, 59% self-identified as single. Single status was significantly associated with each psychosocial variable. Children in households with lower incomes and higher ratios of children to adults were both more likely to return to the ER or hospital than children with higher incomes and lower ratios, respectively (each p<0.05). Patients in single parent households were significantly more likely to reutilize than those in married parent households (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.00–2.07, p<0.05). When adjusted for income, the relationship between single parent households and reutilization became non-significant. Conclusions Children admitted for asthma from single parent households were more likely to have asthma-related reutilization within 12 months than children from homes with married parents. This was driven, in large part, by underlying differences in household income. PMID:24320709

  14. Validity of a Job-Exposure Matrix for Psychosocial Job Stressors: Results from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey

    PubMed Central

    Milner, A.; Niedhammer, I.; Chastang, J.-F.; Spittal, M. J.; LaMontagne, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) for psychosocial job stressors allows assessment of these exposures at a population level. JEMs are particularly useful in situations when information on psychosocial job stressors were not collected individually and can help eliminate the biases that may be present in individual self-report accounts. This research paper describes the development of a JEM in the Australian context. Methods The Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey was used to construct a JEM for job control, job demands and complexity, job insecurity, and fairness of pay. Population median values of these variables for all employed people (n = 20,428) were used to define individual exposures across the period 2001 to 2012. The JEM was calculated for the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) at the four-digit level, which represents 358 occupations. Both continuous and binary exposures to job stressors were calculated at the 4-digit level. We assessed concordance between the JEM-assigned and individually-reported exposures using the Kappa statistic, sensitivity and specificity assessments. We conducted regression analysis using mental health as an outcome measure. Results Kappa statistics indicate good agreement between individually-reported and JEM-assigned dichotomous measures for job demands and control, and moderate agreement for job insecurity and fairness of pay. Job control, job demands and security had the highest sensitivity, while specificity was relatively high for the four exposures. Regression analysis shows that most individually reported and JEM measures were significantly associated with mental health, and individually-reported exposures produced much stronger effects on mental health than the JEM-assigned exposures. Discussion These JEM-based estimates of stressors exposure provide a conservative proxy for individual-level data, and can be applied to a range of health and

  15. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Glass, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L; Roth, David L

    2015-03-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (household and neighborhood conditions, using a 16-item environmental checklist and a 3-item social cohesion scale, and physical capacity with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and peak expiratory flow. Structural equation models were used to decompose total educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β = 0.055, p < 0.05) and peak flow (β = 0.095, p < 0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.013, p < 0.05), grip strength (β = 0.007, p < 0.05), and peak flow (β = 0.010, p < 0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.012, p < 0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to

  16. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Laura J.; Glass, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Roth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (household and neighborhood conditions, using a 16-item environmental checklist and a 3-item social cohesion scale, and physical capacity with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and peak expiratory flow. Structural equation models were used to decompose total educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β=0.055, p<0.05) and peak flow (β=0.095, p<0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.013, p<0.05), grip strength (β=0.007, p<0.05), and peak flow (β=0.010, p<0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.012, p<0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to support aging in place

  17. Federal Income Tax Cuts and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammartino, Frank J.

    This report identifies overall tax burdens faced by low income families, explaining how those burdens would change if certain types of federal income tax cuts were enacted. Using detailed household-level data on incomes and taxes, the report shows how federal income and payroll taxes differ for low income families and how these families benefit…

  18. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

  19. Housing for Moderate Income Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Vincent M.; Meeks, Carol B.

    1991-01-01

    Describes equity leasing, a program that enables people to acquire housing without an up-front investment but with an incentive to maintain and improve the property. Under this proposal, lessees would acquire a leasehold interest in a house and own the right to use the property for a continuously extended lease term. (JOW)

  20. Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status. PMID:21090176

  1. Commentary: irrational exuberance for the aging in place of vulnerable low-income older homeowners.

    PubMed

    Golant, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    This commentary argues that one-size-fits-all aging in place solutions will often not be in the best interests of low-income and frail older homeowners in the United States. This contrarian view runs counter to the reported preferences of this group, various private-sector activities, and U.S. public policies that are increasingly funding home and community-based care. The particular focus is on low-income elderly homeowners living in the oldest housing stock in the country who have demographic characteristics putting them at greater risk of having both unmet care and housing needs, which in turn have spillover effects on their neighborhoods. These vulnerable homeowners would be better served if they relocated to more affordable, easier to maintain, and better designed smaller owned units or rental properties or to planned affordable seniors' rental housing complexes that can offer both light and heavy care. Such residential moves are often not feasible, however, because of the shortage of these housing arrangements. PMID:19042553

  2. Modeling household behavior in developing countries: discussion.

    PubMed

    Quisumbing, A R

    1996-12-01

    A large and growing body of literature has examined how agricultural households cope with risk. Much of the work has focused on which types of households are better able to smooth consumption, testing whether households with more resources and greater access to income-smoothing institutions, such as credit markets or well-functioning labor markets exhibit greater consumption smoothing. However, income shocks may have different effects upon different individuals within households, and differences in individual ability to smooth income or consumption may have welfare consequences which go beyond foregone income. The development of collective household models challenges the assumption that individuals within households maximize a single utility function. The assumption of income pooling has also been rejected in a growing body of empirical research on intrahousehold resource allocation. However, research on risk-pooling within households and differences in individual abilities to smooth consumption is relatively new. Selected papers are discussed. PMID:12292622

  3. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions. PMID:27101765

  4. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  5. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  6. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...

  7. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...

  8. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to individuals under age...

  9. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  10. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...

  11. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  12. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to individuals under age...

  13. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  14. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  15. Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K.; Franks, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 14,407 people aged 25-74 years in the United States from the first national health and nutrition examination survey. SETTING: Subjects were followed from initial interview in 1971-5 until 1987. Complete follow up information was available for 92.2% of the sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between both household income and income inequality in community of residence and individual all cause mortality at follow up was examined with Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. RESULTS: Community income inequality showed a significant association with subsequent community mortality, and with individual mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and mean income in the community of residence. After adjustment for individual household income, however, the association with mortality was lost. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative American sample, family income, but not community income inequality, independently predicts mortality. Previously reported ecological associations between income inequality and mortality may reflect confounding between individual family income and mortality. PMID:9185498

  16. Household air pollution from wood burning in two reconstructed houses from the Danish Viking Age.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J M; Ryhl-Svendsen, M

    2015-06-01

    During 13 winter weeks, an experimental archeology project was undertaken in two Danish reconstructed Viking Age houses with indoor open fireplaces. Volunteers inhabited the houses under living conditions similar to those of the Viking Age, including cooking and heating by wood fire. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at varying distances to the fireplace. Near the fireplaces CO (mean) was 16 ppm. PM2.5 (mean) was 3.40 mg/m(3) , however, measured in one house only. The CO:PM mass ratio was found to increase from 6.4 to 22 when increasing the distance to the fire. Two persons carried CO sensors. Average personal exposure was 6.9 ppm, and from this, a personal PM2.5 exposure of 0.41 mg/m(3) was estimated. The levels found here were higher than reported from modern studies conducted in dwellings using biomass for cooking and heating. While this may be due to the Viking house design, the volunteer's lack of training in attending a fire maybe also played a role. Even so, when comparing to today's issues arising from the use of open fires, it must be assumed that also during the Viking Age, the exposure to woodsmoke was a contributing factor to health problems. PMID:25065944

  17. Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Dachner, Naomi; Gundersen, Craig; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household food insecurity, a measure of income-related problems of food access, is growing in Canada and is tightly linked to poorer health status. We examined the association between household food insecurity status and annual health care costs. Methods: We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18–64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals’ direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. Results: Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. Compared with total annual health care costs in food-secure households, adjusted annual costs were 16% ($235) higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–23% [$141–$334]), 32% ($455) higher in households with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 25%–39% [$361–$553]) and 76% ($1092) higher in households with severe food insecurity (95% CI 65%–88% [$934–$1260]). When costs of prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program were included, the adjusted annual costs were 23% higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% CI 16%–31%), 49% higher in those with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 41%–57%) and 121% higher in those with severe food insecurity (95% CI 107%–136%). Interpretation: Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. Policy interventions at the provincial or federal level designed to reduce household food

  18. The Association of Health and Income in the Elderly: Experience from a Southern State of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.; Pieper, Carl F.; King, Katherine E.; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Gastal, Fábio L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50th-66th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions. Methods Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥60 (N=6963), in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status), depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale) together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures. Results In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status). For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association), and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes. Conclusion Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled. PMID:24058505

  19. Diurnal Cortisol Pattern, Eating Behaviors and Overweight in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Julie C.; Miller, Alison L.; Peterson, Karen E.; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3–4 years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60 minutes since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3 days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight versus not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with “hypocortisolism” reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. PMID:24177439

  20. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. PMID:24177439

  1. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000. PMID:12262301

  2. Household Factors Influencing Participation in Bird Feeding Activity: A National Scale Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin; Loram, Alison; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Ameliorating pressures on the ecological condition of the wider landscape outside of protected areas is a key focus of conservation initiatives in the developed world. In highly urbanized nations, domestic gardens can play a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and facilitating human-wildlife interactions, which benefit personal and societal health and well-being. The extent to which sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with engagement in wildlife gardening activities remain largely unresolved. Using two household-level survey datasets gathered from across Britain, we determine whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation organizations are successfully to promote public participation in wildlife gardening specifically and environmentally beneficial behaviour in society more generally. PMID:22761872

  3. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity: a national scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Zoe G; Fuller, Richard A; Dallimer, Martin; Loram, Alison; Gaston, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Ameliorating pressures on the ecological condition of the wider landscape outside of protected areas is a key focus of conservation initiatives in the developed world. In highly urbanized nations, domestic gardens can play a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and facilitating human-wildlife interactions, which benefit personal and societal health and well-being. The extent to which sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with engagement in wildlife gardening activities remain largely unresolved. Using two household-level survey datasets gathered from across Britain, we determine whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation organizations are successfully to promote public participation in wildlife gardening specifically and environmentally beneficial behaviour in society more generally. PMID:22761872

  4. Strategies for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from household burning of solid fuels: effects on acute lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Deborah; Jary, Hannah R; Patel, Latifa B; Chiume, Msandeni E; Mortimer, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: This study aims to assess the effects of intervention strategies that reduce exposure to household air pollution from burning solid fuels on episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children under the age of 15 years.

  5. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  6. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  7. 7 CFR 253.7 - Certification of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property, insurance premiums, and taxes paid on income producing property. (D) In determining net self... all monthly unearned income received by the household. (v) Allowable costs for dependent care shall be... monthly income shall be compared to the income eligibility standard for the appropriate household size...

  8. 7 CFR 253.7 - Certification of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... property, insurance premiums, and taxes paid on income producing property. (D) In determining net self... all monthly unearned income received by the household. (v) Allowable costs for dependent care shall be... monthly income shall be compared to the income eligibility standard for the appropriate household size...

  9. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age... to children under age 19 whose household income is at or below the income standard established by...

  10. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide

  11. Prevalence and socioeconomic and geographical inequalities of household food insecurity in the Paris region, France, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity (FI) is the situation where people do not have, at all times, access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of FI in the Paris area by using, for the first time in France, a specific FI questionnaire and to identify the characteristics of food-insecure households, taking into account a potential neighbourhood effect. Methods This study is based on data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study (a representative, population-based socioepidemiological study) that were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals in the Paris metropolitan area (PMA) were interviewed. FI was investigated by means of the USDA’s HFSSM. We used stratified multilevel models across three household income categories to identify populations at risk for FI. Results In 2010, 6.30% (95% CI = [4.99-7.97]) of the households in the PMA experienced FI (up to 13.59% in the most underprivileged neighbourhoods). About 2.50% of the households experienced severe FI and 2.85% of household living with an income above 1666 € experienced food insecurity, whereas the percentage raises to 23.38% among those living below the poverty threshold (<791 €). Depending on the income level, different household characteristics emerged as being associated with FI. In the poorest households, the presence of a child under 3 years of age was associated with an increased risk of FI (OR = 2.11; p = 0.03). Among higher-income households, the household composition appeared to be strongly associated with FI. Conclusion FI exists in several social groups in France. Its prevalence in the most underprivileged households should be considered an indicator of vulnerability, which could permit targeted social assistance policies. PMID:23688296

  12. Skin cancer risk perceptions: A comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income

    PubMed Central

    Buster, Kesha J.; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of non-cutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. Objective We evaluated skin cancer risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods Respondents with no prior history of skin cancer were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of skin cancer. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of skin cancer and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Results Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing skin cancer. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their skin cancer risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent skin cancer that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin exam. Limitations HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of skin cancer perceptions. Conclusion Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the skin cancer risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in skin cancer outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the skin cancer-related health disparities. PMID:21875760

  13. Common Household Chemicals and the Allergy Risks in Pre-School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Sundell, Jan; Hasselgren, Mikael; Spengler, John; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown. Objective We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden. Methods In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls), air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs. Results A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs) in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 – 15.65 µg/m3) was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.1), 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 – 2.3), 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 – 4.7), and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.3), accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.8) compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs. Conclusion We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively. PMID:20976153

  14. Household water treatment systems: A solution to the production of safe drinking water by the low-income communities of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwabi, J. K.; Adeyemo, F. E.; Mahlangu, T. O.; Mamba, B. B.; Brouckaert, B. M.; Swartz, C. D.; Offringa, G.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Momba, M. N. B.

    One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to reduce to half by 2015 the number of people, worldwide, who lack access to safe water. Due to the numerous deaths and illnesses caused by waterborne pathogens, various household water treatment devices and safe storage technologies have been developed to treat and manage water at the household level. The new approaches that are continually being examined need to be durable, lower in overall cost and more effective in the removal of the contaminants. In this study, an extensive literature survey was conducted to regroup various household treatment devices that are suitable for the inexpensive treatment of water on a household basis. The survey has resulted in the selection of four household treatment devices: the biosand filter (BSF), bucket filter (BF), ceramic candle filter (CCF) and the silver-impregnated porous pot filter (SIPP). The first three filters were manufactured in a Tshwane University of Technology workshop, using modified designs reported in literature. The SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology. The performance of the four filters was evaluated in terms of flow rate, physicochemical contaminant (turbidity, fluorides, phosphates, chlorophyll a, magnesium, calcium and nitrates) and microbial contaminant ( Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae) removals. The flow rates obtained during the study period were within the recommended limits (171 l/h, 167 l/h, 6.4 l/h and 3.5 l/h for the BSF, BF, CCF and SIPP, respectively). Using standard methods, the results of the preliminary laboratory and field studies with spiked and environmental water samples indicated that all filters decreased the concentrations of contaminants in test water sources. The most efficiently removed chemical contaminant in spiked water was fluoride (99.9%) and the poorest removal efficiency was noted for magnesium (26-56%). A higher performance in chemical

  15. 24 CFR 92.217 - Income targeting: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Income targeting: Homeownership. Each participating jurisdiction must invest HOME funds made available... invested in dwelling units that are occupied by households that qualify as low-income families....

  16. 24 CFR 92.217 - Income targeting: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Income targeting: Homeownership. Each participating jurisdiction must invest HOME funds made available... invested in dwelling units that are occupied by households that qualify as low-income families....

  17. 24 CFR 92.217 - Income targeting: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Income targeting: Homeownership. Each participating jurisdiction must invest HOME funds made available... invested in dwelling units that are occupied by households that qualify as low-income families....

  18. 24 CFR 92.217 - Income targeting: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Income targeting: Homeownership. Each participating jurisdiction must invest HOME funds made available... invested in dwelling units that are occupied by households that qualify as low-income families....

  19. 24 CFR 92.217 - Income targeting: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Income targeting: Homeownership. Each participating jurisdiction must invest HOME funds made available... invested in dwelling units that are occupied by households that qualify as low-income families....

  20. Association of Obesity with Hypertension Amongst School-Age Children Belonging to Lower Income Group and Middle Income Group in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Sachdev, HPS; Dwivedi, S N; Lakshmi, R; Kapil, Umesh; Sareen, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24019604

  1. Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes among older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Relative deprivation of income is hypothesised to generate frustration and stress through upward social comparison with one's peers. If psychosocial stress is the mechanism, relative deprivation should be more strongly associated with specific health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (compared with other health outcomes, eg, non-tobacco-related cancer). Methods We evaluated the association between relative income deprivation and mortality by leading causes, using a cohort of 21 031 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. A baseline mail-in survey was conducted in 2003. Information on cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Our relative deprivation measure was the Yitzhaki Index, derived from the aggregate income shortfall for each person, relative to individuals with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Reference groups were defined according to gender, age group and same municipality of residence. Results We identified 1682 deaths during the 4.5 years of follow-up. A Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic, health and socioeconomic factors including income, the HR for death from cardiovascular diseases per SD increase in relative deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.08) in men, whereas HRs for mortality by cancer and other diseases were close to the null value. Additional adjustment for depressive symptoms and health behaviours (eg, smoking and preventive care utilisation) attenuated the excess risks for mortality from cardiovascular disease by 9%. Relative deprivation was not associated with mortality for women. Conclusions The results partially support our hypothesised mechanism: relative deprivation increases health risks via psychosocial stress among men. PMID:25700534

  2. Household Crowding During Childhood and Long-Term Education Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lopoo, Leonard M; London, Andrew S

    2016-06-01

    Household crowding, or having more household members than rooms in one's residence, could potentially affect a child's educational attainment directly through a number of mechanisms. We use U.S. longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to derive new measures of childhood crowding and estimate negative associations between crowding during one's high school years and, respectively, high school graduation by age 19 and maximum education at age 25. These negative relationships persist in multivariate models in which we control for the influence of a variety of factors, including socioeconomic status and housing-cost burden. Given the importance of educational attainment for a range of midlife and later-life outcomes, this study suggests that household crowding during one's high school years is an engine of cumulative inequality over the life course. PMID:27103537

  3. A survey of recycling behaviour in households in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tuddin, Rabaah; Ayupp, Kartinah; Ayup, Kartinah

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the factors that might influence recycling behaviour of the households in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Information on recycling activity, socio-economic characteristics, and attitudes of the households towards recycling were obtained from interviews with 456 households in Dhaka. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the recycling behaviour of the households. The results showed that environmental consciousness, the availability of storage space, and age (25-35 years) are significant positive predictors of recycling behaviour (at the 1% level). Another variable Income 2 (TK3,000-15,000) is also positively correlated with recycling (at the 5% level). Establishment of a recycling programme could be an effective strategy in implementing sustainable waste management in Bangladesh. For this strategy to succeed, however, active partnership between households and the waste management service department is required. The households' attitudes toward recycling should, therefore, be taken into consideration as should the results of this study, which are important indicators of households' positive attitudes toward sustainable waste management in Dhaka. PMID:19942645

  4. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. Objectives: We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. Methods: We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Results: Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, −0.33; India, −0.53; Peru, −0.31; and Vietnam, −0.68 HAZ; all P < 0.001), although results were attenuated after controlling for potential confounders (Ethiopia, −0.21; India, −0.32; Peru, −0.14; and Vietnam, −0.27 HAZ; P < 0.01). Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y HAZ, but did not add predictive power beyond HAZ at age 5 y in Ethiopia, India, or Peru. Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y BMI-Z even after controlling for the 5 y BMI-Z, although associations were not significant after the inclusion of additional confounding variables (Ethiopia, P = 0.12; India, P = 0.29; Peru, P = 0.16; and Vietnam, P = 0.51). Chronically food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs than households that were consistently food-secure, although BMI-Zs did not differ by chronic food-insecurity status. Dietary diversity mediated 18.8–30.5% of the association between food security and anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4–19.3%) in other countries. Conclusions: In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with

  5. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses. PMID:26772449

  6. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p < .0001). Children living in food insecure with severe hunger households were 10.13, 10.07, and 4.54 times as likely to be underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households. PMID:27494152

  7. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  8. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  9. The Effect of Age on Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in a Camp and Associated Households

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Borse, Nagesh N.; Ta, Myduc L.; Stockman, Lauren J.; Fischer, Gayle E.; Yang, Yang; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Background A major portion of influenza disease burden during the 2009 pandemic was observed among young people. Methods We examined the effect of age on the transmission of influenza-like illness associated with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) for an April–May 2009 outbreak among youth-camp participants and household contacts in Washington State. Results An influenza-like illness attack rate of 51% was found among 96 camp participants. We observed a cabin secondary attack rate of 42% (95% confidence interval = 21%–66%) and a camp local reproductive number of 2.7 (1.7–4.1) for influenza-like illness among children (less than 18 years old). Among the 136 contacts in the 41 households with an influenza-like illness index case who attended the camp, the influenza-like illness secondary attack rate was 11% for children (5%–21%) and 4% for adults (2%–8%). The odds ratio for influenza-like illness among children versus adults was 3.1 (1.3–7.3). Conclusions The strong age effect, combined with the low number of susceptible children per household (1.2), plausibly explains the lower-than-expected household secondary attack rate for influenza-like illness, illustrating the importance of other venues where children congregate for sustaining community transmission. Quantifying the effects of age on pH1N1 transmission is important for informing effective intervention strategies. PMID:21233714

  10. Relation between income inequality and mortality in Canada and in the United States: cross sectional assessment using census data and vital statistics

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nancy A; Wolfson, Michael C; Dunn, James R; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Kaplan, George A; Lynch, John W

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the relation between mortality and income inequality in Canada with that in the United States. Design The degree of income inequality, defined as the percentage of total household income received by the less well off 50% of households, was calculated and these measures were examined in relation to all cause mortality, grouped by and adjusted for age. Setting The 10 Canadian provinces, the 50 US states, and 53 Canadian and 282 US metropolitan areas. Results Canadian provinces and metropolitan areas generally had both lower income inequality and lower mortality than US states and metropolitan areas. In age grouped regression models that combined Canadian and US metropolitan areas, income inequality was a significant explanatory variable for all age groupings except for elderly people. The effect was largest for working age populations, in which a hypothetical 1% increase in the share of income to the poorer half of households would reduce mortality by 21 deaths per 100 000. Within Canada, however, income inequality was not significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions Canada seems to counter the increasingly noted association at the societal level between income inequality and mortality. The lack of a significant association between income inequality and mortality in Canada may indicate that the effects of income inequality on health are not automatic and may be blunted by the different ways in which social and economic resources are distributed in Canada and in the United States. PMID:10741994

  11. Supplemental Security Income: determining disability for a child under age 18. Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2000-09-11

    On February 11, 1997, we published interim final rules with a request for comments to implement the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) childhood disability provisions of sections 211 and 212 of Public Law (Pub. L.) 104-193, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. We are now publishing revised final rules in response to public comments. We are also conforming our rules to amendments to Public Law 104-193 made by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Public Law 105-33. Finally, we are simplifying and clarifying some rules in keeping with the President's goal of using plain language in regulations. PMID:11503639

  12. Income Transfers and Assets of the Poor. Revised. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziliak, James P.

