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Sample records for age household size

  1. Agricultural variation and household size. A provincial comparison for Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghajanian, A

    1986-01-01

    This research investigates the linkages between agricultural variation and household size in Iran, using data from the 1974 agricultural survey of Iran. Utilizing the agricultural survey data, the author establishes relationships between agricultural density, farm mechanization, land holding inequality, and the size of the household for the rural population. The 3 agricultural variables have significant negative effects on farmers' household size. This suggests that farmers do adjust their household size to various aspects of the agricultural structure. Considering the high rate of current fertility in rural areas, the demographic mechanism for the downward adjustment of household size is the selective migration of young males to work in urban areas. PMID:12280635

  2. Household Size and the Cost of Nutrionally Equivalent Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Karen J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Food consumption survey data were analyzed to test the stability of household size adjustment factors used for estimating the household costs of U.S. Department of Agriculture food plans. Reported household scale factors varied slightly from former estimates, and were highly dependent on the diet quality measures incorporated in the analysis.…

  3. Some Effects of Sex, Age, and Household Structure on Family Drawings of Barbadian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Monica A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of the family drawings of a nonclinical sample of 502 Barbadian children ages 7-11. Reveals a correlation among sex, age, and household structure and the inclusion or omission of figures, as well as the size and positioning of the figures of parent and self. (MJP)

  4. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T.

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  5. Family size and productivity of rural households in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omideyi, A K

    1988-06-01

    Omideyi examines the extent to which high fertility in rural Nigeria has influenced productivity and the resulting effect on the quality of life. Data was drawn from various agricultural and demographic surveys. It was shown that although family size is high in rural Nigeria, agricultural productivity is low, as is income derived. Nearly all the food produced by the household is consumed because productivity is low and family size large. The net effect is a lower level of household income, little savings, and increased poverty. On the basis of these findings, there seems to be little justification for maintaining large families to increase productivity. For the quality of life to be improved in rural areas then, it is suggested that the government pursue policies which will discourage high fertility. This, along with encouraging cooperative farming, providing more agricultural loans to support capital intensive agricultural production, and providing more fertilizers should ensure higher productivity; more savings will be internally generated, amenities provided will be used more effectively, and the rural-urban gap will be minimized. PMID:12315558

  6. Accuracy of hands v. household measures as portion size estimation aids.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Alice A; Hsu, Michelle S H; Rangan, Anna M; Seimon, Radhika V; Lee, Crystal M Y; Das, Arpita; Finch, Charles H; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is critical in dietary studies. Hands are potentially useful as portion size estimation aids; however, their accuracy has not been tested. The aim of the present study was to test the accuracy of a novel portion size estimation method using the width of the fingers as a 'ruler' to measure the dimensions of foods ('finger width method'), as well as fists and thumb or finger tips. These hand measures were also compared with household measures (cups and spoons). A total of sixty-seven participants (70 % female; age 32·7 (sd 13·7) years; BMI 23·2 (sd  3·5) kg/m(2)) attended a 1·5 h session in which they estimated the portion sizes of forty-two pre-weighed foods and liquids. Hand measurements were used in conjunction with geometric formulas to convert estimations to volumes. Volumes determined with hand and household methods were converted to estimated weights using density factors. Estimated weights were compared with true weights, and the percentage difference from the true weight was used to compare accuracy between the hand and household methods. Of geometrically shaped foods and liquids estimated with the finger width method, 80 % were within ±25 % of the true weight of the food, and 13 % were within ±10 %, in contrast to 29 % of those estimated with the household method being within ±25 % of the true weight of the food, and 8 % being within ±10 %. For foods that closely resemble a geometric shape, the finger width method provides a novel and acceptably accurate method of estimating portion size. PMID:27547392

  7. Size and structure of the household in England over three centuries.

    PubMed

    Laslett, P

    1969-07-01

    Abstract Data giving sizes and structures of households have been rare for any country before the institution of the official census, and have to be gleaned from surviving documents containing listings of inhabitants. This article, the first of two, describes the collection of listings of inhabitants of English communities which is being assembled by the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure and the methods by which the hundred most informative of them have been submitted to analysis. When ranged alongside the information on mean household size derived from the official British census since its inception in 1801, the results of this analysis suggest the following. 1. Mean household size in England and Wales as a whole was relatively constant at 4·75 or a little below for the whole period from the sixteenth century until 19II, and has only fallen since that date. The reduction of about one-third starting in 1921 may therefore be the first of considerable magnitude ever to occur: it seems to have been particularly rapid between 1911 and 1931. 2. Mean household size in England and Wales has been surprisingly resistant to demographic fluctuation on the one hand and to the structural influences of industrialization on the other, until the last fifty or sixty years. 3. The traditional household in England has never been extended on any definition, at least since the sixteenth century. Mean household size varied with social status, and a majority lived in households of six or more members. But this distribution was due to the very large numbers of servants living in and not to the presence of resident kin, who seem to have been rare. 4. The relationship between fertility, mortality and mean household size is different from what has been supposed. This article ends by registering the paradox that proportion of children in a pre-industrial English community apparently seems to be negatively, not positively, related to its mean household size

  8. Aging, Brain Size, and IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Whether cross-sectional rates of decline for brain volume and the Performance Intellectual Quotient of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were equivalent over the years 16 to 65 was studied with 196 volunteers. Results indicate remarkably similar rates of decline in perceptual-motor functions and aging brain volume loss. (SLD)

  9. Household Crowding and Food Insecurity Among Inuit Families With School-Aged Children in the Canadian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Ayotte, Pierre; Riva, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation of household crowding to food insecurity among Inuit families with school-aged children in Arctic Quebec. Methods. We analyzed data collected between October 2005 and February 2010 from 292 primary caregiver–child dyads from 14 Inuit communities. We collected information about household conditions, food security, and family socioeconomic characteristics by interviews. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between household crowding and food insecurity. Results. Nearly 62% of Inuit families in the Canadian Arctic resided in more crowded households, placing them at risk for food insecurity. About 27% of the families reported reducing the size of their children’s meals because of lack of money. The likelihood of reducing the size of children’s meals was greater in crowded households (odds ratio = 3.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.12). After we adjusted for different socioeconomic characteristics, results remained statistically significant. Conclusions. Interventions operating across different levels (community, regional, national) are needed to ensure food security in the region. Targeting families living in crowded conditions as part of social and public health policies aiming to reduce food insecurity in the Arctic could be beneficial. PMID:25602890

  10. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  11. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status. PMID:27467901

  12. Health in Household Context: Living Arrangements and Health in Late Middle Age*

    PubMed Central

    HUGHES, MARY ELIZABETH; WAITE, LINDA J.

    2005-01-01

    People living in some arrangements show better health than persons in other living arrangements. Recent prospective studies document higher mortality among persons living in particular types of households. We extend this research by examining the influence of household structure on health using longitudinal data. We theorize that individuals experience role-based household relations as sets of resources and demands. In certain household structures, individuals are more likely to perceive that the demands made on them outweigh the resources available to them. This perceived imbalance poses a risk to individual health. We test our expectations by analyzing the relationship between living arrangements and health using data from waves 1 and 2 of the Health and Retirement Study. We focus on persons ages 51–61 and explore gender differences. We find prospective links between household structure and self-rated health, mobility limitation, and depressive symptoms. Married couples living alone or with children only are the most advantaged; single women living with children appear disadvantaged on all health outcomes. Men and women in other household types are disadvantaged on some health outcomes. Our results suggest that the social context formed by the household may be important to the social etiology of health. In addition, they qualify the well-known link between marital status and health: The effect of marital status on health depends on household context. PMID:11949193

  13. Household size is critical to varicella-zoster virus transmission in the tropics despite lower viral infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Richard A.; Averbeck, Karin T.; Poulsen, Anja G.; al Bassam, Mahmoud M.; Cabral, Fernando; Aaby, Peter; Breuer, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology and severity of infections can vary dramatically in different geographical regions. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a particularly tractable model for investigating such global differences, since infections can be unambiguously identified. VZV is spread by aerosol to cause chickenpox, which, in temperate countries, is a relatively benign childhood infection; yet in tropical countries it tends to occur at later age, a trend associated with markedly increased severity including complications, hospitalization, and overall burden of care. To investigate global differences in the epidemiology of chickenpox we studied a population in Guinea Bissau, which in contrast to other tropical countries has an unexpectedly early age of infection with VZV, comparable to temperate latitudes. In this study we used detailed records from over 3000 houses during an outbreak of chickenpox, combined with viral genetic information on routes of infection, to obtain precise estimates of disease transmission within and between houses. This community contains many large households in which different families live under a single roof, in living quarters divided by partitions. Our data show that household infectivity in tropical Guinea Bissau is reduced four-fold compared with temperate climates (14.8% versus 61–85%), with an intermediate rate between members of the same family who are in more intimate contact (23.5%). All else being equal, these lower infection rates would be expected to lead to a later age of infection as is commonly seen in other tropical countries. The young age of infection, which had drawn our attention to the Guinea Bissau population, can however be explained by the exceptionally large household sizes (mean 14.5 people). We have combined genetic and demographic data to show that the epidemiology of chickenpox in tropical Guinea Bissau is dependent on the interaction of the social and physical environments. The distinctive clinical presentation of VZV

  14. Association between household size, residential area, and osteoporosis: analysis of 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Seo, Jung-Beom; Jeon, Jae-Han; Lee, Won-Kee; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The prevalence of single-person households has rapidly increased in Korea. Individuals living alone and in rural areas may have a higher risk of various metabolic diseases due to differences in lifestyle. However, few studies have investigated the association of household size and residential area with health-related problems. This study aimed to evaluate the association of household size and residential area with risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 3,058 postmenopausal women from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We examined the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and household size and residential area. Results: Individuals living in rural areas had significantly lower BMD of the lumbar spine than those living in an urban area. Subsequently, we divided the participants into four groups according to household size and residential areas. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly lower in individuals living in rural single-person households than those in urban households with two or more individuals, even after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. In addition, individuals in rural single-person households had significantly greater odds of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine than those in urban households with two or more residents. Conclusions: Individuals in rural single-person households had significantly lower BMD and greater odds of osteoporosis in lumbar spine than urban households with two or more individuals. The results of this study suggest that individuals living in rural single-person households may benefit from more careful screening for osteoporosis. PMID:27079326

  15. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Glass, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L; Roth, David L

    2015-03-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (household and neighborhood conditions, using a 16-item environmental checklist and a 3-item social cohesion scale, and physical capacity with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and peak expiratory flow. Structural equation models were used to decompose total educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β = 0.055, p < 0.05) and peak flow (β = 0.095, p < 0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.013, p < 0.05), grip strength (β = 0.007, p < 0.05), and peak flow (β = 0.010, p < 0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.012, p < 0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to

  16. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Laura J.; Glass, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Roth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (household and neighborhood conditions, using a 16-item environmental checklist and a 3-item social cohesion scale, and physical capacity with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and peak expiratory flow. Structural equation models were used to decompose total educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β=0.055, p<0.05) and peak flow (β=0.095, p<0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.013, p<0.05), grip strength (β=0.007, p<0.05), and peak flow (β=0.010, p<0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.012, p<0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to support aging in place

  17. Division of Household Labor and the Well-Being of Retirement-Aged Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Darlene L.; Bengtson, Vern L.

    1995-01-01

    A model specifying that certain subjective beliefs and structural conditions affect the symbolic meaning wives give to their household labor divisions was tested on 144 retirement-age married women. Results indicate that wives perceive less spousal support when housework divisions are more unequal, and that this lack of spousal support leads to…

  18. Housing Quality of U.S. Elderly Households: Does Aging in Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golant, Stephan M.; LaGreca, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Investigates whether older people who have lived longer in their dwellings are more likely to occupy physically deficient accommodations. Overall, of the 12,859 aged 60-and-older households analyzed, length of residence was poor predictor of housing quality, only certain subgroups of longtime dwellers were more likely to occupy physically…

  19. The Effects of Age and Household Income on the Use of Literate Language Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmon, Regina D.; McDade, Hiram L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of literate language features (LLFs) in the oral narratives of African American and Caucasian American preschoolers residing in either low- or middle-income homes to determine whether differences existed as a result of age or household income. The oral narratives of 96 preschoolers enrolled in public school programs and…

  20. A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Emily R.; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40–69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children’s socioeconomic circumstances—particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education—in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

  1. Size and composition effects of household particles on inflammation and endothelial dysfunction of human coronary artery endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Liu, I.-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    People spend generally 90 percent of their time indoors, yet toxicity of household particles has not been thoroughly investigated before. The objective of this study is to examine particle size and components effects of household particles on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). We used two micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors to collect 60 sets of indoor particulate matters (PM) from 30 houses in Taipei, Taiwan. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) effects of household particles were determined by high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer, respectively. HCAEC were exposed to household particles extracts in three size ranges: PM0.1 (diameters less than 0.1 μm), PM1.0-0.1 (diameters between 1.0 and 0.1 μm), and PM10-1.0 (diameters between 10 and 1.0 μm) at 50 μg mL-1 for 4 h, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the medium were measured. We found that household PM1.0-0.1 was associated with increased IL-6 and ET-1 production and decreased NO synthesis. Naphthalene of PM1.0-0.1 was highly correlated with IL-6 and ET-1 production and NO reduction. We concluded that size and compositions of household particles were both important factors on inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in HCAEC.

  2. Associations of food group and nutrient intake, diet quality, and meal sizes between adults and children in the same household: a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Methods Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Results Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Conclusions Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying

  3. Surgical need in an aging population: a cluster based household survey in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Wong, Evan; Gupta, Shailvi; Bastola, Santosh; Shrestha, Sunil; Kushner, Adam; Nwomeh, Benedict C.

    2015-01-01

    Background With an aging global population comes significant non-communicable disease burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An unknown proportion of this burden is treatable with surgery. For health system planning, this study aimed to estimate the surgical needs of individuals over 50 years in Nepal. Methods A two-stage, cluster randomized, community-based survey was performed in Nepal using the validated Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool. SOSAS collects household demographics, randomly selects household members for verbal head-to-toe examinations for surgical conditions and completes a verbal autopsy for deaths in the preceding year. Only respondents older than 50 years were included in the analysis. Results The survey sampled 1,350 households, totaling 2,695 individuals (97% response rate). Of these, 273 surgical conditions were reported by 507 persons ages ≥50 years. Extrapolating, there are potentially 2.1 million people over age 50 with surgically treatable conditions needing care in Nepal (95%CI 1.8 – 2.4 million; 46,000 – 62,6000 per 100,000 persons). One in five deaths were potentially treatable or palliated by surgery. Though a growth or mass (including hernias and goiters) was the most commonly reported surgical condition (25%), injuries and fractures were also common and associated with the greatest disability. Literacy and distance to secondary and tertiary health facilities were associated with lack of care for surgical conditions (p<0.05). Conclusion There is a large unmet surgical need among the elderly in Nepal. Low literacy and distance from a capable health facility are the greatest barriers to care. As the global population ages, there is an increasing need to improve surgical services and strengthen health systems to care for this group. PMID:25934023

  4. Changes in the carbon footprint of Japanese households in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Shigetomi, Yosuke; Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Tohno, Susumu

    2014-06-01

    As the aging and low birthrate trends continue in Japan, and as changes in the working population and consumption patterns occur, new factors are expected to have an impact on consumption-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We present the impacts of changes in the composition of Japanese households on GHG emission structures using current (2005) consumption-based accounting on the commodity sectors that are expected to require priority efforts for reducing emissions in 2035. This is done using the Global Link Input-Output model (GLIO) and domestic household consumption data and assuming that recent detailed consumption expenditures based on the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) will continue into the future. The results show that consumption-based GHG emissions derived from Japanese household consumption in 2035 are estimated to be 1061 Mt-CO2eq (4.2% lower than in 2005). This study can be used to reveal more information and as a resource in developing policies to more meticulously and efficiently reduce emissions based on emission and import rates for each domestic and overseas commodity supply chain. PMID:24798825

  5. [Population aging and health information from the National Household Sample Survey: contemporary demands and challenges. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Veras, Renato

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the new demographic and epidemiological reality in Brazil, based on data collected and organized in the Health Supplement of the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD-Health). It highlights the urgency of changes and innovations in health care paradigms for the elderly population with a preventive approach based on comprehensive education and care. As key concepts, the article emphasizes the need to preserve autonomy, participation, care, self-satisfaction, and the possibility of elder citizens being active in various social contexts. It also discusses the contribution by various authors to the discussion forum on Human Aging and the National Household Sample Surveys, coordinated by Cadernos de Saúde Pública/Reports in Public Health, featuring studies on access to and utilization of health services by the elderly, the epidemiological pattern of breast cancer in elderly women, and the validity of using proxy respondents in research on self-perceived health status, concluding that the PNAD data are consistent and can be used by the scientific community. PMID:17891305

  6. Food insufficiency in the households of reproductive-age Ecuadorian women: association with food and nutritional status indicators.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Maria Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of Ecuadorian households with reproductive-aged women (n = 10,784) were used to analyze the prevalence of household food insufficiency (HFI) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, food acquisition and expenditure patterns, dietary diversity, and anthropometric indicators. Fifteen percent of households had food insufficiency and 15% had marginal food sufficiency. HFI was associated with poverty-linked indicators. Marginally food sufficient households reported social and economic capital than food which appeared protective against HFI. Food insufficiency was associated with reduced household acquisition/expenditures on high quality protein and micronutrient-rich food sources. HFI was not associated with adult or adolescent female overweight/obesity but was associated with short adult stature (< 1.45 m). The ongoing nutrition transition in Ecuador is expected to continue to modify population food security, diet, and nutrition. Systematic surveillance of household level food security is needed to inform recent food-related policies and programs implemented by the Ecuadorian government. PMID:25347579

  7. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R

    2016-08-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5-14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20-29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5-9 (0.70), 10-14 (0.64), and 15-19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2-4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5-19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  8. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5–14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  9. Measles Vaccination Coverage among Latino Children Aged 12 to 59 Months in Los Angeles County: A Household Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Donnell P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the results of a household survey of measles vaccination coverage among Hispanic American children aged 12 to 59 months. Between 81 percent and 91 percent of the children have been vaccinated, a percentage insufficient to stop the high rate of measles transmission within this population. Recommends that public health efforts be focused on…

  10. Tooth Size Variation Related to Age in Amboseli Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Dotras, Laia; Alberts, Susan C.; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We measured the molar size from a single population of wild baboons from Amboseli (Kenya), both females (n = 57) and males (n = 50). All the females were of known age; the males represented a mix of known-age individuals (n = 31) and individuals with ages estimated to within 2 years (n = 19). The results showed a significant reduction in the mesiodistal length of teeth in both sexes as a function of age. Overall patterns of age-related change in tooth size did not change whether we included or excluded the individuals of estimated age, but patterns of statistical significance changed as a result of changed sample sizes. Our results demonstrate that tooth length is directly related to age due to interproximal wearing caused by M2 and M3 compression loads. Dental studies in primates, including both fossil and extant species, are mostly based on specimens obtained from osteological collections of varying origins, for which the age at death of each individual in the sample is not known. Researchers should take into account the phenomenon of interproximal attrition leading to reduced tooth size when measuring tooth length for ondontometric purposes. PMID:21325862

  11. Variance of size-age curves: Bootstrapping with autocorrelation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullock, S.H.; Turner, R.M.; Hastings, J.R.; Escoto-Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, Z.R.A.; Rodrigues-Navarro, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    We modify a method of estimating size-age relations from a minimal set of individual increment data, recognizing that growth depends not only on size but also varies greatly among individuals and is consistent within an individual for several to many time intervals. The method is exemplified with data from a long-lived desert plant and a range of autocorrelation factors encompassing field-measured values. The results suggest that age estimates based on size and growth rates with only moderate autocorrelation are subject to large variation, which raises major problems for prediction or hindcasting for ecological analysis or management.

  12. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  13. Parameters of Household Composition as Demographic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data, such as Census statistics, enable the re-enactment of household lifecourse through the construction of the household composition matrix, a tabulation of persons in households by their age and by the age of their corresponding household-heads. Household lifecourse is represented in the household composition matrix somewhat…

  14. Household Food Insecurity Is Not Associated with BMI for Age or Weight for Height among Brazilian Children Aged 0–60 Months

    PubMed Central

    Kac, Gilberto; Schlüssel, Michael M.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Velásquez-Melendez, Gustavo; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI), weight for height z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z) in a representative sample of children 0–60 months of age (n = 3,433) in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006–07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (ß coefficients and 95% CI) taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%), born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9%) and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%). The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119) and WHZ (P = 0.198). Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.19, 95% CI: −0.35 - −0.03, P = 0.047), and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.26, 95% CI: −0.42 - −0.09, P = 0.009). Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0–60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0–60 months. PMID:23029220

  15. Aged boreal biomass burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ∼1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter), σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.05-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8 (the ranges are due to uncertainty in the entrainment rate). Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is relatively unconstrained due to the uncertainties in

  16. Aged Boreal Biomass Burning Size Distributions from Bortas 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, J. R.; Sakamoto, K.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J.; Duck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are strong functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1.5 - 2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 232 nm, σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA/ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.08-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution and flux corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes only based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Depending on the, we estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8. Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is somewhat unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the plume dilution rates.

  17. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income. PMID:25393914

  18. Object and size awareness in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Caroline E; Carlson, Abby G; Pasnak, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Self-awareness is a skill developed during the first few years of life. Although some research demonstrates that this ability may be incomplete in toddlers, there is little to no literature relating to preschoolers. This study tested 44 preschool-age children on 8 tasks to assess their awareness of the structural characteristics of their own size and weight as well as the size and weight of external objects. The most frequently observed behavior was for children to make an attempt at something that was inappropriate for their size and weight, but overall participants showed a better understanding of their own bodies than other objects. Both the number of attempts required to solve the problems and accuracy of their solutions demonstrated these task differences. These results indicate that the development of body awareness skills is far from complete for 3- and 4-year-olds. PMID:22582673

  19. Size and Age Dependence of Koronis Family Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.

  20. Breastfeeding, lung volumes and alveolar size at school-age

    PubMed Central

    Dogaru, Cristian M; Narayanan, Manjith; Spycher, Ben D; Pescatore, Anina M; Owers-Bradley, John; Beardsmore, Caroline S; Silverman, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies found larger lung volumes at school-age in formerly breastfed children, with some studies suggesting an effect modification by maternal asthma. We wanted to explore this further in children who had undergone extensive lung function testing. The current study aimed to assess whether breastfeeding was associated with larger lung volumes and, if so, whether all compartments were affected. We also assessed association of breastfeeding with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which measures freedom of gas diffusion in alveolar-acinar compartments and is a surrogate of alveolar dimensions. Additionally, we assessed whether these effects were modified by maternal asthma. Methods We analysed data from 111 children and young adults aged 11–21 years, who had participated in detailed lung function testing, including spirometry, plethysmography and measurement of ADC of 3Helium (3He) by MR. Information on breastfeeding came from questionnaires applied in early childhood (age 1–4 years). We determined the association between breastfeeding and these measurements using linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Results We did not find significant evidence for an association between duration of breastfeeding and lung volumes or alveolar dimensions in the entire sample. In breastfed children of mothers with asthma, we observed larger lung volumes and larger average alveolar size than in non-breastfed children, but the differences did not reach significance levels. Conclusions Confirmation of effects of breastfeeding on lung volumes would have important implications for public health. Further investigations with larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:26180638

  1. Surface ages of mid-size saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sisto, Romina P.; Zanardi, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The observations of the surfaces of the mid-sized saturnian satellites made by Cassini-Huygens mission have shown a variety of features that allows study of the processes that took place and are taking place on those worlds. Research of the saturnian satellite surfaces has clear implications not only for Saturn's history and Saturn's surroundings, but also for the Solar System. Crater counting from high definition images is very important and could serve for the determination of the age of the surfaces. In a recent paper, we have calculated the production of craters on the mid-sized saturnian satellites by Centaur objects considering the current configuration of the Solar System. Also, we have compared our results with crater counts from Cassini images by other authors and we have noted that the number of observed small craters is less than our calculated theoretical number. In this paper we estimate the age of the surface for each observed terrain on each mid-sized satellite of Saturn. All the surfaces analyzed appear to be old with the exception of Enceladus. However, we have noticed that since there are less observed small craters than calculated (except on Iapetus), this results in younger ages than expected. This could be the result of efficient endogenous or exogenous process(es) for erasing small craters and/or crater saturation at those sizes. The size limit from which the observed number of smaller craters is less than the calculated is different for each satellite, possibly indicating processes that are unique to each, but other potential common explanations for this paucity of small craters would be crater saturation and/or deposition of E-ring particles. These processes are also suggested by the findings that the smaller craters are being preferentially removed, and the erasure process is gradual. On Enceladus, only mid and high latitude plains have remnants of old terrains; the other regions could be young. In particular, the regions near the South

  2. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers’ perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the “Take Cover” communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  3. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  4. Gambling households in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  5. Household air pollution from wood burning in two reconstructed houses from the Danish Viking Age.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J M; Ryhl-Svendsen, M

    2015-06-01

    During 13 winter weeks, an experimental archeology project was undertaken in two Danish reconstructed Viking Age houses with indoor open fireplaces. Volunteers inhabited the houses under living conditions similar to those of the Viking Age, including cooking and heating by wood fire. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at varying distances to the fireplace. Near the fireplaces CO (mean) was 16 ppm. PM2.5 (mean) was 3.40 mg/m(3) , however, measured in one house only. The CO:PM mass ratio was found to increase from 6.4 to 22 when increasing the distance to the fire. Two persons carried CO sensors. Average personal exposure was 6.9 ppm, and from this, a personal PM2.5 exposure of 0.41 mg/m(3) was estimated. The levels found here were higher than reported from modern studies conducted in dwellings using biomass for cooking and heating. While this may be due to the Viking house design, the volunteer's lack of training in attending a fire maybe also played a role. Even so, when comparing to today's issues arising from the use of open fires, it must be assumed that also during the Viking Age, the exposure to woodsmoke was a contributing factor to health problems. PMID:25065944

  6. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000. PMID:12262301

  7. Strategies for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from household burning of solid fuels: effects on acute lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Deborah; Jary, Hannah R; Patel, Latifa B; Chiume, Msandeni E; Mortimer, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: This study aims to assess the effects of intervention strategies that reduce exposure to household air pollution from burning solid fuels on episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children under the age of 15 years.

  8. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S.; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  9. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001). Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women's education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  10. Common Household Chemicals and the Allergy Risks in Pre-School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Sundell, Jan; Hasselgren, Mikael; Spengler, John; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown. Objective We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden. Methods In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls), air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs. Results A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs) in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 – 15.65 µg/m3) was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.1), 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 – 2.3), 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 – 4.7), and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.3), accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.8) compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs. Conclusion We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively. PMID:20976153

  11. Household-level predictors of the presence of servants in Northern Orkney, Scotland, 1851–1901

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Julia A.; Wood, James W.; Johnson, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Servants were an important part of the northwestern European household economy in the preindustrial past. This study examines household-level characteristics that are predictive of the presence of rural servants using data from Orkney, Scotland. The number of servants present in a household is related to household composition, landholding size, and the marital status of the household head. In addition, the sex of the particular servant hired reveals that the labor of male and female servants is not fungible. The sex of the servant hired is related to the ratio of male and female household members of working age, the occupation of the head, household composition, and the size of the household’s landholding. PMID:21927549

  12. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. Objectives: We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. Methods: We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Results: Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, −0.33; India, −0.53; Peru, −0.31; and Vietnam, −0.68 HAZ; all P < 0.001), although results were attenuated after controlling for potential confounders (Ethiopia, −0.21; India, −0.32; Peru, −0.14; and Vietnam, −0.27 HAZ; P < 0.01). Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y HAZ, but did not add predictive power beyond HAZ at age 5 y in Ethiopia, India, or Peru. Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y BMI-Z even after controlling for the 5 y BMI-Z, although associations were not significant after the inclusion of additional confounding variables (Ethiopia, P = 0.12; India, P = 0.29; Peru, P = 0.16; and Vietnam, P = 0.51). Chronically food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs than households that were consistently food-secure, although BMI-Zs did not differ by chronic food-insecurity status. Dietary diversity mediated 18.8–30.5% of the association between food security and anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4–19.3%) in other countries. Conclusions: In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with

  13. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses. PMID:26772449

  14. The Effect of Age on Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in a Camp and Associated Households

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Borse, Nagesh N.; Ta, Myduc L.; Stockman, Lauren J.; Fischer, Gayle E.; Yang, Yang; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Background A major portion of influenza disease burden during the 2009 pandemic was observed among young people. Methods We examined the effect of age on the transmission of influenza-like illness associated with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) for an April–May 2009 outbreak among youth-camp participants and household contacts in Washington State. Results An influenza-like illness attack rate of 51% was found among 96 camp participants. We observed a cabin secondary attack rate of 42% (95% confidence interval = 21%–66%) and a camp local reproductive number of 2.7 (1.7–4.1) for influenza-like illness among children (less than 18 years old). Among the 136 contacts in the 41 households with an influenza-like illness index case who attended the camp, the influenza-like illness secondary attack rate was 11% for children (5%–21%) and 4% for adults (2%–8%). The odds ratio for influenza-like illness among children versus adults was 3.1 (1.3–7.3). Conclusions The strong age effect, combined with the low number of susceptible children per household (1.2), plausibly explains the lower-than-expected household secondary attack rate for influenza-like illness, illustrating the importance of other venues where children congregate for sustaining community transmission. Quantifying the effects of age on pH1N1 transmission is important for informing effective intervention strategies. PMID:21233714

  15. Chinguetti - terrestrial age and pre-atmospheric size

    SciTech Connect

    Welten, K C; Masarik, J; Bland, P A; Caffee, M W; Russell, S S; Grady, M M; Denyer, I; Lloyd, J

    2000-01-14

    Chinguetti is a 4.5 kg mesosiderite find recovered from the Adra region of Mauretania. In this paper the authors analyse a portion of the recovered sample for cosmogenic radionuclides to determine its terrestrial age, and to determine its pre-atmospheric radius. They determined the terrestrial age of Chinguetti to be < 30 ky. They constrain the pre-atmospheric radius to 50--80 cm and the shielding depths of 15--25 cm. These data indicate that Chinguetti is a comparatively recent fall.

  16. Particle size distribution of aerosols sprayed from household hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based and silicone-based compounds.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Japan has published safety guideline on waterproof aerosol sprays. Furthermore, the Aerosol Industry Association of Japan has adopted voluntary regulations on waterproof aerosol sprays. Aerosol particles of diameter less than 10 µm are considered as "fine particles". In order to avoid acute lung injury, this size fraction should account for less than 0.6% of the sprayed aerosol particles. In contrast, the particle size distribution of aerosols released by hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based or silicone-based compounds have not been investigated in Japan. Thus, the present study investigated the aerosol particle size distribution of 16 household hand-pump sprays. In 4 samples, the ratio of fine particles in aerosols exceeded 0.6%. This study confirmed that several hand-pump sprays available in the Japanese market can spray fine particles. Since the hand-pump sprays use water as a solvent and their ingredients may be more hydrophilic than those of aerosol sprays, the concepts related to the safety of aerosol-sprays do not apply to the hand pump sprays. Therefore, it may be required for the hand-pump spray to develop a suitable method for evaluating the toxicity and to establish the safety guideline. PMID:26821469

  17. Household Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compiled to give readers information on current research in household production, this special issue focuses on the family as a provider of goods and services. It includes five feature articles, a summary of a survey of American farm women, and a brief analysis of sources of time-use data for estimating the value of household production. Covered…

  18. Social dynamics of health inequalities: a growth curve analysis of aging and self assessed health in the British household panel survey 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, A.; Clarke, P.; Wiggins, R.; Bartley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study how social inequalities change as people age, this paper presents a growth curve model of self assessed health, which accommodates changes in occupational class and individual health with age. Design: Nationally representative interview based longitudinal survey of adults in Great Britain. Setting: Representative members of private households of Great Britain in 1991. Participants: Survey respondents (n = 6705), aged 21–59 years in 1991 and followed up annually until 2001. Main outcome measure: Self assessed health. Results: On average, self assessed health declines slowly from early adulthood to retirement age. No significant class differences in health were observed at age 21. Health inequalities emerged later in life with the gap between mean levels of self assessed health of those in managerial and professional occupations and routine occupations widening approaching retirement. Individual variability in health trajectories increased between ages 40 and 59 years so that this widening of mean differences between occupational classes was not significant. When the analysis is confined to people whose occupational class remained constant over time, a far greater difference in health trajectories between occupational classes was seen. Conclusions: The understanding of social inequalities in health at the population level is enriched by an analysis of individual variation in age related declines by social position. PMID:15911646

  19. Household Factors Influencing Participation in Bird Feeding Activity: A National Scale Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin; Loram, Alison; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Ameliorating pressures on the ecological condition of the wider landscape outside of protected areas is a key focus of conservation initiatives in the developed world. In highly urbanized nations, domestic gardens can play a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and facilitating human-wildlife interactions, which benefit personal and societal health and well-being. The extent to which sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with engagement in wildlife gardening activities remain largely unresolved. Using two household-level survey datasets gathered from across Britain, we determine whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation organizations are successfully to promote public participation in wildlife gardening specifically and environmentally beneficial behaviour in society more generally. PMID:22761872

  20. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity: a national scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Zoe G; Fuller, Richard A; Dallimer, Martin; Loram, Alison; Gaston, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Ameliorating pressures on the ecological condition of the wider landscape outside of protected areas is a key focus of conservation initiatives in the developed world. In highly urbanized nations, domestic gardens can play a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and facilitating human-wildlife interactions, which benefit personal and societal health and well-being. The extent to which sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with engagement in wildlife gardening activities remain largely unresolved. Using two household-level survey datasets gathered from across Britain, we determine whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation organizations are successfully to promote public participation in wildlife gardening specifically and environmentally beneficial behaviour in society more generally. PMID:22761872

  1. Accuracy of prediction of canine litter size and gestational age with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lenard, Z M; Hopper, B J; Lester, N V; Richardson, J L; Robertson, I D

    2007-06-01

    Different sonographic criteria have been developed to estimate canine fetal age, including fetal mensuration and assessment of fetal organ development. This retrospective study assessed the accuracy of gestational age and litter size predictions in 76 bitches using one of two techniques. The first method used the differential features of fetal organ development that occur in early and mid pregnancy, based on published tables for beagles. The second method used biparietal head and trunk diameters to predict gestational age based on tables published for late gestational Labrador Retrievers. The accuracy of the two methods was compared and the effect of maternal body weight and litter size evaluated. Litter size and maternal body weight did not affect the accuracy of gestational age prediction. Using a combination of both methods, the overall accuracy of predicting parturition date within 65 +/- 1 day and +/- 2 days was 70.8% and 86.1%, respectively. The correct litter size was predicted in 65% of cases, and in 89.5% of cases for +/- 1 pup. Pearson's correlation between actual litter size and predicted litter size was high (R = 0.957, P < 0.001). The organ development method of predicting gestational age was more accurate than late gestational fetal mensuration (P = 0.019). The optimum time for sonographic estimation of fetal age and litter size is early and mid pregnancy. PMID:17547634

  2. Generating a dynamic synthetic population--using an age-structured two-sex model for household dynamics.

    PubMed

    Namazi-Rad, M; Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Mokhtarian, P; Mokhtarian, Payam; Perez, P; Perez, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Generating a reliable computer-simulated synthetic population is necessary for knowledge processing and decision-making analysis in agent-based systems in order to measure, interpret and describe each target area and the human activity patterns within it. In this paper, both synthetic reconstruction (SR) and combinatorial optimisation (CO) techniques are discussed for generating a reliable synthetic population for a certain geographic region (in Australia) using aggregated- and disaggregated-level information available for such an area. A CO algorithm using the quadratic function of population estimators is presented in this paper in order to generate a synthetic population while considering a two-fold nested structure for the individuals and households within the target areas. The baseline population in this study is generated from the confidentialised unit record files (CURFs) and 2006 Australian census tables. The dynamics of the created population is then projected over five years using a dynamic micro-simulation model for individual- and household-level demographic transitions. This projection is then compared with the 2011 Australian census. A prediction interval is provided for the population estimates obtained by the bootstrapping method, by which the variability structure of a predictor can be replicated in a bootstrap distribution. PMID:24733522

  3. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and ...