    Contrary to the predictions of the standard life-cycle model, many low lifetime-income households accumulate little wealth relative to their incomes compared to households with high lifetime income. This paper uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and a correlated random-effects generalized model of moments estimator to decompose the…

  13. Aging in Neighborhoods Differing in Walkability and Income: Associations with Physical Activity and Obesity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Sallis, James F.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Cain, Kelli; Conway, Terry L.; Chapman, James E.; Ahn, David K.; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    While there is a growing literature on the relations between neighborhood design and health factors such as physical activity and obesity, less focus has been placed on older adults, who may be particularly vulnerable to environmental influences. This study evaluates the relations among objectively measured neighborhood design, mobility impairment, and physical activity and body weight in two U.S. regional samples of community dwelling older adults living in neighborhoods differing in walkability and income levels. An observational design involving two time points six months apart was employed between 2005–2008. U.S. Census block groups in Seattle-King County, Washington and Baltimore. Maryland-Washington DC regions were selected via geographic information systems to maximize variability in walkability and income. Participants were 719 adults ages 66 years and older who were able to complete surveys in English and walk at least 10 feet continuously. Measurements included reported walking or bicycling for errands (i.e., transport activity) and other outdoor aerobic activities measured via the CHAMPS questionnaire: accelerometry-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; reported body mass index; and reported lower-extremity mobility impairment measured via the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument. Across regions, time, and neighborhood income, older adults living in more walkable neighborhoods had more transport activity and moderate-to- vigorous physical activity and lower body mass index relative to those living in less walkable neighborhoods. The most mobility-impaired adults living in more walkable neighborhoods reported transport activity levels that were similar to less mobility-impaired adults living in less walkable neighborhoods. The results add to the small literature aimed at understanding how neighborhood design may influence physical activity and related aspects of health linked with day-to-day function and independence as people age. PMID

  14. Using formative research to develop a nutrition education resource aimed at assisting low-income households in South Africa adopt a healthier diet.

    PubMed

    Everett-Murphy, K; De Villiers, A; Ketterer, E; Steyn, K

    2015-12-01

    As part of a comprehensive programme to prevent non-communicable disease in South Africa, there is a need to develop public education campaigns on healthy eating. Urban populations of lower socioeconomic status are a priority target population. This study involved formative research to guide the development of a nutrition resource appropriate to the budgetary constraints and information needs of poor households in the major urban centres of South Africa. Twenty-two focus groups were convened to explore the target audience's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices as they related to healthy eating and their views about the proposed nutrition resource (N = 167). A brief questionnaire assessed eating and cooking practices among focus group participants. Key informant interviews with eight dieticians/nutritionists working with this population added to the focus group findings. The research identified important issues to take into account in the development of the resource. These included the need to: directly address prevalent misconceptions about healthy eating and unhealthy eating practices; increase self-efficacy regarding the purchasing and preparation of healthy food; represent diverse cultural traditions and consider the issues of affordability and availability of food ingredients. This study demonstrates the value of using formative research in the design of nutrition-related communication in a multicultural, poor, urban South African setting. PMID:26590241

  15. Money Income and Poverty Status of Families and Persons in the United States: 1986. (Advance Data From the March 1987 Current Population Survey). Consumer Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This report presents data on the 1986 income and poverty status of families and persons from 60,500 households in the United States. Among the variables examined are the following: (1) race; (2) Hispanic origin; (3) sex; (4) age; (5) marital status; (6) residence; and (7) family status. The following highlights are included: (1) for the fourth…

  16. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Tewodros Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-07-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  17. Nutritional outcomes related to household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ihabi, A N; Rohana, A J; Wan Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N; Zalilah, M S; Rusli, A Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    During the past two decades, the rates of food insecurity and obesity have risen. Although a relationship between these two seemingly-paradoxical states has not been repeatedly seen in men, research suggests that a correlation between them exists in women. This study examines nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted, and 223 households with mothers aged 18-55 years, who were non-lactating, non-pregnant, and had at least one child aged 2-12 years, were purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered that included the Radimer/Cornell Scale, items about sociodemographic characteristics, and anthropometric measurements. Of the households, 16.1% were food-secure whereas 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity: 29.6% of households were food-insecure, 19.3% contained individuals who were food-insecure, and 35.0% fell into the 'child hunger' category. The result reported that household-size, total monthly income, income per capita, and food expenditure were significant risk factors of household food insecurity. Although there was a high prevalence of overweight and obese mothers (52%) and 47.1% had at-risk waist-circumference (> or = 80 cm), no significant association was found between food insecurity, body mass index, and waist-circumference. In conclusion, the rates of household food insecurity and overweight and obesity were high in the study population, although they are looking paradoxical. Longitudinal studies with larger sample-sizes are recommended to further examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. PMID:24592589

  18. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administration in Pediatric Older Age Groups in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kimberly; Welch, Emily; Elder, Kate; Cohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is included in the World Health Organization’s routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries. Methods An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes. Results Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2ug/ml and 0.35ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality. Discussion PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older

  19. Household Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compiled to give readers information on current research in household production, this special issue focuses on the family as a provider of goods and services. It includes five feature articles, a summary of a survey of American farm women, and a brief analysis of sources of time-use data for estimating the value of household production. Covered…

  20. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  1. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  2. Social dynamics of health inequalities: a growth curve analysis of aging and self assessed health in the British household panel survey 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, A.; Clarke, P.; Wiggins, R.; Bartley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study how social inequalities change as people age, this paper presents a growth curve model of self assessed health, which accommodates changes in occupational class and individual health with age. Design: Nationally representative interview based longitudinal survey of adults in Great Britain. Setting: Representative members of private households of Great Britain in 1991. Participants: Survey respondents (n = 6705), aged 21–59 years in 1991 and followed up annually until 2001. Main outcome measure: Self assessed health. Results: On average, self assessed health declines slowly from early adulthood to retirement age. No significant class differences in health were observed at age 21. Health inequalities emerged later in life with the gap between mean levels of self assessed health of those in managerial and professional occupations and routine occupations widening approaching retirement. Individual variability in health trajectories increased between ages 40 and 59 years so that this widening of mean differences between occupational classes was not significant. When the analysis is confined to people whose occupational class remained constant over time, a far greater difference in health trajectories between occupational classes was seen. Conclusions: The understanding of social inequalities in health at the population level is enriched by an analysis of individual variation in age related declines by social position. PMID:15911646

  3. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of the Association between Family Income and Offspring Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The study presents a quasi-experimental analysis of data on 9,194 offspring (ages 4-11 years old) of women from a nationally representative U.S. sample of households to test the causal hypotheses about the association between family income and childhood conduct problems (CPs). Comparison of unrelated individuals in the sample indicated a robust…

  4. Satisfaction with Job and Income among Older Individuals across European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonsang, Eric; van Soest, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Using data on individuals of age 50 and older from 11 European countries, we analyze two economic aspects of subjective well-being of older Europeans: satisfaction with household income, and job satisfaction. Both have been shown to contribute substantially to overall well-being (satisfaction with life or happiness). We use anchoring vignettes to…

  5. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  6. INCOMES OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    METZLER, WILLIAM H.; SARGENT, FREDERIC O.

    A SURVEY ON THE INCOME OF MIGRATORY WORKERS LOCATED IN SOUTH TEXAS DURING THE WINTER OF 1956-57 WAS PRESENTED. IN 446 HOUSEHOLDS SURVEYED, THERE WERE 1,334 WORKERS, APPROXIMATELY HALF OF THESE WERE HOUSEHOLD HEADS OR THEIR WIVES. WORKING WIVES WERE A LITTLE MORE THAN HALF AS NUMEROUS AS WORKING HUSBANDS. MOST OF THE HUSBANDS WERE 45 TO 54 YEARS OF…

  7. Social–Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents’ Restriction of Screen Time Among Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social–cognitive predictors of parents’ restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2–6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use. PMID:23239766

  8. Generating a dynamic synthetic population--using an age-structured two-sex model for household dynamics.

    PubMed

    Namazi-Rad, M; Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Mokhtarian, P; Mokhtarian, Payam; Perez, P; Perez, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Generating a reliable computer-simulated synthetic population is necessary for knowledge processing and decision-making analysis in agent-based systems in order to measure, interpret and describe each target area and the human activity patterns within it. In this paper, both synthetic reconstruction (SR) and combinatorial optimisation (CO) techniques are discussed for generating a reliable synthetic population for a certain geographic region (in Australia) using aggregated- and disaggregated-level information available for such an area. A CO algorithm using the quadratic function of population estimators is presented in this paper in order to generate a synthetic population while considering a two-fold nested structure for the individuals and households within the target areas. The baseline population in this study is generated from the confidentialised unit record files (CURFs) and 2006 Australian census tables. The dynamics of the created population is then projected over five years using a dynamic micro-simulation model for individual- and household-level demographic transitions. This projection is then compared with the 2011 Australian census. A prediction interval is provided for the population estimates obtained by the bootstrapping method, by which the variability structure of a predictor can be replicated in a bootstrap distribution. PMID:24733522

  9. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and ...

  10. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and drain cleaners Laundry ...

  11. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico's cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805

  12. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico’s cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805

  13. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes.Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years.Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  14. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  15. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    PubMed Central

    Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of

  16. American household structure in transition.

    PubMed

    Glick, P C

    1984-01-01

    The number of U.S. households rose by 58 percent between 1960 and 1983, with nontraditional household types accounting for most of the increase. Whereas the number of households containing married couples with children younger than 18 rose by only four percent over the period, one-parent households increased by 175 percent; one-person households, by 173 percent; and households composed of unmarried couples, by 331 percent. In 1983, households maintained by married couples constituted six in 10 U.S. households; the second most common household type--adults living alone--accounted for about one-quarter of all households. Lone parents living with their children represent nearly one in 10 households. Almost all of these parents are women--of whom two-thirds are separated or divorced, one-quarter have never been married, and fewer than one in 10 are widows. Among adults living alone, women aged 45 and older predominate; but the rate at which the practice has been adopted since 1960 has been greatest among those under age 45. Most of the growth in the number of one-person households occurred during the 1970s. The increase in cohabitation--most of it also in the 1970s--has similarly been concentrated in the younger age-groups. The living arrangements of children younger than 18 have changed accordingly over the two decades. Since 1960, the number of children living with two parents has declined by nearly one-fifth, and the number living with one parent--generally the mother--has more than doubled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6500019

  17. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection. PMID:26612500

  18. Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement: Analysis of data from Rajkot district, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-02-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels.

  19. LUXEMBOURG INCOME STUDY (LIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LIS database is a collection of household income surveys. The LIS project began in 1983 under the joint sponsorship of the government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Center for Population, Poverty and Policy Studies (CEPS). The project is mainly funded by the nationa...

  20. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  1. The Impact of Child SSI Enrollment on Household Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Mark G.; Kearney, Melissa Schettini

    2007-01-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to investigate the impact that child Supplemental Security Income (SSI) enrollment has on household outcomes, including poverty, household earnings, and health insurance coverage. The longitudinal nature of the SIPP allows us to control for unobserved, time-invariant…

  2. Assets and Income: Disability-Based Disparities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Yeo, Yeong Hun; Rose, Roderick A.; Rimmerman, Arie

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to determine the extent of a disability-based net worth and income gap among U.S. households. The sample included 4,154 households with an adult with disabilities and 12,365 households without an adult with disabilities. Households with an adult with…

  3. "I Wish Kids Didn't Watch So Much TV": Out-of-School Time in Three Low Income Communities. School-Age Child Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beth M.; And Others

    Research suggests that how children spend their out-of-school hours can significantly affect their social development and school success. The Out-of-School Time Study, conducted by the School-Age Child Care Project at the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, investigated how young low-income children in three urban communities spent…

  4. Household Survival in the Face of Poverty in Salvador, Brazil: Towards an Integrated Model of Household Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, William P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares the survival strategies of low-income urban households in a squatter settlement in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil with those of such households in other regions. Suggests, uses, and criticizes a simple additive model of survival household activities. Identifies important factors that emerge, and suggests issues for further research. (Author/BJV)

  5. Earned Income Credit Utilization by Welfare Recipients: A Case Study of Minnesota's Earned Income Credit Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirasuna, Donald P.; Stinson, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines utilization of a state earned income credit by AFDC and TANF recipients. Although utilization percentages are increasing, we find that among TANF recipients in 1999, 45.7 percent of all households and 34.8 percent of eligible households did not receive the state earned income credit. Moreover, we find that utilization may…

  6. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  7. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  8. Ageing and dementia in low and middle income countries - Using research to engage with public and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, Ks; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata; Uwakwe, Richard; Van Der Poel, Rikus; Williams, Joseph; Wortmann, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract While two thirds of the 24 million people with dementia worldwide live in low and middle income countries, very little research has been conducted to support policy making in these regions. Among the non-communicable diseases, dementia (in common with other chronic NCDs linked more to long-term disability than to mortality) has been relatively under-prioritized. International agreements, plans and policy guidelines have called for an end to ageist discrimination and a focus upon reducing disadvantage arising from poverty and the consequences of ill health. Social protection, access to good quality age-appropriate healthcare and addressing the problem of disability are all key issues. However, as yet, little progress has been made in addressing these concerns. In this review we outline the current international policy agenda for older individuals, and its specific relevance to those with dementia and other disabling non-communicable diseases. We consider the potential for epidemiological research to raise awareness, refine the policy agenda, and promote action, using the example of the dissemination strategy developed by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. PMID:18925482

  9. Parenting Behaviours among Low-Income Mothers of Preschool Age Children in the USA: Implications for Parenting Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall quality of parenting behaviours among low-income mothers in the USA and the extent to which they are influenced by risk factors within the family environment, maternal well-being and maternal risk characteristics associated with socio-economic status. Participants consisted of 1070 low-income mothers of…

  10. U.S. Demand for Food: Household Expenditures, Demographics, and Projections. Technical Bulletin Number 1713.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, James R.; Smallwood, David M.

    Higher income households spend more per person on most food groups, especially beef, fish, cheese, vegetables, butter, and alcoholic beverages, than do lower income households. Elderly Americans spend less than younger people on food away from home and on alcoholic beverages. Households in the Northeast and West spend more on food than those in…

  11. The effects of socioeconomic parameters on household solid-waste generation and composition in developing countries (a case study: Ahvaz, Iran).

    PubMed

    Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Omrani, Ghasem Ali; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Raof, Farzaneh Fakheri

    2012-04-01

    Environment problems associated with the generation of waste are part of societal changes where households play an important role. These societal changes influence the size, structure and characteristic of given households. For the effective planning of solid-waste handling infrastructure, it is essential to know the quantity of waste generation and its composition. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in an urban municipal area in Iran to determine the household solid-waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socioeconomic parameters. The dependent variables were waste generation and composition, and independent variables were family size, family employment, age, number of room and education. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology and from five different socioeconomic groups. Waste collected from all groups of households were segregated and weighted. Waste generation rate was 5.4 kg/household/day. Household solid waste comprised of ten categories of wastes and with the largest component (76.9%). The generation and composition of household solid waste were correlated with family size, education level and households income. This paper adequately suggests new insights concerning the role of socioeconomic parameters in affecting the generation of household waste. PMID:21713501

  12. Assessing the Feasibility of a Web-Based Weight Loss Intervention for Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sisneros, Jessica A; Ronay, Ashley A; Robbins, Cheryl L; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ni, Ai; Morrow, John; Vu, Maihan B; Johnston, Larry F; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-income women of reproductive age are at increased risk for obesity and resulting increases in the risk of maternal/fetal complications and mortality and morbidity. Very few weight-loss interventions, however, have been targeted to this high-risk group. Based on the high prevalence of social media use among young and low-income individuals and previous successes using group formats for weight-loss interventions, the use of social media as a platform for weight-loss intervention delivery may benefit low-income women of reproductive age. Objective Examine the feasibility of delivering group-based weight-loss interventions to low-income women of reproductive age using face-to-face meetings and Web-based modalities including social media. Methods Participants attended a family planning clinic in eastern North Carolina and received a 5-month, group- and Web-based, face-to-face weight-loss intervention. Measures were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks. Results Forty participants enrolled, including 29 (73%) African American women. The mean body mass index of enrollees was 39 kg/m2. Among the 12 women who completed follow-up, mean weight change was -1.3 kg. Participation in the intervention was modest and retention at 5 months was 30%. Returnees suggested sending reminders to improve participation and adding activities to increase familiarity among participants. Conclusions Engagement with the intervention was limited and attrition was high. Additional formative work on the barriers and facilitators to participation may improve the intervention’s feasibility with low-income women of reproductive age. PMID:26920252

  13. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  14. Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur) and rural (Kuala Terengganu) setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained. Results Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38%) were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001). The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33%) households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3%) households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5%) experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%). The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03) than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24). Conclusions While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination

  15. Impact of Illness and Medical Expenditure on Household Consumptions: A Survey in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kuangnan; Jiang, Yefei; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study is to examine the associations between illness conditions and out-of-pocket medical expenditure with other types of household consumptions. In November and December of 2011, a survey was conducted in three cities in western China, namely Lan Zhou, Gui Lin and Xi An, and their surrounding rural areas. Results Information on demographics, income and consumption was collected on 2,899 households. Data analysis suggested that the presence of household members with chronic diseases was not associated with characteristics of households or household heads. The presence of inpatient treatments was significantly associated with the age of household head (p-value 0.03). The level of per capita medical expense was significantly associated with household size, presence of members younger than 18, older than 65, basic health insurance coverage, per capita income, and household head occupation. Adjusting for confounding effects, the presence of chronic diseases was negatively associated with the amount of basic consumption (p-value 0.02) and the percentage of basic consumption (p-value 0.01), but positively associated with the percentage of insurance expense (p-value 0.02). Medical expenditure was positively associated with all other types of consumptions, including basic, education, saving and investment, entertainment, insurance, durable goods, and alcohol/tobacco. It was negatively associated with the percentage of basic consumption, saving and investment, and insurance. Conclusions Early studies conducted in other Asian countries and rural China found negative associations between illness conditions and medical expenditure with other types of consumptions. This study was conducted in three major cities and surrounding areas in western China, which had not been well investigated in published literature. The observed consumption patterns were different from those in early studies, and the negative associations were not observed. This

  16. "Living by the hoe" in the age of treatment: perceptions of household well-being after antiretroviral treatment among family members of persons with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Amy; Alibhai, Arif; Kipp, Walter; Rubaale, Tom; Konde-Lule, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    This paper considers the effects of antiretroviral treatment on the households of person with AIDS in western Uganda. Interviews were carried out with 110 co-resident "treatment partners" of people receiving treatment. We discuss these family members' accounts of the impact of sickness, followed by treatment, on their household's livelihood, defined as the activities needed to obtain and process the resources required to sustain the households. The household's ability to muster labour for subsistence agriculture was of paramount concern when family members considered what treatment meant for the households. While they were very happy with the treatment, they said that households have not yet recovered from the shock of AIDS sicknesses. PMID:20162471

  17. Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persistent among neighborhoods, generally, but mixed middle-income neighborhoods are more fluid. Persistence also dominates among individuals, though Latino-Americans are much more likely than African Americans or whites to be exposed to mixed middle-income neighborhoods in the first place and to transition into them over time, even when adjusting for immigrant status, education, income, and residential mobility. The results here enhance our knowledge of the dynamics of income inequality at the neighborhood level, and the endurance of concentrated extremes suggests that policies seeking to promote mixed-income neighborhoods face greater odds than commonly thought. PMID:26722129

  18. Child malnutrition in poor smallholder households in rural Kenya: an in-depth situation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kigutha, H N; van Staveren, W A; Veerman, W; Hautvast, J G

    1995-09-01

    Between April 1992 and June 1993, in Njoro division within Nakurua district of the Rift Valley Province in Kenya, nutritionists conducted a study of 41 children aged 18-36 months from low income smallholder households with limited off-farm incomes in the four cooperative farms of Mutukanio, Kamwago, Sosio, and Kamwaura to examine the effect of seasonal changes on household food availability and on nutritional status of preschool children. During the entire study, energy and nutrient intake, on average, was fairly good. Seasonal changes appeared to have a significant effect only on calcium, vitamin A, thiamin, and riboflavin intakes. Specifically, the intakes for all the aforementioned nutrients were higher in the post-harvest season than in the lean season. In the lean season, green vegetables and beans were in short supply. Energy intakes were on average 82-89% of the recommended daily intakes during the entire study period. Significant seasonal differences in mean weight changes (rate of 182 g/month) did not occur. The children grew in length at a faster rate during the lean season than the post-harvest season (0.9 vs. 0.8 cm/month). Stunting was more common during the lean season than the post-harvest season (51% vs. 28%). These findings revealed that seasonal changes in the household food supply influences the growth of preschool children in low income households on cooperative farms in Kenya. PMID:7498105

  19. A Profile of Disabled Household Heads and Spouses in Rural Areas of the Ozarks Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, O. Wendell

    In this sequel to the report of a 1966 survey of 1,413 household heads in rural areas of the Ozarks region, socioeconomic conditions are discussed for the 439 household heads who had reported total or partial disabilities. Of the 439 households, 41% were in poverty. Household heads' incomes were small because many heads were unable to hold regular…

  20. Household health care facility utilization in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Herrin, A N; Pons, M C

    This paper presents probit estimates of household utilization of health care facilities in the Philippines. Using household data from the 1987 National Health Survey and supply data from the Department of Health, separate probit equations are estimated for each of the four major types of facilities in the Philippines: Public hospitals, private hospitals, major rural health units and barangay (village) health stations. The probability that a household will utilize services from these facilities is estimated as a function of socioeconomic, demographic and supply variables. The results indicate substantial differences in utilization patterns by income class. Households in the highest income quartile are approximately twice as likely (0.451 versus 0.236) to utilize private hospital services vis-à-vis households in the lowest income quartile, ceteris paribus. The results also indicate substantial substitution between public and private services. An increase in the availability of private hospital beds significantly reduces the probability that a household will utilize government facilities. PMID:10050192

  1. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  2. Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad.

    PubMed

    Bégin, F; Frongillo, E A; Delisle, H

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic

  3. Into the twenty-first century with British households.

    PubMed

    Spicer, K; Diamond, I; Ni Bhrolchain, M

    1992-11-01

    "This paper takes [U.K.] General Household Survey (GHS) data at the micro level and ages these households by simulation to the year 2001. Differing scenarios are considered in order to accommodate high and low variants of each household type in the British household distribution." PMID:12157870

  4. Influences of the neighborhood food environment on adiposity of low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, M. Pia; Whaley, Shannon E.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Koleilat, Maria; Nobari, Tabashir Z.; Seto, Edmund; Wang, May C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the association between the food environment and adiposity in early childhood, a critical time for obesity prevention. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between neighborhood food environment and adiposity among low-income preschool-aged children in a major metropolitan region in the United States. Methods The study sample was 32,172 low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County who had repeated weight and height measurements collected between ages 2 and 5 years through a federal nutrition assistance program. We conducted multilevel longitudinal analyses to examine how spatial densities of healthy and unhealthy retail food outlets in the children’s neighborhoods were related to adiposity, as measured by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), while controlling for neighborhood-level income and education, family income, maternal education, and child’s gender and race/ethnicity. Results Density of healthy food outlets was associated with mean WHZ at age 3 in a non-linear fashion, with mean WHZ being lowest for those exposed to approximately 0.7 healthy food outlets per square mile and higher for lesser and greater densities. Density of unhealthy food outlets was not associated with child WHZ. Conclusions We found a non-linear relationship between WHZ and density of healthy food outlets. Research aiming to understand the socio-behavioral mechanisms by which the retail food environment influences early childhood obesity development is complex and must consider contextual settings. PMID:25012991

  5. Associations between smoking behaviors and financial stress among low-income smokers

    PubMed Central

    Widome, Rachel; Joseph, Anne M.; Hammett, Patrick; Van Ryn, Michelle; Nelson, David B.; Nyman, John A.; Fu, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many American households struggle to bring in sufficient income to meet basic needs related to nutrition, housing, and healthcare. Nicotine addiction and consequent expenditures on cigarettes may impose extra financial strain on low-income households. We examine how cigarette use behaviors relate to self-reported financial stress/strain among low-income smokers. Methods At baseline in 2011/12, OPT-IN recruited adult smokers age 18–64 from the administrative databases of the state-subsidized Minnesota Health Care Programs (N = 2406). We tested whether nicotine dependency, type of cigarettes used, and smoking intensity were associated with self-reported difficulty affording food, healthcare, housing, and living within one’s income. All regression models were adjusted for race, education, income, age, and gender. Results Difficulty living on one’s income (77.4%), paying for healthcare (33.6%), paying for housing (38.4%), and paying for food (40.8%) were common conditions in this population. Time to first cigarette and cigarettes smoked per day predicted financial stress related to affording food, housing, and living within one’s income (all p < 0.05). For instance, those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 60 minutes had about half the odds of reporting difficulty paying for housing compared to those who had their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (adjusted odds ratio = 0.55 [95% CI: 0.41, 0.73]). Type of cigarette used was not associated with any type of financial stress/strain. Conclusions Smoking and particularly heavy smoking may contribute in an important way to the struggles that low-income households with smokers face in paying for necessities. PMID:26844167

  6. A Comparison of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Households in Rural Uganda With and Without a Resident With Type 2 Diabetes, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Bahendeka, Silver K.; Gregg, Edward W.; Whyte, Susan R.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined the health consequences of living in a household with a person who has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the association of sharing a household with a person with diagnosed T2D and risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases in Uganda, a low-income country. Methods Ninety households with 437 residents in southwestern Uganda were studied from December 2012 through March 2013. Forty-five of the households had a member with diagnosed T2D (hereafter “diabetic household”), and 45 households had no member with diagnosed T2D (hereafter “nondiabetic household”). We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hypertension, anthropometry, aerobic capacity, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, and diabetes-related knowledge of people without diagnosed T2D living in diabetic and nondiabetic households. Results People living in diabetic households had a significantly higher level of diabetes-related knowledge, lower levels of FPG (5.6 mmol/L vs 6.0 mmol/L), and fewer smoked (1.3% vs 12.9%) than residents of nondiabetic households. HbA1c was significantly lower in people aged 30 years or younger (5.2% vs 5.4%) and in males (5.2% vs 5.4%) living in diabetic households compared to residents of nondiabetic households. No differences were found between the 2 types of households in overweight and obesity, upper-arm fat area, intake of staple foods or cooking oil, or physical activity. Conclusions Sharing a household with a person with T2D may have unexpected benefits on the risk factor profile for cardio-metabolic diseases, probably because of improved health behaviors and a closer connection with the health care system. Thus, future studies should consider the household for interventions targeting primary and secondary prevention of T2D. PMID:25837257

  7. Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

  8. Divergent Fortunes: Top Incomes and the Middle Class in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mark; Sommeiller, Estelle; Wazeter, Ellis; Basurto, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The pace of income growth since the 1970s has been slower for Pennsylvanians than in the 30 years following 1945. In addition to being slower, income growth since the 1970s has also been lopsided, with a small fraction of the highest-income households capturing most income growth in Pennsylvania. This report examines the extent to which these…

  9. Low health-related quality of life in school-aged children in Tonga, a lower-middle income country in the South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Fotu, Kalesita; Tupoulahi-Fusimalohi, Caroline; Faeamani, Gavin; Moodie, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensuring a good life for all parts of the population, including children, is high on the public health agenda in most countries around the world. Information about children's perception of their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its socio-demographic distribution is, however, limited and almost exclusively reliant on data from Western higher income countries. Objectives To investigate HRQoL in schoolchildren in Tonga, a lower income South Pacific Island country, and to compare this to HRQoL of children in other countries, including Tongan children living in New Zealand, a high-income country in the same region. Design A cross-sectional study from Tonga addressing all secondary schoolchildren (11–18 years old) on the outer island of Vava'u and in three districts of the main island of Tongatapu (2,164 participants). A comparison group drawn from the literature comprised children in 18 higher income and one lower income country (Fiji). A specific New Zealand comparison group involved all children of Tongan descendent at six South Auckland secondary schools (830 participants). HRQoL was assessed by the self-report Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Results HRQoL in Tonga was overall similar in girls and boys, but somewhat lower in children below 15 years of age. The children in Tonga experienced lower HRQoL than the children in all of the 19 comparison countries, with a large difference between children in Tonga and the higher income countries (Cohen's d 1.0) and a small difference between Tonga and the lower income country Fiji (Cohen's d 0.3). The children in Tonga also experienced lower HRQoL than Tongan children living in New Zealand (Cohen's d 0.6). Conclusion The results reveal worrisome low HRQoL in children in Tonga and point towards a potential general pattern of low HRQoL in children living in lower income countries, or, alternatively, in the South Pacific Island countries. PMID:25150029

  10. Association of body mass index and waist circumference with hypertension among school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group and middle income group in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Sareen, Neha; Kaur, Supreet

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Materials and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using standard methodology. Results: The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.8% and 4.1% respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Statistical positive correlation was observed between BMI and WC with SBP and DBP. Thus, it can be inferred that children with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24251210

  11. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and others

  12. Community and household socioeconomic factors associated with pesticide-using, small farm household members' health: a multi-level, longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies using multi-level models to examine health inequalities in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) are rare. We explored socio-economic gradients in health among small farm members participating in a pesticide-related health and agriculture program in highland Ecuador. Methods We profiled 24 communities through key informant interviews, secondary data (percent of population with unsatisfied basic needs), and intervention implementation indicators. Pre (2005) and post (2007) surveys of the primary household and crop managers included common questions (education, age, and the health outcome - digit span scaled 0-10)) and pesticide-related practice questions specific to each. Household assets and pesticide use variables were shared across managers. We constructed multi-level models predicting 2007 digit span for each manager type, with staged introduction of predictor variables. Results 376 household managers (79% of 2005 participants) and 380 crop managers (76% of 2005 participants) had complete data for analysis. The most important predictor of 2007 digit span was 2005 digit span: β (Standard Error) of 0.31(0.05) per unit for household and 0.17(0.04) for crop managers. Household asset score was next most important: 0.14(0.06) per unit for household and 0.14(0.05) for crop managers. Community percent with unsatisfied basic needs was associated with reductions in 2007 digit span: -0.04(0.01) per percent for household and -0.03(0.01) for crop managers. Conclusions The important roles of life endowments and/or persistent neurotoxicity were exemplified by limited change in the health outcome. Gradients by household assets and community deprivation were indicative of ongoing, structural inequities within this LMIC. PMID:22094171

  13. Age and Self-Rated Health in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2005-01-01

    I examine age variation in the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on self-rated health in Korea by including three alternative indicators of SES--liquid assets, home ownership, and real estate ownership--as well as two standard measures of education and household income. Furthermore, I consider the SES-health relationship and its variation by…

  14. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents' Restriction of Screen Time among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents ("N" =…

  15. Income, cumulative risk, and longitudinal profiles of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Thompson, Stephanie F; Kiff, Cara J

    2016-05-01

    Environmental risk predicts disrupted basal cortisol levels in preschool children. However, little is known about the stability or variability of diurnal cortisol morning levels or slope patterns over time in young children. This study used latent profile analysis to identify patterns of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity during the preschool period. Using a community sample (N = 306), this study measured income, cumulative risk, and children's diurnal cortisol (morning level and slope) four times across 2.5 years, starting when children were 36 months old. Latent profile analysis profiles indicated that there were predominantly stable patterns of diurnal cortisol level and slope over time and that these patterns were predicted by income and cumulative risk. In addition, there were curvilinear relations of income and cumulative risk to profiles of low morning cortisol level and flattened diurnal slope across time, suggesting that both lower and higher levels of income and cumulative risk were associated with a stress-sensitive physiological system. Overall, this study provides initial evidence for the role of environmental risk in predicting lower, flattened basal cortisol patterns that remain stable over time. PMID:26040201

  16. Parent feeding strategy clusters are associated with the weight status of preschool-aged children in low-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To identify clusters of parents based on use of feeding strategies (FS) and evaluate their relationship with children's weight status. Methods: A study to investigate facilitators and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake among low-income preschoolers was performed with 761 parent/child dy...

  17. Household economy and population survey on a large agriculture-oriented county.

    PubMed

    He, C; Chen, C

    1995-01-01

    In this article household socioeconomic characteristics and standard of living are described for agricultural workers in Renshou County of Sichuan Province in western rural China. Data are obtained for the population in the county, and more detailed data are available among a sample of 215 households (743 persons) in 1993 in Anlin Village in Jinshun Township of Longzheng District. Anlin village is one of 1103 villages in the county. Family size declined during 1990-93 by 0.4 persons. 25.1% of households in Anlin Village had elderly members. 6.68% of elderly lived alone, and 8.22% lived in 2-person families. Over 60% lived in 3 or more generation households, and 27.4% lived in nuclear households. There were no homes for the aged in Anlin Village. All households were family, rather than collective, households. 8.04% of household heads were women. Total village population was 1110 persons. The sex ratio was normal. The village population aged under 15 years was lower, and the working age population was higher than the respective township populations. Marriages were stable and early marriage was not a problem. During 1990-93 the proportion with a junior high or more education increased as did the proportion illiterate or semi-literate. The working age population from rural statistics reports numbered 477 persons, of whom 92.9% were engaged in farming, animal farming, and fishing. 5.9% worked in non-agricultural jobs. 4.8% worked outside the area. The survey found a higher number of working age population than the 1993 annual report of rural statistics. Each person averaged 6.67 acres of arable land, and one in seven households owned cattle. Most households had electricity and bicycles. 56% had television sets. The average income was 1089.47 RMB yuan per person. In 1993, most women had one child and hoped to have a second one. Although regulations permitted only one child, most desired two and still relied on family support for the elderly. Renshou County is shifting

  18. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women’s Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women’s health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income—contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks—religion and clubs—among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and

  19. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  20. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests. PMID:23508886

  1. A strategy to increase adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves in rural Kenyan households

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to household air pollutants released during cooking has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes among residents of rural areas in low-income countries. Improved cookstoves are one of few available interventions, but achieving equity in cookstove access has been challenging. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed. To evaluate a project designed to motivate adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) in an impoverished, rural African population, we assessed the perceived benefits of the cookstoves (in monetary and time-savings terms), the rate of cookstove adoption, and the equity of adoption. Methods The project was conducted in 60 rural Kenyan villages in 2008 and 2009. Baseline (n = 1250) and follow-up (n = 293) surveys and a stove-tracking database were analyzed. Results At baseline, nearly all respondents used wood (95%) and firepits (99%) for cooking; 98% desired smoke reductions. Households with upesi jiko subsequently spent <100 Kenyan Shillings/week on firewood more often (40%) than households without upesi jiko (20%) (p = 0.0002). There were no significant differences in the presence of children <2 years of age in households using upesi jiko (48%) or three-stone stoves (49%) (p = 0.88); children 2–5 years of age were less common in households using upesi jiko versus three-stone stoves (46% and 69%, respectively) (p = 0.0001). Vendors installed 1,124 upesi jiko in 757 multi-family households in 18 months; 68% of these transactions involved incentives for vendors and purchasers. Relatively few (<10%) upesi jiko were installed in households of women in the youngest age quartile (<22 years) or among households in the poorest quintile. Conclusions Our strategy of training of local vendors, appropriate incentives, and product integration effectively accelerated cookstove adoption into a large number of households. The strategy also created opportunities to reinforce health messages

  2. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20–5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42–1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8–588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding Wellcome Trust

  3. [Economic potential of the elderly: changes in wealth, income, and expenditures].

    PubMed

    Fachinger, U

    2012-10-01

    Changes of wealth, income, and expenditure under the aspect of the economic potential of the elderly are considered in this article. Overall, it is shown that it is necessary to take a skeptical view regarding the conclusions about an on-going positive development of the economic potential. On the one hand, the reduction of the statutory pension level will lead to a reduction of the household income because pensions from the statutory old age pension systems will continue be the main component of household income after retirement. On the other hand, the inequality of the old age income distribution will rise because of the different adjustments of old age income. The expenditures will change both the amount and the structure compared to today. Due to the reduction of the pension level and therewith the purchasing power, the amount of expenditures will decrease overall and the demand for luxuries will be lower. However, statements about the structural changes of consumption are hampered by the fact that not only material resources and the price of goods and services but other factors also influence demand. For example, the human capital of the elderly of the future will be different and cohort effects will potentially account for different demand behavior. PMID:23052282

  4. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem. PMID:27006867

  5. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. Methods In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)—a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. Findings We obtained data for 22 188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19 403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (≤19 years) and older (≥35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02–1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03–1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25–1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18–1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20–24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained

  6. Population income and longitudinal trends in living kidney donation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jagbir; Dong, Jianghu; Gill, John

    2015-01-01

    Living kidney donation is declining in the United States. We examined longitudinal trends in living donation as a function of median household income and donor relation to assess the effect of financial barriers on donation in a changing economic environment. The zip code-level median household income of all 71,882 living donors was determined by linkage to the 2000 US Census. Longitudinal changes in the rate of donation were determined in income quintiles between 1999 and 2004, when donations were increasing, and between 2005 and 2010, when donations were declining. Rates were adjusted for population differences in age, sex, race, and ESRD rate using multilevel linear regression models. Between 1999 and 2004, the rate of growth in living donation per million population was directly related to income, increasing progressively from the lowest to highest income quintile, with annualized changes of 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.14 to 1.05) for Q1 and 1.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 2.77) for Q5 (P<0.05). Between 2005 and 2010, donation declined in Q1, Q2, and Q3; was stable in Q4; and continued to grow in Q5. Longitudinal changes varied by donor relationship, and the association of income with longitudinal changes also varied by donor relationship. In conclusion, changes in living donation in the past decade varied by median household income, resulting in increased disparities in donation between low- and high-income populations. These findings may inform public policies to support living donation during periods of economic volatility. PMID:25035519

  7. Income Class and the Accumulation of Net Worth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Kim, Jeounghee; Joo, Myungkook

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential rates of accumulating net worth among low- and high-income households. To achieve this objective, the authors, using a sample drawn from the 1998 Survey of Consumer Finances, investigated the degree of elasticity of household net worth (or wealth) to household income among five income…

  8. Economic Growth, Rural Educational Investment and the Level and Distribution of Rural Incomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badiani, Reena Chandu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…

  9. Health-income inequality: the effects of the Icelandic economic collapse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health-income inequality has been the focus of many studies. The relationship between economic conditions and health has also been widely studied. However, not much is known about how changes in aggregate economic conditions relate to health-income inequality. Nevertheless, such knowledge would have both scientific and practical value as substantial public expenditures are used to decrease such inequalities and opportunities to do so may differ over the business cycle. For this reason we examine the effect of the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 on health-income inequality. Methods The data used come from a health and lifestyle survey carried out by the Public Health Institute of Iceland in 2007 and 2009. A stratified random sample of 9,807 individuals 18–79 years old received questionnaires and a total of 42.1% answered in both years. As measures of health-income inequality, health-income concentration indices are calculated and decomposed into individual-level determinants. Self-assessed health is used as the health measure in the analyses, but three different measures of income are used: individual income, household income, and equivalized household income. Results In both years there is evidence of health-income inequality favoring the better off. However, changes are apparent between years. For males health-income inequality increases after the crisis while it remains fairly stable for females or slightly decreases. The decomposition analyses show that income itself and disability constitute the most substantial determinants of inequality. The largest increases in contributions between years for males come from being a student, having low education and being obese, as well as age and income but those changes are sensitive to the income measure used. Conclusions Changes in health and income over the business cycle can differ across socioeconomic strata, resulting in cyclicality of income-related health distributions. As substantial fiscal

  10. Children caring for their "caregivers": exploring the caring arrangements in households affected by AIDS in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Reflecting dominant understandings of childhood, many researchers describe orphans as an emotional and financial cost to the households in which they live. This has created a representation of orphans as a burden, not only to their fostering household, but also to society. This article seeks to challenge this representation by exploring children's contributions to their fostering households. Drawing on research from Bondo District in Kenya, this article brings together the views of 36 guardians and 69 orphaned children between the ages of 11 and 17, who articulated their circumstances through photography and drawing. Nearly 300 photos and drawings were selected by the children and subsequently described in writing. An additional 44 in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted to explore findings further. The data suggest that many fostering households benefit tremendously from absorbing orphaned children. All orphans were found to contribute to their fostering household's income and provide valuable care or support to ageing, ailing or young members of their households. The article concludes that caution should be exercised in using the term "caregiver" to describe foster parents due to the reciprocity, and indeed at times a reversal, of caring responsibilities. PMID:20390486

  11. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  12. Comparison of energy expenditures by elderly and non-elderly households: 1975 and 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, A.

    1980-05-01

    The relative position of the elderly in the population is examined and their characteristic use of energy in relation to the total population and their non-elderly counterparts is observed. The 1985 projections are based on demographic, economic, and socio-economic, and energy data assumptions contained in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. The model used for estimating household energy expenditure is MATH/CHRDS - Micro-Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System. Characteristics used include households disposable income, poverty status, location by DOE region and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), and race and sex of the household head as well as age. Energy use by fuel type will be identified for total home fuels, including electricity, natural gas, bottled gas and fuel oil, and for all fuels, where gasoline use is also included. Throughout the analysis, both income and expenditure-dollar amounts for 1975 and 1985 are expressed in constant 1978 dollars. Two appendices contain statistical information.

  13. Effects of income supplementation on health of the poor elderly: The case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P.

    2015-01-01

    We use an income supplementation experiment we designed in the state of Yucatan in Mexico for residents 70 y and older to evaluate health impacts of additional income. Two cities in the State of Yucatan, Valladolid (treatment) and Motul (control), were selected for the income supplementation experiment. Elderly residents of Valladolid were provided the equivalent of an additional $67 per month, a 44% increase in average household income. We designed a survey given to residents of both cities before and 6 mo after the income supplement about their health and other aspects of overall well-being. Both baseline and follow-up surveys collect self-reported data on health, physical functioning, and biomarkers. Anthropometric measurements for every age-eligible respondent, including height, weight, and waist circumference, were collected. We also collected lung capacity, grip strength, a series of balance tests, and a timed walk. Our results show significant health benefits associated with the additional income. Relative to the control site, there was a statistically significant improvement in lung function and an improvement in memory. These improvements are equivalent to a reduction in age of 5–10 y. Residents used their extra income to go to the doctor, buy their medications, and alleviate their hunger. The fear that this extra income could be undone by reduced transfers from other family members or unwise expenditures by the poor elderly appears to be unfounded. PMID:25535388

  14. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  15. Province-Level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533

  16. Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance and Supplemental Security Income for the aged, blind, and disabled; substantial gainful activity amounts; "services" for trial work period purposes--monthly amounts; student child earned income exclusion. Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2000-12-29

    We are revising the rules to automatically adjust each year, based on any increases in the national average wage index, the average monthly earnings guideline we use to determine whether work done by persons with impairments other than blindness is substantial gainful activity; provide that we will ordinarily find that an employee whose average monthly earnings are not greater than the "primary substantial gainful activity amount," has not engaged in substantial gainful activity without considering other information beyond the employee's earnings; increase the minimum amount of monthly earnings and the minimum number of self-employed work hours in month that we consider shows that a person receiving title II Social Security benefits based on disability is performing or has performed "services" during a trial work period, and automatically adjust the earnings amount each year thereafter; increase the maximum monthly and yearly Student Earned Income Exclusion amounts we use in determining Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program eligibility and payment amounts for student children, and automatically adjust the monthly and yearly exclusion amounts each year thereafter. We are revising these rules as part of our efforts to encourage individuals with disabilities to test their ability to work and keep working. We expect that these changes will provide greater incentives for many beneficiaries to attempt to work or, if already working, to continue to work or increase their work effort. PMID:11503739

  17. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Credit for individuals under age 65 who have... by certain married taxpayers. If a married individual under age 65 at the close of the taxable year...) For individuals under 65. In the case of an individual who has not attained the age of 65 before...

  18. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit for individuals under age 65 who have... by certain married taxpayers. If a married individual under age 65 at the close of the taxable year...) For individuals under 65. In the case of an individual who has not attained the age of 65 before...

  19. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Credit for individuals under age 65 who have... by certain married taxpayers. If a married individual under age 65 at the close of the taxable year...) For individuals under 65. In the case of an individual who has not attained the age of 65 before...

  20. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit for individuals under age 65 who have... by certain married taxpayers. If a married individual under age 65 at the close of the taxable year...) For individuals under 65. In the case of an individual who has not attained the age of 65 before...

  1. Subjective Well-Being and Household Factors in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwalter, Jeffrey T.; Dalenberg, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a household survey from South Africa to estimate a model of subjective well-being based upon poverty and household characteristics including housing, sanitation, and transportation. Following Sen, we allow for factors in addition to income and we begin to incorporate functionings and capabilities as determinants of well-being. This…

  2. Flexibility of Household Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Using data I collected in Africa, this paper examines a household's decision to adjust its size through child fostering, an institution where biological parents temporarily send children to live with other families. Households experiencing negative idiosyncratic income shocks, child gender imbalances, located further from primary schools, or with…

  3. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  4. Household Counterstream Migration: Are Migrants Universally at a Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkinson, Leon B.

    Examining the relationship between urban to rural migrants and household income, 2,118 respondents representing urban and rural populations stratified across different labor markets within 8 counties in the northeastern Coastal Plains of North Carolina were surveyed. The variables employed were: households by race, female head, absence of 1974…

  5. Family Incomes in Trouble. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Policy Inst., Washington, DC.

    This briefing paper presents statistical evidence from a variety of data sources that the real income of the average U.S. household has been stagnant for a decade; primary causes are also examined. The major reasons identified for income stagnation are (1) declining real wages; (2) a less productive economy (economic growth has slowed down)…

  6. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  7. Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter and Age at First Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in a Low-Income Urban Community in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Emily S.; Salje, Henrik; Homaira, Nusrat; Ram, Pavani K.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J.; Luby, Stephen P.; Breysse, Patrick; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's age at first ALRI and indoor exposure to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through age 2 years to record their age at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative age at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m3. Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m3 was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in age at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 could increase the ages at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community. PMID:24607596

  8. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation. PMID:27453625

  9. Mortality under age 50 accounts for much of the fact that US life expectancy lags that of other high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2013-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in the United States is among the lowest of all high-income countries. Most recent studies have concentrated on older ages, finding that Americans have a lower life expectancy at age fifty and experience higher levels of disease and disability than do their counterparts in other industrialized nations. Using cross-national mortality data to identify the key age groups and causes of death responsible for these shortfalls, I found that mortality differences below age fifty account for two-thirds of the gap in life expectancy at birth between American males and their counterparts in sixteen comparison countries. Among females, the figure is two-fifths. The major causes of death responsible for the below-fifty trends are unintentional injuries, including drug overdose--a fact that constitutes the most striking finding from this study; noncommunicable diseases; perinatal conditions, such as pregnancy complications and birth trauma; and homicide. In all, this study highlights the importance of focusing on younger ages and on policies both to prevent the major causes of death below age fifty and to reduce social inequalities. PMID:23459724

  10. Marital fertility and income: moderating effects of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints religion in Utah.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Joseph B; Smith, Ken R

    2013-03-01

    Utah has the highest total fertility of any state in the United States and also the highest proportion of population affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church). Data were used from the 1996 Utah Health Status Survey to investigate how annual household income, education and affiliation with the LDS Church affect fertility (children ever born) for married women in Utah. Younger age and higher education were negatively correlated with fertility in the sample as a whole and among non-LDS respondents. Income was negatively associated with fertility among non-LDS respondents. However, income was positively correlated with fertility among LDS respondents. This association persisted when instrumental variables were used to address the potential simultaneous equations bias arising from the potential endogeneity of income and fertility. The LDS religion's pronatalist stance probably encourages childbearing among those with higher income. PMID:23069479

  11. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups. PMID:25728882

  12. Do changes in neighborhood and household levels of smoking and deprivation result in changes in individual smoking behavior? A large-scale longitudinal study of New Zealand adults.

    PubMed

    Ivory, Vivienne C; Blakely, Tony; Richardson, Ken; Thomson, George; Carter, Kristie

    2015-09-01

    Health behavior takes place within social contexts. In this study, we investigated whether changes in exposure to neighborhood deprivation and smoking prevalence and to household smoking were associated with change in personal smoking behavior. Three waves of biannual data collection (2004-2009) in a New Zealand longitudinal study, the Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)-Health, were used, with 13,815 adults (persons aged ≥15 years) contributing to the analyses. Smoking status was dichotomized as current smoking versus never/ex-smoking. Fixed-effects regression analyses removed time-invariant confounding and adjusted for time-varying covariates (neighborhood smoking prevalence and deprivation, household smoking, labor force status, income, household tenure, and family status). A between-wave decile increase in neighborhood deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.14), but a between-wave increase in neighborhood smoking prevalence was not (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10). Changing household exposures between waves to live with another smoker (compared with a nonsmoker (referent)) increased the odds of smoking (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.84, 3.34), as did changing to living in a sole-adult household (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.14). Tobacco control policies and programs should address the broader household and neighborhood circumstances within which individual smoking takes place. PMID:26271117

  13. Multigenerational: Households and the School Readiness of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Raley, R. Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Following the ongoing increase in nonmarital fertility, policy makers have looked for ways to limit the disadvantages faced by children of unmarried mothers. Recent initiatives included marriage promotion and welfare-to-work programs. Yet policy might also consider the promotion of three generational households. We know little about whether multigenerational households benefit children of unwed mothers, although they are mandated for unmarried teen mothers applying for welfare benefits. Multigenerational households are also becoming increasingly common. Thus, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 217), this study examines whether grandparent-headed coresidential households benefit preschool-aged children’s school readiness, employing propensity score techniques to account for selection into these households. Findings reveal living with a grandparent is not associated with child outcomes for families that select into such arrangements but is positively associated with reading scores and behavior problems for families with a low propensity to coreside. The implications of these findings for policy are discussed. PMID:23847390

  14. Education Financing of Rural Households in China

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The findings implied that the extension of financial services to children’s education could motivate parents to send their children for more education, increase disposable income of rural households by reducing precautionary savings, and provide better-educated labors in rural China. PMID:20835379

  15. What roles do contemporaneous and cumulative incomes play in the income-child health gradient for young children? Evidence from an Australian panel.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Hong Son; Connelly, Luke Brian

    2014-08-01

    The literature to date shows that children from poorer households tend to have worse health than their peers, and the gap between them grows with age. We investigate whether and how health shocks (as measured by the onset of chronic conditions) contribute to the income-child health gradient and whether the contemporaneous or cumulative effects of income play important mitigating roles. We exploit a rich panel dataset with three panel waves called the Longitudinal Study of Australian children. Given the availability of three waves of data, we are able to apply a range of econometric techniques (e.g. fixed and random effects) to control for unobserved heterogeneity. The paper makes several contributions to the extant literature. First, it shows that an apparent income gradient becomes relatively attenuated in our dataset when the cumulative and contemporaneous effects of household income are distinguished econometrically. Second, it demonstrates that the income-child health gradient becomes statistically insignificant when controlling for parental health and health-related behaviours or unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:23780648

  16. Tax Filing and Other Financial Behaviors of EITC-Eligible Households: Differences of Banked and Unbanked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee; Livermore, Michelle; Davis, Belinda Creel

    2011-01-01

    Holding a bank account is crucial to the income-maximizing and asset-building of households. This study uses 2008 survey data of EITC-eligible households assisted at Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) sites to document their tax filing behavior and use of Alternate Financial Services (AFS). Specifically, the differences in tax filing and AFS…

  17. Married Women's Resource Position and Household Food Expenditures in Cebu, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes how married women use their access to and control over economic resources to increase household spending on food. Using data from Cebu, Philippines, where child malnutrition is high, this study finds that the more income women earn and control, the more households spend on food. Women's control over their income is particularly…

  18. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Dror, David Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature. Methods We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP. Result 16 studies (21 articles) from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP. Conclusions The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources. PMID:27362356

  19. School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

  20. 7 CFR 253.7 - Certification of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... gross self-employment income, exclude the cost of producing the self-employment income and divide the... within the certification period, except for households voluntarily switching program participation from... program with the intent of switching to the other shall have their eligibility terminated for the...

  1. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population, making Chile an intriguing case study for examining the impact of these societal-level trends on the aging experience. This paper highlights essential characteristics of this country for understanding its emerging aging society. It reveals that there is a fundamental lack of adequate and depthful epidemiologic and country-specific research from which to fully understand the aging experience and guide new policies in support of health and well-being. PMID:22534464

  2. Impact of Education on the Income of Different Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…

  3. The Economic impact of Non-communicable Diseases on households in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and injuries account for an estimated 62% of the total age-standardized burden of forgone Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Public and private financing of clinical services to reduce the NCD burden is a major challenge. Methods We used National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) survey data from 1995-96 and 2004 covering nearly 200 thousand households to assess healthcare utilization patterns and out of pocket health spending by disease category. For this purpose, self-reported diseases and conditions were categorized into NCDs and non-NCDs. Survey data were used to assess how households financed their overall health expenditures and related this pattern to specific health conditions. We measured catastrophic spending on NCD-related hospitalization, defined as occurring when health expenditures exceeded 40% of a household's ability to pay, that is, household consumption spending less combined survival consumption expenditure; and impoverishment when per capita expenditure within the household decreased to below the poverty line once health spending was netted out. Results The share of NCDs in out of pocket health expenses incurred by households increased over time, from 31.6 percent in 1995-96 to 47.3 percent in 2004. In both years, own savings and income were the most important source of financing for many health conditions, typically between 40-60 percent of all spending, whereas 30-35 percent was from borrowing. The odds of catastrophic hospitalization expenditures for cancer was nearly 170% greater and for CVD and injuries 22 percent greater than the odds due to communicable diseases. Impoverishment patterns were similar. Conclusions Out of pocket expenses for treating NCDs rose sharply over the period from 1995-96 to 2004. When NCDs are present, the financial risks to which Indians households are exposed are significant. PMID:22533895

  4. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia

    2007-01-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25≤BMI<30) and obesity (30≤BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women. PMID:17368895

  5. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  6. Household Costs of Leprosy Reactions (ENL) in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, David J.; Hansen, Kristian S.; Mahato, Bhabananda; Darlong, Joydeepa; John, Annamma; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a common immune-mediated complication of lepromatous (LL) and borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy. Most patients experience chronic or multiple acute ENL over many years during an economically active period of their lives. Understanding the economic burden of ENL is essential to provide effective patient support, yet this area has not been investigated. Methods Ninety-one patients with LL or BL leprosy attending a leprosy hospital in Purulia district of West Bengal, India, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Cases (n = 53) were identified as those who had one or more episodes of ENL within the last 3 years. Controls (n = 38) had LL or BL leprosy but no history of ENL. Data were collected on household income, direct and indirect costs, and coping strategies. Findings The total household cost was Rs 1543 per month or 27.9% (IQR 13.2-52.6) of monthly household income for cases, and Rs 237 per month or 4.9% (IQR 1.7-13.4) of monthly household income for controls. Indirect costs accounted for 65% of total household costs for cases. Direct costs accounted for the remaining 35% of household costs, and resulted almost entirely from treatment-seeking in the private sector. Total household costs exceeded 40% of household income for 37.7% of cases (n = 20) and 2.6% of controls (n = 1) [1 USD = 59 INR]. Interpretation Households affected by ENL face significant economic burden and are at risk of being pushed further into poverty. Health policy should acknowledge the importance of private sector provision and the significant contribution to total household costs of lost productivity (indirect cost). Further work is needed to explore this area and identify solutions. PMID:25590638

  7. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  8. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  9. "Raising Him . . . to Pull His Own Weight": Boys' Household Work in Single-Mother Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Clara W.; Romich, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine boys' household work in low- and moderate-income single-mother families. Through describing the work that boys do, why they do this work, and the meaning that they and their mothers give to this work, they add to the understanding of housework as an arena for gender role reproduction or interruption. Their data…

  10. 20 CFR 416.1110 - What is earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is earned income. 416.1110 Section 416.1110 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1110 What is earned income. Earned income may be in cash or in kind. We may include more of your...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1121 - Types of unearned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Types of unearned income. 416.1121 Section 416.1121 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Unearned Income § 416.1121 Types of unearned income. Some types of unearned income are— (a) Annuities, pensions, and...