  4. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and drain cleaners Laundry ...

  5. Fontanel Size from Birth to 24 Months of Age in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    ESMAEILI, Mohammad; ESMAEILI, Marjan; GHANE SHARBAF, Fatemeh; BOKHARAIE, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of abnormal fontanel size, a potential clue to recognition of different disorders, requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal fontanel size. The anterior fontanel is the largest, prominent and most important for clinical evaluation. The aim of this study was to establish and define normal range of fontanel size from birth to 24 months of age in healthy Iranian children that might be generalized to other populations. Materials & Methods Totally, 550 subjects enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. They were apparently normal healthy children, from birth to 24 months of age, including 208-term newborn and 342 infant from birth to 2 yr old. Fontanel size was measured and recorded as the mean of the length (anterior- posterior dimension) and width (transverse dimension). Mean anterior fontanel sizes in our samples were classified for periods of 3 months. Nomograms and statistical analyses were performed and depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007 and two-tailed t-test respectively. Results The mean ±2SD of anterior fontanel size was 2.55±1.92 cm in newborns, 3.37±2.48 (largest size) in 3 months of age. It was closed in all cases in 15-18 months of age. The mean posterior fontanel size was 0.8 cm in newborns and closed in all infants in 2 months of age. There was no significant difference in anterior fontanel size between two genders except in newborn and 6-9 months old (P>0.05). Conclusion Abnormal fontanel can indicate a serious medical condition. Therefore, it is important to understand normal variations, to utilize standardized techniques for measurement and appropriate standards of normal range in different age groups and populations. This study provides a normal range of mean fontanel size in Iranian infants as a local reference. It might be generalized to other populations. PMID:26664437

  6. American household structure in transition.

    PubMed

    Glick, P C

    1984-01-01

    The number of U.S. households rose by 58 percent between 1960 and 1983, with nontraditional household types accounting for most of the increase. Whereas the number of households containing married couples with children younger than 18 rose by only four percent over the period, one-parent households increased by 175 percent; one-person households, by 173 percent; and households composed of unmarried couples, by 331 percent. In 1983, households maintained by married couples constituted six in 10 U.S. households; the second most common household type--adults living alone--accounted for about one-quarter of all households. Lone parents living with their children represent nearly one in 10 households. Almost all of these parents are women--of whom two-thirds are separated or divorced, one-quarter have never been married, and fewer than one in 10 are widows. Among adults living alone, women aged 45 and older predominate; but the rate at which the practice has been adopted since 1960 has been greatest among those under age 45. Most of the growth in the number of one-person households occurred during the 1970s. The increase in cohabitation--most of it also in the 1970s--has similarly been concentrated in the younger age-groups. The living arrangements of children younger than 18 have changed accordingly over the two decades. Since 1960, the number of children living with two parents has declined by nearly one-fifth, and the number living with one parent--generally the mother--has more than doubled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6500019

  7. An analysis of the size distribution of Italian firms by age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Pasquale

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we analyze the size distribution of Italian firms by age. In other words, we want to establish whether the way that the size of firms is distributed varies as firms become old. As a proxy of size we use capital. In [L.M.B. Cabral, J. Mata, On the evolution of the firm size distribution: Facts and theory, American Economic Review 93 (2003) 1075-1090], the authors study the distribution of Portuguese firms and they find out that, while the size distribution of all firms is fairly stable over time, the distributions of firms by age groups are appreciably different. In particular, as the age of the firms increases, their size distribution on the log scale shifts to the right, the left tails becomes thinner and the right tail thicker, with a clear decrease of the skewness. In this paper, we perform a similar analysis with Italian firms using the CEBI database, also considering firms’ growth rates. Although there are several papers dealing with Italian firms and their size distribution, to our knowledge a similar study concerning size and age has not been performed yet for Italy, especially with such a big panel.

  8. Effects of frame size and animal age on beef carcass quality and tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 96) were used to determine the effects of frame size (medium, MED or small, SM) and animal age on beef carcass quality and tenderness in a forage finishing system. Steers grazed mixed pastures (bluegrass/white clover) and were slaughtered at 16.6, 18.6, and 20.3 mo of age in...

  9. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection. PMID:26612500

  10. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  11. Somatic heterogeneity of the CTG repeat in myotonic dystrophy is age and size dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L J; Ashizawa, T; Monckton, D G; Caskey, C T; Richards, C S

    1995-01-01

    The most common form of adult muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy (DM), is caused by the abnormal expansion of the CTG repeat, located in the 3' UTR of the DM gene. The expanded-CTG allele often presents as a diffused band on Southern blot analysis, suggesting somatic mosaicism. In order to study the somatic instability of the CTG repeat, we have investigated the dynamics of the size heterogeneity of the CTG expansion. Size heterogeneity is shown as a smear on Southern blot and is measured by the midpeak-width ratio of the expanded allele to the normal sized allele. The ratio is also corrected for compression in the higher-molecular-weight region. It is found that the size heterogeneity of the expanded-CTG repeats, of 173 DM patients, correlates well with the age of the patient (r = .81, P << .001). The older patients show larger size variation. This correlation is independent of the sex of either the patient or the transmitting parent. The size heterogeneity of the expansion, based on age groups, is also dependent on the size of the expanded trinucleotide repeat. However, obvious size heterogeneity is not observed in congenital cases, regardless of the size of expansion. Comparison of individual patient samples collected at two different times has confirmed that the degree of size heterogeneity increases with age and has revealed a subtle but definite upward shift in the size of the expanded-CTG allele. The progression of the CTG repeat toward larger expansion with age is further confirmed by small-pool PCR assay that resolved the heterogeneous fragments into discrete bands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7825566

  12. Household Composition and Longitudinal Health Outcomes for Older Mexican Return Migrants.

    PubMed

    Mudrazija, Stipica; López-Ortega, Mariana; Vega, William A; Gutiérrez Robledo, Luis Miguel; Sribney, William

    2016-04-01

    Mexican return migrant population is increasing, yet our knowledge about their lives after resettlement in Mexico remains fragmentary. Using 2001-2012 longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we investigate difference in household composition for older migrants who returned from the United States compared to nonmigrants. Furthermore, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relationship between household composition and health and functional trajectories of return migrants and nonmigrants. The results indicate that return migrants with long duration of U.S. stay have different household composition than nonmigrants or short-term migrants: On average, they have smaller household size, including fewer females who may be available to offer assistance to older adults. Presence of middle-age females in the household has positive effects on health and functional trajectories. We highlight implications of this research for policy makers in Mexico and the United States. PMID:26966255

  13. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p < .0001). Children living in food insecure with severe hunger households were 10.13, 10.07, and 4.54 times as likely to be underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households. PMID:27494152

  14. Plant size, not age, regulates growth and gas exchange in grafted Scots pine trees.

    PubMed

    Vanderklein, D; Martínez-Vilalta, J; Lee, S; Mencuccini, M

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of scion donor-tree age on the physiology and growth of 6- to 7-year-old grafted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees (4 and 5 years after grafting). Physiological measurements included photosynthethetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, whole plant hydraulic conductance, needle nitrogen concentration and carbon isotope composition. Growth measurements included total and component biomasses, relative growth rates and growth efficiency. Scion donor trees ranged in age from 36 to 269 years at the time of grafting. Hydraulic conductance was measured gravimetrically, applying the Ohm's law analogy, and directly, with a high-pressure flow meter. We found no effect of scion donor-tree age on any of the variables measured. There was, however, great variation within scion donor-tree age groups, which was related to the size of the grafted trees. Differences in size may have been caused by variable initial grafting success, but there was no indication that grafting success and age were related. At the stem level, hydraulic conductance scaled with total leaf area so that total conductance per unit leaf area did not vary with crown size. However, leaf specific hydraulic conductance (gravimetric), transpiration, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance declined with increasing total tree leaf area and needle width. We hypothesize that needle width is inversely related to mesophyll conductance. We conclude that canopy and needle size and not scion donor-tree age determined gas exchange in our grafted trees. PMID:17169908

  15. Age, growth, and size of Lake Superior Pygmy Whitefish (Prosopium coulterii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Taylor; Derek Ogle; Gorman, Owen T.; Vinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Pygmy Whitefish (Prosopium coulterii) are a small, glacial relict species with a disjunct distribution in North America and Siberia. In 2013 we collected Pygmy Whitefish at 28 stations from throughout Lake Superior. Total length was recorded for all fish and weight and sex were recorded and scales and otoliths were collected from a subsample. We compared the precision of estimated ages between readers and between scales and otoliths, estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters for male and female Pygmy Whitefish, and reported the first weight-length relationship for Pygmy Whitefish. Age estimates between scales and otoliths differed significantly with otolith ages significantly greater for most ages after age-3. Maximum otolith age was nine for females and seven for males, which is older than previously reported for Pygmy Whitefish from Lake Superior. Growth was initially fast but slowed considerably after age-3 for males and age-4 for females, falling to 3–4 mm per year at maximum estimated ages. Females were longer than males after age-3. Our results suggest the size, age, and growth of Pygmy Whitefish in Lake Superior have not changed appreciably since 1953.

  16. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  17. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality.

    PubMed

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-10-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations; rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  18. Variation in age and size at maturity of the slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta)

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, J.W.; Semlitch, R.D.; Greene, J.L.; Schubauer, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The adaptive strategy of the slider turtle, Pseudemys scripta, in terms of age and size at sexual maturity is discussed. Populations from a natural aquatic habitat and from a cooling reservoir on the US DOE Savannah River Plant are compared. (HCR)

  19. Relationships Between Father's Age, Birth Order, Family Size, and Need Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Richman, Charles L.

    Several hypotheses regarding the determinants of need achievement were examined. In addition to predicting sex differences, the study predicted that father's age would be inversely related to need achievement. In addition, the effects of family size and birth order on achievement motivation were compared. Subjects were 1,092 undergraduates (785…

  20. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  1. "Living by the hoe" in the age of treatment: perceptions of household well-being after antiretroviral treatment among family members of persons with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Amy; Alibhai, Arif; Kipp, Walter; Rubaale, Tom; Konde-Lule, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    This paper considers the effects of antiretroviral treatment on the households of person with AIDS in western Uganda. Interviews were carried out with 110 co-resident "treatment partners" of people receiving treatment. We discuss these family members' accounts of the impact of sickness, followed by treatment, on their household's livelihood, defined as the activities needed to obtain and process the resources required to sustain the households. The household's ability to muster labour for subsistence agriculture was of paramount concern when family members considered what treatment meant for the households. While they were very happy with the treatment, they said that households have not yet recovered from the shock of AIDS sicknesses. PMID:20162471

  2. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W Stewart; Brenner, Richard E; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  3. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W. Stewart; Brenner, Richard E.; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  4. Household and farm transitions in environmental context

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Glenn D.; Gutmann, Myron P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent debate in the literature on population, environment, and land use questions the applicability of theory that patterns of farm extensification and intensification correspond to the life course of farmers and to the life cycle of farm families. This paper extends the debate to the agricultural development of the United States Great Plains region, using unique data from 1875 to 1930 that link families to farms over time in 25 environmentally diverse Kansas townships. Results of multilevel statistical modeling indicate that farmer’s age, household size, and household structure are simultaneously related to both the extent of farm operations and the intensity of land use, taking into account local environmental conditions and time trends as Kansas was settled and developed. These findings validate farm- and life cycle theories and offer support for intergenerational motivations for farm development that include both daughters and sons. Environmental variation in aridity was a key driver of farm structure. PMID:21643468

  5. A matter of size: Part 2. Evaluating the large-for-gestational-age neonate.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elizabeth J

    2007-08-01

    Large for gestational age (LGA) is another designation used to assess and monitor growth throughout the pregnancy and after delivery. Large for gestational age is an abnormal growth descriptor that assists in anticipating neonatal needs pre-and postnatally. Careful monitoring for abnormal growth trends in the fetus is imperative prenatally. The relative size of a neonate affects many aspects of prenatal and postnatal surveillance. Nursing care is guided by the maternal history and the delivery room complications that may occur. Anticipating complications in the delivery room is vital to the survival of LGA neonates. Nursing care for LGA neonates requires knowledge based on these potential complications. A thorough physical assessment with appropriate glucose monitoring and parental education is required. Size matters when it comes to the health and welfare of all sizes of neonates. Anticipatory guidance with prenatal monitoring and education can improve outcomes in the neonate at risk for LGA complications at birth. PMID:17700192

  6. Ultrasonographic estimation of prostate size in normal dogs and relationship to bodyweight and age.

    PubMed

    Atalan, G; Holt, P E; Barr, F J

    1999-03-01

    A study was undertaken to establish the ranges of prostate dimensions, weight and volume in mature normal dogs and thus provide information which would allow differentiation from normality of size changes associated with disease. The study was performed on 154 healthy adult male entire dogs. Each prostate was imaged ultrasonographically and standard longitudinal and transverse sections were obtained. Prostate length (L), depth on longitudinal (DL) and transverse sections (DT) and width (W) were measured. Prostatic volume and weight were estimated according to formulae derived previously. There were statistically significant correlations between bodyweight or age and L, DL, DT and W. There were also significant correlations between estimated prostatic weight or volume and bodyweight, age, L, DL, DT and W. Formulae were derived to express the relationships between prostate size (weight or volume) and age or bodyweight. PMID:10200922

  7. Gestational age and newborn size according to parental social mobility: an intergenerational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Loret de Mola, Christian; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. Methods 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Results Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight—but not with head circumference—persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Conclusions Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. PMID:26109560

  8. Determinants of Thailand household healthcare expenditure: the relevance of permanent resources and other correlates.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Albert A; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Benson, David A

    2010-03-01

    Several papers in the leading health economics journals modeled the determinants of healthcare expenditure using household survey or family budgets data of developed countries. Past work largely used self-reported current income as the core determinant, whereas the theoretically correct concept of household resource constraint is permanent or long-run income (á lá Milton Friedman). This paper strives to rectify the theoretical oversight of using current income by augmenting the model with household asset. Using longitudinal data, we constructed 'wealth index' as a distinct covariate to capture the households' tendency to liquidate assets when defraying necessary healthcare liabilities after exhausting cash incomes. (Current income and assets together capture the household expanded resource base). Using 98 632 household observations from Thailand Socio-Economic Surveys (1994-2000 biennial data cycles) we found, using a double-hurdle model with dependent errors, that out-of-pocket healthcare spending behaves as a technical necessity across income quintiles and household sizes. Pre-1997 economic shock income elasticities are smaller than the post-shock estimates across income quintiles for large and small households. Proximity to death, median age, and assets are also among other significant determinants. Our novel findings extend the theoretical consistency of a multi-level decision model in household healthcare expenditure in the developing Asian country context. PMID:19405046

  9. Age at puberty, fertility and litter size of ewe lambs reared under different photoregimens.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, L; Heaney, D P; Shrestha, J N

    1991-09-01

    Age at puberty, fertility and litter size of ewe lambs of synthetic sire and dam strains raised under different photoregimens were determined. The lambs were bred during January, May or September at 30 to 32 weeks of age. Irrespective of birth date, the lambs were reared under continuous light from birth to 5 weeks of age. From 5 to 20 weeks of age, they were kept under 16 hours of light dairy (16L:8D; Treatment A), 8 hours of light daily (8L:16D; Treatment B), or a split photoperiod of 8 hours total light daily (7L:9D:1L:7D; Treatment C). Subsequently, all lambs were exposed to 9 hours of light daily until after breeding. Lambs were exposed to rams for two estrous periods after treatment with fluorogestone acetate-impregnated intravaginal sponges and pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (PMSG) to induce synchronized estrus. Although the age at puberty (174 days) was similar among treatments, the incidence of puberty prior to progestagen sponge treatment was higher (approximately 50%) for lambs reared under Treatments A and C than under Treatment B. Fertility and litter size of lambs were not influenced by the previous photoperiod history or by sexual maturity, i.e., puberal or prepuberal, at the start of the sponge treatment. However, strain, age and weight of lambs at breeding influenced significantly the reproductive outcome. PMID:16727011

  10. Aged boreal biomass-burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number-size distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellite) measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in northwestern Ontario. The composite median size distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter) and σ = 1.5, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.09-0.17 μg m-3 ppbv-1 (parts per billion by volume) with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA (organic aerosol) production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period (plume age: 1-2 days), though it does not preclude OA production/loss at earlier stages. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We

  11. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  13. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Tewodros Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-07-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  14. Age and gender based biomechanical shape and size analysis of the pediatric brain.

    PubMed

    Danelson, Kerry A; Geer, Carol P; Stitzel, Joel D; Slice, Dennis E; Takhounts, Erik G

    2008-11-01

    Injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of head injury and death for children in the United States. This study aims to describe the shape and size (morphologic) changes of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and ventricles of the pediatric occupant to better predict injury and assess how these changes affect finite element model (FEM) response. To quantify morphologic differences in the brain, a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) with a sliding landmark method was conducted to isolate morphologic changes using magnetic resonance images of 63 normal subjects. This type of geometric morphometric analysis was selected for its ability to identify homologous landmarks on structures with few true landmarks and isolate the shape and size of the individuals studied. From the resulting landmark coordinates, the shape and size changes were regressed against age to develop a model describing morphologic changes in the pediatric brain as a function of age. The most statistically significant shape change was in the cerebrum with p-values of 0.00346 for males and 0.00829 for females. The age-based model explains over 80% of the variation in size in the cerebrum. Using size and shape models, affine transformations were applied to the SIMon FEM to determine differences in response given differences in size and size plus shape. The geometric centroid of the elements exceeding 15% strain was calculated and compared to the geometric centroid of the entire structure. Given the same Haversine pulse, the centroid location, a metric for the spatial distribution of the elements exceeding an injury threshold, varied based on which transformation was applied to the model. To assess the overall response of the model, three injury metrics were examined to determine the magnitude of the metrics each element sustained and the overall volume of elements that experienced that value. These results suggested that the overall response of the model was driven by the

  15. Food discard practices of householders.

    PubMed

    Van Garde, S J; Woodburn, M J

    1987-03-01

    Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252

  16. Size and age-concentration relationships for perfluoroalkyl substances in stingray livers from eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Lai, Foon Yin; Townsend, Kathy; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-10-15

    While the literature has reported a widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine biota, very limited studies have been dedicated to the southern hemisphere. Hepatic concentrations of nine PFAAs were analysed in 49 stranded stingrays from eastern Australia using liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and relationships with biological parameters (i.e. body size, age and sex) were investigated. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were the predominant compounds quantified, with hepatic concentrations varying from 2 to 117 and from 0.2 to 19 ng·g(-1) w.w., respectively. A negative correlation between the concentration of PFASs in the livers of 32 blue-spotted stingrays and the body size/age was found. This relationship was independent of the animal's sex. We postulate that the dependence on body size is related to differing uptake kinetics of the chemicals, after the sting rays were exposed to an increased level of the contaminants in their environment. Such a pollution event could be related to a severe flood event that occurred at this location a few months before the samples' collection. Our results indicate that the influence of the body size/age should be taken into account when estimating bioaccumulation parameters from environmental measurements or exposure levels of biota to PFASs. PMID:25108254

  17. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  18. Into the twenty-first century with British households.

    PubMed

    Spicer, K; Diamond, I; Ni Bhrolchain, M

    1992-11-01

    "This paper takes [U.K.] General Household Survey (GHS) data at the micro level and ages these households by simulation to the year 2001. Differing scenarios are considered in order to accommodate high and low variants of each household type in the British household distribution." PMID:12157870

  19. Fast Airborne Size Distribution Measurements of an Aerosol Processes and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Zhou, J.; Brekhovskikh, V.; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S.

    2009-12-01

    During MILAGRO/INTEX experiment the Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research (HIGEAR) deployed a wide range of aerosol instrumentation aboard NSF C-130 and NASA DC-8. These were designed to provide rapid information on aerosol composition, state of mixing (internal or external), spectral optical properties (scattering and absorption), the humidity dependence of light scattering - f(RH), and the role of condensed species in changing the absorption properties of black carbon (BC) and inferred properties of organic carbon (OC). We also flew the Fast Mobility Particle Spectrometer (FMPS, TSI Inc.) to measure aerosol size distributions in a range 5.6 - 560 nm. For all our flights around Mexico City, an aerosol number concentration usually was well above the nominal FMPS sensitivity (from ~100 particles/cc @ Dp = 5.6 nm to 1 part/cc @ 560nm), providing us with reliable size distributions even at 1 sec resolution. FMPS measurements revealed small scale structure of an aerosol and allowed us to examine size distributions varying over space and time associated with mixing processes previously unresolved. These 1-Hz measurements during aircraft profiles captured variations in size distributions within shallow layers. Other dynamic processes observed included orography induced aerosol layers and evolution of the nanoparticles formed by nucleation. We put FMPS high resolution size distribution data in a context of aerosol evolution and aging, using a range of established (for MIRAGE/INTEX) chemical, aerosol and transport aging parameters.

  20. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Michel; Dumbleton, Kathryn; Theodoratos, Panagiotis; Gobbe, Marine; Wooley, C. Benjamin; Moody, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Pupil size is critical for optimal performance of presbyopic contact lenses. Although the effect of luminance is well known, little information is available regarding other contributing factors such as aging and refractive status. Methods The cohort population comprised 304 patients (127 male, 177 female) aged 18 to 78 years. Pupils were photographed at three controlled luminance levels 250, 50, and 2.5 cd/m2 using an infra-red macro video camera. Measurements of pupil diameter were conducted after transforming pixel values to linear values in millimeters. Results Luminance was the most influential factor with pupil diameter increasing with decreased luminance (p < 0.001, all comparisons). Age was also found to be a significant factor with a smaller diameter in the older groups, but overall the difference was only significant between the pre-presbyopes and the established presbyopes (p = 0.017). Pupil diameter decreased significantly with increasing age, the effect being most marked at low luminance (<0.001). The smallest pupil diameters were measured for hyperopes and the largest for myopes and although refractive error was not a significant factor alone, there was a significant interaction between luminance and refractive error with the greatest differences in pupil diameter between myopes and emmetropes at low luminance (p < 0.001). Pupil diameter changes modeled by multilinear regression (p < 0.001) identified age, luminance, best sphere refraction, and refractive error as significant factors accounting for just over 70% of the average variation in pupil diameter. Conclusions Both age and refractive status were found to affect pupil size with larger pupils measured for younger patients and myopes. Designs for multifocal contact lens corrections should take both age and refractive status into consideration; a faster progression from distance to near corrections across the optical zone of the lens is expected to be required for established

  1. Sex, Age, and Graft Size as Predictors of ACL Re-tear

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimum size required for a successful quadrupled hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction remains controversial. The risks of ACL re-tear in younger patients who tend to participate in a higher level of sports activity, and female athletes who have numerous predisposing factors, are poorly defined. Purpose: To identify risk factors for graft re-tears within 2 years of ACL surgery. The hypotheses are that female sex, a smaller size graft, and younger patients will increase the odds of failure. Study Design Cohort Study. Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A cohort of 503 athletes undergoing primary, autograft hamstring ACL reconstruction, performed by a single surgeon using the same surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol, between September-December 2012, was followed for a total duration of 2 years. Return to play was allowed between 6 and 12 months post-surgery upon completion of functional testing. Exclusion criteria included infections, revisions, double bundle techniques, multi-ligament injuries, non-compliance, BTB/allografts/hybrid grafts. Primary outcome consisted of binary data (ACL graft re-tear or no tear) as measured on physical exam (Lachman and pivot shift) and MRI. Multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis with model fitting was used to investigate the predictive value of sex, age, and graft size on ACL re-tear. Secondary sensitivity analyses were performed on the adolescent subgroup, age and graft size as categorical variables, and testing for interactions among variables. Sample size was calculated based on the rule of 10 events per independent variable for logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the 503 athletes was 27.5 (SD 10.6; range = 12-61). There were 235 females (47%) and 268 males (53%) with a 6% rate of re-tears (28 patients; 17 females). Mean graft size was 7.9 (SD 0.6; range = 6-10). Univariate analyses of graft size, sex, and age only in the model showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.86; 95

  2. The effects of socioeconomic parameters on household solid-waste generation and composition in developing countries (a case study: Ahvaz, Iran).

    PubMed

    Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Omrani, Ghasem Ali; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Raof, Farzaneh Fakheri

    2012-04-01

    Environment problems associated with the generation of waste are part of societal changes where households play an important role. These societal changes influence the size, structure and characteristic of given households. For the effective planning of solid-waste handling infrastructure, it is essential to know the quantity of waste generation and its composition. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in an urban municipal area in Iran to determine the household solid-waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socioeconomic parameters. The dependent variables were waste generation and composition, and independent variables were family size, family employment, age, number of room and education. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology and from five different socioeconomic groups. Waste collected from all groups of households were segregated and weighted. Waste generation rate was 5.4 kg/household/day. Household solid waste comprised of ten categories of wastes and with the largest component (76.9%). The generation and composition of household solid waste were correlated with family size, education level and households income. This paper adequately suggests new insights concerning the role of socioeconomic parameters in affecting the generation of household waste. PMID:21713501

  3. Can clade age alone explain the relationship between body size and diversity?

    PubMed

    Etienne, Rampal S; de Visser, Sara N; Janzen, Thijs; Olsen, Jeanine L; Olff, Han; Rosindell, James

    2012-04-01

    One of the most striking patterns observed among animals is that smaller-bodied taxa are generally much more diverse than larger-bodied taxa. This observation seems to be explained by the mere fact that smaller-bodied taxa tend to have an older evolutionary origin and have therefore had more time to diversify. A few studies, based on the prevailing null model of diversification (i.e. the stochastic constant-rate birth-death model), have suggested that this is indeed the correct explanation, and body-size dependence of speciation and extinction rates does not play a role. However, there are several potential shortcomings to these studies: a suboptimal statistical procedure and a relatively narrow range of body sizes in the analysed data. Here, we present a more coherent statistical approach, maximizing the likelihood of the constant-rate birth-death model with allometric scaling of speciation and extinction rates, given data on extant diversity, clade age and average body size in each clade. We applied our method to a dataset compiled from the literature that includes a wide range of Metazoan taxa (range from midges to elephants). We find that the higher diversity among small animals is indeed, partly, caused by higher clade age. However, it is also partly caused by the body-size dependence of speciation and extinction rates. We find that both the speciation rate and extinction rate decrease with body size such that the net diversification rate is close to 0. Even more interestingly, the allometric scaling exponent of speciation and extinction rates is approximately -0.25, which implies that the per generation speciation and extinction rates are independent of body size. This suggests that the observed relationship between diversity and body size pattern can be explained by clade age alone, but only if clade age is measured in generations rather than years. Thus, we argue that the most parsimonious explanation for the observation that smaller-bodied taxa are more

  4. When phenology matters: age-size truncation alters population response to trophic mismatch.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Thackeray, Stephen J; Winfield, Ian J; Maberly, Stephen C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2014-10-22

    Climate-induced shifts in the timing of life-history events are a worldwide phenomenon, and these shifts can de-synchronize species interactions such as predator-prey relationships. In order to understand the ecological implications of altered seasonality, we need to consider how shifts in phenology interact with other agents of environmental change such as exploitation and disease spread, which commonly act to erode the demographic structure of wild populations. Using long-term observational data on the phenology and dynamics of a model predator-prey system (fish and zooplankton in Windermere, UK), we show that age-size truncation of the predator population alters the consequences of phenological mismatch for offspring survival and population abundance. Specifically, age-size truncation reduces intraspecific density regulation due to competition and cannibalism, and thereby amplifies the population sensitivity to climate-induced predator-prey asynchrony, which increases variability in predator abundance. High population variability poses major ecological and economic challenges as it can diminish sustainable harvest rates and increase the risk of population collapse. Our results stress the importance of maintaining within-population age-size diversity in order to buffer populations against phenological asynchrony, and highlight the need to consider interactive effects of environmental impacts if we are to understand and project complex ecological outcomes. PMID:25165767

  5. The influence of persistent individual differences and age at maturity on effective population size

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aline Magdalena; Engen, Steinar; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Ratios of effective populations size, Ne, to census population size, N, are used as a measure of genetic drift in populations. Several life-history parameters have been shown to affect these ratios, including mating system and age at sexual maturation. Using a stochastic matrix model, we examine how different levels of persistent individual differences in mating success among males may affect Ne/N, and how this relates to generation time. Individual differences of this type are shown to cause a lower Ne/N ratio than would be expected when mating is independent among seasons. Examining the way in which age at maturity affects Ne/N, we find that both the direction and magnitude of the effect depends on the survival rate of juveniles in the population. In particular, when maturation is delayed, lowered juvenile survival causes higher levels of genetic drift. In addition, predicted shifts in Ne/N with changing age at maturity are shown to be dependent on which of the commonly used definitions of census population size, N, is employed. Our results demonstrate that patterns of mating success, as well as juvenile survival probabilities, have substantial effects on rates of genetic drift. PMID:21436183

  6. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Daniel J; Sofield, Ruth M; Ranville, James F; Hoff, Dale J; Wall, V Dan; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2015-07-01

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles before zinc exposures. These 96-h exposures used flow-through conditions and four chronological ages of fish with weights ranging from 0.148 to 1.432 g. Time-to-death (TTD) data were collected throughout the exposure along with the final mortality. The results indicate that chronological age does not play a predictable role in zinc tolerance for juvenile brown trout. However, a relationship between zinc tolerance and fish size was observed in all chronological age populations, which prompted us to conduct additional exploratory data analysis to quantify how much of an effect size had during this stage of development. The smallest fish (0.148-0.423 g) were shown to be less sensitive than the largest fish (0.639-1.432 g) with LC50 values of 868 and 354 µg Zn/L, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier product estimation method was used to determine survival functions from the TTD data and supports the LC50 results with a greater median TTD for smaller fish than larger juvenile fish. These results indicate that fish size or a related characteristic may be a significant determinant of susceptibility and should be considered in acute zinc toxicity tests with specific attention paid to the expected exposure scenario in the field. PMID:25822313

  7. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  8. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care. PMID:26803373

  9. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3) and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5), irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI) within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009) included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years). Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms) associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%): 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38). In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8). In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5) and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3)) and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5)). Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years) and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years) and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only one

  10. How do animals optimize the size-number trade-off when aging? Insights from reproductive senescence patterns in marmots.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-françois; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of female age on five reproductive traits and on the offspring size-number trade-off from an extensive data set spanning 20 years of study on free-ranging Alpine marmots. Offspring mass increased with female age, whereas litter size and reproductive allocation remained constant in females up to 10 years of age and declined thereafter. Although reproductive allocation declined, post-weaning juvenile survival and the size-number trade-off did not change markedly throughout a female's lifetime. Senescence of annual reproductive success (i.e., the number of offspring surviving their first hibernation within a given litter) only resulted from senescence of litter size. The data were insufficient to determine whether the decrease in litter size with age was caused by declining litter size at birth, offspring pre-weaning survival, or both. Regardless, our findings demonstrate that marmot females display a size-number trade-off invariant with age, and that their reproductive tactic involves increasing offspring size at the cost of decreasing litter size with increasing age. As a result, reproductive performance remains constant throughout a female's lifetime, despite the deleterious effects of senescence in litter size. PMID:26236889

  11. Size-Resolved Volatility and Chemical Composition of Aged European Aerosol Measured During FAME-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, L.; Mohr, C.; Lee, B.; Engelhart, G. J.; Decarlo, P. F.; Prevot, A. S.; Baltensperger, U.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    We present first results on the volatility and chemical composition of aged organic aerosol measured during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008 (FAME-2008). Finokalia is located in the Southeast of Crete, Greece, and this remote site allows for the measurement of aged European aerosol as it is transported from Central to Southeastern Europe. We measured the volatility of the aerosol at Finokalia as a function of its size by combining several instruments. We used an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of the particles, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to measure the volume distribution of particles, and a thermodenuder system to induce changes in size and composition via moderate heating of the particles. The largest fraction of the non-refractory material in the aerosol sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organic material and a small contribution from nitrate. Most of the organic aerosol was highly oxidized, even after only a few days of transport over continental Europe. These highly oxidized organics had lower volatility than fresh primary or secondary aerosol measured in the laboratory. Significant changes in air-parcel trajectories and wind direction led to changes in the chemical composition of the sampled aerosol and corresponding changes of the volatility. These results allow the quantification of the effect of atmospheric processing on organic aerosol volatility and can be used as constraints for atmospheric Chemical Transport Models that predict the aerosol volatility.