  12. The Effect of Unemployment on Household Composition and Doubling Up

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    “Doubling up” (sharing living arrangements) with family and friends is one way in which individuals and families can cope with job loss, but relatively little research has examined the extent to which people use coresidence to weather a spell of unemployment. This project uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to provide evidence on the relationship between household composition and unemployment across working ages, focusing on differences in behavior by educational attainment. Using the SIPP panels, I find that individuals who become unemployed are three times more likely to move in with other people. Moving into shared living arrangements in response to unemployment is not evenly spread across the distribution of educational attainment: it is most prevalent among individuals with the less than a high school diploma and those with at least some college. PMID:25421522

  13. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI) over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI) from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002) that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the pathways between income

  14. Cytokine production and mRNA expression in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their household contacts of younger age group (15-25years).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Lavanya; Ponnana, Meenakshi; Sivangala, Ramya; Chelluri, Lakshmi Kiran; Nallari, Pratibha; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Gaddam, Sumanlatha

    2016-05-01

    Household contacts of tuberculosis patients are at high risk of infection and development of active disease. In this study we evaluated the cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10&IL-6 stimulated with r32kDa M. bovis BCGAg in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients (APTB), household contacts (HHC) and healthy controls (HC). The results showed the stimulated levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were low while IL-10 levels were high in APTB and HHC compared to HC. IL-6 has not shown any significant difference. The mRNA expression of TNF- α was 8 fold high in HCs compared to APTB and HHC. The IL-6 expression was 2.2 fold &1 fold less in APTB and HHC compared to HCs. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that the stimulated levels of IFN-γ & IL-6 and sex significantly predicted the HHC group from HCs at p<0.05.In conclusion further follow up studies with r32kd antigen might help to identify the high risk individuals. PMID:26876300

  15. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001). Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  16. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001). Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  17. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Lee, Sun Eun; Donahue Angel, Moira; Adair, Linda S; Arifeen, Shams E; Ashorn, Per; Barros, Fernando C; Fall, Caroline HD; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Hao, Wei; Hu, Gang; Humphrey, Jean H; Huybregts, Lieven; Joglekar, Charu V; Kariuki, Simon K; Kolsteren, Patrick; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Liu, Enqing; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Ake; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Richter, Linda; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Tielsch, James; Victora, Cesar G; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30–40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting involves both prenatal and postnatal growth failure, the extent to which FGR contributes to stunting and other indicators of nutritional status is uncertain. Methods Using extant longitudinal birth cohorts (n = 19) with data on birthweight, gestational age and child anthropometry (12–60 months), we estimated study-specific and pooled risk estimates of stunting, wasting and underweight by small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth. Results We grouped children according to four combinations of SGA and gestational age: adequate size-for-gestational age (AGA) and preterm; SGA and term; SGA and preterm; and AGA and term (the reference group). Relative to AGA and term, the OR (95% confidence interval) for stunting associated with AGA and preterm, SGA and term, and SGA and preterm was 1.93 (1.71, 2.18), 2.43 (2.22, 2.66) and 4.51 (3.42, 5.93), respectively. A similar magnitude of risk was also observed for wasting and underweight. Low birthweight was associated with 2.5–3.5-fold higher odds of wasting, stunting and underweight. The population attributable risk for overall SGA for outcomes of childhood stunting and wasting was 20% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions This analysis estimates that childhood undernutrition may have its origins in the foetal period, suggesting a need to intervene early, ideally during pregnancy, with interventions known to reduce FGR and preterm birth. PMID:23920141

  18. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (p<.04); for each 1-SDU increase in sAA slope across the day, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.12 (SE 0.05) SDU's (p<.03); and for each 1-SDU decrease in sAA AUCI during the stress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (p<.03). Blunted stress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. PMID:25588701

  19. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks. PMID:26689891

  20. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers’ perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the “Take Cover” communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  1. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  2. Trajectories and Personality Correlates of Change in Perceptions of Physical and Mental Health across Adulthood and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morack, Jennifer; Infurna, Frank J.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Subjective health is known to predict later outcomes, including survival. However, less is known about subjective health changes across adulthood, how personality moderates those changes, and whether such associations differ with age. We applied growth models to 10 waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey…

  3. Minority and poor households: patterns of travel and transportation fuel use

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, M.; Morrison, R.; Vyas, A.

    1986-05-01

    This report documents the travel behavior and transportation fuel use of minority and poor households in the US, using information from numerous national-level sources. The resulting data base reveals distinctive patterns of household vehicle availability and use, travel, and fuel use and enables us to relate observed differences between population groups to differences in their demographic characteristics and in the attributes of their household vehicles. When income and residence location are controlled, black (and to a lesser extent, Hispanic and poor) households have fewer vehicles regularly available than do comparable white or nonpoor households; moreover, these vehicles are older and larger and thus have significantly lower fuel economy. The net result is that average black, Hispanic, and poor households travel fewer miles per year but use more fuel than do average white and nonpoor households. Certain other findings - notably, that of significant racial differences in vehicle availability and use by low-income households - challenge the conventional wisdom that such racial variations arise solely because of differences in income and residence location. Results of the study suggest important differences - primarily in the yearly fluctuation of income - between black and white low-income households even when residence location is controlled. These variables are not captured by cross-sectional data sets (either the national surveys used in our analysis or the local data sets that are widely used for urban transportation planning).

  4. Acceptance of Internet-Based Health Care Services Among Households in Poland: Secondary Analysis of a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    .79). Furthermore, acceptance of Internet-based health care was higher in households with a higher monthly net income per capita (OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.75 - 2.53 for households from the lowest and the highest income interval), among households with > 1 child aged < 15 years (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.20 - 1.59), among households with at least some books (with OR = 3.33, 95% CI 2.39 - 4.64 for household with no books and those with over 500 books). Acceptance was also higher in households with a computer (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.35 - 2.56), Internet access (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.37 - 2.76), and Internet access for a longer duration (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.75 and OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.33 for households with access < 1 year versus those with access for 1-5 years and > 5 years, respectively). Greater self-declared confidence in using technology was also associated with higher acceptance of the Internet for health care services (OR = 2.94, 95% CI 2.21 - 3.91 for the least confident households versus those with the highest confidence). Furthermore, recent use of health care services increased acceptance of using the Internet for at least some health-related services (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.16 - 1.91), but not for full provision of online health care services (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 - 1.55). Neither the hospitalization of a member of a household nor the opinion about satisfying health care needs of a household affected the degree of acceptance. Conclusions The acceptance of health care services through the Internet is higher in households from larger cities, with stable income from an employee salary, as well as with higher income levels per capita. Furthermore, general computer and Internet use in the household influenced the perception of eHealth. Paradoxically, the use of health care services or the level of satisfaction with the coverage of the household’s health needs has a limited influence on acceptance of Internet-based health care services. PMID:23187116

  5. Household response to environmental incentives for rain garden adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburn, David A.; Alberini, Anna

    2016-02-01

    A decentralized approach to encourage the voluntary adoption of household stormwater management practices is increasingly needed to mitigate urban runoff and to comply with more stringent water quality regulations. We analyze the household response to a hypothetical rebate program to incentivize rain garden adoption using household survey data from the Baltimore-Washington corridor. We asked respondents whether the household would adopt a rain garden without a rebate or when offered a randomly assigned rebate. An interval-data model is used to estimate household demand on the willingness to pay (WTP) for a rain garden as a function of demographic factors, gardening activities, environmental attitudes, and other household characteristics. Estimation results indicate that mean WTP for a rain garden in our sample population is approximately $6.72 per square foot, corresponding to almost three-fourths of the installation cost. The expected adoption rate more than tripled when comparing no rebate versus a government rebate set at one-third of the installation cost, indicating that economic incentives matter. There is substantial heterogeneity in the WTP among households. Higher levels of WTP are estimated for households with higher environmental concern for the Chesapeake Bay and local streams, garden experience, higher income, and non-senior citizen adults. We conclude that a cost-share rebate approach is likely to significantly affect household adoption decisions, and the partial contributions paid by households can assist with lowering the substantial compliance costs for local governments to meet water quality requirements.

  6. Feeding Her Children, but Risking Her Health: The Intersection of Gender, Household Food Insecurity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Molly A.; Lippert, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates one explanation for the consistent observation of a strong, negative correlation in the United States between income and obesity among women, but not men. We argue that a key factor is the gendered expectation that mothers are responsible for feeding their children. When income is limited and households face food shortages, we predict that an enactment of these gendered norms places mothers at greater risk for obesity relative to child-free women and all men. We adopt an indirect approach to study these complex dynamics using data on men and women of child-rearing age and who are household heads or partners in the 1999–2003 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We find support for our prediction: Food insecure mothers are more likely than child-free men and women and food insecure fathers to be overweight or obese and to gain more weight over four years. The risks are greater for single mothers relative to mothers in married or cohabiting relationships. Supplemental models demonstrate that this pattern cannot be attributed to post-pregnancy biological changes that predispose mothers to weight gain or an evolutionary bias toward biological children. Further, results are unchanged with the inclusion of physical activity, smoking, drinking, receipt of food stamps, or Women, Infants and Children (WIC) nutritional program participation. Obesity, thus, offers a physical expression of the vulnerabilities that arise from the intersection of gendered childcare expectations and poverty. PMID:22245381

  7. Feeding her children, but risking her health: the intersection of gender, household food insecurity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Lippert, Adam M

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates one explanation for the consistent observation of a strong, negative correlation in the United States between income and obesity among women, but not men. We argue that a key factor is the gendered expectation that mothers are responsible for feeding their children. When income is limited and households face food shortages, we predict that an enactment of these gendered norms places mothers at greater risk for obesity relative to child-free women and all men. We adopt an indirect approach to study these complex dynamics using data on men and women of childrearing age and who are household heads or partners in the 1999-2003 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We find support for our prediction: Food insecure mothers are more likely than child-free men and women and food insecure fathers to be overweight or obese and to gain more weight over four years. The risks are greater for single mothers relative to mothers in married or cohabiting relationships. Supplemental models demonstrate that this pattern cannot be attributed to post-pregnancy biological changes that predispose mothers to weight gain or an evolutionary bias toward biological children. Further, results are unchanged with the inclusion of physical activity, smoking, drinking, receipt of food stamps, or Women, Infants and Children (WIC) nutritional program participation. Obesity, thus, offers a physical expression of the vulnerabilities that arise from the intersection of gendered childcare expectations and poverty. PMID:22245381

  8. A Multi Agent-Based Framework for Simulating Household PHEV Distribution and Electric Distribution Network Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Liu, Cheng; Kim, Hoe Kyoung; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2011-01-01

    The variation of household attributes such as income, travel distance, age, household member, and education for different residential areas may generate different market penetration rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Residential areas with higher PHEV ownership could increase peak electric demand locally and require utilities to upgrade the electric distribution infrastructure even though the capacity of the regional power grid is under-utilized. Estimating the future PHEV ownership distribution at the residential household level can help us understand the impact of PHEV fleet on power line congestion, transformer overload and other unforeseen problems at the local residential distribution network level. It can also help utilities manage the timing of recharging demand to maximize load factors and utilization of existing distribution resources. This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for 1) modeling spatial distribution of PHEV ownership at local residential household level, 2) discovering PHEV hot zones where PHEV ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and 3) estimating the impacts of the increasing PHEV ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. In this paper, we use Knox County, TN as a case study to show the simulation results of the agent-based model (ABM) framework. However, the framework can be easily applied to other local areas in the US.

  9. Food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome among women from low income communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Yen, Wong Chee; Yaw, Yong Heng; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between household food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among reproductive-aged women (n=625) in low income communities. The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument was utilized to assess food insecurity. Anthropometry, diet diversity, blood pressure and fasting venous blood for lipid and glucose profile were also obtained. MetS was defined as having at least 3 risk factors and is in accordance with the Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of food insecurity and MetS was 78.4% (household food insecure, 26.7%; individual food insecure, 25.3%; child hunger, 26.4%) and 25.6%, respectively. While more food secure than food insecure women had elevated glucose (food secure, 54.8% vs food insecure, 37.3-46.1%), total cholesterol (food secure, 54.1% vs food insecure, 32.1-40.7%) and LDL-cholesterol (food secure, 63.7% vs food insecure, 40.6-48.7%), the percentage of women with overweight/ obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low HDL-cholesterol and MetS did not vary significantly by food insecurity status. However, after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, women in food insecure households were less likely to have MetS (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05), abdominal obesity (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.01), elevated glucose (household food insecure), total cholesterol (child hunger) (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (household food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05) compared to food secure women. Efforts to improve food insecurity of low income households undergoing nutrition transition should address availability and accessibility to healthy food choices and nutrition education that could reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. PMID:24561982

  10. [Child malnutrition and maternal overweight in same households in poor urban areas of Benin].

    PubMed

    Deleuze Ntandou Bouzitou, Gervais; Fayomi, Benjamin; Delisle, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    of 13 different food groups in the previous week, a food diversity score was computed. Overall 35.5% of children were malnourished, and school-age children had a worse nutritional status than under-5 children: 41% and 30% PEM (chronic or acute or both), respectively. The rate of maternal overweight was 39.1% including 15.5% of obesity. Child PEM coexisted with maternal overweight or obesity in 16.2% of the households; 27.7% of households had PEM only, 23% overweight only, 20.3% showed no malnutrition or overweight, and 12.8% had an underweight mother. Maternal BMI status was significantly associated with both children's weight-for-height z-score, particularly the elder one. The rate of child malnutrition, particularly wasting, was significantly higher among underweight mothers and lower in overweight mothers . Underweight mothers were merged with mothers with BMI < or = 25 for the remaining analyses. Households with overweight mothers tended to enjoy relatively better socio-economic conditions--higher SES, higher maternal education, less food insecurity, better household sanitation; they also tended to have a more diversified diet. This is in contrast with PEM households. Dual burden households shared several socio-economic features with the PEM households, except for a higher (not significant) SES score. Dual burden households also had the lowest food diversity score of all household types. Logistical regression models revealed that a relatively higher SES level was associated with a higher likelihood of maternal overweight in PEM households, whereas poor household sanitation increased the odds of PEM among maternal overweight households. Food diversity appeared significantly associated with a lower likelihood of dual burden in all types of households. The study highlights the importance of addressing the double burden of malnutrition and overweight even in poor areas of low income countries of West Africa. It suggests that prevention efforts should be aimed at

  11. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  12. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  13. Assessment of universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in six middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Frenz, Patricia; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Keil, Thomas; Tinnemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Methods We obtained data on 16 631 participants aged 50 years or older who had at least one diagnosed chronic condition from the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Access to basic chronic care and financial hardship were assessed and the influence of health insurance and rural or urban residence was determined by logistic regression analysis. Findings The weighted proportion of participants with access to basic chronic care ranged from 20.6% in Mexico to 47.6% in South Africa. Access rates were unequally distributed and disadvantaged poor people, except in South Africa where primary health care is free to all. Rural residence did not affect access. The proportion with catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure for the last outpatient visit ranged from 14.5% in China to 54.8% in Ghana. Financial hardship was more common among the poor in most countries but affected all income groups. Health insurance generally increased access to care but gave insufficient protection against financial hardship. Conclusion No country provided access to basic chronic care for more than half of the participants with chronic illness. The poor were less likely to receive care and more likely to face financial hardship in most countries. However, inequity of access was not fully determined by the level of economic development or insurance coverage. Future health reforms should aim to improve service quality and increase democratic oversight of health care. PMID:27034521

  14. The financial burden of sickle cell disease on households in Ekiti, Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olatunya, Oladele Simeon; Ogundare, Ezra Olatunde; Fadare, Joseph Olusesan; Oluwayemi, Isaac Oludare; Agaja, Oyinkansola Tolulope; Adeyefa, Babajide Samson; Aderiye, Odunayo

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on economic impact of sickle cell disease (SCD) are scanty despite its being common among children in developing countries who are mostly Africans. Objective To determine the financial burden of SCD on households in Ado Ekiti, Southwest Nigeria. Methods A longitudinal and descriptive study of household expenditures on care of 111 children with SCD managed at the pediatric hematology unit of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital was conducted between January and December 2014. Results There were 64 male and 47 female children involved, aged between 15 and 180 months. They were from 111 households, out of which only eight (7.2%) were enrolled under the National Health Insurance Scheme. The number of admissions and outpatients’ consultations ranged from 1 to 5 and 1 to 10 per child, respectively. Malaria, vaso-occlusive crisis, and severe anemia were the leading comorbidities. The monthly household income ranged between ₦12,500 and ₦330,000 (US$76 and US$2,000) with a median of ₦55,000 (US$333), and health expenditure ranged between ₦2,500 and ₦215,000 (US$15 and US$1,303) with a mean of ₦39,554±35,479 (US$240±215). Parents of 63 children lost between 1 and 48 working days due to their children’s ill health. Parents of 23 children took loans ranging between ₦6,500 and ₦150,000 (US$39 and US$909) to offset hospital bills. The percentage of family income spent as health expenditure on each child ranged from 0.38 to 34.4. Catastrophic health expenditure (when the health expenditure >10% of family income) occurred in 23 (20.7%) households. Parents who took loan to offset hospital bills, low social class, and patients who took ill during the study period significantly had higher odds for catastrophic health expenditure (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.399–87.176, P=0.000; 95% CI 2.322–47.310, P=0.002; and 95% CI 1.128–29.694, P=0.035, respectively). Conclusion SCD poses enormous financial burden on parents and households

  15. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  16. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  17. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  18. Midlife Women: Policy Proposals on Their Problems. A Summary of Papers Submitted to the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    Highlights of 18 papers on problems of midlife women are provided by 29 experts invited to testify before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the U.S. House of Representatives' Select Committee on Aging. The papers address the following areas of concern: (1) work and education, (2) displaced homemakers, (3) economic inequality,…

  19. Income, relative income, and self-reported health in Britain 1979-2000.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Hugh; Sutton, Matt

    2009-02-01

    We test the relative income hypothesis that an individual's health depends on the distribution of income in a reference group, as well as on the income of the individual. We use data on 231 208 individuals in Great Britain from 19 rounds of the General Household Survey between 1979 and 2000. Results are insensitive to the measure of self-assessed health used but the sign and significance of the effect of relative income depend on the reference group (national or regional) and the measure of relative income (Gini coefficient, absolute or proportional difference from the reference group mean, Yitzhaki absolute and proportional relative deprivation and affluence). Only one model (relative deprivation measured as income proportional to regional mean income) performs better than the model without relative income and has a positive estimated effect of absolute income on health. In this model the increase in the probability of good health from a ceteris paribus reduction in relative deprivation from the upper quartile to zero is 0.010, whereas an increase in income from the lower to the upper quartile increases the probability by 0.056. While our results provide only very weak support for the relative deprivation hypothesis, the inevitable correlation of measures of individual income and relative deprivation measured by comparing income and incomes in a reference group makes identification of the separate effects of income and relative deprivation problematic. PMID:18404665

  20. Correlates of household food insecurity and low dietary diversity in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christine M; McLean, Judy; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity in rural Cambodia. Trained interviewers administered a survey to 900 households in four rural districts of Prey Veng Province, Cambodia. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) were used to assess household food insecurity and dietary diversity. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify independent correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity (HDDShouseholds had an HDDShousehold food security status, although the latter association lost its significance in models that adjusted for household income. Similarly, although ownership of agricultural and homestead land was initially associated with poorer dietary diversity, income mitigated these associations. The presence of electricity and vegetable production were the only other variables that were significantly associated with both outcomes. In this rural area of Cambodia, the prevalence of any degree of household food insecurity was very high and dietary diversity was generally low. Interventions to improve food security and dietary diversity should encompass income-generating activities and be targeted toward the poorest households. PMID:26693758

  1. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent...

  2. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent care...

  3. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent...

  4. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent care...

  5. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment. 1.21-1 Section 1.21-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.21-1 Expenses for household and dependent care...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1160 - What is deeming of income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... may be deemed to you. (1) Ineligible spouse. If you live in the same household with your ineligible... ineligible parent's income to decide whether we must deem some of it to be yours. If you live with both your... residence and regardless of whether you live in the same household as your sponsor. We deem your...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1160 - What is deeming of income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... may be deemed to you. (1) Ineligible spouse. If you live in the same household with your ineligible... ineligible parent's income to decide whether we must deem some of it to be yours. If you live with both your... residence and regardless of whether you live in the same household as your sponsor. We deem your...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1160 - What is deeming of income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... may be deemed to you. (1) Ineligible spouse. If you live in the same household with your ineligible... ineligible parent's income to decide whether we must deem some of it to be yours. If you live with both your... residence and regardless of whether you live in the same household as your sponsor. We deem your...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1160 - What is deeming of income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... may be deemed to you. (1) Ineligible spouse. If you live in the same household with your ineligible... ineligible parent's income to decide whether we must deem some of it to be yours. If you live with both your... residence and regardless of whether you live in the same household as your sponsor. We deem your...

  10. Selection within households in health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Claro, Rafael Moreira; da Silva, Nilza Nunes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficiency and accuracy of sampling designs including and excluding the sampling of individuals within sampled households in health surveys. METHODS From a population survey conducted in Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, SP, Southeastern Brazil, lowlands between 2006 and 2007, 1,000 samples were drawn for each design and estimates for people aged 18 to 59 and 18 and over were calculated for each sample. In the first design, 40 census tracts, 12 households per sector, and one person per household were sampled. In the second, no sampling within the household was performed and 40 census sectors and 6 households for the 18 to 59-year old group and 5 or 6 for the 18 and over age group or more were sampled. Precision and bias of proportion estimates for 11 indicators were assessed in the two final sets of the 1000 selected samples with the two types of design. They were compared by means of relative measurements: coefficient of variation, bias/mean ratio, bias/standard error ratio, and relative mean square error. Comparison of costs contrasted basic cost per person, household cost, number of people, and households. RESULTS Bias was found to be negligible for both designs. A lower precision was found in the design including individuals sampling within households, and the costs were higher. CONCLUSIONS The design excluding individual sampling achieved higher levels of efficiency and accuracy and, accordingly, should be first choice for investigators. Sampling of household dwellers should be adopted when there are reasons related to the study subject that may lead to bias in individual responses if multiple dwellers answer the proposed questionnaire. PMID:24789641

  11. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  12. 24 CFR 791.402 - Determination of low-income housing needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; (2) Poverty. The number of renter households with annual incomes at or below the poverty level, as... households with annual incomes at or below the poverty level, as defined by the Bureau of the Census; and (6... needs percentages for each field office, using the following weights: population—20 percent;...

  13. 24 CFR 791.402 - Determination of low-income housing needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; (2) Poverty. The number of renter households with annual incomes at or below the poverty level, as... households with annual incomes at or below the poverty level, as defined by the Bureau of the Census; and (6... needs percentages for each field office, using the following weights: population—20 percent;...

  14. 24 CFR 791.402 - Determination of low-income housing needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; (2) Poverty. The number of renter households with annual incomes at or below the poverty level, as... households with annual incomes at or below the poverty level, as defined by the Bureau of the Census; and (6... needs percentages for each field office, using the following weights: population—20 percent;...

  15. Poverty Is Low Consumption and Low Wealth, Not Just Low Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an improved measure of financial poverty, based on household consumption and wealth as well as income. Data come from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) Survey, which appears to be the first national socio-economic panel survey to provide longitudinal data on all three measures of…

  16. 20 CFR 416.1100 - Income and SSI eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income General § 416.1100 Income and SSI eligibility. You are eligible for supplemental security income (SSI) benefits if you are an aged, blind, or disabled person who meets...

  17. Passing by the girls? Remittance allocation for educational expenditures and social inequality in Nepal's households 2003–2004.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Ann; Korinek, Kim

    2012-01-01

    We examine the utilization of remittances for expenditures associated with development, specifically children's education. We use household-level data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS II, 2003–04) to separate remittance effects from general household income effects to demonstrate the migration–development relationship reflected in child schooling investment. We find that family-household remittances are spent on education of children, but the expenditures are disproportionately for boys' schooling. Only when girls are members of higher-income households do greater schooling expenditures go to them. This gender-discriminating pattern at the household level contrasts with the call for universal and gender-equal education. PMID:22741164

  18. Tightening income documentation in a means-tested program: who stays away?

    PubMed

    Gleason, Philip; Burghardt, John; Strasberg, Paul; Hulsey, Lara

    2008-06-01

    Programs using means tests to identify low-income households face a trade-off between promoting access and ensuring program integrity. The authors use a comparison-district design to estimate the effects of a pilot program to improve the accuracy of the process of certifying students for free or reduced-price meals in the National School Lunch Program. This pilot program required households to provide income documentation with their applications for these benefits. Requiring income documentation did not reduce the proportion of ineligible households getting free or reduced-price meals. Furthermore, this requirement did reduce access to the program among eligible households. PMID:18223128

  19. Socioeconomic status and children's health: evidence from a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-04-01

    There has been a growing empirical literature on the relationship between household socioeconomic status (SES) and children's health, and in particular, whether this SES gradient is constant or varies in strength across different life stages. Much of this literature focuses on the developed countries and less evidence has been presented for developing countries. Using Vietnam's rich National Health Survey (2001-02) and appropriate multilevel modeling this study empirically assesses the SES gradient in health and whether it varies in strength across different life stages of children aged 15 and younger (N = 45,448). The results for the interaction terms between the natural logarithm of household consumption and age groups indicate no evidence of a steeper health gradient for older children. However, health-consumption gradients are found to be sensitive to the functional form of the regression model as well as the model specification. The results for the interaction terms between consumption expenditure quintiles and age groups indicate that gradients vary in strength across ages. Not only are children from the poorest households worse off, compared to those from the richest households, but this relative disadvantage is greater among the 0-3 year olds. The inclusion of parental health status in the regression model weakens the gradients for all age groups as does the inclusion of household sources of drinking water. However, poorer children are still relatively worse off, specially the 0-3 year olds. This suggests that absolute deprivation may help explain the relative health disadvantage of younger children. Better measures of poverty alleviation are hence needed to improve children's health in a low-income country such as Vietnam. PMID:25658625

  20. Equity in dental care among Canadian households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Changes in third party financing, whether public or private, are linked to a household's ability to access dental care. By removing costs at point of purchase, changes in financing influence the need to reach into one's pocket, thus facilitating or limiting access. This study asks: How have historical changes in dental care financing influenced household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care in Canada? Methods This is a mixed methods study, comprised of an historical review of Canada's dental care market and an econometric analysis of household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care. Results We demonstrate that changes in financing have important implications for out-of-pocket expenditures: with more financing come drops in the amount a household has to spend, and with less financing come increases. Low- and middle-income households appear to be most sensitive to changes in financing. Conclusions Alleviating the price barrier to care is a fundamental part of improving equity in dental care in Canada. How people have historically spent money on dental care highlights important gaps in Canadian dental care policy. PMID:21496297

  1. Insuring against health shocks: Health insurance and household choices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. PMID:26836108

  2. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  3. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  4. An analysis of household energy use by racial/ethnic composition: Consumption, efficiency, and lifestyles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Carlos

    The goal of this dissertation is to provide the most recent household energy consumption analysis by racial/ethnic household composition. This dissertation found that significant differences in behavior, energy consumption, and energy efficiency exist by racial/ethnic household composition. The models suggest that behavioral energy intensity is lower among households led by racial/ethnic minorities. Energy consumption and efficiency models suggest that Hispanic households consume less energy and are more efficient, while Black households consume more energy and are less efficient, than White households. However, when stratifying the models by housing vintage, the differences between Hispanic and White households are not consistent. Differences between Black and White households are evident only among those in housing units built before 1980, indicating that Black households in older vintages live in less efficient housing units and could be at a disadvantage that could result in having to pay a higher share of household income on energy use. Results also point towards evidence that energy efficiency standards since the late 1970s could have actually mitigated potential inequality associated with excess energy use by race/ethnicity. Improving energy efficiency of housing units may be beneficial not only to reduce total energy consumption levels, but also have the potential to lessen the burden of energy costs that lower income households (irrespective of race/ethnicity) might experience otherwise.

  5. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households

    PubMed Central

    Onazi, O.; Gidado, M.; Onazi, M.; Daniel, O.; Kuye, J.; Obasanya, O.; Odusote, T.; Gande, S.

    2015-01-01

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness. PMID:26400384

  6. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...

  10. 20 CFR 416.1160 - What is deeming of income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is deeming of income? 416.1160 Section 416.1160 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1160 What is deeming of income? (a) General. We use the term deeming to identify the process...

  11. A quasi-experimental analysis of the association between family income and offspring conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2010-01-01

    The study presents a quasi-experimental analysis of data on 9,194 offspring (ages 4–11 years old) of women from a nationally representative U.S. sample of households to test the causal hypotheses about the association between family income and childhood conduct problems (CPs). Comparison of unrelated individuals in the sample indicated a robust inverse association, with the relation being larger at higher levels of income and for male offspring, even when statistical covariates were included to account for measured confounds that distinguish different families. Offspring also were compared to their siblings and cousins who were exposed to different levels of family income in childhood to rule out unmeasured environmental and genetic factors confounded with family income as explanations for the association. In these within-family analyses, boys exposed to lower family income still exhibited significantly higher levels of CPs. When considered in the context of previous studies using different designs, these results support the inference that family income influences CPs, particularly in males, through causal environmental processes specifically related to earnings within the nuclear family. PMID:19023655

  12. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life (“Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach” [1]). PMID:27115023

  13. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-06-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life ("Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach" [1]). PMID:27115023

  14. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  15. Education and Intergenerational Income Mobility in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congbin, Guo; Weifang, Min

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between education and intergenerational income mobility in urban China based on the data of "Chinese Urban Household Education and Employment Survey" (CHUHEES)--2004 by Institute of Economics of Education of Peking University. It analyzes the characteristics of the intergenerational income mobility of Chinese…

  16. Income, Needs, and Expenditures: Metro-Nonmetro Differences in Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghelfi, Linda M.

    This report compares the relative adequacy of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan household income in Wisconsin. In 1981, 1,133 respondents completed the Wisconsin Basic Needs Survey, covering income, assets, debts, and taxes, filled out two-week diaries of food expenditures and small recurring expenses, and answered questions on perceived income…

  17. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. Methods We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. Results We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents’ self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. Conclusions To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. Objectif Les enqu

  18. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality. PMID:26177800

  19. HIV Testing in the Past Year among the U.S. Household Population Aged 15-44: 2011-2013. NCHS Data Brief. Number 202

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copen, Casey E.; Chandra, Anjani; Febo-Vazquez, Isaedmarie

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, more than 1 million Americans aged 13 and over were living with HIV infection, and one in seven did not know their infection status. Routine, voluntary HIV testing is a recognized way to reduce HIV transmission. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report updates nationally representative estimates…

  20. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD) study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006–2011) was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt) within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm. Results A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 5.72; 95% CI 1.64–19.97); that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39–33.56) and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14–16.47). Conclusion This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors. PMID:26731114

  1. Income distribution trends and future food demand

    PubMed Central

    Cirera, Xavier; Masset, Edoardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the theoretical literature on the relationship between income distribution and food demand, and identifies main gaps of current food modelling techniques that affect the accuracy of food demand projections. At the heart of the relationship between income distribution and food demand is Engel's law. Engel's law establishes that as income increases, households' demand for food increases less than proportionally. A consequence of this law is that the particular shape of the distribution of income across individuals and countries affects the rate of growth of food demand. Our review of the literature suggests that existing models of food demand fail to incorporate the required Engel flexibility when (i) aggregating different food budget shares among households; and (ii) changing budget shares as income grows. We perform simple simulations to predict growth in food demand under alternative income distribution scenarios taking into account nonlinearity of food demand. Results suggest that (i) distributional effects are to be expected from changes in between-countries inequality, rather than within-country inequality; and (ii) simulations of an optimistic and a pessimistic scenario of income inequality suggest that world food demand in 2050 would be 2.7 per cent higher and 5.4 per cent lower than distributional-neutral growth, respectively. PMID:20713387

  2. An Estimation of Private Household Costs to Receive Free Oral Cholera Vaccine in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Mogasale, Vittal; Kar, Shantanu K.; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V.; Kerketta, Anna S.; Patnaik, Bikash; Rath, Shyam Bandhu; Puri, Mahesh K.; You, Young Ae; Khuntia, Hemant K.; Maskery, Brian; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Sah, Binod

    2015-01-01

    Background Service provider costs for vaccine delivery have been well documented; however, vaccine recipients’ costs have drawn less attention. This research explores the private household out-of-pocket and opportunity costs incurred to receive free oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign in rural Odisha, India. Methods Following a government-driven oral cholera mass vaccination campaign targeting population over one year of age, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate private household costs among vaccine recipients. The questionnaire captured travel costs as well as time and wage loss for self and accompanying persons. The productivity loss was estimated using three methods: self-reported, government defined minimum daily wages and gross domestic product per capita in Odisha. Findings On average, families were located 282.7 (SD = 254.5) meters from the nearest vaccination booths. Most family members either walked or bicycled to the vaccination sites and spent on average 26.5 minutes on travel and 15.7 minutes on waiting. Depending upon the methodology, the estimated productivity loss due to potential foregone income ranged from $0.15 to $0.29 per dose of cholera vaccine received. The private household cost of receiving oral cholera vaccine constituted 24.6% to 38.0% of overall vaccine delivery costs. Interpretation The private household costs resulting from productivity loss for receiving a free oral cholera vaccine is a substantial proportion of overall vaccine delivery cost and may influence vaccine uptake. Policy makers and program managers need to recognize the importance of private costs and consider how to balance programmatic delivery costs with private household costs to receive vaccines. PMID:26352143

  3. The Shape of Things to Come? Household Dependency Ratio and Adolescent Nutritional Status in Rural and Urban Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Craig; Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Tessema, Fasil

    2013-01-01

    Several related demographic trends are occurring in developing countries: youth comprise a large portion of populations, fertility rates are declining, and urban dwellers are increasing. As fertility rates decline and populations age, the decline in the ratio of young dependents to working age adults is expected to free up household resources, which can be invested in human capital, including youth nutritional wellbeing. We test this hypothesis in a sample of youth (n = 1,934) in Southwestern Ethiopia. Multiple measures of achieved growth and nutritional status are explored (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body mass index (BMI) and body mass index for age z-score (BMIZ), weight for age z-score (WAZ), and height for age z-score (HAZ)). In multivariable models controlling for the effects of income, age, gender, and youth is workloads, youth living in rural settings had significantly lower weight (1.24 kg lighter), MUAC (0.67 cm lower), BMI (0.45 BMI lower), BMIZ (0.27 lower), HAZ (0.14 HAZ lower), and WAZ (0.3 WAZ lower) than urban youth (all P < 0.01). Compared with youth in the lowest dependency ratio households, results show that youth in households with the highest dependency ratios were estimated to be 1.3 kg lighter, have 0.67 cm smaller MUAC, and BMI that was 0.59 lower (all P<0.01). Similar results were found for WAZ (0.21 lower) and BMIZ (0.36 lower). Youth height and HAZ were not associated with household dependency. These results may point toward increasing levels of human capital investments in Ethiopian youth as fertility levels decline and populations urbanize. Am J Phys Anthropol 144:643–652, 2011. PMID:21404240

  4. Is there a need to mitigate the social and financial consequences of tuberculosis at the individual and household level?

    PubMed

    Grede, Nils; Claros, Joan M; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin

    2014-10-01

    This paper reviews evidence on social and economic costs of tuberculosis. Key socio-economic consequences include stigma, social isolation, increased out-of-pocket expenditures for medical and non-medical costs and reduced income. Many of the financing methods that households use have long-term negative impacts and the poor are most vulnerable to these costs. Together, these negative consequences adversely affect TB control, in terms of delayed diagnosis, delayed initiation of treatment, suboptimal adherence and failure to complete treatment, as well as the coping and well being of the individual and household. There are two ways to reduce treatment costs for the patient; one can either reduce the direct and indirect costs of seeking a diagnosis and obtaining treatment and/or provide income transfers to offset some of those costs incurred. Social transfers in the form of food, cash or vouchers can mitigate the negative effects by enabling the individual to seek a diagnosis, protecting minimum food expenditures, reducing the need to accumulate debt and reduce productive assets and reducing the negative impacts on other household members, particularly young children and school-age children. PMID:24710958

  5. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... health by becoming aware of the most common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are perfectly safe for humans, but could be harmful or potentially deadly to ...

  6. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2014-03-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences. PMID:23360640

  7. The income-based disparities in preeclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage: a study of the Korean National Health Insurance cohort data from 2002 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seung-Ah; Min, Hye-Sook; Cho, Sung-Il

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence on the effects of relatively low socioeconomic status on maternal health. Additionally, the global economic recession that began in 2008 could have worsened disparities in maternal complications. To explore disparities in maternal health, we analyzed the occurrence of preeclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage according to level of household income. A population-based cohort data set from the Korean National Health Insurance was used to calculate the age-adjusted incidence, slope index of inequality, and Kunst and Mackenbach relative index of inequality (RIIKM) for preeclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage from 2002 to 2013. In the aggregated data of 65,479 live births, women with lower household income showed a higher risk of developing preeclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage than those with higherhigher incomes after adjusting for conventional risk factors. The absolute and relative inequalities for both complications showed no significant change over the period from 2002 to 2013. Considering the difference in the trends and risks of major obstetric complications according to level of household income, policies to monitor and reduce disparities in maternal health across different economic levels need to be implemented. PMID:27386343

  8. State-Level Predictors of Food Insecurity among Households with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartfeld, Judi; Dunifon, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    This article examines interstate variation in household food security. Using hierarchical modeling, we identify several kinds of state characteristics that appear linked to household food security: the availability and accessibility of federal nutrition assistance programs, policies affecting economic wellbeing of low income families, and states'…

  9. Employment of Low-Income African American and Latino Teens: Does Neighborhood Social Mix Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Anna; Lucero, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    We quantify how teen employment outcomes for low-income African Americans and Latinos relate to their neighborhood conditions during ages 14–17. Data come from surveys of Denver Housing Authority (DHA) households who have lived in public housing scattered throughout Denver County. Because DHA household allocation mimics random assignment to neighborhood, this program represents a natural experiment for overcoming geographic selection bias. Our logistic and Tobit regression analyses found overall greater odds of teen employment and more hours worked for those who lived in neighborhoods with higher percentages of pre-1940 vintage housing, property crime rates and child abuse rates, though the strength of relationships was highly contingent on gender and ethnicity. Teen employment prospects of African Americans were especially diminished by residence in more socially vulnerable, violent neighborhoods, implying selective potential gains from social mixing alternatives. PMID:26273120

  10. Poverty and Material Hardship in Grandparent-Headed Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Mutchler, Jan E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation, the current study examines poverty and material hardship among children living in 3-generation (n = 486), skipped-generation (n = 238), single-parent (n = 2,076), and 2-parent (n = 6,061) households. Multinomial and logistic regression models indicated that children living in…

  11. Examining Household Asthma Management Behavior through a Microeconomic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Brandt, Sylvia J.; Tager, Ira B.

    2014-01-01

    National guidelines on the effective management of pediatric asthma have been promoted for over 20 years, yet asthma-related morbidity among low-income children remains disproportionately high. To date, household and clinical interventions designed to remediate these differences have been informed largely by a health behavior framework. However,…

  12. Upgrading the Household Worker. Final Report (January 1967-September 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmart Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A total of 108 women from low-income families who were underemployed and unemployed and who needed to develop marketable skills were selected for a 9-week training course offered by an agency which was established to upgrade the economic and social status of the household worker. The experimental program combined attitudinal training with training…

  13. 7 CFR 253.7 - Certification of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... those medical expenses that the household wishes to deduct in accordance with 7 CFR 253.6(e)(4). The... accordance with 7 CFR 253.6(e)(5)(i) to qualify for the standard shelter/utility deduction. The State agency... property, insurance premiums, and taxes paid on income producing property. (D) In determining net...