  12. Quantifying six decades of fishery selection for size and age at maturity in sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Neala W; Hard, Jeffrey J; Quinn, Thomas P

    2009-11-01

    Life history traits of wild animals can be strongly influenced, both phenotypically and evolutionarily, by hunting and fishing. However, few studies have quantified fishery selection over long time periods. We used 57 years of catch and escapement data to document the magnitude of and trends in gillnet selection on age and size at maturity of a commercially and biologically important sockeye salmon stock. Overall, the fishery has caught larger fish than have escaped to spawn, but selection has varied over time, becoming weaker and less consistent recently. Selection patterns were strongly affected by fish age and sex, in addition to extrinsic factors including fish abundance, mesh size regulations, and fish length variability. These results revealed a more complex and changing pattern of selective harvest than the 'larger is more vulnerable' model, emphasizing the need for quantified, multi-year studies before conclusions can be drawn about potential evolutionary and ecological effects of fishery selection. Furthermore, the results indicate that biologically robust escapement goals and prevention of harvest of the largest individuals may help prevent negative effects of size-selective harvest. PMID:25567896

  13. Modifiable factors that alter the size of the hippocampus with ageing.

    PubMed

    Fotuhi, Majid; Do, David; Jack, Clifford

    2012-04-01

    The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypoxic brain injury, obstructive sleep apnoea, bipolar disorder, clinical depression and head trauma. Patients with these conditions often have smaller hippocampi and experience a greater degree of cognitive decline than individuals without these comorbidities. Moreover, hippocampal atrophy is an established indicator for conversion from the normal ageing process to developing mild cognitive impairment and dementia. As such, an important aim is to ascertain which modifiable factors can have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus throughout life. Observational studies and preliminary clinical trials have raised the possibility that physical exercise, cognitive stimulation and treatment of general medical conditions can reverse age-related atrophy in the hippocampus, or even expand its size. An emerging concept--the dynamic polygon hypothesis--suggests that treatment of modifiable risk factors can increase the volume or prevent atrophy of the hippocampus. According to this hypothesis, a multidisciplinary approach, which involves strategies to both reduce neurotoxicity and increase neurogenesis, is likely to be successful in delaying the onset of cognitive impairment with ageing. Further research on the constellation of interventions that could be most effective is needed before recommendations can be made for implementing preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22410582

  14. Size separation method for absorption characterization in brown carbon: Application to an aged biomass burning sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Robert A.; Young, Cora J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols is derived from biomass burning (BB) and is primarily composed of extremely low volatility organic carbons. We use two chromatographic methods to compare the contribution of large and small light-absorbing BrC components in aged BB aerosols with UV-vis absorbance detection: (1) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and (2) reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We observe no evidence of small molecule absorbers. Most BrC absorption arises from large molecular weight components (>1000 amu). This suggests that although small molecules may contribute to BrC absorption near the BB source, analyses of aerosol extracts should use methods selective to large molecular weight compounds because these species may be responsible for long-term BrC absorption. Further characterization with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to SEC demonstrates an underestimation of the molecular size determined through MS as compared to SEC.

  15. Effect of set size, age, and mode of stimulus presentation on information-processing speed.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    First, second, and third grade pupils served as subjects in an experiment designed to show the effect of age, mode of stimulus presentation, and information value on recognition time. Stimuli were presented in picture and printed word form and in groups of 2, 4, and 8. The results of the study indicate that first graders are slower than second and third graders who are nearly equal. There is a gross shift in reaction time as a function of mode of stimulus presentation with increase in age. The first graders take much longer to identify words than pictures, while the reverse is true of the older groups. With regard to set size, a slope appears in the pictures condition in the older groups, while for first graders, a large slope occurs in the words condition and only a much smaller one for pictures.

  16. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  17. Tactile Spatial Acuity in Childhood: Effects of Age and Fingertip Size

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ryan M.; Goldreich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Tactile acuity is known to decline with age in adults, possibly as the result of receptor loss, but less is understood about how tactile acuity changes during childhood. Previous research from our laboratory has shown that fingertip size influences tactile spatial acuity in young adults: those with larger fingers tend to have poorer acuity, possibly because mechanoreceptors are more sparsely distributed in larger fingers. We hypothesized that a similar relationship would hold among children. If so, children’s tactile spatial acuity might be expected to worsen as their fingertips grow. However, concomitant CNS maturation might result in more efficient perceptual processing, counteracting the effect of fingertip growth on tactile acuity. To investigate, we conducted a cross-sectional study, testing 116 participants ranging in age from 6 to 16 years on a precision-controlled tactile grating orientation task. We measured each participant's grating orientation threshold on the dominant index finger, along with physical properties of the fingertip: surface area, volume, sweat pore spacing, and temperature. We found that, as in adults, children with larger fingertips (at a given age) had significantly poorer acuity, yet paradoxically acuity did not worsen significantly with age. We propose that finger growth during development results in a gradual decline in innervation density as receptive fields reposition to cover an expanding skin surface. At the same time, central maturation presumably enhances perceptual processing. PMID:24454612

  18. Effect of breed, age, weight and gender on radiographic renal size in the dog.

    PubMed

    Lobacz, Monika Anna; Sullivan, Martin; Mellor, Dominic; Hammond, Gawain; Labruyère, Julien; Dennis, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In the adult dog, kidney length has been reported as 2.98 ± 0.44 times the length of L2 on ventrodorsal views and 2.79 ± 0.46 times the length of L2 on lateral radiographs. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the suggested maximum normal left kidney size is too high, and to evaluate the effect of breed type, gender, weight and age of the dog on kidney size. Abdominal radiographs of 200 dogs with no evidence of concurrent disease that might have an effect on renal size were included in the study. The mean ratio of kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra length was similar to previous reports. For the right lateral view it measured 2.98 ± 0.60 and for the ventrodorsal view 3.02 ± 0.66. Significant differences of this ratio between skull type were present, especially between brachycephalic and dolichocephalic dogs. On the right lateral view brachycephalic dogs had the highest median LK/L2 ratio of 3.1 (3.20 ± 0.40), whereas for dolichocephalic dogs it was 2.8 (2.82 ± 0.50), and for mesaticephalic dogs it was 2.97 (3.01 ± 0.6). A ratio >3.5 was found only in mesaticephalic dogs on the ventrodorsal view. There was a significant difference in the LK/L2 ratio between small (≤10kg) and large breed dogs (>30kg) where small dogs had a significantly higher LK/L2 ratio. There was no statistically significant relation between this ratio and age or gender. The previously reported ratios for kidney size seem valid, but because skull type has an impact on the LK/L2 ratio, a single normal ratio should not be used for all dogs. PMID:22537277

  19. Morphometric analysis of nonsclerosed Glomeruli size and connective tissue content during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Vesna R; Jovanović, Ivan D; Ugrenović, Sladjana Z; Vasović, Ljiljana P; Živković, Vladimir S; Jocić, Miodrag V; Kundalić, Braca K; Pavlović, Miljana N

    2012-01-01

    Number of sclerotic glomeruli increases during the aging process. Consequently, majority of remained nonsclerosed glomeruli become hypertrophic and some of them sclerotic, too. The aim of this study was to quantify the size and connective tissue content of nonsclerosed glomeruli and to evaluate the percentage of hypertrophic ones in examined human cases during the aging. Material was right kidney's tissue of 30 cadavers obtained during routine autopsies. Cadavers were without previously diagnosed kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, or any other systemic disease. Tissue specimens were routinely prepared for histological and morphometric analysis. Images of the histological slices were analyzed and captured under 400x magnification with digital camera. Further they were morphometrically and statistically analyzed with ImageJ and NCSS-PASS software. Multiple and linear regression of obtained morphometric parameters showed significant increase of glomerular connective tissue area and percentage. Cluster analysis showed the presence of two types of glomeruli. Second type was characterized with significantly larger size, connective tissue content, and significantly lower cellularity, in relation to the first type. Such glomeruli might be considered as hypertrophic. First type of glomeruli was predominant in younger cases, while second type of glomeruli was predominant in cases older than 55 years. PMID:22654637

  20. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  1. Estimating Age Ratios and Size of Pacific Walrus Herds on Coastal Haulouts using Video Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Daniel H.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010–2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m2 (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03–0.06) and we documented ∼30,000 animals along ∼1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0–2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species. PMID:23936106

  2. Estimating age ratios and size of Pacific walrus herds on coastal haulouts using video imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010–2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m2 (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03–0.06) and we documented ~30,000 animals along ~1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0–2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species.

  3. Estimating age ratios and size of pacific walrus herds on coastal haulouts using video imaging.

    PubMed

    Monson, Daniel H; Udevitz, Mark S; Jay, Chadwick V

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010-2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m(2) (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03-0.06) and we documented ∼30,000 animals along ∼1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0-2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species. PMID:23936106

  4. A Household-Based Study of Contact Networks Relevant for the Spread of Infectious Diseases in the Highlands of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva, Carlos G.; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Verastegui, Hector; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Hens, Niel

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have quantified social mixing in remote rural areas of developing countries, where the burden of infectious diseases is usually the highest. Understanding social mixing patterns in those settings is crucial to inform the implementation of strategies for disease prevention and control. We characterized contact and social mixing patterns in rural communities of the Peruvian highlands. Methods and Findings This cross-sectional study was nested in a large prospective household-based study of respiratory infections conducted in the province of San Marcos, Cajamarca-Peru. Members of study households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire of social contacts (conversation or physical interaction) experienced during the last 24 hours. We identified 9015 reported contacts from 588 study household members. The median age of respondents was 17 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4–34 years). The median number of reported contacts was 12 (IQR 8–20) whereas the median number of physical (i.e. skin-to-skin) contacts was 8.5 (IQR 5–14). Study participants had contacts mostly with people of similar age, and with their offspring or parents. The number of reported contacts was mainly determined by the participants’ age, household size and occupation. School-aged children had more contacts than other age groups. Within-household reciprocity of contacts reporting declined with household size (range 70%-100%). Ninety percent of household contact networks were complete, and furthermore, household members' contacts with non-household members showed significant overlap (range 33%-86%), indicating a high degree of contact clustering. A two-level mixing epidemic model was simulated to compare within-household mixing based on observed contact networks and within-household random mixing. No differences in the size or duration of the simulated epidemics were revealed. Conclusion This study of rural low-density communities in the highlands of Peru suggests

  5. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  6. Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1992-10-01

    A Brazilian household survey, ENDEF, in 1974-75 and the 1974 Informacoes Basicas Municipais (IBM) provided data for the analysis of the impact of community services and infrastructure and household characteristics on the logarithm of child height, standardized for age and gender. The sample was comprised of 36,974 children stratified by residential location, the child's age, and the educational level of the mother. Variance and covariance matrices were estimated with the jackknife developed by Efron (1982). Household characteristics included the logarithm of per capita expenditure as a measure of household resource availability, income, and parental education. Community characteristics were local market price indices for 6 food groups (dairy products, beans, cereals, meat, fish, and sugar), level of urbanization, buildings with sewage, water, and electricity connections per capita, per capita number of buildings, and population density. Health services were measured as per capita number of hospitals and clinics and doctors and nurses, and the number of beds are hospital. Educational services include a measure of student teacher ratios, elementary school class size, and per capita number of teachers living in the community. the results show that expenditure had a positive, significant effect on the height of children 2 years and older. Expenditure was a significant determinant for literate and illiterate mothers, and not well educated mothers. The impact of maternal education was largest on the length of babies and declined with the age of the child. Father's education had not impact of length of babies. The effect of parents' education was complementary. The effect of father's education was largest when mothers had some education. Better educated parents had healthier children. Maternal rather than paternal height had an impact of the length of a baby. In the community models, prices had a significant effect on child height, in both urban and rural areas, in all

  7. Guidelines for assessing the biofidelity of side impact dummies of various sizes and ages.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Annette L; Mertz, Harold J; Elhagediab, Ali M; Moss, Steve

    2002-11-01

    The Human Mechanical Simulation Subcommittee of the Human Biomechanics and Simulation Standards Committee of the Society of Automotive Engineers took on the task of defining test procedures and associated response guidelines to be used to assess the level of biofidelity of side impact dummies that are being developed. This paper describes the results of their efforts. Guidelines are provided for assessing the levels of biofidelity of dummies that represent 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants, 3-, 6-, and 10-year-old children, and of dummies that represent a small female, midsize male and large male adults. These guidelines were developed by normalizing the side impact biofidelity guidelines that were established by the International Standards Organization for the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the midsize adult male. The ISO guidelines can be used to define biofidelity guidelines for any size or age of dummy provided pertinent geometric, inertial and tissue properties are specified. PMID:17096231

  8. Age-related ransparent root dentin: mineral concentration,crystallite size and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, John H.; Nalla, Ravi K.; Pople, John A.; Breunig, Tom M.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2004-12-29

    Many fractures occur in teeth that have been altered, forexample restored or endodontically repaired. It is therefore essential toevaluate the structure and mechanical properties of these altereddentins. One such altered form of dentin is transparent (sometimes calledsclerotic) dentin, which forms gradually with aging. The present studyfocuses on differences in the structure and mechanical properties ofnormal versus transparent dentin. The mineral concentration, as measuredby X-ray computed microtomography, was signifcantly higher in transparentdentin, the elevated concentration being consistent with the closure ofthe tubule lumens. Crystallite size, as measured by small angle X-rayscattering, was slightly smaller in transparent dentin, although theimportance of this ending requires further study. The elastic propertieswere unchanged by transparency; however, transparent dentin, unlikenormal dentin, exhibited almost no yielding before failure. In addition,the fracture toughness was lowered by roughly 20 percent while thefatigue lifetime was deleteriously affected at high stress levels. Theseresults are discussed in terms of the altered microstructure oftransparent dentin.

  9. Nutritional outcomes related to household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ihabi, A N; Rohana, A J; Wan Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N; Zalilah, M S; Rusli, A Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    During the past two decades, the rates of food insecurity and obesity have risen. Although a relationship between these two seemingly-paradoxical states has not been repeatedly seen in men, research suggests that a correlation between them exists in women. This study examines nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted, and 223 households with mothers aged 18-55 years, who were non-lactating, non-pregnant, and had at least one child aged 2-12 years, were purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered that included the Radimer/Cornell Scale, items about sociodemographic characteristics, and anthropometric measurements. Of the households, 16.1% were food-secure whereas 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity: 29.6% of households were food-insecure, 19.3% contained individuals who were food-insecure, and 35.0% fell into the 'child hunger' category. The result reported that household-size, total monthly income, income per capita, and food expenditure were significant risk factors of household food insecurity. Although there was a high prevalence of overweight and obese mothers (52%) and 47.1% had at-risk waist-circumference (> or = 80 cm), no significant association was found between food insecurity, body mass index, and waist-circumference. In conclusion, the rates of household food insecurity and overweight and obesity were high in the study population, although they are looking paradoxical. Longitudinal studies with larger sample-sizes are recommended to further examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. PMID:24592589

  10. DNA aptamer raised against advanced glycation end products (AGEs) improves glycemic control and decreases adipocyte size in fructose-fed rats by suppressing AGE-RAGE axis.

    PubMed

    Ojima, A; Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Higashimoto, Y; Ueda, S; Fukami, K; Okuda, S; Yamagishi, S

    2015-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) decrease adiponectin expression and suppress insulin signaling in cultured adipocytes through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) via oxidative stress generation. We have recently found that high-affinity DNA aptamer directed against AGE (AGE-aptamer) prevents the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy by blocking the harmful actions of AGEs in the kidney. This study examined the effects of AGE-aptamer on adipocyte remodeling, AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis, and adiponectin expression in fructose-fed rats. Although AGE-aptamer treatment by an osmotic mini pump for 8 weeks did not affect serum insulin levels, it significantly decreased average fasting blood glucose and had a tendency to inhibit body weight gain in fructose-fed rats. Furthermore, AGE-aptamer significantly suppressed the increase in adipocyte size and prevented the elevation in AGEs, RAGE, and an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), levels in adipose tissues of fructose-fed rats at 14-week-old, while it restored the decrease in adiponectin mRNA levels. Our present study suggests that AGE-aptamer could improve glycemic control and prevent adipocyte remodeling in fructose-fed rats partly by suppressing the AGE-RAGE-mediated oxidative stress generation. AGE-aptamer might be a novel therapeutic strategy for fructose-induced metabolic derangements. PMID:25105541

  11. Household economy and population survey on a large agriculture-oriented county.

    PubMed

    He, C; Chen, C

    1995-01-01

    In this article household socioeconomic characteristics and standard of living are described for agricultural workers in Renshou County of Sichuan Province in western rural China. Data are obtained for the population in the county, and more detailed data are available among a sample of 215 households (743 persons) in 1993 in Anlin Village in Jinshun Township of Longzheng District. Anlin village is one of 1103 villages in the county. Family size declined during 1990-93 by 0.4 persons. 25.1% of households in Anlin Village had elderly members. 6.68% of elderly lived alone, and 8.22% lived in 2-person families. Over 60% lived in 3 or more generation households, and 27.4% lived in nuclear households. There were no homes for the aged in Anlin Village. All households were family, rather than collective, households. 8.04% of household heads were women. Total village population was 1110 persons. The sex ratio was normal. The village population aged under 15 years was lower, and the working age population was higher than the respective township populations. Marriages were stable and early marriage was not a problem. During 1990-93 the proportion with a junior high or more education increased as did the proportion illiterate or semi-literate. The working age population from rural statistics reports numbered 477 persons, of whom 92.9% were engaged in farming, animal farming, and fishing. 5.9% worked in non-agricultural jobs. 4.8% worked outside the area. The survey found a higher number of working age population than the 1993 annual report of rural statistics. Each person averaged 6.67 acres of arable land, and one in seven households owned cattle. Most households had electricity and bicycles. 56% had television sets. The average income was 1089.47 RMB yuan per person. In 1993, most women had one child and hoped to have a second one. Although regulations permitted only one child, most desired two and still relied on family support for the elderly. Renshou County is shifting

  12. Coaches' implicit associations between size and giftedness: implications for the relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-established phenomenon in education and sports. Coaches have been assumed to be important social agents of RAE via biased selection decisions in favour of children with maturation advantages. In the present research, we used the Implicit Association Test to investigate automatic associations between body size and a player's domain-specific giftedness amongst youth baseball (N = 18) and youth soccer coaches (N = 34). We found medium to strong automatic associations between body size and player giftedness (baseball: MD = 0.62; soccer: MD = 0.51). Specifically, taller players were associated with positive performance-related attributes, whereas smaller players were associated with negative attributes. The results are in line with theories of grounded cognition by showing that the abstract concept of "sport giftedness" is partly grounded in the perception of physical height amongst youth sports coaches. We argue that this grounded cognition has the potential to influence coaches' selection decisions and in turn account for RAE as coaches are biased towards physically more matured players, even when no apparent performance advantage is evident. PMID:26096053

  13. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  14. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6-10 years.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  15. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = −4.69, CI: −7.31, −2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  16. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  17. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzano, D.; Hwang, K.; Catalano, P.; Aster, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 . 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets . 7.57 mu3, LD platelets . 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  18. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Luck, Gary W

    2003-01-30

    Human population size and growth rate are often considered important drivers of biodiversity loss, whereas household dynamics are usually neglected. Aggregate demographic statistics may mask substantial changes in the size and number of households, and their effects on biodiversity. Household dynamics influence per capita consumption and thus biodiversity through, for example, consumption of wood for fuel, habitat alteration for home building and associated activities, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we report that growth in household numbers globally, and particularly in countries with biodiversity hotspots (areas rich in endemic species and threatened by human activities), was more rapid than aggregate population growth between 1985 and 2000. Even when population size declined, the number of households increased substantially. Had the average household size (that is, the number of occupants) remained static, there would have been 155 million fewer households in hotspot countries in 2000. Reduction in average household size alone will add a projected 233 million additional households to hotspot countries during the period 2000-15. Rapid increase in household numbers, often manifested as urban sprawl, and resultant higher per capita resource consumption in smaller households pose serious challenges to biodiversity conservation. PMID:12540852

  19. Household strategies to cope with the economic costs of illness.

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, R; Adams, A; Hien, M

    1996-08-01

    The authors examine the strategies rural households in Burkina Faso used to cope with the costs of illness in order to avert negative effects for household production and assets. They use information from 51 qualitative interviews, a household time allocation study and a household survey. Both surveys use the same sample of n = 566 households. The authors analyze these strategies along four dimensions: the type of behavior, the sequence in which strategies employed, the level at which strategies are negotiated, i.e. the household level, the non-household extended kin level or the community level, and finally the success of strategies in protecting household production and assets. A taxonomy of 11 distinct types of coping behavior is developed which have the effect of either avoiding costs by 'ignoring' disease, or of minimizing the impact of costs on the household once illness is perceived. Intra-household labor substitution was the main strategy to compensate for any labor lost to illness. However, labor substitution did not eliminate production losses in the majority of households struck with severe illness of a productive member. Only wealthy household were able to fully compensate labor losses by hiring labor or by investing in equipment to enhance productivity. Sales of livestock was the main strategy to cope with the financial costs of health care. None of the households studied fell into calamity. However, the households' ability to avert the loss of production and/or assets was very varied and depended on household size, composition and assets, on the type and duration of illness and on clustering of crises (e.g. several repetitive or simultaneous illnesses or concurrent seasonal stress). Coping with the costs of illness largely occurred at the level of the household. Inter-household transfers of resources played only a small role. The authors develop the concept of risk households and suggest several policies with the potential to strengthen the ability of

  20. Age and growth of the mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, with a review of the size and age of sex change among epinephelids.

    PubMed

    Marques, S; Ferreira, B P

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents results on the age, growth and population structure of a small grouper, the mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and discusses the observed size and age structure patterns in relation to reproductive strategies among the epinephelids. Ages were determined by examination of sectioned otoliths, which showed a distinct pattern of alternating translucent and opaque zones that formed annually, as validated with tetracycline labelling. The von Bertalanffy growth function was adjusted to the length-at-age data of the males and females, but no significant differences were observed between the resulting parameters. The females, however, were older at given sizes and attained larger sizes and ages, with a maximum observed longevity of 13 years and a total length (LT ) of 26 cm, while the males attained maximum longevities of only 10 years and a 22 cm maximum LT . The LT and age range for the sex change was 16-25 cm and 3-11 years. The total mortality rate (Z) was estimated to be 0·55 for females and 0·82 for males. With the males younger and smaller than the females, this species differed from the pattern commonly observed for protogynous epinephelids. Males had slower growth after maturation, probably due to energy allocation to sperm production during sexual development. This study shows that demography is an important tool to understand the pathways for reproductive strategies in grouper populations. PMID:27073155

  1. Recovery of Aging-Related Size Increase of Skin Epithelial Cells: In vivo Mouse and In vitro Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor; Guz, Natali V.; Iyer, Swaminathan; Hewitt, Amy; Sokolov, Nina A.; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Woodworth, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left midsection for 140 days (the right side served as control for placebo treatment). An average decrease in cell size of 56±16% resulted. A reduction of cell size was also observed on primary human skin epithelial cells of different in vitro age (passages from 1 to 8). A cell strain obtained from a pool of 6 human subjects was treated with cytochalasin B in vitro for 12 hours. We observed a decrease in cell size that became statistically significant and reached 20–40% for cells of older passage (6–8 passages) whereas no substantial change was observed for younger cells. These results may be important for understanding the aging processes, and for cosmetic treatment of aging skin. PMID:25807526

  2. Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: Age-size statistics and species lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-08-01

    Neutral dynamics, where taxa are assumed to be demographically equivalent and their abundance is governed solely by the stochasticity of the underlying birth-death process, has proved itself as an important minimal model that accounts for many empirical datasets in genetics and ecology. However, the restriction of the model to demographic [O (√{N }) ] noise yields relatively slow dynamics that appears to be in conflict with both short-term and long-term characteristics of the observed systems. Here we analyze two of these problems—age-size relationships and species extinction time—in the framework of a neutral theory with both demographic and environmental stochasticity. It turns out that environmentally induced variations of the demographic rates control the long-term dynamics and modify dramatically the predictions of the neutral theory with demographic noise only, yielding much better agreement with empirical data. We consider two prototypes of "zero mean" environmental noise, one which is balanced with regard to the arithmetic abundance, another balanced in the logarithmic (fitness) space, study their species lifetime statistics, and discuss their relevance to realistic models of community dynamics.

  3. Exercise in youth: High bone mass, large bone size, and low fracture risk in old age.

    PubMed

    Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures. PMID:25109568

  4. Crater size-frequency distribution measurements and age of the Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, K. A.; Zanetti, M.; Jolliff, B.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC) is a 25 × 35 km feature on the lunar farside marked by elevated topography, high albedo, high thorium concentration, and high silica content. Morphologies indicate that the complex is volcanic in origin and compositions indicate that it represents rare silicic volcanism on the Moon. Constraining the timing of silicic volcanism at the complex is necessary to better understand the development of evolved magmas and when they were active on the lunar surface. We employ image analysis and crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements on several locations within the complex and at surrounding impact craters, Hayn (87 km diameter), and Compton (160 km diameter), to determine relative and absolute model ages of regional events. Using CSFD measurements, we establish a chronology dating regional resurfacing events and the earliest possible onset of CBVC volcanism at ∼3.8 Ga, the formation of Compton Crater at 3.6 Ga, likely resurfacing by volcanism at the CBVC at ∼3.5 Ga, and the formation of Hayn Crater at ∼1 Ga. For the CBVC, we find the most consistent results are obtained using craters larger than 300 m in diameter; the small crater population is affected by their approach to an equilibrium condition and by the physical properties of regolith at the CBVC.

  5. Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: Age-size statistics and species lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-08-01

    Neutral dynamics, where taxa are assumed to be demographically equivalent and their abundance is governed solely by the stochasticity of the underlying birth-death process, has proved itself as an important minimal model that accounts for many empirical datasets in genetics and ecology. However, the restriction of the model to demographic [O√N)] noise yields relatively slow dynamics that appears to be in conflict with both short-term and long-term characteristics of the observed systems. Here we analyze two of these problems--age-size relationships and species extinction time--in the framework of a neutral theory with both demographic and environmental stochasticity. It turns out that environmentally induced variations of the demographic rates control the long-term dynamics and modify dramatically the predictions of the neutral theory with demographic noise only, yielding much better agreement with empirical data. We consider two prototypes of "zero mean" environmental noise, one which is balanced with regard to the arithmetic abundance, another balanced in the logarithmic (fitness) space, study their species lifetime statistics, and discuss their relevance to realistic models of community dynamics. PMID:26382447

  6. Household characteristics and influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Denise P C; Wong, Ngai Sze; Wong, Eliza L Y; Cheung, Annie W L; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people are at higher risk of influenza diseases. The morbidity benefit of vaccination is often offset by its low and variable coverage in elderly people in the community. To assess household and individual factors associated with influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly of age ≥ 65, data from a cross-sectional Thematic Household Survey conducted in 2011/12 in Hong Kong were analysed, using vaccination in the past 12 months as the outcome variable. Households comprising an elderly person living with non-elderly member(s) of age ≤ 64 were also evaluated. Data fields included socio-demographics, household structures, health status, eligibility to financial subsidy, and subscription to health insurance. The influenza vaccination rate was 27% in 4204 elderly persons from 3224 households. Being male, being economically active, attaining primary education, having smoking behaviours were negatively associated with vaccination, while chronic illness and age ≥ 70 were positively associated factors. Elderly people living alone gave a variable rate of vaccination ranging from 16.4% in males of age 65-69 to 36.3% in females ≥ 70. Household size per se was not associated with vaccination, but a positive correlation could be seen if the household was composed of vaccinated non-elderly member(s). Influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly is dependent on both individual and household characteristics, the latter including the influence of vaccinated non-elderly member(s). The low vaccination coverage of "younger" (age 65-69) elderly men living alone is particularly worrisome. Interventions focusing on vulnerable elderly people and their social networks would be desirable. PMID:26844153

  7. Cytokine production and mRNA expression in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their household contacts of younger age group (15-25years).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Lavanya; Ponnana, Meenakshi; Sivangala, Ramya; Chelluri, Lakshmi Kiran; Nallari, Pratibha; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Gaddam, Sumanlatha

    2016-05-01

    Household contacts of tuberculosis patients are at high risk of infection and development of active disease. In this study we evaluated the cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10&IL-6 stimulated with r32kDa M. bovis BCGAg in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients (APTB), household contacts (HHC) and healthy controls (HC). The results showed the stimulated levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were low while IL-10 levels were high in APTB and HHC compared to HC. IL-6 has not shown any significant difference. The mRNA expression of TNF- α was 8 fold high in HCs compared to APTB and HHC. The IL-6 expression was 2.2 fold &1 fold less in APTB and HHC compared to HCs. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that the stimulated levels of IFN-γ & IL-6 and sex significantly predicted the HHC group from HCs at p<0.05.In conclusion further follow up studies with r32kd antigen might help to identify the high risk individuals. PMID:26876300

  8. The likelihood of being affected with Huntington disease by a particular age, for a specific CAG size.

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, R R; Mezei, M M; Theilmann, J; Almqvist, E; Hayden, M R

    1997-01-01

    Prior studies describing the relationship between CAG size and the age at onset of Huntington disease (HD) have focused on affected persons. To further define the relationship between CAG repeat size and age at onset of HD, we now have analyzed a large cohort of affected and asymptomatic at-risk persons with CAG expansion. This cohort numbered 1,049 persons, including 321 at-risk and 728 affected individuals with a CAG size of 29-121 repeats. Kaplan-Meier analysis has provided curves for determining the likelihood of onset at a given age, for each CAG repeat length in the 39-50 range. The curves were significantly different (P < .0005), with relatively narrow 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) (+/-10%). Penetrance of the mutation for HD also was examined. Although complete penetrance of HD was observed for CAG sizes of > or = 42, only a proportion of those with a CAG repeat length of 36-41 showed signs or symptoms of HD within a normal life span. These data provide information concerning the likelihood of being affected, by a specific age, with a particular CAG size, and they may be useful in predictive-testing programs and for the design of clinical trials for persons at increased risk for HD. PMID:9150168

  9. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. PMID:26728747

  10. Diet Diversity in Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Households in Ugandan Rangeland Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mayanja, Maureen; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Morton, John; Young, Stephen; Greiner, Ted

    2015-01-01

    We explore how diet diversity differs with agricultural seasons and between households within pastoral and agro-pastoral livelihood systems, using variety of foods consumed as a less complex proxy indicator of food insecurity than benchmark indicators like anthropometry and serum nutrients. The study was in the central part of the rangelands in Uganda. Seventy nine households were monitored for three seasons, and eight food groups consumed during a 24 hour diet recall period used to create a household diet diversity score (HDDS). Mean HDDS was 3.2, varied significantly with gender, age, livelihood system and season (p<.001, F=15.04), but not with household size or household head's education level. Agro-pastoralists exhibited lower mean diet diversity than pastoralists (p<.01, F=7.84) and among agro-pastoralists, households headed by persons over 65 years were most vulnerable (mean HDDS 2.1). This exploratory study raises issues requiring further investigation to inform policies on nutrition security in the two communities. PMID:26084040

  11. Bioaccessibility of environmentally aged 14C-atrazine residues in an agriculturally used soil and its particle-size aggregates.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Modler, Janette; Schaeffer, Andreas; Burauel, Peter

    2008-08-15

    After 22 years of aging under natural conditions in an outdoor lysimeter the bioaccessibility of 14C-labeled atrazine soil residues to bacteria was tested. Entire soil samples as well as sand-sized, silt-sized, and clay-sized aggregates (>20, 20-2, and <2microm aggregate size, respectively) were investigated under slurried conditions. The mineralization of residual radioactivity in the outdoor lysimeter soil reached up to 4.5% of the total 14C-activity after 16 days, inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. The control samples without inoculated bacteria showed a mineralization maximum of only about 1% after 44 days of incubation. Mineralization increased in the clay-sized aggregates up to 6.2% of the total residual 14C-activity within 23 days. With decreasing soil aggregate sizes, residual 14C-activity increased per unit of weight, but only minor differences of the mineralization in the soil and soil size aggregates using mineral-media for incubation was observed. Using additional Na-citrate in the incubation, the extent of mineralization increased to 6.7% in soil after 23 days following incubation with Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. These results show that long-term aged 14C-atrazine residues are still partly accessible to the atrazine degrading microorganism Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. PMID:18767643

  12. Pyroclasts Key to Age and Use of Meter-Size Granite Basins, Sierra Nevada, CA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. G.; Gorden, M. A.; Sisson, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    More than 1000 meter-size granite basins at more than 220 sites occur in a 240-km-long belt from Lake Isabella north to the San Joaquin River on the west slope of the southern Sierra Nevada. The circular basins are carved in granitic outcrops at an average elevation of 1950 m. They range in volume from 40 to 1400 liters, median 130 liters. The basins display features compatible with a man-made origin, but required enormous, sustained labor to excavate. Until now their apparent purpose was believed to be some aspect of food preparation (Moore, Gorden, Robinson, Moring, 2008). About 120 km north of this belt a separate cluster of more than 350 similar granite basins occurs near a rare salt spring. They were clearly made by Indians to contain saline water to produce salt by evaporation (Moore and Diggles, 2009). An early study identified rhyolitic volcanic ash in the bottom of many basins in Sequoia National Park at both Giant Forest and at Redwood Meadow 13 km ESE (Stewart, 1929). That ash is unavailable, having been removed in recent time. Subsequent study of meadowland soils identified two ash layers in the region from explosive eruptions in the Mono Lake area: Tephra 1 and Tephra 2 (Wood, 1977). Later work indicates that Tephra 1 was erupted from the Glass Creek vent of the Inyo Craters (Miller, 1985) and that its refined age by tree-ring techniques is AD 1350 (Millar, King, Westfall, Alden, Delany, 2006). A fossil forest killed by Tephra 1 differs from modern forests in that it grew in the warmer climate of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP)--a period when drought conditions prevailed at lower elevations (Stine, 1994; Millar et al, 2006). In July 2010 ash was discovered near the bottom of a pristine granite basin (TUL-496) in a remote area of Giant Sequoia National Monument 14.5 km NW of Giant Forest. High-beam-current electron microprobe analyses of pumice glasses give Zr 145-420 ppm, homogeneous within lapilli, and correlated with MgO and CaO concentrations. The

  13. Size and Aging Effects on Antimicrobial Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Coated on Polyamide Fabrics Activated by Atmospheric DBD Plasma.

    PubMed

    Zille, Andrea; Fernandes, Margarida M; Francesko, Antonio; Tzanov, Tzanko; Fernandes, Marta; Oliveira, Fernando R; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Esteves, Maria F; Souto, António P

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the surface characteristics, antimicrobial activity, and aging effect of plasma-pretreated polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fabrics coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), aiming to identify the optimum size of nanosilver exhibiting antibacterial properties suitable for the manufacture of hospital textiles. The release of bactericidal Ag(+) ions from a 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 nm AgNPs-coated PA66 surface was a function of the particles' size, number, and aging. Plasma pretreatment promoted both ionic and covalent interactions between AgNPs and the formed oxygen species on the fibers, favoring the deposition of smaller-diameter AgNPs that consequently showed better immediate and durable antimicrobial effects against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surprisingly, after 30 days of aging, a comparable bacterial growth inhibition was achieved for all of the fibers treated with AgNPs <100 nm in size. The Ag(+) in the coatings also favored the electrostatic stabilization of the plasma-induced functional groups on the PA66 surface, thereby retarding the aging process. At the same time, the size-related ratio (Ag(+)/Ag(0)) of the AgNPs between 40 and 60 nm allowed for the controlled release of Ag(+) rather than bulk silver. Overall, the results suggest that instead of reducing the size of the AgNPs, which is associated with higher toxicity, similar long-term effects can be achieved with larger NPs (40-60 nm), even in lower concentrations. Because the antimicrobial efficiency of AgNPs larger than 30 nm is mainly ruled by the release of Ag(+) over time and not by the size and number of the AgNPs, this parameter is crucial for the development of efficient antimicrobial coatings on plasma-treated surfaces and contributes to the safety and durability of clothing used in clinical settings. PMID:26057400

  14. Impact of Illness and Medical Expenditure on Household Consumptions: A Survey in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kuangnan; Jiang, Yefei; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study is to examine the associations between illness conditions and out-of-pocket medical expenditure with other types of household consumptions. In November and December of 2011, a survey was conducted in three cities in western China, namely Lan Zhou, Gui Lin and Xi An, and their surrounding rural areas. Results Information on demographics, income and consumption was collected on 2,899 households. Data analysis suggested that the presence of household members with chronic diseases was not associated with characteristics of households or household heads. The presence of inpatient treatments was significantly associated with the age of household head (p-value 0.03). The level of per capita medical expense was significantly associated with household size, presence of members younger than 18, older than 65, basic health insurance coverage, per capita income, and household head occupation. Adjusting for confounding effects, the presence of chronic diseases was negatively associated with the amount of basic consumption (p-value 0.02) and the percentage of basic consumption (p-value 0.01), but positively associated with the percentage of insurance expense (p-value 0.02). Medical expenditure was positively associated with all other types of consumptions, including basic, education, saving and investment, entertainment, insurance, durable goods, and alcohol/tobacco. It was negatively associated with the percentage of basic consumption, saving and investment, and insurance. Conclusions Early studies conducted in other Asian countries and rural China found negative associations between illness conditions and medical expenditure with other types of consumptions. This study was conducted in three major cities and surrounding areas in western China, which had not been well investigated in published literature. The observed consumption patterns were different from those in early studies, and the negative associations were not observed. This

  15. Selection within households in health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Claro, Rafael Moreira; da Silva, Nilza Nunes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficiency and accuracy of sampling designs including and excluding the sampling of individuals within sampled households in health surveys. METHODS From a population survey conducted in Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, SP, Southeastern Brazil, lowlands between 2006 and 2007, 1,000 samples were drawn for each design and estimates for people aged 18 to 59 and 18 and over were calculated for each sample. In the first design, 40 census tracts, 12 households per sector, and one person per household were sampled. In the second, no sampling within the household was performed and 40 census sectors and 6 households for the 18 to 59-year old group and 5 or 6 for the 18 and over age group or more were sampled. Precision and bias of proportion estimates for 11 indicators were assessed in the two final sets of the 1000 selected samples with the two types of design. They were compared by means of relative measurements: coefficient of variation, bias/mean ratio, bias/standard error ratio, and relative mean square error. Comparison of costs contrasted basic cost per person, household cost, number of people, and households. RESULTS Bias was found to be negligible for both designs. A lower precision was found in the design including individuals sampling within households, and the costs were higher. CONCLUSIONS The design excluding individual sampling achieved higher levels of efficiency and accuracy and, accordingly, should be first choice for investigators. Sampling of household dwellers should be adopted when there are reasons related to the study subject that may lead to bias in individual responses if multiple dwellers answer the proposed questionnaire. PMID:24789641

  16. Regional differences in size-at-age of the recovering burbot (Lota lota) population in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.; Tost, J.

    2007-01-01

    The burbot Lota lota population in Lake Erie increased dramatically between 1995 and 2003, due mainly to control of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in the late 1980s. We estimated total length- and weight-at-age at capture for burbot caught in annual gillnet surveys of eastern Lake Erie during August 1994–2003. Mean total length was generally greater for burbot age 4–9 years that were caught in New York waters than in either Ontario or Pennsylvania waters of Lake Erie. Similarly, mean weight was greater for burbot at ages 4 through 6 years in New York waters than in either Ontario or Pennsylvania waters. Age-9 burbot caught in Ontario waters had greater mean weight and mean total length than did age-9 burbot caught in Pennsylvania waters. One possible explanation for greater length- and weight-at-age for New York burbot may be greater abundance of prey fishes, particularly rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and round goby Neogobius melanostomus in New York waters. Total lengths at ages 4–10 years were generally greater for burbot caught in Lake Erie during 1994–2003 than those from published studies of other large lakes in North America that we considered, including for Lake Erie in 1946. The regional differences in size-at-age have important management ramifications, particularly because a commercial fishery targeting burbot has been considered for Ontario waters of Lake Erie.

  17. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant. PMID:27026492

  18. Thymus: reexamination of age-related changes in size and shape

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, I.R.; Glazer, G.M.; Bookstein, F.L.; Gross, B.H.

    1985-08-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of the normal and abnormal thymus and its age-related changes have been described. However, there is little quantitative data regarding thymic morphology at the extremes of age and the value of thymic measurements in particular thickness, to recognize thymic abnormality. Using computed tomography the thymic morphology in 309 normal patients was analyzed retrospectively, examining its appearance at the extremes of age and measuring its dimensions for comparison with similar data in 23 patients with clinically or surgically proven thymic abnormality. The study confirmed the previously reported age-related growth and subsequent involution of the normal thymus. Comparison of normal and abnormal glands suggests that thymic shape reliably separates normal from abnormal glands. While thymic thickness and the logarithm of the product of transverse dimension and thickness were sensitive indicators of thymic abnormality, these were not necessary for accurate recognition of abnormality.

  19. Predictors of Size for Gestational Age in St. Louis City and County

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify social, behavioral, and physiological risk factors associated with small for gestational age (SGA) by gestational age category in St. Louis City and County. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth certificate and fetal death records from 2000 to 2009 (n = 142,017). Adjusted associations of risk factors with SGA were explored using bivariate logistic regression. Four separate multivariable logistic regression analyses, stratified by gestational age, were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain contributed significantly to increased odds for SGA across all gestational age categories. The point estimates ranged from a 3.41 increased odds among women with preeclampsia and 1.76 for women with inadequate weight gain at 24–28 weeks' gestational age to 2.19 and 2.11 for full-term infants, respectively. Among full-term infants, smoking (aOR = 2.08), chronic hypertension (aOR = 1.46), and inadequate prenatal care (aOR = 1.25) had the next most robust and significant impact on SGA. Conclusion. Preeclampsia and inadequate weight gain are significant risk factors for SGA, regardless of gestational age. Education on the importance of nutrition and adequate weight gain during pregnancy is vital. In this community, disparities in SGA and smoking rates are important considerations for interventions designed to improve birth outcomes. PMID:25105127

  20. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  1. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  2. Probiotic Microbes Sustain Youthful Serum Testosterone Levels and Testicular Size in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Qi, Peimin; Varian, Bernard J.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals. PMID:24392159

  3. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body. PMID:26445150

  4. Effects of neonatal litter size and age on ovarian gene expression and follicular development in gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gilts raised in small litters have greater ovulation rate, stay in the herd longer and produce more pigs. The objective was to understand how neonatal litter size affects gilt development. The hypothesis is that gilts reared in smaller litters have greater ovarian follicular development. Within 24 h...

  5. PLASMA STEROID CONCENTRATIONS IN RELATION TO SIZE AND AGE IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS FROM TWO FLORIDA LAKES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have reported a number of physiological differences among juvenile alligators from two well-studied populations (Lake Apopka and Lake Woodruff) in north central Florida. These studies obtained alligators of similar size from each lake under the assumption that th...

  6. Sizing alpha emitting particles of aged plutonium on personal air sampler filters using CR-39 autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R B; Hegyi, G; Starling, S C

    2003-01-01

    Methods have been developed to assess the size distribution of alpha emitting particles of reactor fuel of known composition captured on air sampler filters. The sizes of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide particles were determined using a system based on CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors. The CR-39 plastic was exposed to the deposited particles across a 400 microm airgap. The exposed CR-39 was chemically etched to reveal clusters of tracks radially dispersed from central points. The number and location of the tracks were determined using an optical microscope with an XY motorised table and image analysis software. The sample mounting arrangement allowed individual particles to be simultaneously viewed with their respective track cluster. The predicted diameters correlated with the actual particle diameters, as measured using the optical microscope. The efficacy of the technique was demonstrated with particles of natural uranium oxide (natUO2) of known size, ranging from 4 to 150 microm in diameter. Two personal air sampler (PAS) filters contaminated with actinide particles were placed against CR-39 and estimated to have size distributions of 0.8 and 1.0 microm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). PMID:14526944

  7. Huntington CAG repeat size does not modify onset age in familial Parkinson’s disease: The GenePD Study

    PubMed Central

    McNicoll, Christopher F.; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Lew, Mark F.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Klein, Christine; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Mark, Margery H.; Growdon, John H.; Wooten, G. Frederick; Watts, Ray L.; Guttman, Mark; Racette, Brad A.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Ahmed, Anwar; Shill, Holly A.; Singer, Carlos; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Massood, Tiffany; Huskey, Karen W.; DeStefano, Anita L.; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Goldwurm, Stefano; Pezzoli, Gianni; Baker, Kenneth B.; Itin, Ilia; Litvan, Irene; Nicholson, Garth; Corbett, Alastair; Nance, Martha; Drasby, Edward; Isaacson, Stuart; Burn, David J.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Al-hinti, Jomana; Moller, Anette T.; Ostergaard, Karen; Sherman, Scott J.; Roxburgh, Richard; Snow, Barry; Slevin, John T.; Cambi, Franca; Gusella, James F.; Myers, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    The ATP/ADP ratio reflects mitochondrial function and has been reported to be influenced by the size of the Huntington disease gene (HD) repeat. Impaired mitochondrial function has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and therefore, we evaluated the relationship of the HD CAG repeat size to PD onset age in a large sample of familial PD cases. PD affected siblings (n=495) with known onset ages from 248 families, were genotyped for the HD CAG repeat. Genotyping failed in 11 cases leaving 484 for analysis, including 35 LRRK2 carriers. All cases had HD CAG repeats (range 15 to 34) below the clinical range for HD, although 5.2 percent of the sample (n=25) had repeats in the intermediate range (the intermediate range lower limit=27; upper limit=35 repeats), suggesting that the prevalence of intermediate allele carriers in the general population is significant. No relation between the HD CAG repeat size and the age at onset for PD was found in this sample of familial PD. PMID:18649400

  8. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2011-04-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but to my knowledge, their combined effects have not yet been tested. Here, I found that in bulb mites ( Rhizoglyphus robini), maternal nutrition, offspring nutrition, and paternal phenotype (males are fighters, able to kill other mites, or benign scramblers) interactively affected offspring age and size at maturity. The largest effect occurred when both maternal and offspring nutrition was poor: in that case offspring from fighter sires required a significantly longer development time than offspring from scrambler sires. Investigating parental effects on the relationship between age and size at maturity revealed no paternal effects, and only for females was its shape influenced by maternal nutrition. Overall, this reaction norm was nonlinear. These non-genetic intergenerational effects may play a complex, yet unexplored role in influencing population fluctuations—possibly explaining why results from field studies often do not match theoretical predictions on maternal effects on population dynamics.

  9. The Age, Mass, and Size Distributions of Star Clusters in M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Dinino, Daiana; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Chien, L.-H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    We present a new catalog of 3816 compact star clusters in the grand design spiral galaxy M51 based on observations taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. The age distribution of the clusters declines starting at very young ages, and can be represented by a power law, {dN}/dτ \\propto {τ }γ , with γ =-0.65+/- 0.15. No significant changes in the shape of the age distribution at different masses is observed. The mass function of the clusters younger than τ ≈ 400 {{Myr}} can also be described by a power law, {dN}/{dM}\\propto {M}β , with β ≈ \\-2.1+/- 0.2. We compare these distributions with the predictions from various cluster disruption models, and find that they are consistent with models where clusters disrupt approximately independent of their initial mass, but not with models where lower mass clusters are disrupted earlier than their higher mass counterparts. We find that the half-light radii of clusters more massive than M ≈ 3× {10}4 {M}ȯ and with ages between 100 and 400 {{Myr}} are larger by a factor of ≈3–4 than their counterparts that are younger than 107 years old, suggesting that the clusters physically expand during their early life.

  10. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  11. The effect of small class sizes on mortality through age 29 years: evidence from a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter; Johnson, Gretchen; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2011-06-15

    Limiting the number of students per classroom in the early years has been shown to improve educational outcomes. Improved education is, in turn, hypothesized to improve health. The authors examined whether smaller class sizes affect mortality through age 29 years and whether cognitive factors play a role. They used data from the Project Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, a 4-year multicenter randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students between 1985 and 1989. Children randomized to small classes (13-17 students) experienced improved measures of cognition and academic performance relative to those assigned to regular classes (22-25 students). As expected, these cognitive measures were significantly inversely associated with mortality rates (P < 0.05). However, through age 29 years, students randomized to small class size nevertheless experienced higher mortality rates than those randomized to regular size classes (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.32). The groups at risk included males (HR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.85), whites/Asians (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.72), and higher income students (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.57). The authors speculate that small classes might produce behavior changes that increase mortality through young adulthood that are stronger than the protective effects of enhanced cognition. PMID:21540326

  12. 40Ar/39Ar ages of lunar impact glasses: Relationships among Ar diffusivity, chemical composition, shape, and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Delano, J. W.

    2015-07-01

    Lunar impact glasses, which are quenched melts produced during cratering events on the Moon, have the potential to provide not only compositional information about both the local and regional geology of the Moon but also information about the impact flux over time. We present in this paper the results of 73 new 40Ar/39Ar analyses of well-characterized, inclusion-free lunar impact glasses and demonstrate that size, shape, chemical composition, fraction of radiogenic 40Ar retained, and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages are important for 40Ar/39Ar investigations of these samples. Specifically, analyses of lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites indicate that retention of radiogenic 40Ar is a strong function of post-formation thermal history in the lunar regolith, size, and chemical composition. This is because the Ar diffusion coefficient (at a constant temperature) is estimated to decrease by ∼3-4 orders of magnitude with an increasing fraction of non-bridging oxygens, X(NBO), over the compositional range of most lunar impact glasses with compositions from feldspathic to basaltic. Based on these relationships, lunar impact glasses with compositions and sizes sufficient to have retained ∼90% of their radiogenic Ar during 750 Ma of cosmic ray exposure at time-integrated temperatures of up to 290 K have been identified and are likely to have yielded reliable 40Ar/39Ar ages of formation. Additionally, ∼50% of the identified impact glass spheres have formation ages of ⩽500 Ma, while ∼75% of the identified lunar impact glass shards and spheres have ages of formation ⩽2000 Ma. Higher thermal stresses in lunar impact glasses quenched from hyperliquidus temperatures are considered the likely cause of poor survival of impact glass spheres, as well as the decreasing frequency of lunar impact glasses in general with increasing age. The observed age-frequency distribution of lunar impact glasses may reflect two processes: (i) diminished

  13. Changes in the magnetic and mechanical properties of thermally aged Fe-Cu alloys due to nano-sized precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Yuanfei; Deng, Shanquan; Xu, Ben; Li, Qiulin; Shu, Guogang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The changes in the magnetic properties, mechanical properties, and microstructural parameters of Fe-Cu alloys due to thermal aging have been investigated to improve the fundamental understanding of using magnetic technology for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of irradiation embrittlement in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Nano-sized Cu particles precipitated from a Fe matrix after thermal aging at 500 °C for various times, and the microstructure parameters were determined. The coercivity, Barkhausen noise (BN), Vickers hardness, and yield stress were also measured for these samples. These properties show the same hardening-softening trend with increasing aging time, which can be interpreted in terms of the microstructure parameters evolution based on the model of the pinning of precipitates on domain walls and dislocations. These results suggest the practicability of using magnetic technology for the NDE of the irradiation embrittlement of the RPV.

  14. Size frequency distribution of Martian craters and relative age of light and dark terrains.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A.; King, E. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Light and dark terrains in and around Meridiani Sinus, mapped on the imagery from Mariner 6 and Mariner 7, were found to have significantly different cumulative size frequency distributions of craters. The light terrain on a mosaic of frames 6N11, 6N13, and 6N19 has a greater proportion of large craters and a lesser proportion of smaller craters than the dark terrain on the same frames. The light terrain is interpreted to be generally older than the dark terrain. The filling or partial filling of the smaller craters on the light terrain by surface detritus is suggested. Several wide-angle frames have remarkably similar cumulative crater size frequency distributions that may be representative of a large portion of the Martian surface.

  15. HIV Testing in the Past Year among the U.S. Household Population Aged 15-44: 2011-2013. NCHS Data Brief. Number 202

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copen, Casey E.; Chandra, Anjani; Febo-Vazquez, Isaedmarie

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, more than 1 million Americans aged 13 and over were living with HIV infection, and one in seven did not know their infection status. Routine, voluntary HIV testing is a recognized way to reduce HIV transmission. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report updates nationally representative estimates…

  16. Age decreases mitochondrial motility and increases mitochondrial size in vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Susan; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Age is proposed to be associated with altered structure and function of mitochondria; however, in fully‐differentiated cells, determining the structure of more than a few mitochondria at a time is challenging. In the present study, the structures of the entire mitochondrial complements of cells were resolved from a pixel‐by‐pixel covariance analysis of fluctuations in potentiometric fluorophore intensity during ‘flickers’ of mitochondrial membrane potential.Mitochondria are larger in vascular myocytes from aged rats compared to those in younger adult rats.A subpopulation of mitochondria in myocytes from aged, but not younger, animals is highly‐elongated.Some mitochondria in myocytes from younger, but not aged, animals are highly‐motile.Mitochondria that are motile are located more peripherally in the cell than non‐motile mitochondria. Abstract Mitochondrial function, motility and architecture are each central to cell function. Age‐associated mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to vascular disease. However, mitochondrial changes in ageing remain ill‐defined because of the challenges of imaging in native cells. We determined the structure of mitochondria in live native cells, demarcating boundaries of individual organelles by inducing stochastic ‘flickers’ of membrane potential, recorded as fluctuations in potentiometric fluorophore intensity (flicker‐assisted localization microscopy; FaLM). In freshly‐isolated myocytes from rat cerebral resistance arteries, FaLM showed a range of mitochondrial X‐Y areas in both young adult (3 months; 0.05–6.58 μm2) and aged rats (18 months; 0.05–13.4 μm2). In cells from young animals, most mitochondria were small (mode area 0.051 μm2) compared to aged animals (0.710 μm2). Cells from older animals contained a subpopulation of highly‐elongated mitochondria (5.3% were >2 μm long, 4.2% had a length:width ratio >3) that was rare in younger animals (0.15% of mitochondria >2

  17. Simulating the grain-size distribution of Wisconsinan age glaciofluvial sediments: Applications to fluid transport

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, E.K.; Anderson, M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    A sedimentary deposition model, SEDSIM, was used to simulate the deposition of glaciofluvial sediments in south-central Wisconsin. These types of deposits are present at or near the surface over much of the northern United States and have a high contamination potential. They also represent relatively recent analogs for ancient braided stream systems. Sixty sediment samples were used to determine the average sediment properties for a facies assemblage located 8-10 km from the ice margin. A regional depositional system was simulated, using SEDSIM, to determine the range of input values that reproduced the observed average sediment characteristics. Progressively smaller scale models were constructed to produce more detailed estimates of the grain-size distribution. the grain-size estimates from the finest scale model were translated into relative hydraulic conductivity values using the method of Hazen. The resulting conductivities were incorporated into a fluid flow model to illustrate the control that heterogeneity of petrologic properties has on the direction and rate of fluid movement. This work indicates that a wide range of input parameters will reproduce the bulk sediment properties. Furthermore, small-scale features may not be reproduced under the assumptions incorporated in the current SEDSIM code. Thus, for sedimentary depositional models to be used to predict permeability and porosity distributions, or to interpret paleo-flow conditions, one must determine calibration targets that are more sensitive to flow parameters than bulk grain-size distributions.

  18. Age at Virologic Control Influences Peripheral Blood HIV Reservoir Size and Serostatus in Perinatally-Infected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Deborah; Patel, Kunjal; Karalius, Brad; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Ziemniak, Carrie; Ellis, Angela; Chen, Ya Hui; Richman, Douglas; Siberry, George K.; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Burchett, Sandra; Seage, George R.; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Importance Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated within several weeks of HIV infection in adults limits proviral reservoirs that preclude HIV cure. Biomarkers of restricted proviral reservoirs may aid in the monitoring of HIV remission or cure. Objectives To quantify peripheral blood proviral reservoir size in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and to identify correlates of limited proviral reservoirs. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study including 144 perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth (median age: 14.3 years), enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, on durable (median: 10.2 years) cART, stratified by age at virologic control. Main Outcome and Measures The primary endpoint was peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proviral load following virologic control at different ages. Correlations between proviral load and markers of active HIV production (HIV-specific antibodies, 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles), and markers of immune activation and inflammation were also assessed. Results Proviral reservoir size was markedly reduced in the PHIV+ youth who achieved virologic control by age 1 year (4.2 [interquartile range, 2.6-8 6] copies per 1 million PBMCs) compared to those who achieved virologic control between 1-5 years of age (19.4 [interquartile range, 5.5-99.8] copies per 1 million PBMCs) or after age 5 years (−(70.7 [interquartile range, 23.2-209.4] copies per 1 million PBMCs; P < .00l). A proviral burden <10 copies/million PBMCs was measured in 11 (79%), 20 (40%), and 13 (18%) participants with virologic control at ages <1 year, 1-5 years, and >5 years, respectively (p<0.001). Lower proviral load was associated with undetectable 2-LTR circles (p<0.001) and HIV negative or indeterminate serostatus (p<0.001), but not with concentrations of soluble immune activation markers CD14 and CD163. Conclusions and Relevance Early effective cART along with prolonged virologic suppression after perinatal HIV

  19. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Gortazar, C.

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (<1 year old) or yearlings (1-2 years old). Spleen size was negatively associated with nematode load in subadult females and in adult males. These two age classes are potentially the most nutritionally stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  20. Adaptive-filtering of trisomy 21: risk of Down syndrome depends on family size and age of previous child

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, Markus; Krackow, Sven

    2007-02-01

    The neonatal incidence rate of Down syndrome (DS) is well-known to accelerate strongly with maternal age. This non-linearity renders mere accumulation of defects at recombination during prolonged first meiotic prophase implausible as an explanation for DS rate increase with maternal age, but might be anticipated from chromosomal drive (CD) for trisomy 21. Alternatively, as there is selection against genetically disadvantaged embryos, the screening system that eliminates embryos with trisomy 21 might decay with maternal age. In this paper, we provide the first evidence for relaxed filtering stringency (RFS) to represent an adaptive maternal response that could explain accelerating DS rates with maternal age. Using historical data, we show that the proportion of aberrant live births decrease with increased family size in older mothers, that inter-birth intervals are longer before affected neonates than before normal ones, and that primiparae exhibit elevated levels of DS incidence at higher age. These findings are predicted by adaptive RFS but cannot be explained by the currently available alternative non-adaptive hypotheses, including CD. The identification of the relaxation control mechanism and therapeutic restoration of a stringent screen may have considerable medical implications.

  1. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... health by becoming aware of the most common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are perfectly safe for humans, but could be harmful or potentially deadly to ...

  2. Sample size estimation for alternating logistic regressions analysis of multilevel randomized community trials of under-age drinking.

    PubMed

    Reboussin, Beth A; Preisser, John S; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Under-age drinking is an enormous public health issue in the USA. Evidence that community level structures may impact on under-age drinking has led to a proliferation of efforts to change the environment surrounding the use of alcohol. Although the focus of these efforts is to reduce drinking by individual youths, environmental interventions are typically implemented at the community level with entire communities randomized to the same intervention condition. A distinct feature of these trials is the tendency of the behaviours of individuals residing in the same community to be more alike than that of others residing in different communities, which is herein called 'clustering'. Statistical analyses and sample size calculations must account for this clustering to avoid type I errors and to ensure an appropriately powered trial. Clustering itself may also be of scientific interest. We consider the alternating logistic regressions procedure within the population-averaged modelling framework to estimate the effect of a law enforcement intervention on the prevalence of under-age drinking behaviours while modelling the clustering at multiple levels, e.g. within communities and within neighbourhoods nested within communities, by using pairwise odds ratios. We then derive sample size formulae for estimating intervention effects when planning a post-test-only or repeated cross-sectional community-randomized trial using the alternating logistic regressions procedure. PMID:24347839

  3. HOMES: A Household Model for Economic and Social Studies. Reference Guide for Household Projections. Version 1.0. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, #106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew

    This book contains a reference guide for the use of HOMES, a demographic model and computer program developed to project the number and demographic characteristics of households. Through application of this computer program to standard population projectors, users can retrieve data on: (1) number of households; (2) age and sex of household heads;…

  4. Time bomb or hidden treasure? Characteristics of junk TVs and of the US households who store them

    SciTech Connect

    Milovantseva, Natalia; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► US households are storing 84.1 million broken or obsolete (junk) TVs. ► They represent 2.12 million metric tons of scrap. ► The value of these materials is approximately $21 per TV. ► Our count models characterize US households who store junk TVs. ► Our results are useful for designing more effective TV recycling programs. - Abstract: Within the growing stockpile of electronic waste (e-waste), TVs are especially of concern in the US because of their number (which is known imprecisely), their low recycling rate, and their material content: cathode ray tube televisions contain lead, and both rear projection and flat panel displays contain mercury, in addition to other potentially toxic materials. Based on a unique dataset from a 2010 survey, our count models show that pro-environmental behavior, age, education, household size, marital status, gender of the head of household, dwelling type, and geographic location are statistically significant variables for explaining the number of broken or obsolete (junk) TVs stored by US households. We also estimate that they are storing approximately 84.1 million junk TVs, which represents 40 pounds of scrap per household. Materials in each of these junk TVs are worth $21 on average at January 2012 materials prices, which sets an upper bound on collecting and recycling costs. This information should be helpful for developing more effective recycling strategies for TVs in the e-waste stream.

  5. The Relationship of Age to Personal Network Size, Relational Multiplexity, and Proximity to Alters in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emily J.; Marcum, Christopher S.; Boessen, Adam; Almquist, Zack W.; Hipp, John R.; Nagle, Nicholas N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the association of age and other sociodemographic variables with properties of personal networks; using samples of individuals residing in the rural western United States and the City of Los Angeles, we evaluate the degree to which these associations vary with geographical context. For both samples, we test the hypothesis that age is negatively associated with network size (i.e., degree) and positively associated with network multiplexity (the extent of overlap) on 6 different relations: core discussion members, social activity participants, emergency contacts, neighborhood safety contacts, job informants, and kin. We also examine the relationship between age and spatial proximity to alters. Method. Our data consist of a large-scale, spatially stratified egocentric network survey containing information about respondents and those to whom they are tied. We use Poisson regression to test our hypothesis regarding degree while adjusting for covariates, including education, gender, race, and self-reported sense of neighborhood belonging. We use multiple linear regression to test our hypotheses on multiplexity and distance to alters. Results. For both rural and urban populations, we find a nonmonotone association between age and numbers of core discussants and emergency contacts, with rural populations also showing nonmonotone associations for social activity partners and kin. These nonmonotone relationships show a peak in expected degree at midlife, followed by an eventual decline. We find a decline in degree among the elderly for all relations in both populations. Age is positively associated with distance to nonhousehold alters for the rural population, although residential tenure is associated with shorter ego-alter distances in both rural and urban settings. Additionally, age is negatively associated with network multiplexity for both populations. Discussion. Although personal network size ultimately declines with age, we find that

  6. Flexibility of Household Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Using data I collected in Africa, this paper examines a household's decision to adjust its size through child fostering, an institution where biological parents temporarily send children to live with other families. Households experiencing negative idiosyncratic income shocks, child gender imbalances, located further from primary schools, or with…

  7. 7 CFR 273.12 - Requirements for change reporting households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 273.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... household size that existed at the time of its most recent certification or recertification, regardless of... accordance with § 273.18. If the discovery is made within the certification period, the household is...

  8. 7 CFR 273.12 - Requirements for change reporting households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 273.12, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... household size that existed at the time of its most recent certification or recertification, regardless of... accordance with § 273.18. If the discovery is made within the certification period, the household is...

  9. 7 CFR 253.7 - Certification of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property, insurance premiums, and taxes paid on income producing property. (D) In determining net self... all monthly unearned income received by the household. (v) Allowable costs for dependent care shall be... monthly income shall be compared to the income eligibility standard for the appropriate household size...

  10. 7 CFR 253.7 - Certification of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... property, insurance premiums, and taxes paid on income producing property. (D) In determining net self... all monthly unearned income received by the household. (v) Allowable costs for dependent care shall be... monthly income shall be compared to the income eligibility standard for the appropriate household size...