  14. Increasing Participation in Mainstream Financial Markets by Black Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint-Comeaut, Maude; Rhine, Sherrie L. W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 194 black households in a Chicago neighborhood found that one in five did not use banks, 49% had credit cards, over 75% used alternative financial services (AFS), and many used informal financial networks. Nonbank and AFS users tended to be lower income, less educated, younger, and unmarried people. Consumer education and public policy…

  15. Single Parents, Extended Households, and the Control of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Uses a representative national sample of adolescents to study the interrelationships among family structure, patterns of family decision making, and deviant behavior among adolescents. Mother-only households are shown to be associated with particular patterns of family decision making and adolescent deviance, even when family income and parental…

  16. Sharing the Work: Mother-Child Relationships and Household Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romich, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on a study of how low-income employed single mothers and young adolescents manage household daily life. Analysis is based on longitudinal ethnographic data collected from families of 35 young adolescents over 3 years following the 1996 welfare reforms. Although mothers worked, young adolescents spent time unsupervised,…

  17. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

  18. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    PubMed

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

  19. HOMES: A Household Model for Economic and Social Studies. Reference Guide for Household Projections. Version 1.0. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, #106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew

    This book contains a reference guide for the use of HOMES, a demographic model and computer program developed to project the number and demographic characteristics of households. Through application of this computer program to standard population projectors, users can retrieve data on: (1) number of households; (2) age and sex of household heads;…

  20. State-level homicide victimization rates in the US in relation to survey measures of household firearm ownership, 2001-2003.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    Two of every three American homicide victims are killed with firearms, yet little is known about the role played by household firearms in homicide victimization. The present study is the first to examine the cross sectional association between household firearm ownership and homicide victimization across the 50 US states, by age and gender, using nationally representative state-level survey-based estimates of household firearm ownership. Household firearm prevalence for each of the 50 states was obtained from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Homicide mortality data for each state were aggregated over the three-year study period, 2001-2003. Analyses controlled for state-level rates of aggravated assault, robbery, unemployment, urbanization, per capita alcohol consumption, and a resource deprivation index (a construct that includes median family income, the percentage of families living beneath the poverty line, the Gini index of family income inequality, the percentage of the population that is black and the percentage of families headed by a single female parent). Multivariate analyses found that states with higher rates of household firearm ownership had significantly higher homicide victimization rates of men, women and children. The association between firearm prevalence and homicide victimization in our study was driven by gun-related homicide victimization rates; non-gun-related victimization rates were not significantly associated with rates of firearm ownership. Although causal inference is not warranted on the basis of the present study alone, our findings suggest that the household may be an important source of firearms used to kill men, women and children in the United States. PMID:17070975

  1. Shopping Behaviors of Low-income Families during a 1-Month Period of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darko, Janice; Eggett, Dennis L.; Richards, Rickelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore food shopping behaviors among low-income families over the course of the month. Design: Two researchers conducted 13 90-minute focus groups. Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus. Participants: Low-income adults (n = 72) who were the primary household food shoppers and who…

  2. Weight-Related Behaviors When Children Are in School versus on Summer Breaks: Does Income Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Y. Claire; Vine, Seanna; Hsiao, Amber; Rundle, Andrew; Goldsmith, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background: Income disparities in US youth in academic achievement appear to widen during the summer because of discontinued learning among children from lower-income households. Little is known about whether behavioral risk factors for childhood obesity, such as diet and physical activity, also demonstrate a widening difference by income when…

  3. Commuting Patterns of Nonmetro Household Heads, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Data from the Annual Housing Survey indicated that 22% of all employed United States household heads commuted to a county different from that in which they lived in 1975. Commuting was more prevalent among men than among women and slightly higher for whites than for Blacks. Commuting tended to increase until age 25-34 and then to decline after age…

  4. The policy of free healthcare for children under the age of 6 years in Vietnam: assessment of the uptake for children hospitalised with acute diarrhoea in Ho Chi Minh City

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Mae; Thompson, Corinne; Tra, My Phan Vu; Linh, Van Thi Thuy; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Merson, Laura; Farrar, Jeremy J; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Baker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the proportion of, and reasons for, households not utilising the policy of free healthcare for children under 6 years of age (FCCU6) for hospitalisation with diarrhoea, and assess the risk of catastrophic expenditure for households that forgo FCCU6 and pay out of pocket. Methods Invoices detailing insurance information and charges incurred from 472 hospitalised diarrhoeal cases in one paediatric hospital in Ho Chi Minh City were retrieved. Hospital charges and the utilisation of elective services were analysed for patients utilising and not utilising FCCU6. Associations between socio-economic factors with non-utilisation of FCCU6 were evaluated. Results Overall, 29% of patients were FCCU6 non-users. The FCCU6 non-users paid a median hospital charge of $29.13 (interquartile range, IQR: $18.57–46.24), consuming no more than 1.4% of a medium-income household's annual income. Seventy per cent of low-income FCCU6 non-users utilised less-expensive elective services, whereas only 43% of medium income patients and 21% of high-income patients did (P = 0.036). Patients from larger households and those with a parent working in government were more likely to use FCCU6. Conclusions The rate of FCCU6 non-usage in this study population was 29%. A significant proportion of those that did not use FCCU6 was from lower income households and may perceive a justifiable cost–benefit ratio when forgoing FCCU6. Although a single diarrhoeal hospitalisation is unlikely to induce a catastrophic expenditure, FCCU6 non-usage may disproportionately increase the risk of catastrophic expenditure for lower income households over multiple illnesses. PMID:24134427

  5. Low-Income, Urban Children's Perspectives on Physical Activity: A Photovoice Project.

    PubMed

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research was to have ethnically diverse, 9- to 13-year-olds who live in urban, low-income households use Photovoice to represent their physical activity practices and their perception of their physical activity environment. Methods Photovoice methodology was used to allow children to capture their physical activity habits and environment through photographs and interviews. The Social Cognitive Theory was used as the theoretical framework. Heights and weights were taken for all children and BMI was calculated. Photographs were analyzed by recording the content of usable photos in SPSS software. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts used the open coding method. Results Participants were 24 children (15 male, 9 female) living in inner city, low-income households. On average, children were 10.9 years old and the mean BMI-for-age percentile was 72 %. Children took a total of 377 pictures and 339 of these were usable. Three themes were identified across interviews and photographs, (a) types of activity, (b) social environment, and (c) physical environment where activity took place. Conclusions for Practice This study provides insight into low-income, urban children's physical activity habits and environment using a novel approach. Potential ways to increase moderate to high intensity activity among this population are to involve church-based organizations, create more safe places to play by increasing green space in urban areas, and to provide financial support for after-school programs and community centers. PMID:26694042

  6. Household energy use in non-OPEC developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Energy use in the residential sector in India, Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, the Sudan, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Guatemala is presented. Whenever possible, information is included on the commercial fuels (oil, gas, coal, and electricity) and on what are termed noncommercial fuels (firewood, animal dung, and crop residues). Of special interest are the differences in the consumption patterns of urban and rural areas, and of households at different income levels. Where the data allow, the effect of household size on energy consumption is discussed. Section II is an overview of the data for all eight countries. Section III examines those areas (India, Brazil, Mexico City) for which data exist on the actual quantity of energy consumed by households. Korea, the Sudan, and Pakistan, which collect data on household expenditures on fuels, are discussed in Section IV. The patterns of ownership of energy-using durables in Malaysia and Guatemala are discussed in Section V. (MCW)

  7. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  8. Economic Impact of Maternal Death on Households in Rural China: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Huntington, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. Methods A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1–3 months after maternal death or childbirth) and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID), linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. Findings The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported “household economy became worse” during the follow-up period (adjusted OR = 6.04, p<0.001). During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001). Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p = 0.024). Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p = 0.037), clothes and commodity (p = 0.003), traffic and communication (p = 0.022) and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p = 0.014). Conclusion Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported “household economy became worse

  9. "Low Income"--Levels in the Jewish Population; The "Jewish Poor" in Los Angeles. A Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massarik, Fred

    The concept "Jewish Poor" is defined simply as Jewish households (viz. households containing one or more persons defined as Jewish) whose total household cash income (1969, comparable to U.S. Census) was under 4000 dollars. The data were obtained from four sources: (1) analysis of "Jewish Poor" drawn from Los Angeles phase of National Jewish…

  10. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  11. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... income for persons over the age of 23 with dependent children. For purposes of this paragraph, “financial... include the following: (1) Income from employment of children (including foster children) under the age of... excess of $480 per adopted child; (13) (14) Deferred periodic amounts from supplemental security...

  12. Impact of a homestead gardening program on household food security and empowerment of women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bushamuka, Victor N; de Pee, Saskia; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kiess, Lynnda; Panagides, Dora; Taher, Abu; Bloem, Martin

    2005-03-01

    This paper assesses the additional benefits of a homestead gardening program designed to control vitamin A deficiency in Bangladesh. In February and March 2002, data were collected on the food security and social status of women from 2,160 households of active and former participants in the gardening program and from control groups in order to assess the impact and sustainability of the program. The proportions of active and former-participant households that gardened year-round were fivefold and threefold, respectively, higher than that of the control group (78% and 50% vs. 15%). In a three-month period, the households of active participants produced a median of 135 kg and consumed a median of 85 kg of vegetables, while the control households produced a median of 46 kg and consumed a median of 38 kg (p <.001). About 64% of the active-participant households generated a median garden income of 347 taka (US$1 = 51 taka), which was spent mainly on food, and 25% of the control households generated 200 taka in the same period (p < .001). The garden production and income levels of formerly participating households three years after withdrawal of program support were much higher than those of the control households, illustrating the sustainability of the program and its ability to increase household food security. Significantly more women in active- and former-participant households than in control households perceived that they had increased their economic contribution to their households since the time the program was launched in their subdistricts (> 85% vs. 52%). Similar results were found for the level of influence gained by women on household decision-making. These results highlight the multiple benefits that homestead gardening programs can bring and demonstrate that these benefits should be considered when selecting nutritional and development approaches targeting poor households. PMID:15810795

  13. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures. PMID:25167165

  14. Income distribution in the European Union versus in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagielski, Maciej; Duczmal, Rafał; Kutner, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    We prove that the refined approach-our extension of the Yakovenko et al. formalism-is universal in the sense that it describes well both household incomes in the European Union and individual incomes in the United States for all income social classes. This formalism, supplemented in this work by the entropy analysis, allowed the study of the impact of the recent world-wide financial crisis on the annual incomes of different income social classes. Hence, we find the most painful impact of the crisis on incomes of all income social classes. Furthermore, we indicate the existence of a possible market crisis precursor.

  15. Evaluation of the Impact of the Natural Forest Protection Program on Rural Household Livelihoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Katrina; Kontoleon, Andreas; Swanson, Timothy M.; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we estimated the impact on local household livelihoods of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), which is the largest logging-ban program in the world, which aims to protect watersheds and conserve natural forests. In doing so, we used a series of microeconometric policy-evaluation techniques to assess the impacts of the NFPP on two interrelated facets of household livelihoods: income and off-farm labor supply. We found that the NFPP has had a negative impact on incomes from timber harvesting but has actually had a positive impact on total household incomes from all sources. Furthermore, we found that off-farm labor supply outside the village has increased more rapidly in NFPP than in non-NFPP areas. Based on these results, policy implications for household livelihoods were drawn and are presented herein.

  16. Evaluation of the impact of the natural forest protection program on rural household livelihoods.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Katrina; Kontoleon, Andreas; Swanson, Timothy M; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we estimated the impact on local household livelihoods of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), which is the largest logging-ban program in the world, which aims to protect watersheds and conserve natural forests. In doing so, we used a series of microeconometric policy-evaluation techniques to assess the impacts of the NFPP on two interrelated facets of household livelihoods: income and off-farm labor supply. We found that the NFPP has had a negative impact on incomes from timber harvesting but has actually had a positive impact on total household incomes from all sources. Furthermore, we found that off-farm labor supply outside the village has increased more rapidly in NFPP than in non-NFPP areas. Based on these results, policy implications for household livelihoods were drawn and are presented herein. PMID:19387724

  17. 7 CFR 253.6 - Eligibility of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... age under the parental control of a member of the household. (i) An individual living alone. (ii) An.... Individuals are considered children for purposes of this provision if they are under the parental control...

  18. Coping with unreliable public water supplies: Averting expenditures by households in Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.; Yang, Jui-Chen; Whittington, Dale; Bal Kumar, K. C.

    2005-02-01

    This paper investigates two complementary pieces of data on households' demand for improved water services, coping costs and willingness to pay (WTP), from a survey of 1500 randomly sampled households in Kathmandu, Nepal. We evaluate how coping costs and WTP vary across types of water users and income. We find that households in Kathmandu Valley engage in five main types of coping behaviors: collecting, pumping, treating, storing, and purchasing. These activities impose coping costs on an average household of as much as 3 U.S. dollars per month or about 1% of current incomes, representing hidden but real costs of poor infrastructure service. We find that these coping costs are almost twice as much as the current monthly bills paid to the water utility but are significantly lower than estimates of WTP for improved services. We find that coping costs are statistically correlated with WTP and several household characteristics.

  19. Determinants of edible oil choice by households in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Gurrappa Naidu; Suryaprakash, Satrasala

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically. PMID:24083516

  20. A cross-sectional analysis of pet-specific immunoglobulin E sensitization and allergic symptomatology and household pet keeping in a birth cohort population.

    PubMed

    Ezell, Jerel M; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine C; Zoratti, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether family members with detectable specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and/or allergic symptoms to pets are more or less likely to reside in a household with pets. We cross-sectionally investigated potential relationships between family members' allergic sensitization and symptoms to dogs and cats and current household pet-keeping practices, using birth cohort data. Blood samples taken from children enrolled in a birth cohort and their biological mothers and fathers, when the children were aged 18 years, were assessed for sIgE to dog and cat allergens. Interviews assessed subjects' self-reported pet exposure symptoms, current household pet-keeping practices, and socioeconomic characteristics. Overall, household dog or cat keeping was not associated with sIgE to these animals and/or self-reported allergic symptoms in the presence of these animals, even after controlling for factors such as education and household income. In subgroup analyses, current household dog keeping among dog-symptomatic teens (n = 40) was significantly lower than among teens who were not dog symptomatic (n = 289), at 48.8 and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.036). Current household cat keeping was significantly lower among cat-symptomatic mothers (n = 27) compared with mothers who were not cat symptomatic (n = 120), at 24.3 and 37.0%, respectively (p = 0.015). However, when considering those who were both sensitized and reported symptoms, only the mother and cat-keeping associations persisted (p = 0.049). When cat-sensitized mothers report allergic symptoms to cats, these pets may be less likely to be kept in homes. Elevated dog and cat allergen sIgE does not appear to be associated with the keeping of these pets. PMID:24169057

  1. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt. PMID:23431321

  2. 20 CFR 416.1100 - Income and SSI eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income and SSI eligibility. 416.1100 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income General § 416.1100 Income and SSI eligibility. You are eligible for supplemental security income (SSI) benefits if you are an aged, blind, or disabled person who meets...

  3. Satisfaction in Multigenerational Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindel, Charles H.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Using social exchange theory, examined satisfaction of the primary caregiver with living in a multigenerational household in 99 Midwestern families. Identified important predictors of satisfaction consisting of characteristics of the older person (indicators of dependency status, characteristics of the primary caregiver, and the situational…

  4. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  5. The Household Energy Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas W.; Jenkins, John

    The Household Energy Game has been developed to provide some indication of energy use and individual management. The game is divided into two sections. In the first section, one is to devise one's own energy budget. Energy use is calculated in the areas of transportation, heating, hot water, air conditioning, and appliances. In each of these major…

  6. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  7. The hefty penalty on marriage facing many households with children.

    PubMed

    Carasso, Adam; Steuerle, C Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Over the past seventy years Congress has enacted dozens of tax and transfer programs, giving little if any attention to the marriage subsidies and penalties that they inadvertently impose. Although the programs affect both rich and poor Americans, the penalties fall most heavily on low- or moderate-income households with children. In this article, Adam Carasso and Eugene Steuerle review important penalties and subsidies, explain how they work, and help fill a big research gap by beginning to provide comprehensive data on the size of the penalties and subsidies arising from all public programs considered together. Marriage penalties arise because of the combination of variable U.S. tax rates and joint, rather than individual, filing by married couples for benefits and taxes. If graduated taxes were accompanied by individual filing or if all income and transfers were taxed at a flat rate, there would be no marriage penalties. Specifically, the penalties are a result of policymakers' efforts to achieve the goal of progressivity--giving greater tax and welfare benefits to those with lower income--while trying to keep down program costs. Thus benefits in transfer programs fall, sometimes steeply, as households earn more income. Combining the direct tax rate in the tax code and the benefit reduction rates in the transfer system can result in extremely high effective marginal tax rates for many low- to moderate-income families-rates far higher than those of families earning over 90,000 dollars. These high rates lead to the marriage penalties because additional income brought into a household by marriage thus causes other benefits to be reduced or lost altogether. In extreme cases, households can lose a dollar or more for every dollar earned. In recent years lawmakers have begun to try to reduce marriage penalties, primarily by reforming welfare and cutting taxes, but huge penalties remain. The authors offer several options for reducing or eliminating the marriage penalty

  8. Disability in U.S. Households, 2000–2010: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Barbara M.; Blackwell, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the demographic structure of households containing members with disabilities is of key importance in policy planning for populations with disabilities at state and national levels. Yet, most, but not all, previous family-level studies of disability have excluded persons living alone or with unrelated persons (e.g., a housemate or an unmarried partner) because they are not considered families. To address this gap, the authors utilize National Health Interview Survey data to produce household-level estimates of disability using a detailed household type variable that includes households omitted from previous reports. Findings indicate that one-person households made up 24.7% of all households with an adult aged 18–64 with a disability, and 42.9% of all households with an adult aged 65 or older with a disability. Including nonfamily households provides a clearer picture of the association between living arrangements and disability in the U.S. PMID:26962270

  9. Effects of a poverty-alleviation intervention on salivary cortisol in very low-income children

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Correlational studies have shown associations between social class and salivary cortisol suggestive of a causal link between childhood poverty and activity of the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the association between a family’s participation in a large-scale, conditional cash transfer program in Mexico (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa) during the child’s early years of life and children’s salivary cortisol (baseline and responsivity). We also examined whether maternal depressive symptoms moderated the impact of program participation. Low-income households (income <20th percentile nationally) from rural Mexico were enrolled in a large-scale poverty-alleviation program between 1998 and 1999. A comparison group of households from demographically similar communities was recruited in 2003. Following 3.5 years of the Oportunidades program, three saliva samples were obtained from children age 2-6 years old from intervention and comparison households (n=1197). Maternal depressive symptoms were obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Children who had been in the Oportunidades program had lower salivary cortisol levels when compared with those who had not participated in the program, while controlling for a wide range of individual-, household- and community-level variables. Reactivity patterns did not differ between intervention and comparison children. Maternal depression moderated the association between Oportunidades program participation and baseline salivary cortisol in children. Specifically, there was a large and significant Oportunidades program effect of lowering cortisol in children of mothers with high depressive symptoms but not in children of mothers with low depressive symptomatology. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that the economic circumstances of the family impact the child’s developing stress system

  10. Economic disparities in middle childhood development: does income matter?

    PubMed

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-11-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and behavior problems during middle childhood. Early childhood income had enduring effects on children's behavior problems and academic skills in middle childhood. Middle childhood income did not influence academic skills but did affect the development of behavior problems during middle childhood. Children from low-income households were particularly sensitive to the effects of family income. The quality of home environment during early and middle childhood explained a portion of the effects of income on academic skills and behavior problems. PMID:17087549

  11. Neighborhood Diversity, Metropolitan Constraints, and Household Migration

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Kyle; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on micro-level processes of residential segregation, this analysis combines data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with contextual information from three censuses and several other sources to examine patterns of residential mobility between neighborhoods populated by different combinations of racial and ethnic groups. We find that despite the emergence of multiethnic neighborhoods, stratified mobility dynamics continue to dominate, with relatively few black or white households moving into neighborhoods that could be considered multiethnic. However, we also find that the tendency for white and black households to move between neighborhoods dominated by their own group varies significantly across metropolitan areas. Black and white households’ mobility into more integrated neighborhoods is shaped substantially by demographic, economic, political, and spatial features of the broader metropolitan area. Metropolitan-area racial composition, the stock of new housing, residential separation of black and white households, poverty rates, and functional specialization emerge as particularly important predictors. These macro-level effects reflect opportunities for intergroup residential contact as well as structural forces that maintain residential segregation. PMID:22753955

  12. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  13. The federal energy policy: An example of its potential impact on energy consumption and expenditures in minority and poor households

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impacts of the National Energy Strategy on majority and minority households and on nonpoor and poor households. (Minority households are defined as those headed by black or Hispanic persons; poor households are defined as those having combined household income less than or equal to 125% of the Office of Management and Budget`s poverty-income threshold.) Energy consumption and expenditures, and projected energy expenditures as a share of income, for the period 1987 to 2009 are reported. Projected consumptions of electricity and nonelectric energy over this period are also reported for each group. An analysis of how these projected values are affected under different housing growth scenarios is performed. The analysis in this report presents a preliminary set of projections generated under a set of simplifying assumptions. Future analysis will rigorously assess the sensitivity of the projected values to various changes in a number of these assumptions.