  11. Feto-maternal heart rate ratio in pregnant bitches: effect of gestational age and maternal size.

    PubMed

    Alonge, S; Mauri, M; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C

    2016-10-01

    Few information is available on parameters that can be used to objectively assess the foetal health during canine pregnancy. To identify a reliable parameter for the evaluation of foetal well-being, the effect of pre-gestational maternal bodyweight and gestational age on foetal heart rate (FHR) and on feto-maternal heart rate ratio (FHR/MHR) was investigated. Seventeen client-owned pregnant bitches of different pre-gestational maternal bodyweight were examined by serial echo colour Doppler. Only data from 11 uncomplicated pregnancies were included in the statistical analysis. The relationship between FHR, and FHR/MHR, and independent variables was analysed by polynomial regression (p ≤ .05). The FHR and the FHR/MHR significantly fitted a multiple quadratic regression for all independent variables. They both increased from 35 to 20 days before parturition and then a decreasing pattern followed. Higher values of both parameters were observed in bitches of lowest and highest bodyweight. Patterns of FHR and FHR/MHR were similar, but the ratio better describes the effect of the independent variables on the data. Thus, the highest significance of FHR/MHR compared to FHR alone encourages the application of this ratio to evaluate foetal well-being. The equation derived by the regression analysis of FHR/MHR could be applied in clinical practice to obtain its expected values in healthy pregnancies. PMID:27440379

  12. Dental size and shape in the Roman imperial age: two examples from the area of Rome.

    PubMed

    Manzi, G; Santandrea, E; Passarello, P

    1997-04-01

    Different socioeconomic strata of Roman imperial age are represented by two large dental samples recovered from archaeological excavations near Rome, Italy. Teeth are investigated for crown dimensions and morphological variants. One sample, comprising 1,465 permanent teeth, represents the rural town of Lucus Feroniae (LFR) and is mainly composed of slaves and war veterans. The other, comprising 734 teeth from the Isola Sacra necropolis at Portus Romae (NIS), represents the "middle class" segment of an urban population. Both series show small dental dimensions and fit at the lower end of the trend toward dental reduction in Europe from the Upper Paleolithic to the historical times. The urban sample is less variable metrically and less sexually dimorphic than the rural one. The analysis of discrete crown traits shows absence of rare phenotypic variants in both series. The urban sample is also less variable in this last respect, suggesting that the gene pool of this particular "stratum" of the NIS population was more homogeneous than that of LFR. The occurrence of enamel hypoplasia indicates that metabolic stress during growth and development was similar in LFR and NIS. The overall set of available data is evaluated in the light of the history of the two Roman sites and the composition of each population. PMID:9140539

  13. Commuting Patterns of Nonmetro Household Heads, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Data from the Annual Housing Survey indicated that 22% of all employed United States household heads commuted to a county different from that in which they lived in 1975. Commuting was more prevalent among men than among women and slightly higher for whites than for Blacks. Commuting tended to increase until age 25-34 and then to decline after age…

  14. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  15. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18–45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64–0.70% per year in women and 0.80–00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3–4% per year in men and 2.5–3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2–5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass. PMID:22934016

  16. An inquiry into the household economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The value of the time which people devote to each activity of their lives is compared with the money they spend on the activity. After tax wage rates are used to value an individual's time. The enormous size of the household economy and the fact that for most activities the value of the consumer's time devoted to an activity exceeds the money expenditures on the activity, suggest that there are many opportunities for productivity improvements in the household economy which have been overlooked in most traditional thinking on productivity.

  17. Morphometric analysis of pulp size in maxillary permanent central incisors correlated with age: An indirect digital study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, S. V.; Mamatha, G. P.; Sunita, J. D.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Sardana, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Teeth are hardest part of the body and are least affected by the taphonomic process. They are considered as one of the reliable methods of identification of a person in forensic sciences. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish morphometeric measurements by AutoCad 2009 (Autodesk, Inc) of permanent maxillary central incisors in different age groups of Udaipur population. Setting and Design: Hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Udaipur. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out on 308 subjects of both genders with the age range of 9-68 years. Standardized intra-oral radiographs were made by paralleling technique and processed. The radiographs were scanned and the obtained images were standardized to the actual size of radiographic film. This was followed by measuring them using software AutoCad 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: F-test, post-hoc test, Pearson's correlation test. Results: For left maxillary central incisor, the total pulp area was found to be of 38.41 ± 12.88 mm and 14.32 ± 7.04 mm respectively. For right maxillary central incisor, the total pulp size was 38.39 ± 14.95 mm and 12.35 ± 5 mm respectively. Males (32.50, 32.87 mm2) had more pulp area when compared with females (28.82, 30.05 mm2). Conclusion: There was a decrease in total pulp area with increasing age which may be attributed to secondary dentin formation. PMID:26816461

  18. Age-related changes in soma size of neurons in the spinal cord motor column of the cat.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Bertolotto, C; Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    1996-06-28

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the aging process on the soma size and number of motoneurons and interneurons in the motor column of the spinal cord of old cats. Neurons in the motor column were divided into small and large populations based on a bimodal distribution of their soma cross-sectional areas. A 17% decrease in the cross-sectional area of small neurons was observed, this decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The cross-sectional area of large neurons decreased by only 6%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the number of large, small or of these combined population of ventral horn neurons in the aged cats compared with the control animals. This data suggest that neurons in the motor column are not uniformly affected by the aging process because morphological changes are proportionally greater in small neurons than in large neurons. PMID:8817566

  19. Passive electrophysiological properties of aged and axotomized cat spinal cord motoneurons: the effect of cell size and electrode shunt.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    1992-07-01

    Intracellular recordings were obtained from intact and axotomized lumbar motoneurons of aged cats. The sub-threshold electrical properties of these cells were measured, including input resistance, resting membrane potential, and the first two equalizing time constants as well as their associated amplitude constants. These data were used in a semi-infinite cable model of the motoneuron to estimate the size of the shunt resistance (Rshunt) which is created when the electrode penetrates the cell membrane. The average Rshunt for intact aged cells was 5.35 +/- 1.01 M omega, while that for the axotomized aged cells was 8.93 +/- 1.20 M omega. The statistically significant difference in mean shunt magnitude did not affect the measurements of membrane time constant because this constant is independent of the shunt in this model of the motoneuron. However, the determination of cell input resistance, which is not independent of the shunt, was shown to underestimate the real cell input resistance by 23-29%. We therefore conclude that the shunt resistance is an important factor which should be taken into account when measuring input resistance. PMID:1508398

  20. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures. PMID:25167165

  1. 7 CFR 253.6 - Eligibility of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... age under the parental control of a member of the household. (i) An individual living alone. (ii) An.... Individuals are considered children for purposes of this provision if they are under the parental control...

  2. Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis within Households: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Gilman, Robert H.; Martin, Laura; Soto, Esther; Castro, Beatriz; Lopez, Sonia; Coronel, Jorge; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Lopez, Virginia; San Miguel, Angela; Quispe, Neyda; Asencios, Luis; Dye, Christopher; Moore, David A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease. The fitness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) relative to drug-susceptible tuberculosis is cited as one of the most important determinants of MDRTB spread and epidemic size. To estimate the relative fitness of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, we compared the incidence of tuberculosis disease among the household contacts of MDRTB index patients to that among the contacts of drug-susceptible index patients. Methods and Findings This 3-y (2010–2013) prospective cohort household follow-up study in South Lima and Callao, Peru, measured the incidence of tuberculosis disease among 1,055 household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases and 2,362 household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index cases. A total of 35/1,055 (3.3%) household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases developed tuberculosis disease, while 114/2,362 (4.8%) household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index patients developed tuberculosis disease. The total follow-up time for drug-susceptible tuberculosis contacts was 2,620 person-years, while the total follow-up time for MDRTB contacts was 1,425 person-years. Using multivariate Cox regression to adjust for confounding variables including contact HIV status, contact age, socio-economic status, and index case sputum smear grade, the hazard ratio for tuberculosis disease among MDRTB household contacts was found to be half that for drug-susceptible contacts (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.90, p = 0.017). The inference of transmission in this study was limited by the lack of genotyping data for household contacts. Capturing incident disease only among household contacts may also limit the extrapolation of these findings to the community setting. Conclusions The low relative fitness of MDRTB estimated by this study improves the chances of controlling drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, fitter

  3. Satisfaction in Multigenerational Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindel, Charles H.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Using social exchange theory, examined satisfaction of the primary caregiver with living in a multigenerational household in 99 Midwestern families. Identified important predictors of satisfaction consisting of characteristics of the older person (indicators of dependency status, characteristics of the primary caregiver, and the situational…

  4. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  5. The Household Energy Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas W.; Jenkins, John

    The Household Energy Game has been developed to provide some indication of energy use and individual management. The game is divided into two sections. In the first section, one is to devise one's own energy budget. Energy use is calculated in the areas of transportation, heating, hot water, air conditioning, and appliances. In each of these major…

  6. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  7. Disability in U.S. Households, 2000–2010: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Barbara M.; Blackwell, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the demographic structure of households containing members with disabilities is of key importance in policy planning for populations with disabilities at state and national levels. Yet, most, but not all, previous family-level studies of disability have excluded persons living alone or with unrelated persons (e.g., a housemate or an unmarried partner) because they are not considered families. To address this gap, the authors utilize National Health Interview Survey data to produce household-level estimates of disability using a detailed household type variable that includes households omitted from previous reports. Findings indicate that one-person households made up 24.7% of all households with an adult aged 18–64 with a disability, and 42.9% of all households with an adult aged 65 or older with a disability. Including nonfamily households provides a clearer picture of the association between living arrangements and disability in the U.S. PMID:26962270

  8. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: Is tree size, age, competition, or climate response most important?

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane R; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Bradford, John B; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-06-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2 and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests' ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals' size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species like Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92-95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth responses

  9. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Jane R.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests’ ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals’ size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species likeAcer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92–95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth

  10. Relationships between molecular weight and fluorescence properties for size-fractionated dissolved organic matter from fresh and aged sources.

    PubMed

    Cuss, C W; Guéguen, C

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between the molecular weight (MW) and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are important considerations for studies seeking to connect these properties to water treatment processes. Relationships between the size and fluorescence properties of nine allochthonous DOM sources (i.e. leaf leachates, grass, and headwaters) were measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detectors. Correlations between optical properties and MW were readily apparent using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled to self-organizing maps (SOM): protein/polyphenol-like fluorescence (peaks B and T) was highest at lower molecular weights (<0.5 kDa), fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (peaks A, C, and M) was highest at mid-weights (0.5-1 kDa), and humic-like fluorescence (Peaks A + C) was highest at larger molecular weights (>1 kDa). Proportions of peaks B, T, and A + C were significantly correlated with MW (p < 0.001). The first principal component (PC1, 42% of variation in fluorescence properties) was a significant predictor of sample MW (R² = 0.63, p < 0.05), while scores on PC2 (27% of total variance) traced a source-based gradient from deciduous leachates/headwaters through to coniferous leachates/headwaters. PC3 (13% of var.) was also correlated with MW (p < 0.005). A secondary peak in peak T fluorescence was associated with larger size fractions in aged sources, and scores on PC1 also traced a path from the leachates of fresher leaves, through more humified leaves, to headwaters. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the structure of aged DOM arises through supramolecular assembly. PMID:25462755

  11. Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Dachner, Naomi; Gundersen, Craig; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household food insecurity, a measure of income-related problems of food access, is growing in Canada and is tightly linked to poorer health status. We examined the association between household food insecurity status and annual health care costs. Methods: We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18–64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals’ direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. Results: Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. Compared with total annual health care costs in food-secure households, adjusted annual costs were 16% ($235) higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–23% [$141–$334]), 32% ($455) higher in households with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 25%–39% [$361–$553]) and 76% ($1092) higher in households with severe food insecurity (95% CI 65%–88% [$934–$1260]). When costs of prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program were included, the adjusted annual costs were 23% higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% CI 16%–31%), 49% higher in those with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 41%–57%) and 121% higher in those with severe food insecurity (95% CI 107%–136%). Interpretation: Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. Policy interventions at the provincial or federal level designed to reduce household food

  12. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl ( Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often covaries with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

  13. Age, size, and position of H ii regions in the Galaxy. Expansion of ionized gas in turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblin, P.; Anderson, L. D.; Didelon, P.; Raga, A. C.; Minier, V.; Ntormousi, E.; Pettitt, A.; Pinto, C.; Samal, M. R.; Schneider, N.; Zavagno, A.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: This work aims to improve the current understanding of the interaction between H ii regions and turbulent molecular clouds. We propose a new method to determine the age of a large sample of OB associations by investigating the development of their associated H ii regions in the surrounding turbulent medium. Methods: Using analytical solutions, one-dimensional (1D), and three-dimensional (3D) simulations, we constrained the expansion of the ionized bubble depending on the turbulence level of the parent molecular cloud. A grid of 1D simulations was then computed in order to build isochrone curves for H ii regions in a pressure-size diagram. This grid of models allowed us to date a large sample of OB associations that we obtained from the H ii Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). Results: Analytical solutions and numerical simulations showed that the expansion of H ii regions is slowed down by the turbulence up to the point where the pressure of the ionized gas is in a quasi-equilibrium with the turbulent ram pressure. Based on this result, we built a grid of 1D models of the expansion of H ii regions in a profile based on Larson's laws. We take the 3D turbulence into account with an effective 1D temperature profile. The ages estimated by the isochrones of this grid agree well with literature values of well known regions such as Rosette, RCW 36, RCW 79, and M 16. We thus propose that this method can be used to find ages of young OB associations through the Galaxy and also in nearby extra-galactic sources.

  14. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  15. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  16. Household Headship and Infant Mortality in India: Evaluating the Determinants and Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Borkotoky, M Kakoli; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been ample discussion on the levels and trends of infant mortality in India over time, but what remains less explored are, the differentials in infant mortality according to household headship. This paper examined the differences in the determinants of infant mortality between male-headed households (MHH) and female-headed households (FHH). Methods: The study used Cox proportional hazard model to examine the determinants of infant death, and Kaplan-Meier estimation technique to examine the survival pattern during infancy using data from Indian National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The analysis is restricted to women who had at least one live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Results: The study observed that household size and number of children below five are significant risk factors of infant mortality in MHH while length of previous birth interval is the only significant risk factor of infant death in FHH. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The results indicate that children from FHH have higher survival probability at each age than children from MHH irrespective of place of residence and sex of the child.

  17. Regarding the SiC particulates size associated microstructural characteristics on the aging behavior of Al-4.5Cu metallic matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.; Lai, M.O.; Boon, M.S.; Herng, N.S.

    1998-02-01

    In this study, aging characteristics of an aluminum-based metallic matrix reinforced with two different sizes of silicon carbide were investigated. The results showed similar aging kinetics in the case of unreinforced samples and composite samples containing coarser (34.4 {micro}m) SiC particulates and accelerated aging kinetics in the case of composite samples containing finer (8 {micro}m) SiC particulates. Results of microstructural characterization studies show that composite samples containing finer SiC particulates exhibited finer grain size, lower porosity, reduced cluster-to-particulate-size ratio, and superior interfacial integrity. The accelerated aging kinetics exhibited by composite samples containing a distribution of finer SiC particulates, when compared to the unreinforced and reinforced samples containing a distribution of coarser SiC particulates, were rationalized in terms of their microstructural characteristics.

  18. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  19. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  20. Household exposure models

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tap water is often assumed to be dominated by ingestion of drinking water. This paper addresses the relative importance of inhalation and dermal exposures in a typical household. A three-compartment model is used to simulate the 24-h concentration history of VOCs in the shower, bathroom, and remaining household volumes as a result of tap water use. Mass transfers from water to air are derived from measured data for radon and used to estimate mass-transfer properties for VOCs. The model is used to calculate a range of concentrations and human exposures in US dwellings. The estimated ratio of household- inhalation uptake to ingestion uptake is in the range of 1 to 6 for VOCs. We use a dermal absorption model to assess exposure across the skin boundary during baths and showers. The ratio of dermal exposure to ingestion exposure is in the range 0.6 to 1. 24 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  1. Body size dissatisfaction and avoidance behavior: how gender, age, ethnicity, and relative clothing size predict what some won't try.

    PubMed

    Maphis, Laura E; Martz, Denise M; Bergman, Shawn S; Curtin, Lisa A; Webb, Rose Mary

    2013-06-01

    Sixty-eight percent of U.S. adults are overweight/obese, and this epidemic has physical, psychosocial, and behavioral consequences. An internet sample of adults (N=2997) perceiving themselves as larger than ideal in clothing size reported their body mass index (BMI), relative clothing size (RS; discrepancy between current and ideal size), and avoidance behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis of 10 avoidance items produced social avoidance and body display avoidance factors. A relative importance analysis revealed RS as a better predictor than BMI for avoidance. A hierarchical multivariate analysis of covariance found RS to predict both avoidance constructs. The relationship between RS and both avoidance constructs was stronger for women than men, and for younger as compared to older participants. Caucasians reported more body display avoidance than African Americans. This suggests that personal dissatisfaction with body size may deter involvement in varied life events and that women are especially avoidant of activities that entail displaying their bodies. PMID:23540887

  2. Coupled resonances allow studying the aging of adhesive contacts between a QCM surface and single, micrometer-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, Astrid; Langhoff, Arne; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2015-12-01

    Interparticle contacts and contacts between particles and surfaces are known to change over time. The contact area, the contact stiffness, and the contact strength usually increase as the contact ages. Contact aging is mostly driven by capillary forces, but also by plastic deformation. Making use of acoustic resonators, we have studied the stiffness of contacts between the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and individual, micrometer-sized particles adsorbed to the resonator surface. Studying single particles avoids ensemble-averaging. Central to the analysis is the coupled resonance, occurring when a surface-attached particle together with the link forms a resonator of its own. If the frequency of this second resonator comes close to one of the crystal’s overtones, plots of shifts in resonance bandwidth versus overtone order display a resonance curve. This secondary resonance is caused by the coupling between the particle’s resonance and the main resonance. One can read the frequency of the coupled resonance from this plot. Similarly, resonance curves are observed in plots of frequency and bandwidth versus time, if the contact stiffness varies smoothly with time. Because the coupled resonance is a characteristic feature, it is easily identified even in cases where frequency shifts of some other origin are superimposed onto the data. For the cases studied here, the links stiffened while they dried. Interestingly, the efficiency of coupling between the particle resonance and the main resonance decreased at the same time. This can be explained with an increase in the link’s bending stiffness. The analysis highlights that a QCM experiment amounts to vibrational spectroscopy on surface-attached particles. Among the application examples is the adsorption and drying of a lycopodium spore. Clearly, the technique is also applicable to problems of bioadhesion.

  3. Country food sharing networks, household structure, and implications for understanding food insecurity in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Collings, Peter; Marten, Meredith G; Pearce, Tristan; Young, Alyson G

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural context of food insecurity among Inuit in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. An analysis of the social network of country food exchanges among 122 households in the settlement reveals that a household's betweenness centrality-a measure of brokerage-in the country food network is predicted by the age of the household. The households of married couples were better positioned within the sharing network than were the households of single females or single males. Households with an active hunter or elder were also better positioned in the network. The households of single men and women appear to experience limited access to country food, a considerable problem given the increasing number of single-adult households over time. We conclude that the differences between how single women and single men experience constrained access to country foods may partially account for previous findings that single women in arctic settlements appear to be at particular risk for food insecurity. PMID:26595315

  4. Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

  5. Using the SARs to add policy value to household projections.

    PubMed

    King, D; Bolsdon, D

    1998-05-01

    "Household projections are at the centre of the debate about future housing requirements in England. The Census of Population Sample of Anonymised Records offers actual and potential opportunities to ¿add value' to traditional projections. This article gives examples of such added value, including testing definitional sensitivity of projection outcomes, assisting further detailed disaggregation of projected components, assisting the matching of household projections to dwelling supply, and offering scope to explore via data linkage the relationships between household projections and ¿backlog' housing needs, affordability, dwelling size, and tenure." PMID:12293875

  6. Child Care Use in Minnesota: Report of the 2009 Statewide Household Child Care Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Valorose, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This report on a statewide telephone survey describes child care use in Minnesota among households with children 12 and younger. Minnesota has an estimated 908,000 children ages 12 and younger; 24 percent are ages 0 to 2, 24 percent ages 3 to 5, 30 percent ages 6 to 9 and 23 percent ages 10 to 12. Of the nearly 500,000 households with one or more…

  7. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life (“Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach” [1]). PMID:27115023

  8. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-06-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life ("Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach" [1]). PMID:27115023

  9. Age and size thresholds for pupation and developmental polymorphism in the browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), under conditions that either emulate diapause or prevent it.

    PubMed

    Frago, Enric; Selfa, Jesús; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Guara, Miguel; Bauce, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Size and age thresholds for pupation are important life history traits of insects. They are the ultimate consequences of the underlying physiological mechanism that optimize resource allocation. Such thresholds may have a plastic response under time-varying environmental conditions, developmental polymorphism (i.e., plasticity in the number of instars before pupation) being a common strategy adopted by insects to overcome this challenging situation. In this study, we systematically explore the variables related with both age and size thresholds for pupation and developmental polymorphism in the browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), by rearing a group of caterpillars under conditions that either emulate larval diapause or prevent it. As an innovative approach, we evaluated the importance of predictor variables by means of generalized linear modeling in a multi-model inference framework. Our results show that (i) rearing conditions affect fitness, (ii) rearing conditions, size of hatchlings, size and age at maturity and sex are related to the number of instars before pupation, and (iii) there are both age and size thresholds for pupation which differ between sexes and between larvae reared under different conditions. Results are discussed in the context of lepidopteran plasticity in life history traits and its relationship with optimal molting strategies. PMID:19589342

  10. Stratification of yeast cells during chronological aging by size points to the role of trehalose in cell vitality.

    PubMed

    Svenkrtova, Andrea; Belicova, Lenka; Volejnikova, Andrea; Sigler, Karel; Jazwinski, S Michal; Pichova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo a process akin to differentiation during prolonged culture without medium replenishment. Various methods have been used to separate and determine the potential role and fate of the different cell species. We have stratified chronologically-aged yeast cultures into cells of different sizes, using centrifugal elutriation, and characterized these subpopulations physiologically. We distinguish two extreme cell types, very small (XS) and very large (L) cells. L cells display higher viability based on two separate criteria. They respire much more actively, but produce lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). L cells are capable of dividing, albeit slowly, giving rise to XS cells which do not divide. L cells are more resistant to osmotic stress and they have higher trehalose content, a storage carbohydrate often connected to stress resistance. Depletion of trehalose by deletion of TPS2 does not affect the vital characteristics of L cells, but it improves some of these characteristics in XS cells. Therefore, we propose that the response of L and XS cells to the trehalose produced in the former differs in a way that lowers the vitality of the latter. We compare our XS- and L-fraction cell characteristics with those of cells isolated from stationary cultures by others based on density. This comparison suggests that the cells have some similarities but also differences that may prove useful in addressing whether it is the segregation or the response to trehalose that may play the predominant role in cell division from stationary culture. PMID:26614086

  11. Experience of Late–Middle-Aged Women who Reside in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in Becoming Psychologically Mature Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Euna; Kim, Haeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to search the inner world of postmenopausal women in late-middle age who are facing senescence and live in small and medium-sized cities. Methods The methods of the study were the investigation and classification of answers to questions according to a declarative ethnography analysis. The questions asked to late–middle-aged women living in small and medium-sized cities were “How do you interpret and recognize the changes in the body after menopause?” and “Which methods do you choose and practice to maintain your health in relation to aging during middle age?”. Results Four positive topics and two negative topics were drawn from the study. The four positive themes were: ambition; completion of a great mission; life with a sense of affection; and gratitude for maintaining health. The negative themes were: undulating emotion; and filling the emptiness. Conclusion The recognition of changes in the body after menopause in late–middle-aged women in small and medium-sized cities can affect their preparation processes towards senescence. It is critical to find the means to manage emergency health cases from early adulthood to middle age, based on the outcomes of the study. The study also emphasizes the importance of the woman's family's alternative strategies and supportive systems, which can fit into the cultural context of the community. PMID:26430612

  12. Children in Lesbian and Single-Parent Households: Psychosexual and Psychiatric Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A total of 37 school-age children reared in 27 lesbian households were compared with 38 school-age children reared in 27 heterosexual single-parent households. Investigated were subjects' psychosexual development and emotions, behavior, and relationships. Results indicated groups did not differ in gender identity, sex role behavior, or sexual…

  13. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  14. Evaluation of tropically-adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Heifer age and size at first conception and characteristics of their first calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate genetic effects for age and size at estimated time of first conception, and temperament in straightbred and crossbred heifers (n = 554) produced from Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, and to evaluate first parturition performance of heifers, includi...

  15. A survey of recycling behaviour in households in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tuddin, Rabaah; Ayupp, Kartinah; Ayup, Kartinah

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the factors that might influence recycling behaviour of the households in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Information on recycling activity, socio-economic characteristics, and attitudes of the households towards recycling were obtained from interviews with 456 households in Dhaka. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the recycling behaviour of the households. The results showed that environmental consciousness, the availability of storage space, and age (25-35 years) are significant positive predictors of recycling behaviour (at the 1% level). Another variable Income 2 (TK3,000-15,000) is also positively correlated with recycling (at the 5% level). Establishment of a recycling programme could be an effective strategy in implementing sustainable waste management in Bangladesh. For this strategy to succeed, however, active partnership between households and the waste management service department is required. The households' attitudes toward recycling should, therefore, be taken into consideration as should the results of this study, which are important indicators of households' positive attitudes toward sustainable waste management in Dhaka. PMID:19942645

  16. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  17. Household Poverty Dynamics in Malawi: A Bivariate Probit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenala Bokosi, Fanwell

    The aim of this study is to identify the sources of expenditure and poverty dynamics among Malawian households between 1998 and 2002 and to model poverty transitions in Malawi using a bivariate probit model with endogenous selection to address the initial conditions' problem. The exogeneity of the initial state is strongly rejected and could result in considerable overstatement of the effects of the explanatory factors. The results of the bivariate probit model do indicate that education of the household head, per capita acreage cultivated and changes in household size are significantly related to the probability of being poor in 2002 irrespective of the poverty status in 1998. For those households who were poor in 1998, the probability of being poor in 2002 was significantly influenced by household size, value of livestock owned and mean time to services, while residence in the Northern region was a significant variable in determining the probability of being poor in 2002 for households that were not poor in 1998.

  18. Household energy use in non-OPEC developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Energy use in the residential sector in India, Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, the Sudan, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Guatemala is presented. Whenever possible, information is included on the commercial fuels (oil, gas, coal, and electricity) and on what are termed noncommercial fuels (firewood, animal dung, and crop residues). Of special interest are the differences in the consumption patterns of urban and rural areas, and of households at different income levels. Where the data allow, the effect of household size on energy consumption is discussed. Section II is an overview of the data for all eight countries. Section III examines those areas (India, Brazil, Mexico City) for which data exist on the actual quantity of energy consumed by households. Korea, the Sudan, and Pakistan, which collect data on household expenditures on fuels, are discussed in Section IV. The patterns of ownership of energy-using durables in Malaysia and Guatemala are discussed in Section V. (MCW)

  19. Path Analysis of Household Energy Use - Neighborhood Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenjin, Nanako

    Many have studied residential energy use in relation with appliance types and efficiency, dwelling types, behavior, socio-demographics, and geography. Yet little is understood about the interrelations among the variables in the context of energy use. We used data collected through residential energy surveys from two neighborhoods in California. Path analysis models with emphasis on the appliance characteristics, appliance usage, and household energy use were developed and statistically tested. Our study showed that even a simple demographic variable like household size has unique effect channels on household energy use and also the channel was significant in one neighborhood but not in the other. While our model leaves much to be improved, the model supports a framework of energy use to explain energy use from a behavioral perspective in which household decisions were related to socio-demographic characteristics but neighborhood difference also plays a major role.

  20. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA § 254.5 Household eligibility. (a) Certification procedures. All applicant... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  1. Long-term growth trajectories in a changing climate: disentangling age from size effects in old Fagus trees from contrasting bioclimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the drivers promoting exceptional longevity in trees and how their growth performances vary approaching maximum lifespan still represent intriguing challenges not only for tree biology, but also for modelling the long-term forest ecosystem functioning under a changing environment. Tree growth rate is expected to increase with increasing stem size, but higher risk of hydraulic failure and mortality can affect larger trees under increasingly dry conditions. In turn, very old trees are characterized by slow growth and smaller size, factors able to confer advantages against biotic and abiotic disturbances. Rising evidences that very old trees are negligibly affected by the progressive deterioration of physiological functions associated with age support the idea that size, not age, is the main constrain to tree lifespan, so that negative senescence has been proposed as a frequent phenomenon in trees. Additional empirical knowledge is needed to thoroughly assess how complex, uneven-aged old-growth forests cope under climate change in order to define their role in terrestrial carbon cycle. We used a tree-ring network of 8 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests containing several of the oldest crossdated broadleaf trees of the Northern Hemisphere (400-600 years old) to analyse how their growth rates vary along age/size development. We sampled advanced old-growth stands, where canopy tree mortality is naturally occurring, divided among contrasting bioclimatic conditions: eastern Alps and central Apennines (rainy vs. dry summer). To disentangle the long-term effects of size and age on long-term tree growth history, we reconstructed Basal Area Increment (BAI) along size (DBH) development, grouping growth trajectories in different age classes. On average, BAI increased continuously as stem size increased, regardless of bioclimatic region and age class. Old trees grew the slowest and kept increasing BAI trends. In turn, especially on the drier

  2. Black carbon simulations using a size- and mixing-state-resolved three-dimensional model: 2. Aging timescale and its impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the aging timescale and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of black carbon (BC) over East Asia and its outflow region using a size- and mixing-state-resolved three-dimensional model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-chem) with the Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS) and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC). The WRF-chem/ATRAS-MOSAIC model explicitly calculates BC aging (condensation and coagulation) and removal processes, with 12 size and 10 BC mixing state bins (128 bins in total). The model reveals large spatial and temporal variability of the BC aging timescale and the CCN activity of BC-containing particles over East Asia (spring 2009) with their strong size and supersaturation dependence. The BC aging timescale differs from 0.19 to 3.1 days (period and domain average at an altitude of 1 km), depending on the choice of size (mass or number) and supersaturation (1.0% or 0.1%). As a result, almost 100% of BC-containing particles are CCN-active at a supersaturation of 1.0%, whereas 20-50% of BC-containing particles are CCN-inactive at a supersaturation of 0.1%, with a strong size dependence. These results show the importance of resolving BC aging processes and their dependence on size and supersaturation in models for more accurate simulations of BC concentrations and their distribution and lifetime. A sensitivity simulation without resolving BC mixing state shows the underestimation of total BC mass concentrations by 5-10% and the BC mass concentrations in the CCN-inactive particles (at a supersaturation of 0.1%) by 40-60% over the outflow region (at 150°E), compared with the simulation resolving BC mixing state. Because BC aging speed is very slow at 150°E and eastward, the change in BC mass and its CCN activity by resolving BC mixing state will continue over long distances and may have a large impact on BC transport from East

  3. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He age dispersion arising from analysis of variable grain sizes and broken crystals - examples from the Scottish Southern Uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczak, Katarzyna; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronometry is a powerful technique for deciphering denudation of the uppermost crust. However, the age dispersion of single grains from the same rock is typical, and this hampers establishing accurate thermal histories when low grain numbers are analysed. Dispersion arising from the analysis of broken crystal fragments[1] has been proposed as an important cause of age dispersion, along with grain size and radiation damage. A new tool, Helfrag[2], allows constraints to be placed on the low temperature history derived from the analysis of apatite crystal fragments. However, the age dispersion model has not been fully tested on natural samples yet. We have performed AHe analysis of multiple (n = 20-25) grains from four rock samples from the Scottish Southern Uplands, which were subjected to the same exhumation episodes, although, the amount of exhumation varied between the localities. This is evident from the range of AFT ages (˜60 to ˜200 Ma) and variable thermal histories showing either strong, moderate and no support for a rapid cooling event at ˜60 Ma. Different apatite size and fragment geometry were analysed in order to maximise age dispersion. In general, the age dispersion increases with increasing AFT age (from 47% to 127%), consistent with the prediction from the fragmentation model. Thermal histories obtained using Helfrag were compared with those obtained by standard codes based on the spherical approximation. In one case, the Helfrag model was capable of resolving the higher complexity of the thermal history of the rock, constraining several heating/cooling events that are not predicted by the standard models, but are in good agreement with the regional geology. In other cases, the thermal histories are similar for both Helfrag and standard models and the age predictions for the Helfrag are only slightly better than for standard model, implying that the grain size has the dominant role in generating the age dispersion

  4. Under-reporting of inpatient services utilisation in household surveys – a population-based study in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Eva LH; Leung, Gabriel M; Woo, Pauline PS; Choi, Sarah; Lo, Su-Vui

    2005-01-01

    Background Recognising that household interviews may produce biased estimates of health services utilisation, we examined for under- and over-reporting of hospitalisation episodes in three recent, consecutive population-based household surveys in Hong Kong. Methods Territory-wide inpatient service utilisation volumes as estimated from the 1999, 2001 and 2002 Thematic Household Surveys (THS) were benchmarked against corresponding statistics derived from routine administrative databases. Between-year differences on net under-reporting were quantified by Cohen's d effect size. To assess the potential for systematic biases in under-reporting, age- and sex-specific net under-reporting rates within each survey year were computed and the F-test was performed to evaluate differences between demographic subgroups. We modelled the effects of age and sex on the likelihood of ever hospitalisation through logistic regression to compare the odds ratios respectively derived from survey and administrative data. Results The extent of net under-reporting was moderately large in all three years amounting to about one-third of all inpatient episodes. However, there did not appear to be significant systematic biases in the degree of under-reporting by age or sex on stratified analyses and logistic regression modelling. Conclusion Under-reporting was substantial in Hong Kong's THS. Recall bias was likely most responsible for such reporting inaccuracies. A proper full-design record-check study should be carried out to confirm the present findings. PMID:15860127