  14. Estimating household water demand using revealed and contingent behaviors: Evidence from Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheesman, Jeremy; Bennett, Jeff; Son, Tran Vo Hung

    2008-11-01

    This article estimates the water demand of households using (1) municipal water exclusively and (2) municipal water and household well water in the capital city of Dak Lak Province in Vietnam. Household water demands are estimated using a panel data set formed by pooling household records of metered municipal water consumption and their stated preferences for water consumption contingent on hypothetical water prices. Estimates show that households using municipal water exclusively have very price inelastic demand. Households using municipal and household well water have more price elastic, but still inelastic, simultaneous water demand and treat municipal water and household well water as substitutes. Household water consumption is influenced by household water storage and supply infrastructure, income, and socioeconomic attributes. The demand estimates are used to forecast municipal water consumption by households in Buon Ma Thuot following an increase to the municipal water tariff to forecast the municipal water supply company's revenue stream following a tariff increase and to estimate the consumer surplus loss resulting from municipal water supply shortages.

  15. The Flynn Effect within Subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, Race, Income, Education, and Urbanization Differences in the NLSY-Children Data

    PubMed Central

    Ang, SiewChing; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Wänström, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or Digit Span, consistent with past FE research suggesting a closer relationship to fluid intelligence measures of problem solving and analytic reasoning than to crystallized measures of verbal comprehension and memory. These prior findings suggest that the NLSYC data can be used as a natural laboratory to study more subtle FE patterns within various demographic subgroups. We test for subgroup Flynn Effect differences by gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, household income, and urbanization. No subgroups differences emerged for three demographic categories. However, children with more educated (especially college educated) mothers and/or children born into higher income households had an accelerated Flynn effect in their PIAT-M scores compared to cohort peers with lower educated mothers or lower income households. We interpret both the positive and the null findings in relation to previous theoretical explanations. PMID:20657802

  16. Segregation, income disparities, and survival in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Paul L; Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Eggers, Paul W

    2013-02-01

    Social and ecologic factors, such as residential segregation, are determinants of health in the general population, but how these factors associate with outcomes among patients with ESRD is not well understood. Here, we examined associations of income inequality and residence, as social determinants of health, with survival among black and white patients with ESRD. We merged U.S. Renal Data System data from 589,036 patients who started hemodialysis from 2000 through 2008 with race-specific median household income data from the Census Bureau. We used Gini Index coefficients to assess income distributional inequality and the Dissimilarity Index to determine residential segregation. Black patients lived in areas of lower median household income compared with white patients ($26,742 versus $41,922; P<0.001). Residence in areas with higher median household income was associated with improved survival. Among whites, income inequality was associated with mortality. Among blacks exclusively, residence in highly segregated areas was associated with increased mortality. In conclusion, black hemodialysis patients in the United States are particularly susceptible to gradients in income and residential segregation. Interventions directed at highly segregated black neighborhoods might favorably affect hemodialysis patient outcomes. PMID:23334394

  17. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  18. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  19. Household exposure models

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tap water is often assumed to be dominated by ingestion of drinking water. This paper addresses the relative importance of inhalation and dermal exposures in a typical household. A three-compartment model is used to simulate the 24-h concentration history of VOCs in the shower, bathroom, and remaining household volumes as a result of tap water use. Mass transfers from water to air are derived from measured data for radon and used to estimate mass-transfer properties for VOCs. The model is used to calculate a range of concentrations and human exposures in US dwellings. The estimated ratio of household- inhalation uptake to ingestion uptake is in the range of 1 to 6 for VOCs. We use a dermal absorption model to assess exposure across the skin boundary during baths and showers. The ratio of dermal exposure to ingestion exposure is in the range 0.6 to 1. 24 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  20. Examining effects of food insecurity and food choices on health outcomes in households in poverty.

    PubMed

    Lombe, Margaret; Nebbitt, Von Eugene; Sinha, Aakanksha; Reynolds, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Evidence documenting effects of food assistance programs, household food insecurity, and nutrition knowledge on health outcomes is building. Using data from a sub-sample of adults who are 185% of the poverty line from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 2,171), we examine whether household food insecurity, food stamp take-up, and use of informal food supports are associated with health risk among low-income households. Findings indicate that while nutrition knowledge provides protection against health risk in food secure households, the health benefits of nutrition knowledge were not evident in food insecure households. We discuss these findings in light of current policy and practice interventions that recognize the importance of providing healthy, affordable food options for food insecure households. PMID:27045462

  1. Crowding out effect of tobacco expenditure and its implications on household resource allocation in India.

    PubMed

    John, Rijo M

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines whether spending on tobacco crowds out expenditure on basic needs and whether it has implications on nutrition intake and household resource allocation in India. The paper uses a household sample survey from India for the year 1999--2000. A system of quadratic conditional Engel curves was estimated for a set of 10 broad groups of commodities. The results suggest that tobacco consuming households had lower consumption of certain commodities such as milk, education, clean fuels and entertainment which may have more direct bearing on women and children in the household than on men suggesting possible 'gender effects' and biases in the allocation of goods and services within the household. Tobacco spending was also found to have negative effects on per capita nutrition intake. The nature of crowding out was found to be similar in low- and high-income households. PMID:18187245

  2. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  3. Age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex nonlinear trajectory, with elevated loneliness levels among young adults and among the oldest old. The late-life increase in loneliness could be explained by lower income levels, higher prevalence of functional limitations, and higher proportion of singles in this age group. Consistent with an age-normative perspective, the association of income, relationship status, household size, and work status with loneliness differed between different age groups. In contrast, indicators of the quantity of social relationships (social engagement, number of friends, contact frequency) were universally associated with loneliness regardless of age. Overall, these findings show that sources of loneliness in older adults are well understood. Future research should focus on understanding the specific sources of loneliness in middle-aged adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148782

  4. Effects of residential relocation on household and commuting expenditures in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Day, Jennifer; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Over the past three decades, China's cities have undergone massive spatial restructuring in the wake of market reforms and economic growth. One consequence has been a rapid migration of urban residents to the periphery. Some movers have been forced out either by rising urban rents or government reclamation of their residences. Others have relocated willingly to modernized housing or for other lifestyle reasons. This article examines the effects of relocation to the urban edge on household well-being. It explores the factors underlying changes in housing and transportation costs as households move to the periphery. The research also examines whether those who moved involuntarily are affected differently from those who moved by choice. Results show that, relative to those who moved by choice, involuntary movers are disproportionately and adversely affected in terms of job accessibility, commute time, housing consumption and disposable income. The findings also show that, compared with higher-income households, lower-income groups are disproportionately affected in relation to housing costs, accessibility losses, disposable income and household worker composition. These results indicate that relocation compensation for involuntarily relocated households should be expanded to include more than just housing value: it should encompass urban location changes, household needs and relocation costs. PMID:21132950

  5. Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs. PMID:20660208

  6. Household instability and self-regulation among poor children

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests that poverty may negatively influence children’s psychological and behavioral health by increasing their exposure to chaotic living conditions in the household. The present study provides a descriptive ‘snapshot’ of instability in low-income households, and examines the associations between exposure to major destabilizing events over the course of a year and three domains of poor urban children’s self-regulation. Descriptive analyses suggest that although caregivers from unstable households report higher average levels of health problems and depression, they also have greater assets/savings, are more educated, and are less likely to be immigrants than caregivers from stable households. Results of propensity score-matched regression analyses reveal that high levels of household instability are significantly and negatively associated with preschoolers’ effortful control and global attention/impulsivity control, but not with their executive function. Children from mildly unstable homes (i.e., those who had experienced a single destabilizing event in the past year) showed no significant differences in any domain of self-regulation relative to their peers from stable households, suggesting a dose-response relationship between the number of destabilizing events experienced by children and their outcomes. Implications for theories of poverty-related adversity, stress, and parenting are discussed in addition to future directions for research. PMID:26924923

  7. Association of Household and Community Socioeconomic Position and Urbanicity with Underweight and Overweight among Women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Bhatti, Junaid A.; Khan, M. Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background Similar to other developing countries, Pakistan is going through a rapid nutrition transition where shift from underweight to overweight and obesity is occurring. In this paper, we report on the relationship of household socioeconomic position (SEP), community SEP and urbanicity with under- and over-weight categories of BMI among Pakistani women. Methods We analyzed data on 4,767 women ages 15-49 years enrolled in a nationally representative Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) conducted in 2012-13 that employed a multistage, stratified cluster sampling design. We assessed the association of urbanicity, household and community SEP derived from household assets and utilities, with categories of body mass index (BMI) using multinomial regression analysis where normal weight (BMI 18.6-22.5) was the reference category. Results Thirteen percent of women were underweight (BMI <18.5), 15% pre-overweight (BMI: 22.6-24.9), 25% overweight (BMI: 25.0–29.9) and 14% were obese (BMI≥30). Pre-overweight, overweight and obesity among women increased across household wealth quintiles (HWQs) in a graded fashion whereas there was no significant difference in underweight by household wealth. Women in urban areas were more likely to be obese. There was a pronounced increase in adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for overweight/obesity across HWQs within urban areas compared to rural areas. There was a steeper gradient in aORs for obesity from 1st to 5th HWQs in high income communities compared to the middle- and low income communities. In community-level analyses, communities in urban areas were more likely to have higher levels of obesity while in rural areas, especially in Sindh, more communities were more likely to have a higher level of underweight. Conclusion A shift to higher overweight and obesity than underweight in Pakistan is associated with high household and community wealth as well as living in urban areas. Clustering of obesity and underweight in distinct

  8. Measuring the Return on Household Enterprise: What Matters Most for Whom?

    PubMed Central

    Samphantharak, Krislert; Townsend, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Return on assets (ROA) from household enterprise is crucial for understanding the well-being and productivity of households in developing economies. Yet the definition and measurement of household enterprise ROA remain inconsistent or unclear. We illustrate potential measurement problems with examples from various actual surveys. We then take advantage of a detailed integrated household survey to perform a robustness analysis, acting as if we had gathered less data than was actually the case, to see what matters and for whom. The three issues that matter most for accurate measurement of household enterprise ROA are the choice of accrual versus cash basis of income, the treatment of household’s own labor in enterprise income, and the treatment of non-factor income. Also, this sensitivity matters most for a relatively poor region dominated by crop cultivation relative to a richer region with non-farm enterprises. Though the choice between accrued income and cash income matters less when the frequency of the data declines, there remains high sensitivity in longer-term and annualized data. We conclude the paper by providing recommendations on how to improve the survey questionnaires for more accurate measurement in field research. PMID:22523446

  9. Effect of Health Expenses on Household Capabilities and Resource Allocation in a Rural Commune in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Thuy; Khuat, Oanh Thi Hai; Ma, Shuangge; Pham, Duc Cuong; Khuat, Giang Thi Hong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    Background Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP) and other health expenses have typically characterized them as “catastrophic” in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household “flourishing” in terms of “basic capabilities.” Methods and Findings We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. Conclusions The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden. PMID:23077612

  10. Risk Factors and Disability Associated with Low Back Pain in Older Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Ng, Nawi; Peltzer, Karl; Yawson, Alfred; Biritwum, Richard; Maximova, Tamara; Wu, Fan; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background Back pain is a common disabling chronic condition that burdens individuals, families and societies. Epidemiological evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows positive association between back pain prevalence and older age. There is an urgent need for accurate epidemiological data on back pain in adult populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where populations are ageing rapidly. The objectives of this study are to: measure the prevalence of back pain; identify risk factors and determinants associated with back pain, and describe association between back pain and disability in adults aged 50 years and older, in six LMICs from different regions of the world. The findings provide insights into country-level differences in self-reported back pain and disability in a group of socially, culturally, economically and geographically diverse LMICs. Methods Standardized national survey data collected from adults (50 years and older) participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analysed. The weighted sample (n = 30, 146) comprised respondents in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, South Africa and the Russian Federation. Multivariable regressions describe factors associated with back pain prevalence and intensity, and back pain as a determinant of disability. Results Prevalence was highest in the Russian Federation (56%) and lowest in China (22%). In the pooled multi-country analyses, female sex, lower education, lower wealth and multiple chronic morbidities were significant in association with past-month back pain (p<0.01). About 8% of respondents reported that they experienced intense back pain in the previous month. Conclusions Evidence on back pain and its impact on disability is needed in developing countries so that governments can invest in cost-effective education and rehabilitation to reduce the growing social and economic burden imposed by this disabling condition. PMID:26042785

  11. Recycling Attitudes and Behavior among a Clinic-Based Sample of Low-Income Hispanic Women in Southeast Texas

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Heidi C.; Dawson, Lauren N.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18–55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (P<0.05), lower acculturation (P<0.01), knowing what to recycle (P<0.01), knowing that recycling saves landfill space (P<0.05), and disagreeing that recycling takes too much time (P<0.001). A Sobel test revealed that acculturation mediated the relationship between recycling knowledge and recycling behavior (P<0.05). We offer new information on recycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population. PMID:22493693

  12. Distribution and use of income from bushmeat in a rural village, central Gabon.

    PubMed

    Coad, L; Abernethy, K; Balmford, A; Manica, A; Airey, L; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2010-12-01

    Bushmeat hunting is an activity integral to rural forest communities that provides a high proportion of household incomes and protein requirements. An improved understanding of the relationship between bushmeat hunting and household wealth is vital to assess the potential effects of future policy interventions to regulate an increasingly unsustainable bushmeat trade. We investigated the relationship between hunting offtake and household wealth, gender differences in spending patterns, and the use of hunting incomes in two rural forest communities, Central Gabon, from 2003 to 2005. Households in which members hunted (hunting households) were significantly wealthier than households in which no one hunted (nonhunting households), but within hunting households offtakes were not correlated with household wealth. This suggests there are access barriers to becoming a hunter and that hunting offtakes may not be the main driver of wealth accumulation. Over half of the money spent by men in the village shop was on alcohol and cigarettes, and the amount and proportion of income spent on these items increased substantially with increases in individual hunting offtake. By contrast, the majority of purchases made by women were of food, but their food purchases decreased actually and proportionally with increased household hunting offtake. This suggests that the availability of bushmeat as a food source decreases spending on food, whereas hunting income may be spent in part on items that do not contribute significantly to household food security. Conservation interventions that aim to reduce the commercial bushmeat trade need to account for likely shifts in individual spending that may ensue and the secondary effects on household economies. PMID:20507352

  13. Country food sharing networks, household structure, and implications for understanding food insecurity in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Collings, Peter; Marten, Meredith G; Pearce, Tristan; Young, Alyson G

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural context of food insecurity among Inuit in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. An analysis of the social network of country food exchanges among 122 households in the settlement reveals that a household's betweenness centrality-a measure of brokerage-in the country food network is predicted by the age of the household. The households of married couples were better positioned within the sharing network than were the households of single females or single males. Households with an active hunter or elder were also better positioned in the network. The households of single men and women appear to experience limited access to country food, a considerable problem given the increasing number of single-adult households over time. We conclude that the differences between how single women and single men experience constrained access to country foods may partially account for previous findings that single women in arctic settlements appear to be at particular risk for food insecurity. PMID:26595315

  14. Can Low-income Americans Afford to Satisfy MyPyramid Fruit and Vegetable Guidelines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Hayden; Hyman, Jeffrey; Frazao, Elizabeth; Buzby, Jean C.; Carlson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the costs of satisfying MyPyramid fruit and vegetable guidelines, with a focus on whether low-income households can bear these costs. Design: Descriptive analysis of the 2008 National Consumer Panel with information on the food purchases of 64,440 households across the contiguous United States was used to analyze the cost of…

  15. Food Insecurity and Obesity: A Dual Challenge for Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    "Food insecurity," which is the lack of access to enough food to fully meet basic needs at all times because of economic constraints, afflicts 40.6% of low-income households with children. Research shows that living in a food-insecure household can lead to negative health and developmental consequences for young children, including obesity.…

  16. Effect of Household-Based Drinking Water Chlorination on Diarrhoea among Children under Five in Orissa, India: A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Boisson, Sophie; Stevenson, Matthew; Shapiro, Lily; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Lakhwinder P.; Ward, Dana; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Boiling, disinfecting, and filtering water within the home can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water among the hundreds of millions of people who rely on unsafe water supplies. However, the impact of these interventions on diarrhoea is unclear. Most studies using open trial designs have reported a protective effect on diarrhoea while blinded studies of household water treatment in low-income settings have found no such effect. However, none of those studies were powered to detect an impact among children under five and participants were followed-up over short periods of time. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of in-home water disinfection on diarrhoea among children under five. Methods and Findings We conducted a double-blind randomised controlled trial between November 2010 and December 2011. The study included 2,163 households and 2,986 children under five in rural and urban communities of Orissa, India. The intervention consisted of an intensive promotion campaign and free distribution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets during bi-monthly households visits. An independent evaluation team visited households monthly for one year to collect health data and water samples. The primary outcome was the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea (3-day point prevalence) among children aged under five. Weight-for-age was also measured at each visit to assess its potential as a proxy marker for diarrhoea. Adherence was monitored each month through caregiver's reports and the presence of residual free chlorine in the child's drinking water at the time of visit. On 20% of the total household visits, children's drinking water was assayed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of faecal contamination. The primary analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Binomial regression with a log link function and robust standard errors was used to compare prevalence of diarrhoea between arms. We used generalised estimating

  17. The influence of health expenditures on household impoverishment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation in the proportion of households living below the poverty line in Brazil and the factors associated with their impoverishment. METHODS Income and expenditure data from the Household Budget Survey, which was conducted in Brazil between 2002-2003 (n = 48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (n = 55,970 households) with a national sample, were analyzed. Two cutoff points were used to define poverty. The first cutoff is a per capita monthly income below R$100.00 in 2002-2003 and R$140.00 in 2008-2009, as recommended by the Bolsa Família Program. The second, which is proposed by the World Bank and is adjusted for purchasing power parity, defines poverty as per capita income below US$2.34 and US$3.54 per day in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the impoverishment of households. RESULTS After subtracting health expenditures, there was an increase in households living below the poverty line in Brazil. Using the World Bank poverty line, the increase in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was 2.6 percentage points (6.8%) and 2.3 percentage points (11.6%), respectively. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the increase was 1.6 (11.9%) and 1.3 (17.3%) percentage points, respectively. Expenditure on prescription drugs primarily contributed to the increase in poor households. According to the World Bank poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation, a household headed by an individual with low education, the presence of children, and the absence of older adults. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation and the presence of children. CONCLUSIONS Health expenditures play an important role in the impoverishment of segments of the Brazilian population, especially among the most disadvantaged. PMID:25372171

  18. Economic costs incurred by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabangchang, Orapan; Allaire, Maura; Leangcharoen, Prinyarat; Jarungrattanapong, Rawadee; Whittington, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive estimates of the economic costs experienced by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood. More generally, it contributes to the literature by presenting the first estimates of flood costs based on primary data collected from respondents of flooded homes using in-person interviews. Two rounds of interviews were conducted with 469 households in three of the most heavily affected districts of greater Bangkok. The estimates of economic costs include preventative costs, ex post losses, compensation received, and any new income generated during the flood. Median household economic costs were US3089, equivalent to about half of annual household expenditures (mean costs were US5261). Perhaps surprisingly given the depth and duration of the flood, most houses incurred little structural damage (although furniture, appliances, and cars were damaged). Median economic costs to poor and nonpoor households were similar as a percentage of annual household expenditures (53% and 48%, respectively). Compensation payments received from government did little to reduce the total economic losses of the vast majority of households. Two flood-related deaths were reported in our sample—both in low-income neighborhoods. Overall, ex post damage was the largest component of flood costs (66% of total). These findings are new, important inputs for the evaluation of flood control mitigation and preventive measures that are now under consideration by the Government of Thailand. The paper also illustrates how detailed microeconomic data on household costs can be collected and summarized for policy purposes.

  19. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    PubMed

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. PMID:24847768

  20. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6–23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6–8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. PMID:24847768