  5. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  6. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  7. Household Water Chlorination Reduces Incidence of Diarrhea among Under-Five Children in Rural Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mengistie, Bezatu; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Background Household water treatment has been advocated as a means of decreasing the burden of diarrheal diseases among young children in areas where piped and treated water is not available. However, its effect size, the target population that benefit from the intervention, and its acceptability especially in rural population is yet to be determined. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of household water chlorination in reducing incidence of diarrhea among children under-five years of age. Method A cluster randomized community trial was conducted in 36 rural neighborhoods of Eastern Ethiopia. Households with at least one child under-five years of age were included in the study. The study compared diarrhea incidence among children who received sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach) for household water treatment and children who did not receive the water treatment. Generalized Estimation Equation model was used to compute adjusted incidence rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. Result In this study, the incidence of diarrhea was 4.5 episodes/100 person week observations in the intervention arm compared to 10.4 episodes/100 person week observations in the control arm. A statistically significant reduction in incidence of diarrhea was observed in the intervention group compared to the control (Adjusted IRR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.36–0.48). Conclusion Expanding access to household water chlorination can help to substantially reduce child morbidity and achieve millennium development goal until reliable access to safe water is achieved. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01376440 PMID:24194899

  8. Household demand for waste recycling services.

    PubMed

    Palatnik, Ruslana; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

    2005-02-01

    Municipalities everywhere are coping with increasing amounts of solid waste and need urgently to formulate efficient and sustainable solutions to the problem. This study examines the use of economic incentives in municipal waste management. Specifically, we address the issue of recycling, if and when this waste management option is-on social welfare grounds-a preferred solution.A number of studies have recently assessed the monetary value of the externalities of alternative solid waste management options. In the present context, these subsidies could be interpreted as the implicit value of the benefits from reducing environmental externalities associated with landfilling as perceived by local government authorities. We surmise that the difference between mean households' willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling services, via the purchase of a subsidized waste disposal facility, and the above (proxy) value of externalities reflects the difference between private and public perception regarding the negative externality associated with landfilling. We believe that this information is useful in determining the level of subsidization needed (if at all) to sustain any recycling program.The study is unique in the sense that its conclusions are based on revealed household behavior when faced with increased disposal costs, as well as information on WTP responses in hypothetical but related (and, therefore, familiar) scenarios. The article also explores the influence of the subsidization schemes on recycling rates. It was found that with low levels of effort needed to participate in a curbside recycling program, households' participation rates are mainly influenced by economic variables and age, and households are willing to pay a higher price for the recycling scheme. When the required effort level is relatively high, however, households would pay a lower price, and the rate is influenced mainly by their environmental commitment and by economic considerations. We found that

  9. Reduction of fibroblast size/mechanical force down-regulates TGF-β type II receptor: implications for human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gary J; Shao, Yuan; He, Tianyuan; Qin, Zhaoping; Perry, Daniel; Voorhees, John J; Quan, Taihao

    2016-02-01

    The structural integrity of human skin is largely dependent on the quality of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM), which is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. Normally, fibroblasts attach to the ECM and thereby achieve stretched, elongated morphology. A prominent characteristic of dermal fibroblasts in aged skin is reduced size, with decreased elongation and a more rounded, collapsed morphology. Here, we show that reduced size of fibroblasts in mechanically unrestrained three-dimensional collagen lattices coincides with reduced mechanical force, measured by atomic force microscopy. Reduced size/mechanical force specifically down-regulates TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) and thus impairs TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Both TβRII mRNA and protein were decreased, resulting in 90% loss of TGF-β binding to fibroblasts. Down-regulation of TβRII was associated with significantly decreased phosphorylation, DNA-binding, and transcriptional activity of its key downstream effector Smad3 and reduced expression of Smad3-regulated essential ECM components type I collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2). Restoration of TβRII significantly increased TGF-β induction of Smad3 phosphorylation and stimulated expression of ECM components. Reduced expression of TβRII and ECM components in response to reduced fibroblast size/mechanical force was fully reversed by restoring size/mechanical force. Reduced fibroblast size was associated with reduced expression of TβRII and diminished ECM production, in aged human skin. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism that provides a molecular basis for loss of dermal ECM, with concomitant increased fragility, which is a prominent feature of human skin aging. PMID:26780887

  10. Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status. PMID:21090176

  11. Comparative Epidemiology of Influenza B Yamagata- and Victoria-Lineage Viruses in Households.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cuiling; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Tsang, Tim K; Fang, Vicky J; Fung, Rita O P; Ip, Dennis K M; Cauchemez, Simon; Leung, Gabriel M; Peiris, J S Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2015-10-15

    Influenza B viruses split into 2 distinct lineages in the early 1980s, commonly named the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. There are few data on the comparative epidemiology of Victoria- and Yamagata-lineage viruses. In 2007-2011, we enrolled 75 and 34 households containing index patients with acute respiratory illness who tested positive for Yamagata- and Victoria-lineage viruses, respectively, from outpatient clinics in Hong Kong, China. These index patients and their household contacts were followed up for 7-10 days. We examined overall risk of polymerase chain reaction-confirmed infection among household contacts and the risk of secondary infection within households using an individual-based hazard model that accounted for tertiary transmission and infections occurring outside the household. We found that for Victoria-lineage viruses, the risk of within-household infection among household contacts aged ≤15 years was significantly higher (risk ratio = 12.9, 95% credibility interval: 4.2, 43.6) than that for older household contacts, while for Yamagata-lineage viruses, the risk of within-household infection for household contacts did not differ by age. Influenza B Yamagata- and Victoria-lineage viruses have similar characteristics in terms of viral shedding and clinical illness. The mechanisms underlying these epidemiologic differences deserve further investigation. PMID:26400854

  12. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women. PMID:25828990

  13. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. PMID:25525130

  14. Tracking the provenance of Greenland-sourced, Holocene aged, individual sand-sized ice-rafted debris using the Pb-isotope compositions of feldspars and 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblendes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Lee F.; Bailey, Ian; Foster, Gavin L.; Allen, Georgina; Kelley, Simon P.; Andrews, John T.; Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Storey, Craig D.

    2016-01-01

    The provenance of sand-sized ice-rafted debris (IRD) sourced from Greenland is currently difficult to determine. Such knowledge, if it could be ascertained with a high degree of certainty, could be applied to the Greenland-proximal marine records to improve both our understanding of modern-day spatial patterns of iceberg rafting and the past history of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Recent studies have highlighted the utility of the Pb-isotope composition of individual sand-sized feldspars and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual sand-sized hornblendes in this regard. However, before any such provenance toolkit can be applied to the palaeo-record, it is necessary first to determine whether this approach can be used to track the sources of known recent Greenland-proximal IRD deposition. To this end we present new records of the Pb-isotope composition and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual sand-sized grains of feldspars and hornblendes, respectively, from modern Greenland glacifluvial and fjord sands and Holocene to modern Greenland-proximal marine sediments. These new data demonstrate that sand-sized feldspars and hornblendes glacially eroded by the GIS exhibit distinct intra- and inter-tectonic terrane differences in their Pb-isotope compositions and ages and that these differences are clearly expressed in the geochemistry and geochronology of sand-sized IRD deposited in marine sediments around Greenland. Although overlap exists between some Greenland-proximal IRD 'source fields' defined by these data, our approach has the potential to both better understand spatial patterns of Greenland-derived IRD in the modern day as well as during past episodes of iceberg calving.

  15. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  16. PICTURE OF SUBSIDIZED HOUSEHOLDS -- 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data contains nearly five million subsidized households across the United States. It includes: (1) totals; (2) Indian housing; (3) public housing; (4) Section 8 certificates and vouchers; (5) Section 8 moderate rehabilitation; (6) Section 8 new and substantial rehabilitation...

  17. Effects of topography, soil type and forest age on the frequency and size distribution of canopy gap disturbances in a tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, E.; Dalling, J. W.

    2013-04-01

    Treefall gaps are the major source of disturbance in most tropical forests. The frequency and size of these gaps have important implications for forest ecosystem processes as they can influence the functional trait distribution of tree communities, stand-level above-ground biomass and productivity. However, we still know little about the relative importance of environmental drivers of gap disturbance regimes because existing studies vary greatly in criteria used for defining gaps, in the spatial extent of the study area, and the spatial resolution of canopy height measurements. Here we use LiDAR (light detecting and ranging) to explore how forest age, topography and soil type affect canopy disturbance patterns across a 1500 ha tropical forest landscape in central Panama. We characterize disturbance based on the frequency distribution of gap sizes (the "gap size distribution"), and the area of the forest affected by gaps (the "gap area fraction"). We found that slope and forest age had significant effects on the gap size distribution, with a higher frequency of large gaps associated with old-growth forests and more gentle slopes. Slope and forest age had similar effects on the gap area fraction, however gap area fraction was also affected by soil type and by aspect. We conclude that variation in disturbance patterns across the landscape can be linked to factors that act at the fine scale (such as aspect or slope), and factors that show heterogeneity at coarser scales (such as forest age or soil type). Awareness of the role of different environmental factors influencing gap formation can help scale-up the impacts of canopy disturbance on forest communities measured at the plot scale to landscape and regional scales.

  18. Effects of topography, soil type and forest age on the frequency and size distribution of canopy gap disturbances in a tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, E.; Dalling, J. W.

    2013-11-01

    Treefall gaps are the major source of disturbance in most tropical forests. The frequency and size of these gaps have important implications for forest ecosystem processes as they can influence the functional trait distribution of tree communities, stand-level aboveground biomass and productivity. However, we still know little about the relative importance of environmental drivers of gap disturbance regimes because existing studies vary greatly in criteria used for defining gaps, in the spatial extent of the study area, and the spatial resolution of canopy height measurements. Here we use lidar (light detecting and ranging) to explore how forest age, topography and soil type affect canopy disturbance patterns across a 1500 ha tropical forest landscape in central Panama. We characterize disturbance based on the frequency distribution of gap sizes (the "gap size distribution"), and the area of the forest affected by gaps (the "gap area fraction"). We found that slope and forest age had significant effects on the gap size distribution, with a higher frequency of large gaps associated with old-growth forests and more gentle slopes. Slope and forest age had similar effects on the gap area fraction, however gap area fraction was also affected by soil type and by aspect. We conclude that variation in disturbance patterns across the landscape can be linked to factors that act at the fine scale (such as aspect or slope), and factors that show heterogeneity at coarser scales (such as forest age or soil type). Awareness of the role of different environmental factors influencing gap formation can help scale up the impacts of canopy disturbance on forest communities measured at the plot scale to landscape and regional scales.

  19. Aging of the reaction mixture as a tool to modulate the crystallite size of UiO-66 into the low nanometer range.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Marco; Dümbgen, Kim Corinna; van Bokhoven, Jeroen Anton; Ranocchiari, Marco

    2016-05-11

    Nanosized UiO-66 with an unprecedented crystallite size of 10 nm was synthesized by exploiting controlled aging of stock solutions of Zr(4+) in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of variable amounts of water and acetic acid prior to the addition of the ligand. The yield of the synthesis is not affected, affording high conversion of the starting reagents into the product. PMID:27091378

  20. The C9orf72 repeat size correlates with onset age of disease, DNA methylation and transcriptional downregulation of the promoter.

    PubMed

    Gijselinck, I; Van Mossevelde, S; van der Zee, J; Sieben, A; Engelborghs, S; De Bleecker, J; Ivanoiu, A; Deryck, O; Edbauer, D; Zhang, M; Heeman, B; Bäumer, V; Van den Broeck, M; Mattheijssens, M; Peeters, K; Rogaeva, E; De Jonghe, P; Cras, P; Martin, J-J; de Deyn, P P; Cruts, M; Van Broeckhoven, C

    2016-08-01

    Pathological expansion of a G4C2 repeat, located in the 5' regulatory region of C9orf72, is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). C9orf72 patients have highly variable onset ages suggesting the presence of modifying factors and/or anticipation. We studied 72 Belgian index patients with FTLD, FTLD-ALS or ALS and 61 relatives with a C9orf72 repeat expansion. We assessed the effect of G4C2 expansion size on onset age, the role of anticipation and the effect of repeat size on methylation and C9orf72 promoter activity. G4C2 expansion sizes varied in blood between 45 and over 2100 repeat units with short expansions (45-78 units) present in 5.6% of 72 index patients with an expansion. Short expansions co-segregated with disease in two families. The subject with a short expansion in blood but an indication of mosaicism in brain showed the same pathology as those with a long expansion. Further, we provided evidence for an association of G4C2 expansion size with onset age (P<0.05) most likely explained by an association of methylation state of the 5' flanking CpG island and expansion size in blood (P<0.0001) and brain (P<0.05). In several informative C9orf72 parent-child transmissions, we identified earlier onset ages, increasing expansion sizes and/or increasing methylation states (P=0.0034) of the 5' CpG island, reminiscent of disease anticipation. Also, intermediate repeats (7-24 units) showed a slightly higher methylation degree (P<0.0001) and a decrease of C9orf72 promoter activity (P<0.0001) compared with normal short repeats (2-6 units). Decrease of transcriptional activity was even more prominent in the presence of small deletions flanking G4C2 (P<0.0001). Here we showed that increased methylation of CpGs in the C9orf72 promoter may explain how an increasing G4C2 size lead to loss-of-function without excluding repeat length-dependent toxic gain-of-function. These data provide insights into

  1. The C9orf72 repeat size correlates with onset age of disease, DNA methylation and transcriptional downregulation of the promoter

    PubMed Central

    Gijselinck, I; Van Mossevelde, S; van der Zee, J; Sieben, A; Engelborghs, S; De Bleecker, J; Ivanoiu, A; Deryck, O; Edbauer, D; Zhang, M; Heeman, B; Bäumer, V; Van den Broeck, M; Mattheijssens, M; Peeters, K; Rogaeva, E; De Jonghe, P; Cras, P; Martin, J-J; de Deyn, P P; Cruts, M; Van Broeckhoven, C

    2016-01-01

    Pathological expansion of a G4C2 repeat, located in the 5' regulatory region of C9orf72, is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). C9orf72 patients have highly variable onset ages suggesting the presence of modifying factors and/or anticipation. We studied 72 Belgian index patients with FTLD, FTLD–ALS or ALS and 61 relatives with a C9orf72 repeat expansion. We assessed the effect of G4C2 expansion size on onset age, the role of anticipation and the effect of repeat size on methylation and C9orf72 promoter activity. G4C2 expansion sizes varied in blood between 45 and over 2100 repeat units with short expansions (45–78 units) present in 5.6% of 72 index patients with an expansion. Short expansions co-segregated with disease in two families. The subject with a short expansion in blood but an indication of mosaicism in brain showed the same pathology as those with a long expansion. Further, we provided evidence for an association of G4C2 expansion size with onset age (P<0.05) most likely explained by an association of methylation state of the 5' flanking CpG island and expansion size in blood (P<0.0001) and brain (P<0.05). In several informative C9orf72 parent–child transmissions, we identified earlier onset ages, increasing expansion sizes and/or increasing methylation states (P=0.0034) of the 5' CpG island, reminiscent of disease anticipation. Also, intermediate repeats (7–24 units) showed a slightly higher methylation degree (P<0.0001) and a decrease of C9orf72 promoter activity (P<0.0001) compared with normal short repeats (2–6 units). Decrease of transcriptional activity was even more prominent in the presence of small deletions flanking G4C2 (P<0.0001). Here we showed that increased methylation of CpGs in the C9orf72 promoter may explain how an increasing G4C2 size lead to loss-of-function without excluding repeat length-dependent toxic gain-of-function. These data provide

  2. Small Body Size at Birth and Behavioural Symptoms of ADHD in Children Aged Five to Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, J.; Raikkonen, K.; Kajantie, E.; Heinonen, K.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Jarvenpaa, A.-L.; Strandberg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural disorders with a neurodevelopmental background, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with a non-optimal foetal environment, reflected in small body size at birth. However, the evidence stems from highly selected groups with birth outcomes biased towards the extreme low end of the…

  3. Recombinant T-cell Receptor Ligand RTL1000 Limits inflammation and Decreases Infarct Size after Experimental Ischemic Stroke in Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, W.; Dotson, A. L.; Libal, N. L.; Lapato, A. S.; Bodhankar, S.; Offner, H.; Alkayed, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that recombinant T-cell receptor ligand 1000 (RTL1000) reduces infarct size and improves long-term functional recovery after experimental stroke in young transgenic mice expressing human leukocyte antigen DR2 (DR2-Tg). In this study, we determined the effect of RTL1000 on infarct size in 12-month old middle-aged DR2-Tg mice, and investigated its mechanism of action. Twelve months old male DR2-Tg mice underwent 60 min of intraluminal reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Vehicle or RTL1000 was injected 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after MCAO. Cortical, striatal and total hemispheric infarcts were measured 96 h after stroke. The spleen and brain tissue were collected 96 h after stroke for immunological analysis. Our data showed that RTL1000 significantly reduced infarct size 96 h after MCAO in middle-aged male DR2-Tg mice. RTL1000 decreased the number of activated monocytes/microglia cells (CD11b+CD45hi) and CD3+ T cells in the ischemic hemisphere. RTL1000 also reduced the percentage of total T cells and inflammatory neutrophils in spleen. These findings suggest that RTL1000 protects against ischemic stroke in middle-aged male mice by limiting post-ischemic inflammation. PMID:25556831

  4. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  5. Household Crowding During Childhood and Long-Term Education Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lopoo, Leonard M; London, Andrew S

    2016-06-01

    Household crowding, or having more household members than rooms in one's residence, could potentially affect a child's educational attainment directly through a number of mechanisms. We use U.S. longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to derive new measures of childhood crowding and estimate negative associations between crowding during one's high school years and, respectively, high school graduation by age 19 and maximum education at age 25. These negative relationships persist in multivariate models in which we control for the influence of a variety of factors, including socioeconomic status and housing-cost burden. Given the importance of educational attainment for a range of midlife and later-life outcomes, this study suggests that household crowding during one's high school years is an engine of cumulative inequality over the life course. PMID:27103537

  6. Socio-economic & household risk factors of malaria in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ravendra K.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Saha, Kalyan B.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Jain, Vidhan; Singh, P. P.; Silawat, Nipun; Patel, R.; Hussain, M.; Chand, S.K.; Pandey, Arvind; Singh, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malaria is a major public health problem in many States of the country, particularly, in Madhya Pradesh where both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are endemic. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate risk factors for malaria, but only a few have examined household and socio-economic risk factors. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to explore the relationship of different socio-demographic, socio-economic and behavioural risk factors with malaria prevalence in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. Methods: This study was undertaken in all 62 villages of Bargi Primary Health Centre from May 2005 to June 2008. These villages comprised 7117 households with an average family size of five members. Fortnightly fever surveys were conducted in all villages to assess prevalence of malaria infection in the community. The distinct univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted on the data set. Results: The important socio-demographic risk factors like age of household head, social group, occupation and family size; socio-economic factors like type of walls of house, place of drinking water source, irrigated land, cash crop; and behavioural variables like place of sleeping, use of bed nets, etc. were found significantly associated with malaria in univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses only social groups, family size, type of walls of house, and place of sleeping had strong significant association with prevalence of malaria. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that in tribal areas where people are living in poor quality of houses with no proper use of preventive measures, malaria is firmly established. We conclude that community based interventions which bring improvement in standard of living, access to healthcare facilities and health awareness, will have a significant impact on malaria prevention in these areas. PMID:26139773

  7. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 2: Crater Size-frequency Distribution Curves and Geomorphic Unit Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In assessing the relative ages of the geomorphic/geologic units, crater counts of the entire unit or nearly the entire unit were made and summed in order to get a more accurate value than obtainable by counts of isolated sections of each unit. Cumulative size-frequency counts show some interesting relationships. Most of the units show two distinct crater populations with a flattening out of the distribution curve at and below 10 km diameter craters. Above this crater size the curves for the different units diverge most notably. In general, the variance may reflect the relative ages of these units. At times, however, in the larger crater size range, these curves can overlap and cross on another. Also the error bars at these larger sizes are broader (and thus more suspect), since counts of larger craters show more scatter, whereas the unit areas remain constant. Occasional clusters of relatively large craters within a given unit, particularly one of limited areal extent, can affect the curve so that the unit might seem to be older than units which it overlies or cuts.

  8. Single parent households and increased child asthma morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Moncrief, Terri; Beck, Andrew F.; Simmons, Jeffrey M.; Huang, Bin; Kahn, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize whether single parent households are associated with pediatric asthma-related repeat healthcare utilization and to examine family-level psychosocial variables that may explain this relationship. Methods We analyzed a prospective cohort of 526 children aged 1–16 years hospitalized for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing whose caregivers self-reported their marital status. Those reporting being “single” were considered the at-risk category. The outcome was repeat asthma-related utilization (emergency room (ER) revisit or hospital readmission) within 12 months. We assessed, a priori, four psychosocial variables (household income, caregiver risk of psychological distress, ratio of in-home children to adults, and regular attendance at childcare or a secondary home). Results Among all children enrolled in the cohort, 40% returned to the ER or hospital for asthma within 12 months. Of all caregivers, 59% self-identified as single. Single status was significantly associated with each psychosocial variable. Children in households with lower incomes and higher ratios of children to adults were both more likely to return to the ER or hospital than children with higher incomes and lower ratios, respectively (each p<0.05). Patients in single parent households were significantly more likely to reutilize than those in married parent households (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.00–2.07, p<0.05). When adjusted for income, the relationship between single parent households and reutilization became non-significant. Conclusions Children admitted for asthma from single parent households were more likely to have asthma-related reutilization within 12 months than children from homes with married parents. This was driven, in large part, by underlying differences in household income. PMID:24320709

  9. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  10. A STUDY ON VISUAL LIMITATION OF AGE, NUMERICAL SIZE, AND EXPOSURE TIME WHILE USERS OPERATE MOBILE DEVICES.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Po-Chan

    2015-12-01

    Technological advances have driven the development of information technology (IT) products and communication using mobile devices has become a part of daily life. When using mobile devices, reading time and font size are important communication elements that significantly affect reading performance. However, studies of reading performance in older samples have mainly used printed material or computer monitors; this study examined the performance of users when reading text messages on the interfaces of mobile devices and described their visual limitations. Sixty-two participants took part in the experiment, which involved displaying different font sizes and exposure times. The younger group read 10-point font accurately, while the older group had much worse accuracy, even at 14 points. The younger group correctly read text messages displayed for 0.4 sec. above 80% of the time, while the older group's accuracy was severely impaired even when text was displayed for 1 sec. PMID:26654989

  11. Decision-making on intra-household allocation of bed nets in Uganda: do households prioritize the most vulnerable members?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to insecticide-treated bed nets has increased substantially in recent years, but ownership and use remain well below 100% in many malaria endemic areas. Understanding decision-making around net allocation in households with too few nets is essential to ensuring protection of the most vulnerable. This study explores household net allocation preferences and practices across four districts in Uganda. Methods Data collection consisted of eight focus group discussions, twelve in-depth interviews, and a structured questionnaire to inventory 107 sleeping spaces in 28 households. Results In focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, participants almost unanimously stated that pregnant women, infants, and young children should be prioritized when allocating nets. However, sleeping space surveys reveal that heads of household sometimes receive priority over children less than five years of age when households have too few nets to cover all members. Conclusions When asked directly, most net owners highlight the importance of allocating nets to the most biologically vulnerable household members. This is consistent with malaria behaviour change and health education messages. In actual allocation, however, factors other than biological vulnerability may influence who does and does not receive a net. PMID:24885653

  12. Involuntary Underemployment Among Heads of Households. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Timothy

    Utilizing a data file extracted from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center's Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examines the work experiences of a national sample of non-aged heads of households. This data source, which describes heads of households and structural characteristics of labor markets, is unique in that…

  13. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  14. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1983.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1985-06-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $20,000 in 1983, up by 2.4% over the 1982 figure after accounting for the 3.2% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($25,400) increased between 1982 and 1983 by 1.2%; 3) taxes absorbed about 21% of the total money income received by households, down slightly from 22% in 1982; 4) households paid an average of $5890 in taxes in 1983, about $170 lower than paid in 1982; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1983 in the Northeast, South, and West regions, but in the Midwest region no significant increase was observed; 6) married couples with children recorded a real increase of 2.6% in mean after tax income, yet married couples without children had after tax incomes that were 3.3% higher in 1983; and 7) the mean income after taxes for households with a householder age 65 years and over showed no significant increase in 1983. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $463 billion in 1983. 92% of US households paid 1 or more of the taxes covered in this study in 1983. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on

  15. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; de Craen, Anton J M; Bis, Joshua C; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W K; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Jackson, Anne U; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A F; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L; Montasser, May E; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M; Ryan, Kathy A; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L; Wang, Sophie R; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S; de Geus, Eco J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Henders, Anjali K; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew P; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M; Rice, Treva K; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarzynski, Mark A; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A; Scott, William R; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P Eline; Smit, Jan H; Sparsø, Thomas H; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Stringham, Heather M; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  16. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparsø, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  17. The Net Worth of Female-Headed Households: A Comparison to Other Types of Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Lee, Yongwoo

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the level of assets and debts that female-headed households have in comparison to those of married-couple households and other types of households. The empirical results revealed that the amounts of net worth of married-couple households and male-headed households were significantly…

  18. Timing of Childhood Events and Early-Adult Household Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Martha S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Identified a number of risk factors contributing to early household formation. Found that for girls, factors included mother's educational level and birth order; for boys, parental divorce at any stage of childhood. Risk factors common to boys and girls were age of mother at time of child's birth and race. (HTH)

  19. The Effect of Household Smoking Bans on Household Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Romer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because household smoking levels and adoption of domestic smoking rules may be endogenously related, we estimated a nonrecursive regression model to determine the simultaneous relationship between home smoking restrictions and household smoking. Methods. We used data from a May–June 2012 survey of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, households with smokers (n = 456) to determine the simultaneous association between smoking levels in the home and the presence of home restrictions on smoking. Results. We found that home smoking rules predicted smoking in the home but smoking in the home had no effect on home smoking restrictions. Conclusions. Absent in-home randomized experiments, a quasi-experimental causal inference suggesting that home smoking rules result in lower home smoking levels may be plausible. PMID:24524533

  20. 3.5-D model of sediment age and grain size for the Northern Gulf of Aqaba-Elat (Red Sea) using submarine cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanari, Mor; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Tibor, Gideon; Goodman Tchernov, Beverly N.; Bookman, Revital; Taha, Nimer; Marco, Shmuel

    2016-04-01

    The Northern Gulf of Aqaba-Elat (NGAE) is the northeast extension of the Red Sea, located at the southernmost part of the Dead Sea Fault, at the transition zone between the deep en-echelon submarine basins of the Red Sea and the shallow continental basins of the Arava Valley (Israel and Jordan). We aim to characterize the top sedimentary cover across the NGAE in order to check the effect of tectonics on the sedimentary column, using high resolution grain size data and radiocarbon dating of core sediments. We analyzed 11 piston cores and 9 short cores: high resolution grain-size and radiocarbon age determinations were used to compile a 3.5-D (3.5 dimensional) model of age-depth-grain size for the top 3-5 meters of the NGAE. Two general trends of the grain size spatial distribution are observed: grains are coarsest at the NE corner of the NGAE (Aqaba coastline) and grow finer with the distance to the west on the shelf and with the distance from shore to the south. Long- and short-term accumulation rates were compiled for the entire NGAE, demonstrating a distinct E-W trend on the shelf and a NNE-SSW trend in the deep basin. The 3.5-D age-depth-grain size model conforms to- and validates the tectonic structure of the shelf detailed by previous authors. We suggest that the impact of tectonic structure of the shelf is highly significant in terms of spatial variations across the shelf, both in age of the sediment and its grain size characteristics. The temporal-spatial distribution of the grain size in the deep basin of the NGAE reveals a correlation between sediment age, dominant grain size and active tectonics: fine-grain, old sediment in the margins (Late Pleistocene, as old as >40 ka on the west margin; Early Holocene, as old as 7.5 ka, on the east margin), and Late Pleistocene sediment farther south from the dominant active diagonal fault which underlies the Elat Canyon. Young coarse sediment is present in the middle of the basin, where most of the active sediment

  1. Transport of metabolically active bacteria in porous media:the effect of substrate, age, and grain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, J. B.; Bradford, S. A.; Simunek, J.; Vereecken, H.; Klumpp, E.

    2008-12-01

    In our studies we sought to understand the biological processes affecting the microbial transport and retention of metabolically active Pseudomonas putida. To study the role of the metabolic state of the bacteria, we conducted a series of column experiments, varying saturation, substrate concentration, and grain size to help elucidate mechanisms present. Results show a significant difference between the metabolic state in the effluent, under unsaturated conditions, offset by grain-size effects. The presence of substrate appears to influence the breakthrough behavior of these cells in the smaller sand grains. We have also observed that the hydrophobicity of cells change according to their life-cycle. In addition we conducted a simple micro-model experiment, to observe if the cells behavior could be affected by their own motility. The results show that the cells travel with solution, suggesting that the flagella does not significantly contribute to movement through the porous media under these conditions. Furthermore, we monitored the cells in fresh batch solution and filtered solution under the microscope. In this case, we confirmed that during the stationary phase, when the cells are older there is an increased presence of aggregates, contrasting to the cells in the log-phase. There are also very long rod-shaped cells, which appear to undergo a process of cell division. The spatial distribution of these cells was also analyzed. The results indicate there are various mechanisms influencing the retention mechanisms of Pseudomonas putida, which are directly dependent on the metabolic state, substrate presence, and saturation of the porous media. The experimental data were analyzed using a mathematical model under a modified HYDRUS1D.

  2. The foundation of kinship: Households

    PubMed Central

    Leonetti, Donna L.; Chabot-Hanowell, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as critical to household formation, pair bonding and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems could emerge that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species creating what we term “kinship ecologies.” We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women’s contributions, bonds men to women and generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history. PMID:21799658

  3. Environmental Contamination in Households of Patients with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Megan K; Bobr, Aleh; Kuskowski, Michael A; Johnston, Brian D; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander; Johnson, James R

    2016-05-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) is common and difficult to treat, potentially necessitating fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Although C. difficilespores persist in the hospital environment and cause infection, little is known about their potential presence or importance in the household environment. Households of R-CDI subjects in the peri-FMT period and of geographically matched and age-matched controls were analyzed for the presence ofC. difficile Household environmental surfaces and fecal samples from humans and pets in the household were examined. Households of post-FMT subjects were also examined (environmental surfaces only). Participants were surveyed regarding their personal history and household cleaning habits. Species identity and molecular characteristics of presumptive C. difficile isolates from environmental and fecal samples were determined by using the Pro kit (Remel, USA), Gram staining, PCR, toxinotyping, tcdC gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Environmental cultures detected C. difficile on ≥1 surface in 8/8 (100%) peri-FMT households, versus 3/8 (38%) post-FMT households and 3/8 (38%) control households (P= 0.025). The most common C. difficile-positive sites were the vacuum (11/27; 41%), toilet (8/30; 27%), and bathroom sink (5/29; 17%).C. difficile was detected in 3/36 (8%) fecal samples (two R-CDI subjects and one household member). Nine (90%) of 10 households with multiple C. difficile-positive samples had a single genotype present each. In conclusion,C. difficile was found in the household environment of R-CDI patients, but whether it was found as a cause or consequence of R-CDI is unknown. If household contamination leads to R-CDI, effective decontamination may be protective. PMID:26921425

  4. Age-related differences in sequential modulations of problem-size and rule-violation effects during arithmetic problem verification tasks.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2016-04-01

    Young and older adults were asked to verify true (e.g., 5 × 61 = 305) and false (5 × 61 = 315) arithmetic problems. Half the problems were small (e.g., 5 × 17 = 85) and half were large problems (e.g., 5 × 93 = 465). Half the false problems respected the five rule (i.e., the product of an operand multiplied by five ends with either 5 or 0), and half violated this rule (e.g., 21 × 5 = 115 vs. 21 × 5 = 113). Both young and older adults showed problem-size effects (i.e., they verified small problems more quickly than large problems) and five-rule violation effects (i.e., they verified problem violating five rule more quickly than problems respecting five rule). Moreover, we found sequential modulations of these problem-size and five-rule effects. Problem-size effects were larger on current problems following large problems than after small problems, and five-rule violation effects were larger after problems violating the five rule than after no-rule violation problems. Finally, sequential modulations of problem-size effects were larger in older adults than in young adults, and there were no age-related differences in sequential modulations of five-rule violation effects. These findings speak to the determiners of arithmetic performance, as to how well arithmetic calculation and non-calculation strategies are executed and selected on current problems depends on strategies used with preceding problems. PMID:26515986

  5. General Household Emergency Preparedness: A Comparison Between Veterans and Nonveterans

    PubMed Central

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Strine, Tara; Atia, Mangwi; Chu, Karen; Mitchell, Michael N.; Dobalian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite federal and local efforts to educate the public to prepare for major emergencies, many US households remain unprepared for such occurrences. United States Armed Forces veterans are at particular risk during public health emergencies as they are more likely than the general population to have multiple health conditions. Methods This study compares general levels of household emergency preparedness between veterans and nonveterans by focusing on seven surrogate measures of household emergency preparedness (a 3-day supply of food, water, and prescription medications, a battery-operated radio and flashlight, a written evacuation plan, and an expressed willingness to leave the community during a mandatory evacuation). This study used data from the 2006 through 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a state representative, random sample of adults aged 18 and older living in 14 states. Results The majority of veteran and nonveteran households had a 3-day supply of food (88% vs 82%, respectively) and prescription medications (95% vs 89%, respectively), access to a working, battery-operated radio (82% vs 77%, respectively) and flashlight (97% vs 95%, respectively), and were willing to leave the community during a mandatory evacuation (91% vs 96%, respectively). These populations were far less likely to have a 3-day supply of water (61% vs 52%, respectively) and a written evacuation plan (24% vs 21%, respectively). After adjusting for various sociodemographic covariates, general health status, and disability status, households with veterans were significantly more likely than households without veterans to have 3-day supplies of food, water, and prescription medications, and a written evacuation plan; less likely to indicate that they would leave their community during a mandatory evacuation; and equally likely to have a working, battery-operated radio and fiashlight. Conclusion These findings suggest that veteran households appear to be

  6. Distribution, size and shape of colorectal adenomas as determined by a colonoscopist with a high lesion detection rate: Influence of age, sex and colonoscopy indication

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Johannes L; Okcu, Murat; Preisegger, Karl H

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing attention is focused on polyp-related features that may contribute to the operator-dependent nature of colonoscopy. Few data on polyps are available from high-yield colonoscopies, which may serve as a benchmark for quality control. Objectives Describe regional distribution, histology, size and shape of polyps, and the influence of patient age and gender, in colonoscopies performed by a colonoscopist with high lesion detection rate. Methods Analysis of 698 consecutive patients with diagnostic, screening or surveillance colonoscopies. Results In 704 colonoscopies, 1908 polyps were removed (360 were protruded and 1548 flat; 1313 were hyperplastic, 562 adenomas, 5 serrated adenomas and 8 mixed). There were 232 adenomas in female patients and 343 in male patients; 39% of the adenomas were protruded and 61% were flat. The peak adenoma detection rate (ADR) was 51% in patients beyond age 79 years. Men older than 49 years had a higher ADR than women. In men and women, respectively: 40% and 32% of adenomas were in the right colon, 31% and 22% were in the transverse colon, and 30% and 47% were in the left colon. Beyond age 59 years, the majority of adenomas were in the proximal colon. Conclusions An excess of adenomas in the proximal colon started at age 60 and this was more pronounced in men than in women. In all colonic regions, the majority of adenomas had a shape that was flat and smaller than 6 mm. PMID:27403311

  7. Age and evolution of the lower NW flank of the Hecates Tholus volcano, Mars, based on crater size-frequency distribution on CTX images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, M. A.; Michael, G. G.; Centeno, J. D.

    2013-09-01

    We present results of crater size-frequency distribution (SFD) analysis of the lower NW flank of the Hecates Tholus volcano, Elysium volcanic province of Mars, by the use of images acquired by the Context (CTX) instrument on board of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (6 m/pixel in resolution). Previous similar works were focused on the caldera complex of the volcano and some sectors of the lower NW flank. In this study, we analyzed the complete crater population of the main geomorphological units characterizing this sector of the volcano (de Pablo, M.A., Centeno, J.D. [2012]. Journal of Maps 8(3), 208-2014), discarding areas with possible clustering to avoid erroneous results. In total, 16 areas corresponding to 10 geomorphological units were measured and absolute model ages were derived for them. The ages correspond to ages of origin as well as of the end of resurfacing events, depending on the analyzed sector, resulting in some cases in more than one age per area. Our results are in general in agreement with previous works, and establish that the age of the origin of the Hecates Tholus volcano could be at least 3.8 Ga, with possible volcanic eruptions occurring until at least 335 Ma. Glacial events were also dated at 90 Ma, 30 Ma, 16 Ma, and 6 Ma, although it is possible to recognize ages which could also be related to the recent ice ages of Mars, between 2 and 0.4 Ma. Our results allowed us to determine that glacial processes could have been active as far back as 1.4 Ga, with possible events at intermediate ages. We deduced from the resulting ages and our observations on CTX images and the available geomorphological map of the area, that glacial-related processes played an important role in sculpting this flank of the volcano, and the possible level of the glacial sheet at the edge of the main depression of this flank was also deduced, with altitudes ranging between -2035 m and -2490 m, in agreement with the presence of smooth outcrops and roche moutonnées in the

  8. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamed, Amr; Hisasue, Shin-ichi; Shirai, Masato; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Wakumoto, Yoshiaki; Tsujimura, Akira; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5) and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5). Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant). The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant). The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103) μm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103) μm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant). In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly smaller in the TRT group (4.93×103 μm2 [range 0.51–14.88×103]) than in the control group (6.08×103 μm2 [0.77–19.97×103]; P<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion This is the first study clearly indicating that TRT can decrease visceral fat cell size, which is a key modulator in the metabolic syndrome. However, a short course of TRT could not improve the ICP response in hypogonadal aged male rats. Further investigation is necessary to clarify the exact rationale of TRT on the visceral fat cell. PMID:25767790

  9. Migration of elderly people to join existing households: some evidence from the 1991 Household Sample of Anonymised Records.

    PubMed

    Al-hamad, A; Flowerdew, R; Hayes, L

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper the extent to which migration of the elderly is linked to changing family living situations [in Great Britain] is explored.... [The authors] estimate the number of older people making moves of this type, and...identify their age, sex, and marital status, and their relationship to the household they have joined. It is also possible to say something about the households which these people are joining, in terms of tenure and house type, and to describe the distribution of distances moved." PMID:12293363

  10. Prediction of Child Health by Household Density and Asset-Based Indices in Impoverished Indigenous Villages in Rural Panamá

    PubMed Central

    Halpenny, Carli M.; Koski, Kristine G.; Valdés, Victoria E.; Scott, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection over a 16-month period and stunting of preschool children were compared between more spatially dense versus dispersed households in rural Panamá. Chronic protozoan infection was associated with higher household density, lower household wealth index, poor household water quality, yard defecation, and the practice of not washing hands with soap before eating. Models for chronic diarrhea confirmed the importance of household wealth, water quality, sanitation, and hygiene practices. Furthermore, chronic protozoan infection was an important predictor for low height-for-age, along with low household wealth index scores, but not household density. Thus, despite better access to health related infrastructure in the more densely populated households, chronic protozoan infection was more common, and was associated with higher rates of child stunting, compared with more dispersed households. PMID:22302864

  11. Complement factor H genetic variant and age-related macular degeneration: effect size, modifiers and relationship to disease subtype

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Reecha; Casas, Juan P; Webster, Andrew R; Bird, Alan C; Mann, Samantha S; Yates, John RW; Moore, Anthony T; Sepp, Tiina; Cipriani, Valentina; Bunce, Catey; Khan, Jane C; Shahid, Humma; Swaroop, Anand; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Branham, Kari E H; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Bergen, Arthur A; Klaver, Caroline CW; Baas, Dominique C; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Yuhong; Gibbs, Daniel; Weber, Bernhard H F; Keilhauer, Claudia N; Fritsche, Lars G; Lotery, Andrew; Cree, Angela J; Griffiths, Helen L; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Chen, Li L; Jenkins, Sharon A; Peto, Tunde; Lathrop, Mark; Leveillard, Thierry; Gorin, Michael B; Weeks, Daniel E; Ortube, Maria Carolina; Ferrell, Robert E; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Conley, Yvette P; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan H; Soubrane, Gisele; Topouzis, Fotis; Vioque, Jesus; Tomazzoli, Laura; Young, Ian; Whittaker, John; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Smeeth, Liam; Fletcher, Astrid; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2012-01-01

    Background Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case–control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect modification by smoking. Methods To precisely quantify the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1061170, ‘Y402H’) with risk of AMD among studies with differing study designs, participant ancestry and AMD grade and to investigate effect modification by smoking, we report two unpublished genetic association studies (n = 2759) combined with data from 24 published studies (26 studies, 26 494 individuals, including 14 174 cases of AMD) of European ancestry, 10 of which provided individual-level data used to test gene–smoking interaction; and 16 published studies from non-European ancestry. Results In individuals of European ancestry, there was a significant association between Y402H and late-AMD with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10–2.45; P = 1.1 x 10−161]. There was no evidence of effect modification by smoking (P = 0.75). The frequency of Y402H varied by ancestral origin and the association with AMD in non-Europeans was less clear, limited by paucity of studies. Conclusion The Y402H variant confers a 2-fold higher risk of late-AMD per copy in individuals of European descent. This was stable to stratification by study design and AMD classification and not modified by smoking. The lack of association in non-Europeans requires further verification. These findings are of direct relevance for disease prediction. New research is needed to ascertain if differences in circulating levels, expression or activity of factor H protein explain the genetic association. PMID:22253316

  12. Male dominance linked to size and age, but not to 'good genes' in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Alain; Nusslé, Sébastien; Britschgi, Adrian; Evanno, Guillaume; Müller, Rudolf; Wedekind, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Background Males that are successful in intra-sexual competition are often assumed to be of superior quality. In the mating system of most salmonid species, intensive dominance fights are common and the winners monopolise most mates and sire most offspring. We drew a random sample of mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta) from two wild populations and determined their dominance hierarchy or traits linked to dominance. The fish were then stripped and their sperm was used for in vitro fertilisations in two full-factorial breeding designs. We recorded embryo viability until hatching in both experiments, and juvenile survival during 20 months after release into a natural streamlet in the second experiment. Since offspring of brown trout get only genes from their fathers, we used offspring survival as a quality measure to test (i) whether males differ in their genetic quality, and if so, (ii) whether dominance or traits linked to dominance reveal 'good genes'. Results We found significant additive genetic variance on embryo survival, i.e. males differed in their genetic quality. Older, heavier and larger males were more successful in intra-sexual selection. However, neither dominance nor dominance indicators like body length, weight or age were significantly linked to genetic quality measured as embryo or juvenile survival. Conclusion We found no evidence that females can improve their offspring's genetic viability by mating with large and dominant males. If there still were advantages of mating with dominant males, they may be linked to non-genetic benefits or to genetic advantages that are context dependent and therefore possibly not revealed under our experimental conditions – even if we found significant additive genetic variation for embryo viability under such conditions. PMID:17974038

  13. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Comparison Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2007-05-01

    In 1969, the U. S. Department of Transportation began collecting detailed data on personal travel to address various transportation planning issues. These issues range from assessing transportation investment programs to developing new technologies to alleviate congestion. This 1969 survey was the birth of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State (NYS), the state procured an additional sample of households in both the 1995 and 2001 surveys. In the 1995 survey, NYS procured an addition sample of more than 9,000 households, increasing the final NY NPTS sample size to a total of 11,004 households. Again in 2001, NYS procured 12,000 additional sample households, increasing the final New York NHTS sample size to a total of 13,423 households with usable data. These additional sample households allowed NYS to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas significantly smaller than for what the national NPTS and NHTS data are intended. Specifically, these larger sample sizes enable detailed analysis of twelve individual Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Furthermore, they allowed NYS to address trends in travel behavior over time. In this report, travel data for the entire NYS were compared to those of the rest of the country with respect to personal travel behavior and key travel determinants. The influence of New York City (NYC) data on the comparisons of the state of New York to the rest of the country was also examined. Moreover, the analysis examined the relationship between population density and travel patterns, and the similarities and differences among New

  14. Household Waste. Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Andy; And Others

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide citizens with information about household waste and to indicate how they can contribute to its reduction. Information indicates how each individual can reduce waste by adopting new habits, making informed choices, and becoming involved in community action. Discussed are: (1) specific issues of general and…

  15. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  16. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  17. Making Psychology a Household Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  18. Assessing changes in the UK pet cat and dog populations: numbers and household ownership.

    PubMed

    Murray, J K; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Roberts, M A; Browne, W J

    2015-09-12

    The main aim of this study was to replicate methodology used to estimate the size of the UK pet cat and dog populations in 2006 and the proportion of households owning cats/dogs in 2007, to produce updated data to compare trends in ownership and population sizes. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect telephone interview data from 3155 households in the UK. 2011 UK human census data were used to predict the size of the cat and dog populations owned by households in the UK in 2011. Of the households, 23 per cent (714/3155) owned one or more cats and 30 per cent (940/3155) owned one or more dogs. There was some overlap in pet ownership with 7 per cent (210/3155) of households owning both one or more cats and one or more dogs. There was a small but significant decrease in the proportion of households that owned one or more cats in 2011 compared with 2007, with no change in the proportion owning dogs. However, overall, the total number of cats and dogs that were estimated to be owned by UK households did not change significantly between 2006 and 2011. The estimated size (and 95% CIs) of the pet cat and dog populations in the UK in 2011 was 10,114,764 cats (9,138,603-11,090,924) and 11,599,824 dogs (10,708,070-12,491,578). PMID:26350589

  19. The reliability of the premodern Korean household register data for an historical demography analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, H

    1989-12-01

    The author examines the reliability of premodern Korean household register data from the Hyonnae-Myon sub-county for the period 1606-1789. The focus is on underreporting of household members less than 15 years of age, females, and slaves. The author reconstructs the population by age and sex and discusses methods of compensating for data errors and omissions in historical demography. (SUMMARY IN KOR) PMID:12342754

  20. Re-evaluation of Pleistocene and Holocene long bone robusticity trends with regards to age-at-death estimates and size standardization procedures.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Lukáš; Eisová, Stanislava; Holliday, Trenton W

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends in robusticity of lower limb bones in the genus Homo through the Pleistocene until the present have been proposed, which have been interpreted as a consequence of decreasing levels of mobility and activity patterns, changes in lifestyle, and environmental factors. There has also long been evidence that skeletal strength increases over an individual's lifespan. This increase is caused by continuous bone remodeling that optimizes the structure of a bone to resist mechanical loadings and creates a balance between endosteal resorption and subperiosteal apposition. However, none of the previous studies of temporal trends in robusticity has considered both processes and analyzed how individual age-related robusticity might influence higher-level temporal trends. This paper therefore explores temporal trends in robusticity of lower limb long bones within the genus Homo and considers how individual ages-at-death can confound published evolutionary trends, given the fact that some aspects of relative bone strength tend to increase over individual lifespans. Cross-sectional diaphyseal properties of the midshaft and proximal femur and midshaft tibia of Pleistocene and early Holocene individuals, together with data on age-at-death are used to analyze changes in relative bone strength relative to individuals' ages and evolutionary time. The results show increasing bone strength in adulthood until the fourth decade and then a slight decrease, an observation that conforms to previously published results on recent human populations. However, no significant impact of age-at-death on the trends along an evolutionary trajectory has been detected. The evolutionary trends in femoral and tibial relative strength can be described as fluctuating, probably as a consequence of changing mobility patterns, environmentally and technologically influenced behaviors, and demographic processes. The differences between evolutionary trends published in several studies are explained

  1. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities. PMID:26813787

  2. Recent Refrigeration Cycle Technologies for Household Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    The household refrigerator is one of the most important and the biggest energy-consuming home appliances. This paper summarize recent refrigeration cycle developments in the field of domestic household refrigerators based on a survey of publications.

  3. 78 FR 71725 - Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ..., Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements. See 78 FR 18421-01 (Mar. 26, 2013). This collection has been... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Household Movers' Disclosure Requirements AGENCY: Surface...

  4. Household after-tax income: 1985.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1987-06-01

    This report is the 6th in a series presenting estimates of household after-tax income and taxes paid by households. Data from the 1983 Annual Housing Survey, the Income Survey Development Program, and the Internal Revenue Service were combined with the March 1986 Current Population Survey data to derive the estimates shown in this report. Highlights of the data follow. 1) Mean household income after taxes was $22,650 in 1985, up by .9% over the 1984 figure after accounting for the 3.6% rise in consumer prices. The mean after-tax incomes of both white households ($23,480) and black households ($15,790) increased from 1984 to 1985. Hispanic household income ($17,920) showed no signicant change. 2) Mean after-tax income is highest in the West ($24,350); households in the Northeast had the largest increase in mean after-tax income for the period 1980-1985 (10.9%). 3) Mean after-tax incomes increased from 1984-1985 for married-couple family households with children to $28,390 and for female-maintained family households with no husband present to $13,090. There was no significant change among married-couple family households without children ($27,710). 4) Mean household income before taxes ($29,070) increased between 1984 and 1985 by 1.3% after adjusting for inflation. 5) Household paid an average of $6950 in taxes in 1985, $170 higher than the average taxes paid in 1984 after adjusting for price changes. 6) In 1985, 65% of households with incomes below the poverty level paid 1 or more of the types of taxes covered in this study. Taxes paid by poverty households amounted to 8% of the total money income received. 7) The average % of income paid in taxes ranged from 11% for households with incomes $10,000 to 29% for households with incomes of $50,000+. PMID:12268943

  5. Deletion of Mbtps1 (Pcsk8, S1p, Ski-1) Gene in Osteocytes Stimulates Soleus Muscle Regeneration and Increased Size and Contractile Force with Age.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Jeff P; Huffman, Nichole T; Vallejo, Julian; Brotto, Leticia; Chittur, Sridar V; Breggia, Anne; Stern, Amber; Huang, Jian; Mo, Chenglin; Seidah, Nabil G; Bonewald, Lynda; Brotto, Marco

    2016-02-26

    Conditional deletion of Mbtps1 (cKO) protease in bone osteocytes leads to an age-related increase in mass (12%) and in contractile force (30%) in adult slow twitch soleus muscles (SOL) with no effect on fast twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles. Surprisingly, bone from 10-12-month-old cKO animals was indistinguishable from controls in size, density, and morphology except for a 25% increase in stiffness. cKO SOL exhibited increased expression of Pax7, Myog, Myod1, Notch, and Myh3 and 6-fold more centralized nuclei, characteristics of postnatal regenerating muscle, but only in type I myosin heavy chain-expressing cells. Increased expression of gene pathways mediating EGF receptor signaling, circadian exercise, striated muscle contraction, and lipid and carbohydrate oxidative metabolism were also observed in cKO SOL. This muscle phenotype was not observed in 3-month-old mice. Although Mbtps1 mRNA and protein expression was reduced in cKO bone osteocytes, no differences in Mbtps1 or cre recombinase expression were observed in cKO SOL, explaining this age-related phenotype. Understanding bone-muscle cross-talk may provide a fresh and novel approach to prevention and treatment of age-related muscle loss. PMID:26719336

  6. [Size and age structure of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Pisces: Xiphidae), at Cabo San Lucas, Baja California sur, México].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Felipe Neri Melo; Uraga, Roberto Felix

    2004-12-01

    The striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) is found in temperate and tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. It is particularly abundant in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula. Specimens brought to Cabo San Lucas port (22 degrees 53' N y 109 degrees 54' W) by the sport fishery fleet that operates withing a radius of 54 km from 1988 to 1993 were sexes, measured and weighed. A total 1030 individuals were sampled. Dorsal fin spines (389) were collected for age estimation. The spines were sectioned and hyaline-opaque bands counted. The relation of length to spine radius was similar for males and females. The fourth dorsal spine reflected the growth of the fish. The rhythm of growth mark formation is yearly and related to the sea surface temperature. Ten age groups were found and the seventh group was the most abundant, followed by groups "6" and "8". The age structure of the striped marlin was stable in the study period. The observed sizes were 160-280 cm jaw length with 90% of the organisms measuring between 190 and 225 cm. The small individuals recruit to the fishery from June to December. PMID:17354410

  7. Appliance Ownership and Household Work Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovingood, Rebecca P.; McCullough, Jane L.

    1986-01-01

    Data from 2,100 two-parent, two-child households were analyzed to determine the relationships of demographic variables, ownership of 11 appliances, and time spent in four categories of household tasks. Little evidence was found that appliance ownership is related to less time being spent in household tasks. (Author/CT)

  8. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and its Associated Factors in Women Aged 40–65 Years with 11 Years or More of Formal Education: A Population-Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Ana L. R.; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M.; Osis, Maria J.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Conde, Délio M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in middle-aged women with 11 years or more of formal education. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out using an anonymous, self-response questionnaire. A total of 315 Brazilian-born women, 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of schooling, participated in the study. The instrument used in the evaluation was based on the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was calculated from the mean score of sexual responsiveness (pleasure in sexual activities, excitation and orgasm), frequency of sexual activities and libido. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were evaluated. Poisson multiple regression analysis was carried out and the prevalence ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 35.9% among our study population. Multiple regression analysis showed that sexual dysfunction was positively associated with older age (prevalence ratios=1.04; 95%CI:1.01–1.07) and with the presence of hot flashes (prevalence ratios=1.37; 95%CI:1.04–1.80). Having a sexual partner (PR=0.47; 95%CI:0.34–0.65) and feeling well or excellent (prevalence ratios= 0.68; 95%CI: 0.52–0.88) were factors associated with lower sexual dysfunction scores. CONCLUSIONS Sexual dysfunction was present in more than one-third of women that were 40–65 years of age with 11 years or more of formal education. Within that age group, older age and hot flashes were associated with higher sexual dysfunction scores, whereas feeling well and having a sexual partner were associated with better sexuality. PMID:19061000

  9. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    PubMed Central

    Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of

  10. Patterns of household immigration into South Texas.

    PubMed

    Briody, E K

    1987-01-01

    This article examines Mexican migration into South Texas in recent decades and focuses on changes in the characteristics of the migrants' households. An ethnographic approach is used in examining 56 permanent, immigrant households. "This article introduces a hypothesis for explaining the increase and permanency of household immigration." It is found that "immigration often leads to downward social mobility with respect to legal status of household members, type of employment, and property ownership. Of particular note is the transformation of the household from a single to a multiple worker unit, in response to agricultural labor demands and growing employment opportunities in the non-agricultural sector." PMID:12314666

  11. Householder factorizations of unitary matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urías, Jesús

    2010-07-01

    A method to construct all representations of finite dimensional unitary matrices as the product of Householder reflections is given. By arbitrarily severing the state space into orthogonal subspaces, the method may, e.g., identify the entangling and single-component quantum operations that are required in the engineering of quantum states of composite (multipartite) systems. Earlier constructions are shown to be extreme cases of the unifying scheme that is presented here.

  12. Inconsistent pathways of household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Lisa Aberg, Helena; Lagerkvist, Anders; Berg, Per E.O.

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  13. Determinants of edible oil choice by households in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Gurrappa Naidu; Suryaprakash, Satrasala

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically. PMID:24083516

  14. Effect of Household-Based Drinking Water Chlorination on Diarrhoea among Children under Five in Orissa, India: A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Boisson, Sophie; Stevenson, Matthew; Shapiro, Lily; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Lakhwinder P.; Ward, Dana; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    equations to account for clustering at the household level. The impact of the intervention on weight-for-age z scores (WAZ) was analysed using random effect linear regression. Over the follow-up period, 84,391 child-days of observations were recorded, representing 88% of total possible child-days of observation. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea among intervention children was 1.69% compared to 1.74% among controls. After adjusting for clustering within household, the prevalence ratio of the intervention to control was 0.95 (95% CI 0.79–1.13). The mean WAZ was similar among children of the intervention and control groups (−1.586 versus −1.589, respectively). Among intervention households, 51% reported their child's drinking water to be treated with the tablets at the time of visit, though only 32% of water samples tested positive for residual chlorine. Faecal contamination of drinking water was lower among intervention households than controls (geometric mean TTC count of 50 [95% CI 44–57] per 100 ml compared to 122 [95% CI 107–139] per 100 ml among controls [p<0.001] [n = 4,546]). Conclusions Our study was designed to overcome the shortcomings of previous double-blinded trials of household water treatment in low-income settings. The sample size was larger, the follow-up period longer, both urban and rural populations were included, and adherence and water quality were monitored extensively over time. These results provide no evidence that the intervention was protective against diarrhoea. Low compliance and modest reduction in water contamination may have contributed to the lack of effect. However, our findings are consistent with other blinded studies of similar interventions and raise additional questions about the actual health impact of household water treatment under these conditions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01202383 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23976883

  15. Modeling household behavior in developing countries: discussion.

    PubMed

    Quisumbing, A R

    1996-12-01

    A large and growing body of literature has examined how agricultural households cope with risk. Much of the work has focused on which types of households are better able to smooth consumption, testing whether households with more resources and greater access to income-smoothing institutions, such as credit markets or well-functioning labor markets exhibit greater consumption smoothing. However, income shocks may have different effects upon different individuals within households, and differences in individual ability to smooth income or consumption may have welfare consequences which go beyond foregone income. The development of collective household models challenges the assumption that individuals within households maximize a single utility function. The assumption of income pooling has also been rejected in a growing body of empirical research on intrahousehold resource allocation. However, research on risk-pooling within households and differences in individual abilities to smooth consumption is relatively new. Selected papers are discussed. PMID:12292622

  16. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  17. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  18. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  19. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  20. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  1. Effects of Ageing on Aerosol Composition and Size Distribution Based on Regional Scale Aircraft Observations During the 2002 and 2004 ICARTT Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, L.; Daum, P.; Springston, S.; Lee, Y.; Wang, J.

    2005-12-01

    In the summers of 2002 and 2004 the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample aerosols and aerosol precursors in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. We present data on the spatial distribution of aerosols and their physical and chemical properties. Most of the sub-micron size aerosol consists of organics and sulfate. Only a minor fraction of the organic aerosol can be attributed to primary emissions. Formation of secondary organic aerosol is observed as an increase in the organic to CO ratio as a function of photochemical age. Organic aerosol is measured using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). We present comparisons between the AMS and a PCASP, DMA, and nephelometer - as this bears upon our conclusions. Production of aerosol sulfate can likewise be observed as a change in the sulfate to CO ratio but is more easily studied by following the time evolution of a point source plume such as was done for the Homer and Keystone power plants, located east of Pittsburgh. Concomitant with the addition of aerosol mass are changes in size spectra and optical properties.

  2. Diel flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: influence of age, gender, mating status, and body size.

    PubMed

    Sarvary, Mark A; Bloem, Kenneth A; Bloem, Stephanie; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring and control. We used computer-linked flight mills to investigate diel flight activity and flight performance in relation to gender, age, mating status, and body size. Maximal flight activity for both mated and unmated moths occurred during twilight, whereas flight activity was low during photophase. The total distance flown and the number of initiated flights within a diel cycle were higher in both unmated and mated females than in males, but the longest single flight was similar in both genders. These findings suggest that pheromone trap captures of males likely indicate the simultaneous presence of females and that mated females might even be in areas where males are not detected yet. Flight performance heterogeneity was large, with a small portion of the population (both males and females) performing long unbroken flights, whereas the majority made short flights. Females had higher pupal and adult body size and shorter longevity than males. A few individuals, particularly young mated females, flying long distances may be important for active spread of a population and the colonization of new habitats. Implications of this study in the control of the cactus moth by using the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:18459394

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  5. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Jessica A.; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Strupp, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) lessens hippocampal dysfunction and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1 g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0 g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17 months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial learning and memory followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing powerful support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for the trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  6. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  7. Swiss Canine Cancer Registry 1955-2008: Occurrence of the Most Common Tumour Diagnoses and Influence of Age, Breed, Body Size, Sex and Neutering Status on Tumour Development.

    PubMed

    Grüntzig, K; Graf, R; Boo, G; Guscetti, F; Hässig, M; Axhausen, K W; Fabrikant, S; Welle, M; Meier, D; Folkers, G; Pospischil, A

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry, comprising 121,963 diagnostic records of dogs compiled between 1955 and 2008, in which 63,214 (51.83%) animals were diagnosed with tumour lesions through microscopical investigation. Adenoma/adenocarcinoma (n = 12,293, 18.09%) was the most frequent tumour diagnosis. Other common tumour diagnoses were: mast cell tumour (n = 4,415, 6.50%), lymphoma (n = 2,955, 4.35%), melanocytic tumours (n = 2,466, 3.63%), fibroma/fibrosarcoma (n = 2,309, 3.40%), haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma (n = 1,904, 2.80%), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,324, 1.95%) and osteoma/osteosarcoma (n = 842, 1.24%). The relative occurrence over time and the most common body locations of those tumour diagnoses are presented. Analyses of the influence of age, breed, body size, sex and neutering status on tumour development were carried out using multiple logistic regression. In certain breeds/breed categories the odds ratios (ORs) for particular tumours were outstandingly high: the boxer had higher ORs for mast cell tumour and haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, as did the shepherd group for haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, the schnauzer for squamous cell carcinoma and the rottweiler for osteoma/osteosarcoma. In small dogs, the risk of developing mammary tumours was three times higher than in large dogs. However, small dogs were less likely to be affected by many other tumour types (e.g. tumours of the skeletal system). Examination of the influence of sex and neutering status on tumour prevalence showed that the results depend on the examination method. In all sampling groups the risk for female dogs of developing adenoma/adenocarcinoma was higher than for male dogs. Females had a lower risk of developing haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma than males. Neutered animals were at higher risk of developing specific tumours outside the genital organs than intact animals. The sample size allows detailed insight into the

  8. Marriage process and household formation in Bolivia and Argentina: the impact of migration in a peasant society.

    PubMed

    Dandler, J; Balan, J

    1988-06-01

    The impact of migration on family formation and fertility in peasant societies in Bolivia and Argentina was the focus of a large-scale research project. The project, conducted throughout 1984 and 1985, examined marriage patterns among peasants from rural communities in Bolivia who had settled in 3 locations: a lowland agricultural area; a provincial capital; and Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study sought to discover the interrelationship between economic diversification, land shortage, urban migration, and the onset of fertility decline, by comparing behavior patterns of younger and older (above age 30) respondents. The household is the basic structural unit of the Andean peasant region. Land is given to adult children after marriage, thereby maintaining the size of landholdings. There were significant differences, however, between mountain and valley communities. Age at marriage was 3 years younger in the mountain village, a pattern maintained when mountain peasants migrated to agricultural areas. In both communities, generational independence was achieved through access to the land. In valley communities, young females provide a source of labor and cash income for their families, while young males leave home, if only temporarily, to find work. Both these factors contribute to raise the age of marriage and delay household formation. But, young men who have migrated and then return follow the marriage patterns of the village mountain area. This is not true of those who migrate to the city, where contraceptive use is increasing and a fertility decline is evident. Migration to cities engenders a change in family formation, household autonomy, and a wage-earning rather than a land-based economic structure. In mountains and frontier communities, no contraception is practiced, nor is it available as it is in the cities and Buenos Aires. Family planning programs need to address the need for local contraceptive information and services. PMID:12315485

  9. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sujauddin, Mohammad Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-07-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r{sub xy} = 0.236, p < 0.05), education level (r{sub xy} = 0.244, p < 0.05) and monthly income (r{sub xy} = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them

  10. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  11. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children. PMID:20797479

  12. Normative influence and desired family size among young people in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Harbour, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    Research has identified the lack of acceptance of a two-child-family norm as the biggest obstacle to achieving replacement-level fertility in Egypt. This analysis examines norms about desired family size for 1,366 males and 1,367 females aged 15-24 in 2004 in rural Minya governorate. Two-level random-effects multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex and grouped by neighborhood, are used to assess normative influence at the household and neighborhood levels, controlling for individual- and household-level covariates. In the final model, young males in neighborhoods where more people desire a small family are 33 percent more likely to desire a small family than are young males in other neighborhoods. Young females in households with one or more adults preferring a small family are 78 percent more likely to desire a small family, and young females in households with one or more young people who prefer a small family are 37 percent more likely to desire a small family themselves, compared with those living with adults or with young people, respectively, who do not prefer a small family. Programs aiming to reduce fertility should be aware of gender differences in the sources of normative influence on desired family size. PMID:21834412

  13. Injection of household spray insecticide.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L H; Shupp, D; Weitz, H H; Zeccardi, J A

    1982-11-01

    During a three-week period, two patients who had attempted suicide by injecting themselves with commercially available household spray insecticides were seen in our emergency department. Both presented with cellulitis at and adjacent to the injection sites, and both were admitted for intravenous antibiotics, warm soaks, and elevation. In both patients abscesses subsequently developed in the areas of cellulitis. It is not clear whether the pathologic processes in these two patients were primarily due to inoculation of microorganisms or to the effects of the insecticide per se. PMID:7137672

  14. [Study of the factors associated with the inability to perform household tasks among aged persons on the Ile-de-France. Application to the sub-regional planning of home-help services].

    PubMed

    Bucquet, D; Colvez, A; Robine, J M; Curtis, S

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary results of a planning project in the area of health and social services for the elderly, which makes it possible to estimate the number of persons likely to seek help from such services at the administrative area levels with decisional powers. This involves identifying predictors of disability from raw data routinely available in the census and at various administrative area levels, the municipality being the preferred level. From the epidemiological data collected at the regional level, an indicator of disability has been constructed. Initially, those factors possibly associated with disabilities were identified by regrouping the variables in four dimensions (discriminant analysis): socio-economic, physical environment, human environment, local administrative area environment (district data from census, medical-social services offered in the area, ect.). Subsequently, a logistic regression made it feasible to calculate the coefficients attached to these predictors of disability. In our sample, sex, age and level of housing amenities in the dwelling place appear to be predictors of disability. The application of the coefficients obtained at the region level--by means of an epidemiological approach to distributions by sex, age and dwelling amenities characterizing a municipality or group of municipalities (territorial approach)--enabled us to estimate the number of persons 65 and over likely to seek help from home-assistance services at whatever administrative area level chosen. In certain of its quantitative aspects, this mixed approach (individual and area) helps in determining need, the first step in the planning process. PMID:3671861

  15. Age at calving in heifers and level of milk production during gestation in cows are associated with the birth size of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Depreester, E; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate environmental and dam factors associated with birth size of Holstein calves. Data of 1,594 births from dairy herds in Belgium and Germany were analyzed in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Immediately after birth, the birth weight of the calves was measured. On the next day, the heart girth (HG), withers height, and diagonal length of the dams and calves were measured. Parity, body condition score, gestation length (GL), and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open, lactation length, length of the dry period, and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation that took place during gestation was quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. After descriptive analyses, mixed models were used to identify factors that are significantly associated with the birth weight (most consistent measure of size at birth) of the calves born to both heifers and cows. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in heifers (n=540), calf sex, season of calving, GL, HG, withers height, diagonal length, and age at calving were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to heifers was estimated to be 41.3±1.01kg. In comparison to calves born to old (25.5 to 37.3mo; n=99) heifers, the birth weight was estimated to be 2.75, 3.29, and 2.35kg heavier when the calves were born to very young (20.3 to <22mo; n=98), young (22 to <23.5mo; n=145), and standard aged (23.5 to <25.5mo; n=198) heifers, respectively. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in cows (n=1,054), calf sex, season of calving, GL, parity, dry period, and MGEST were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to cows was estimated to be 44.1±0.99kg. For cows having an identical HG, the birth weight of the calves was estimated to

  16. Growing up without parents: socialisation and gender relations in orphaned-child-headed households in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Francis-Chizororo, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The most distressing consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic's impact on children has been the development of child-headed households (CHHs). Child 'only' households challenge notions of the ideal home, family, and 'normal' childhood, as well as undermining international attempts to institute children's rights. The development of these households raises practical questions about how the children will cope without parental guidance during their childhood and how this experience will affect their adulthood. Drawing on ethnographic research with five child heads and their siblings, this article explores how orphaned children living in 'child only' households organise themselves in terms of household domestic and paid work roles, explores the socialisation of children by children and the negotiation of teenage girls' movement. Further, it examines whether the orphaned children are in some way attempting to 'mimic' previously existing family/household gender relations after parental death. The study showed that all members in the CHHs irrespective of age and gender are an integral part of household labour including food production. Although there is masculinisation of domestic chores in boys 'only' households, roles are distributed by age. On the other hand, households with a gender mix tended to follow traditional gender norms. Conflict often arose when boys controlled teenage girls' movement and sexuality. There is a need for further research on CHHs to better understand orphans' experiences, and to inform policy interventions. PMID:20879189

  17. Is the use of maternal healthcare among prospective mothers higher in households that have experienced maternal death? Evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Chandan

    2016-09-01

    Essential maternity care services include providing antenatal, delivery and postnatal care in a continuum to avert excess maternal deaths. This study assesses whether there is any significant difference in the utilization of maternal healthcare services between women from households that experienced any maternal death and women from households that did not experience any maternal death. Data from India's District Level Households and Facility Survey, 2007-08 were used. A sample of 321 women (unweighted) aged 15-49 years residing in households that had experienced maternal death, and 217 737 women (unweighted) of the same age group living in households that did not experience any maternal death were found eligible for the analysis. Results indicate that women belonging to households that experienced maternal deaths were less likely to opt for full antenatal care [odds ratio (OR): 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.88] and postnatal care (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.61-0.91) compared with women from households that did not experience any maternal death. Conversely, women belonging to households experiencing maternal deaths were more likely to utilize skilled birth attendants (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.73) for their last delivery. This study hopes to draw the attention of program and policy makers to improve the reach of antenatal and postnatal care services, which are considered to be a supply side barrier compared with institutional delivery even by households that have reported maternal death. PMID:26864163

  18. Cell size and geometry of spinal cord motoneurons in the adult cat following the intramuscular injection of adriamycin: comparison with data from aged cats.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Yamuy, J; Engelhardt, J K; Xi, M C; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1996-10-28

    Adriamycin (ADM), an antineoplastic antibiotic, when injected intramuscularly, is taken up by motoneuron axonal terminals and retrogradely transported to the motoneuron soma where it exerts its neurotoxic effect. In the present study, ADM was injected into the hindlimb muscles of five adult cats. Measurements of the electrophysiological properties of the lumbar motoneurons innervating these muscles were obtained using intracellular techniques. Based upon these data the equivalent cylinder model of motoneurons was employed to evaluate ADM-induced changes in cell size and cell geometry. The size of cell somas in the ventral horn was also measured using light microscopy and computer imaging software. There were significant increases in the membrane time constant (25%) and input resistance (50%) in motoneurons whose muscles were treated with ADM (ADM-MNs) compared with data from control motoneurons (control-MNs). The increase in membrane time constant is attributed to an increase in membrane resistance; the increase in input resistance appears to depend upon both an increase in membrane resistance and a decrease in total cell surface area. Cell capacitance, which is proportional to the total cell surface area, was significantly reduced (15%) in ADM-MNs. Calculations based on cable theory indicate that while there was no significant change in the length of the equivalent cylinder for ADM-MNs, there was a significant decrease (17%) in the diameter of the equivalent cylinder. These data indicate that there is a decrease in total cell surface area which can be attributed to the shrinkage of branches throughout the dendritic tree. There was also a small (7%) but statistically significant decrease in the electrotonic length of ADM-MNs. Morphological analysis also revealed that the mean cross-sectional area of the somas of those ventral horn neurons which are likely to correspond to the motoneuron population was significantly reduced on the ADM-treated side compared to that

  19. Greater trunk muscle torque reduces postmenopausal bone loss at the spine independently of age, body size, and vitamin D receptor genotype in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Iki, M; Saito, Y; Dohi, Y; Kajita, E; Nishino, H; Yonemasu, K; Kusaka, Y

    2002-10-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is affected by muscle strength. Recently, vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype was reported to affect muscle strength as well as BMD in Caucasian women. The aim of this study was to evaluate independent effects of muscle strength of the trunk on BMD at the spine and its change over time in Japanese women. We followed 119 healthy postmenopausal women for 4 years and determined the change in BMD at the spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isometric peak torque and isokinetic concentric and eccentric peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were measured. The VDR genotype was determined by the PCR-RFLP method based on Apa I and Taq I endonuclease digestions defining the absence/existence of the restriction sites as A/a and T/t, respectively. The subjects were 60.1 +/- 6.6 years old, had 0.808 +/- 0.159 g/cm2 of BMD at baseline. The mean annual change in BMD (delta BMD) was -5.6 +/- 10.4 mg/cm2 during the follow-up period. The VDR genotype, defined by Taq I enzyme, significantly related to BMD at baseline and delta BMD showing that the subjects with genotype TT had the lowest BMD at baseline and lost bone most rapidly. However, its effect on muscle strength was not significant. All the trunk muscle strength indices showed significant positive effects on delta BMD, that is, the effects in increasing the gain and reducing the loss of BMD, after controlling for the effects of age, body size and the VDR genotype. The eccentric trunk extensor torque had a significant positive effect on delta BMD in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of this torque was the greatest among all the muscle indices. The net effect of the trunk extensor torque on delta BMD was greater than that of the VDR genotype. The trunk muscle strength was suggested to affect BMD change independently of age, body size, and the VDR genotype. Exercise programs to increase the strength of the trunk muscles would be beneficial for the prevention of osteoporosis regardless of

  20. Sex-specific plasticity and genotype × sex interactions for age and size of maturity in the sheepshead swordtail, Xiphophorus birchmanni.

    PubMed

    Boulton, K; Rosenthal, G G; Grimmer, A J; Walling, C A; Wilson, A J

    2016-03-01

    Responses to sexually antagonistic selection are thought to be constrained by the shared genetic architecture of homologous male and female traits. Accordingly, adaptive sexual dimorphism depends on mechanisms such as genotype-by-sex interaction (G×S) and sex-specific plasticity to alleviate this constraint. We tested these mechanisms in a population of Xiphophorus birchmanni (sheepshead swordtail), where the intensity of male competition is expected to mediate intersexual conflict over age and size at maturity. Combining quantitative genetics with density manipulations and analysis of sex ratio variation, we confirm that maturation traits are dimorphic and heritable, but also subject to large G×S. Although cross-sex genetic correlations are close to zero, suggesting sex-linked genes with important effects on growth and maturation are likely segregating in this population, we found less evidence of sex-specific adaptive plasticity. At high density, there was a weak trend towards later and smaller maturation in both sexes. Effects of sex ratio were stronger and putatively adaptive in males but not in females. Males delay maturation in the presence of mature rivals, resulting in larger adult size with subsequent benefit to competitive ability. However, females also delay maturation in male-biased groups, incurring a loss of reproductive lifespan without apparent benefit. Thus, in highly competitive environments, female fitness may be limited by the lack of sex-specific plasticity. More generally, assuming that selection does act antagonistically on male and female maturation traits in the wild, our results demonstrate that genetic architecture of homologous traits can ease a major constraint on the evolution of adaptive dimorphism. PMID:26688295

  1. Household After-Tax Incomes 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles T.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, mean after-tax household income increased faster than inflation for the fourth consecutive year. Mean household income after taxes was $22,650 in 1985, up by 0.9 percent over the 1984 figure. Mean household income before taxes ($29,070) increased by 1.3 percent after adjusting for inflation. The mean after-tax incomes of both White…

  2. Handling difficult materials: Household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-05-01

    At last count in 1990, the US EPA reported that 2.8 million tons of household appliances (often called ''white goods'') were discarded -- about 2% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. These figures may not seem particularly epic, but, considering the potentially harmful coolants, lubricants, and insulating materials left behind in these machines, the amount may be cause for concern. Management of these items is, of course, not impossible, just difficult. As more and more landfills turn white goods away, recycling is becoming the hot'' option. According to a study by the Steel Recycling Institute, about 4 million of the 8 million units discarded in the US were recycled in 1992. Recycling figures like these are impressive for any secondary material, demonstrating the strides appliance recycling has made in recent years. Implemented in May 1993, EPA's final rule on household appliance handling mandates that 80%--90% of all CFC or HCFC coolants must be recovered with certified equipment by a certified technician, who must record how the refrigerant is removed and where it is sent for recovery.

  3. Householder transformations and optimal linear combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Smiley, W., III

    1974-01-01

    Several theorems related to the Householder transformation and separability criteria are proven. Orthogonal transformations, topology, divergence, mathematical matrices, and group theory are discussed.

  4. Prevalence and socioeconomic and geographical inequalities of household food insecurity in the Paris region, France, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity (FI) is the situation where people do not have, at all times, access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of FI in the Paris area by using, for the first time in France, a specific FI questionnaire and to identify the characteristics of food-insecure households, taking into account a potential neighbourhood effect. Methods This study is based on data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study (a representative, population-based socioepidemiological study) that were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals in the Paris metropolitan area (PMA) were interviewed. FI was investigated by means of the USDA’s HFSSM. We used stratified multilevel models across three household income categories to identify populations at risk for FI. Results In 2010, 6.30% (95% CI = [4.99-7.97]) of the households in the PMA experienced FI (up to 13.59% in the most underprivileged neighbourhoods). About 2.50% of the households experienced severe FI and 2.85% of household living with an income above 1666 € experienced food insecurity, whereas the percentage raises to 23.38% among those living below the poverty threshold (<791 €). Depending on the income level, different household characteristics emerged as being associated with FI. In the poorest households, the presence of a child under 3 years of age was associated with an increased risk of FI (OR = 2.11; p = 0.03). Among higher-income households, the household composition appeared to be strongly associated with FI. Conclusion FI exists in several social groups in France. Its prevalence in the most underprivileged households should be considered an indicator of vulnerability, which could permit targeted social assistance policies. PMID:23688296

  5. Household HIV Testing Uptake among Contacts of TB Patients in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Velen, Kavindhran; Lewis, James J.; Charalambous, Salome; Page-Shipp, Liesl; Popane, Flora; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Hoffmann, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high HIV prevalence settings, offering HIV testing may be a reasonable part of contact tracing of index tuberculosis (TB) patients. We evaluated the uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among household contacts of index TB patients and the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons linked into care as part of a household TB contact tracing study. Methods We recruited index TB patients at public health clinics in two South African provinces to obtain consent for household contact tracing. During scheduled household visits we offered TB symptom screening to all household members and HCT to individuals ≥14years of age. Factors associated with HCT uptake were investigated using a random effects logistic regression model. Results & Discussion Out of 1,887 listed household members ≥14 years old, 984 (52%) were available during a household visit and offered HCT of which 108 (11%) self-reported being HIV infected and did not undergo HCT. Of the remaining 876, a total of 304 agreed to HCT (35%); 26 (8.6%) were newly diagnosed as HIV positive. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with uptake of HCT were prior testing (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–2.3) and another member in the household testing (odds ratio 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7–3.4). Within 3 months of testing HIV-positive, 35% reported initiating HIV care. Conclusion HCT as a component of household TB contact tracing reached individuals without prior HIV testing, however uptake of HIV testing was poor. Strategies to improve HIV testing in household contacts should be evaluated. PMID:27195957

  6. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  7. Relationship Between the Formation Conditions and Durations of One-Person Households in the Seoul Metropolitan Region.

    PubMed

    Yi, Changhyo

    2016-06-01

    Rapid demographic changes have occurred in Korea, with the number of one-person households almost doubling between 2000 and 2010 in the Seoul metropolitan region. Developed countries experienced these changes previously through the so-called second demographic transition. The purpose of this article is to ascertain how both the socioeconomic attributes and the location characteristics of one-person households at the time of their formation affect the durations of these households under the rapidly changing Korean demography. The spatial distribution of the areal location quotient indexes for one-person households indicated that the concentration of these households is relatively higher in the inner cities of metropolitan areas and the outskirts of the Seoul metropolitan region. Meanwhile, the distribution patterns of the relative concentration levels for one-person households by age group exhibited obvious differences. In the survival analysis for the entire sample of this research, household attributes were the primary determinants. However, the results of the empirical analyses by age group indicated that location characteristics were significant as well, although the significance of the variables varied with the types of one-person households. The duration of households of one person under 40 years old was affected by their access to employment districts and the concentration level of one-person households in the area. In contrast, the duration of households of one person 65 years old and older was influenced by the distribution of affordable housing. The findings of this study provide a framework that is able to make sense of the changing characteristics of the one-person households of nations in transition from developing to developed countries. PMID:27080119

  8. Household food insecurity and coping strategies in a poor rural community in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument. T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were utilized for comparison of factors between food secure and food insecure households and determination of factors associated with household food insecurity, respectively. More of the food insecure households were living below the poverty line, had a larger household size, more children and school-going children and mothers as housewives. As food insecure households had more school-going children, reducing expenditures on the children's education is an important strategy to reduce household expenditures. Borrowing money to buy foods, receiving foods from family members, relatives and neighbors and reducing the number of meals seemed to cushion the food insecure households from experiencing food insufficiency. Most of the food insecure households adopted the strategy on cooking whatever is available at home for their meals. The logistic regression model indicates that food insecure households were likely to have more children (OR=1.71; p<0.05) and non-working mothers (OR=6.15; p<0.05), did not own any land (OR=3.18; p<0.05) and adopted the strategy of food preparation based on whatever is available at their homes (OR=4.33; p<0.05). However, mothers who reported to borrow money to purchase food (OR=0.84; p<0.05) and households with higher incomes of fathers (OR=0.99; p<0.05) were more likely to be food secure. Understanding the factors that contribute to household food insecurity is imperative so that

  9. AB248. Expression of EphA2 protein is positively associated with age, tumor size and Fuhrman nuclear grade in clear cell renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Longxin; Zhou, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase of EphA2 has been shown frequently overexpressed in various types of human carcinomas, but the relationship between the expression of EphA2 protein in clear cell renal cell carcinoma was not well documented. Methods In the present study, using specific anit-EphA2 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated EphA2 protein expression levels in clear cell RCC specimens surgically resected from 90 patients. Results Our results shows that EphA2 protein was positively expressed in all normal renal tubes of 90 samples (100%, 3+), which was expressed at low levels in renal cortex but high levels in the collecting ducts of the renal medulla and papilla. EphA2 was negatively or weakly expressed in 30 out of 90 samples (33.3%, 0/1+), moderately expressed in 24 samples (26.7%, 2+) and strongly expressed in 36 samples (40%, 3+). Expression of EphA2 was positively associated with age (P=0.029), tumor diameters (P<0.001) and Fuhrman nuclear grade (P<0.001). Conclusions Our results indicate that EphA2 variably expressed in clear cell renal cell carci-nomas. High expression of EphA2 was more often found in big size and high nuclear grade tumors, which indicated EphA2 protein may be used as a new marker for the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Infant mortality and intra-household competition in the Northern Islands of Orkney, Scotland, 1855-2001.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Corey S; Wood, James W; Johnson, Patricia L

    2013-06-01

    This study applies principles from the theory of household life cycles to the study of early childhood mortality in the population of the Northern Orkney Islands, Scotland. The primary hypothesis is that unfavorable household economic conditions resulting from changes in household demographic composition increase the risk of death for children under the age of 5 years because of limited resources and intra-household competition. We apply Cox proportional hazards models to nearly 5,000 linked birth and death records from the Northern Orkney Islands, Scotland, from the period 1855 to 2001. The dependent variable is the child's risk of death before age 5. Findings suggest that children in households with unfavorable age compositions face higher risk of death. This elevated risk of death continues once heterogeneity among children, islands, and households is controlled. Results also show differential risk of death for male children, children of higher birth orders, and twin births. The analyses present evidence for intra-household competition in this historic setting. The most convincing evidence of competition is found in the effects of household consumer/producer ratios and twinning on child mortality risks. PMID:23580417

  11. Potential Barriers to Healthcare in Malawi for Under-five Children with Cough and Fever: A National Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ngwira, Bagrey; Stockman, Lauren J.; Deming, Michael; Nyasulu, Peter; Bowie, Cameron; Msyamboza, Kelias; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Bresee, Joseph; Fischer, Thea K.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to access healthcare is an important contributor to child mortality in many developing countries. In a national household survey in Malawi, we explored demographic and socioeconomic barriers to healthcare for childhood illnesses and assessed the direct and indirect costs of seeking care. Using a cluster-sample design, we selected 2,697 households and interviewed 1,669 caretakers. The main reason for households not being surveyed was the absence of a primary caretaker in the household. Among 2,077 children aged less than five years, 504 episodes of cough and fever during the previous two weeks were reported. A trained healthcare provider was visited for 48.0% of illness episodes. A multivariate regression model showed that children from the poorest households (p=0.02) and children aged >12 months (p=0.02) were less likely to seek care when ill compared to those living in wealthier households and children of higher age-group respectively. Families from rural households spent more time travelling compared to urban households (68.9 vs 14.1 minutes; p<0.001). In addition, visiting a trained healthcare provider was associated with longer travel time (p<0.001) and higher direct costs (p<0.001) compared to visiting an untrained provider. Thus, several barriers to accessing healthcare in Malawi for childhood illnesses exist. Continued efforts to reduce these barriers are needed to narrow the gap in the health and healthcare equity in Malawi. PMID:24847595

  12. Household Composition and Poverty among Female-Headed Households with Children: Differences by Race and Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia R.; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Findeis, Jill

    2006-01-01

    We examine race and residential variation in the prevalence of female-headed households with children and how household composition is associated with several key economic well-being outcomes using data from the 2000 5% Public Use Microdata Sample of the U.S. Census. Special attention is paid to cohabiting female-headed households with children…

  13. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

  14. Perceived Barriers to Savings among Low- to Moderate-Income Households that Do Not Save Regularly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Teresa; Bowen, Cathy Faulcon; Cheang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the differences in barriers to savings among low- to moderate-income households who do not save regularly. Characteristics associated with individuals who perceived they could and could not save included age, presence of child under 18 years of age, and gender. Having no money left over, being late on bills and/or…

  15. Nutritional status of toddlers and preschoolers according to household income level: overweight tendency and micronutrient deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Shin, Sam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES The effects of malnutrition on growth of toddlers and preschoolers by socioeconomic status are not well known. This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary intake on growth outcomes in toddlers and preschoolers by household income level. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study population was a total of 1,687 children aged 1 to 5 years that participated in the KNHANES from 2009 to 2011. Growth of children was assessed by height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH). Children were classified into three groups according to children's HFA and WFH compared to the 10th and 90th percentiles of the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescent Growth Standard. Average monthly household income was divided into quartile groups. Dietary intake data were obtained by using the one day 24-hr recall method. Risks of inadequate intake of nutrients and unfavorable growth were estimated by using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, region, and energy intake. RESULTS The low HFA group (< 10th percentile) had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, and thiamin as compared with the high group (≥ 90th percentile). For WFH status, vitamin C intake was lower in the low group than in the high group. Household income level was related to WFH status but not HFA. Children from lower income households were more likely to have high WFH than those from higher income households (P for trend = 0.038). Household income status was also significantly related with risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients such as thiamin (P for trend = 0.032) and vitamin C (P for trend = 0.002), showing higher odds of inadequate intakes in children from lower income households. CONCLUSIONS Children from lower income households were prone to be overweight and to have inadequate intakes of micronutrients such as thiamin and vitamin C. To reduce nutritional and health disparities, collective action in the public sector is required from early life. PMID:26425286

  16. Can Households Cope with Health Shocks in Vietnam?

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sophie; Palmer, Michael; Mont, Daniel; Groce, Nora

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic impact of health shocks on working-age adults in Vietnam during 2004-2008, using a fixed effects specification. Health shocks cover disability and morbidity and are measured by 'days unable to carry out regular activity', 'days in bed due to illness/injury', and 'hospitalization'. Overall, Vietnamese households are able to smooth total non-health expenditures in the short run in the face of a significant rise in out-of-pocket health expenditures. However, this is accomplished through vulnerability-enhancing mechanisms, especially in rural areas, including increased loans and asset sales and decreased education expenditures. Female-headed and rural households are found to be the least able to protect consumption. Results highlight the need to extend and deepen social protection and universal health coverage. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26017577

  17. Can Households Cope with Health Shocks in Vietnam?

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sophie; Palmer, Michael; Mont, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the economic impact of health shocks on working‐age adults in Vietnam during 2004–2008, using a fixed effects specification. Health shocks cover disability and morbidity and are measured by ‘days unable to carry out regular activity’, ‘days in bed due to illness/injury’, and ‘hospitalization’. Overall, Vietnamese households are able to smooth total non‐health expenditures in the short run in the face of a significant rise in out‐of‐pocket health expenditures. However, this is accomplished through vulnerability‐enhancing mechanisms, especially in rural areas, including increased loans and asset sales and decreased education expenditures. Female‐headed and rural households are found to be the least able to protect consumption. Results highlight the need to extend and deepen social protection and universal health coverage. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26017577

  18. Investigation of aged aerosols in size-resolved Asian dust storm particles transported from Beijing, China to Incheon, Korea using low-Z particle EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Hwang, H. J.; Liu, X.; Dong, S.; Ro, C.-U.

    2013-10-01

    This is the first study of Asian dust storm (ADS) particles collected in Beijing, China and Incheon, Korea during the same spring ADS event. Using a seven-stage May impactor and a quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA, also known as low-Z particle EPMA), we examined the composition and morphology of 4200 aerosol particles at stages 1-6 (with a size cut-off of 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter, respectively) collected during an ADS event on 28-29 April 2005. The results showed that there were large differences in the chemical compositions between particles in sample S1 collected in Beijing immediately after the peak time of the ADS and in samples S2 and S3, which were collected in Incheon approximately 5 h and 24 h later, respectively. In sample S1, mineral dust particles accounted for more than 88% in relative number abundance at stages 1-5, and organic carbon (OC) and reacted NaCl-containing particles accounted for 24% and 32%, respectively, at stage 6. On the other hand, in samples S2 and S3, in addition to approximately 60% mineral dust, many sea salt particles reacted with airborne SO2 and NOx, often mixed with mineral dust, were encountered at stages 1-5, and (C, N, O, S)-rich particles (likely a mixture of water-soluble organic carbon with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3) and K-containing particles were abundantly observed at stage 6. This suggests that the secondary aerosols and the internal mixture of mineral dust with sea spray aerosol increased when the ADS particles passed over the Yellow Sea. In the reacted or aged mineral dust and sea salt particles, nitrate-containing and both nitrate- and sulfate-containing species vastly outnumbered the sulfate-containing species, implying that ambient nitrogen oxides had a greater influence on the atmospheric particles during the ADS episode than SO2. In addition to partially- or totally-reacted CaCO3, reacted or aged Mg-containing aluminosilicates (likely including amesite

  19. 20 CFR 416.1866 - Deciding whether you are a child: Are you the head of a household?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416... basis is the head of his or her own household. Who Is Considered a Student for Purposes of the...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1866 - Deciding whether you are a child: Are you the head of a household?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416... basis is the head of his or her own household. Who Is Considered a Student for Purposes of the...

  1. Food Patterns in an Urban Population: Age and Sociodemographic Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined age and sociodemographic differentials in food intake and eating patterns in households in a midwestern metropolitan county. Meat was the only food consumed with recommended frequency by all ages. Food intake and eating pattern differences by age remained when effects of income, education, household composition, and gender were…

  2. Household willingness to pay for azithromycin treatment for trachoma control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin D.; Lynch, Matthew; West, Sheila; Munoz, Beatriz; Mkocha, Harran A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Household willingness to pay for treatment provides important information for programme planning. We tested for relationships between socioeconomic status, risk of trachoma, perceptions of the effects of azithromycin, and the household willingness to pay for future mass treatment with azithromycin. METHODS: We surveyed 394 households in 6 villages located in central United Republic of Tanzania regarding their willingness to pay for future azithromycin treatment. A random sample of households with children under 8 years of age was selected and interviewed following an initial treatment programme in each village. Data were gathered on risk factors for trachoma, socioeconomic status, and the perceived effect of the initial azithromycin treatment. Ordered probit regression analysis was used to test for statistically significant relationships. FINDINGS: 38% of responding households stated that they would not be willing to pay anything for future azithromycin treatment, although they would be willing to participate in the treatment. A proxy for cash availability was positively associated with household willingness to pay for future antibiotic treatment. Cattle ownership (a risk factor) and being a household headed by a female not in a polygamous marriage (lower socioeconomic status) were associated with a lower willingness to pay for future treatment. A perceived benefit from the initial treatment was marginally associated with a willingness to pay a higher amount. CONCLUSIONS: As those at greatest risk of active trachoma indicated the lowest willingness to pay, imposing a cost recovery fee for azithromycin treatment would likely reduce coverage and could prevent control of the disease at the community level. PMID:12751418

  3. Maternal employment and income affect dietary calorie adequacy in households in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Ishara M; Weerahewa, Jeevika

    2005-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies among children and mothers in lower-income households in Sri Lanka continue to be a major obstacle to the country's social and economic development. This study investigates the factors affecting dietary caloric adequacy in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to maternal income. An econometric analysis was performed using a household data set collected from a sample of 183 low-income households in the urban, rural, and estate sectors. The results showed that on average, mothers and children in the sample did not consume adequate levels of calories according to the recommendations of the Medical Research Institute of Sri Lanka. The mother's income and educational status, the number of children and adults in the family, and the ages, sexes, and birth orders of the children significantly influenced household and individual caloric adequacy. Specifically, the mother's income had a significant positive effect on the total caloric intake (CI) and caloric adequacy ratio (CAR) of the household, mother, and children and a significant negative effect on the relative caloric allocation (RCA) of the children. The results imply that when maternal employment generates extra income, the CIs of all individuals increase, yet the allocation of calories to the children of the household is reduced. Thus, provision of employment opportunities for mothers, along with adequate child-care facilities and nutritional educational programs, is a possible strategy to improve caloric adequacy among low-income households in Sri Lanka. PMID:16060223

  4. Household Expenditure for Dental Care in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries. PMID:25923691

  5. Household expenditure for dental care in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries. PMID:25923691

  6. Household demography and early childhood mortality in a rice-farming village in Northern Laos.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Shinsuke; Parker, Daniel M; Jennings, Julia A; Wood, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends Alexandr Chayanov's model of changing household demography (specifically the ratio of food consumers to food producers) and its influence on agricultural behavior so that it includes possible adverse effects of a rising ratio on nutritional status and early childhood mortality within the household. We apply the model to 35 years' worth of longitudinal demographic and economic data collected in the irrigated-rice growing village of Na Savang in northern Laos. When appropriate controls are included for other household variables, unobserved inter-household heterogeneity, and changes in local conditions and national policy over the study period, the analysis suggests that a unit increase in the household's consumer/producer ratio induces something like a nine-fold increase in the risk of death among household members aged less than five years. Monte Carlo simulation studies suggest that this may be an over-estimate but also that the effect is probably real and likely to be an important factor in household demography. At the very least, the results suggest that Chayanov's model still has theoretical relevance and deserves to be revived. PMID:25775467

  7. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  8. Household Crowding, Loneliness and Suicide Ideation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz, Friedrich V.

    1984-01-01

    Examined household crowding and loneliness and their effect on suicide ideation among a general sample of the population (N=247) in an urban area. Data indicated that the variables of household crowding and loneliness were significantly associated with the extent of suicide ideation. (LLL)

  9. Cities cooperate on household hazardous waste collection

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.D. )

    1994-03-01

    This article describes a household hazardous waste collection project. The project resulted from Missouri solid waste regulations and the recognition of five suburban cities of St. Louis that there was a need to provide residents with an environmentally sound method of disposing of household hazardous waste. The project was 90 percent funded by a state grant.

  10. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... parental control of a household member other than his or her parent. A child must be considered to be under parental control for purposes of this provision if he or she is financially or otherwise dependent on a...) living in the household, or an adult who has parental control over children (under 18 years of...

  11. Household income distribution in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiou, Costas J.; Wearne, Adam

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present an alternative model for the distribution of household incomes in the United States. We provide arguments from two differing perspectives which both yield the proposed income distribution curve, and then fit this curve to empirical data on household income distribution obtained from the United States Census Bureau.

  12. Characterization of household waste in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland. PMID:21420845

  13. NATIONAL SURVEY OF FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a longitudinal population-based survey of families and households in the United States that was designed to look at the causes and consequences of changes in American family and household structure. The first wave of the NSFH consists of interviews conducted during 1987-1...

  14. Community and household socioeconomic factors associated with pesticide-using, small farm household members' health: a multi-level, longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies using multi-level models to examine health inequalities in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) are rare. We explored socio-economic gradients in health among small farm members participating in a pesticide-related health and agriculture program in highland Ecuador. Methods We profiled 24 communities through key informant interviews, secondary data (percent of population with unsatisfied basic needs), and intervention implementation indicators. Pre (2005) and post (2007) surveys of the primary household and crop managers included common questions (education, age, and the health outcome - digit span scaled 0-10)) and pesticide-related practice questions specific to each. Household assets and pesticide use variables were shared across managers. We constructed multi-level models predicting 2007 digit span for each manager type, with staged introduction of predictor variables. Results 376 household managers (79% of 2005 participants) and 380 crop managers (76% of 2005 participants) had complete data for analysis. The most important predictor of 2007 digit span was 2005 digit span: β (Standard Error) of 0.31(0.05) per unit for household and 0.17(0.04) for crop managers. Household asset score was next most important: 0.14(0.06) per unit for household and 0.14(0.05) for crop managers. Community percent with unsatisfied basic needs was associated with reductions in 2007 digit span: -0.04(0.01) per percent for household and -0.03(0.01) for crop managers. Conclusions The important roles of life endowments and/or persistent neurotoxicity were exemplified by limited change in the health outcome. Gradients by household assets and community deprivation were indicative of ongoing, structural inequities within this LMIC. PMID:22094171

  15. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management. PMID:22451986

  16. Cross-Location Analysis of the Impact of Household Socioeconomic Status on Participation in Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva

    2011-10-01

    This study explores the relation between household socioeconomic status (SES) and participation in urban and periurban agriculture (UPA) in three West African cities. We used a structured questionnaire to survey 700 randomly selected households: 250 in Kano, Nigeria, 250 in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and 200 in Sikasso, Mali. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied on household asset variables to create an index of assets which was used as a proxy for household SES. The results showed no significant differences in households' rate of participation in UPA across socioeconomic groups. Participation in UPA was rather significantly (P < 0.001) and positively related to household size. Interestingly, the analysis revealed that field crop cultivation and gardening were more common among households in the low and medium SES groups while those in the high SES group were more likely to keep livestock. PMID:22039313

  17. A strategy to increase adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves in rural Kenyan households

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to household air pollutants released during cooking has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes among residents of rural areas in low-income countries. Improved cookstoves are one of few available interventions, but achieving equity in cookstove access has been challenging. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed. To evaluate a project designed to motivate adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) in an impoverished, rural African population, we assessed the perceived benefits of the cookstoves (in monetary and time-savings terms), the rate of cookstove adoption, and the equity of adoption. Methods The project was conducted in 60 rural Kenyan villages in 2008 and 2009. Baseline (n = 1250) and follow-up (n = 293) surveys and a stove-tracking database were analyzed. Results At baseline, nearly all respondents used wood (95%) and firepits (99%) for cooking; 98% desired smoke reductions. Households with upesi jiko subsequently spent <100 Kenyan Shillings/week on firewood more often (40%) than households without upesi jiko (20%) (p = 0.0002). There were no significant differences in the presence of children <2 years of age in households using upesi jiko (48%) or three-stone stoves (49%) (p = 0.88); children 2–5 years of age were less common in households using upesi jiko versus three-stone stoves (46% and 69%, respectively) (p = 0.0001). Vendors installed 1,124 upesi jiko in 757 multi-family households in 18 months; 68% of these transactions involved incentives for vendors and purchasers. Relatively few (<10%) upesi jiko were installed in households of women in the youngest age quartile (<22 years) or among households in the poorest quintile. Conclusions Our strategy of training of local vendors, appropriate incentives, and product integration effectively accelerated cookstove adoption into a large number of households. The strategy also created opportunities to reinforce health messages

  18. Usage pattern of personal care products in California households.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Ritz, Beate; Cassady, Diana L; Lee, Kiyoung; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-11-01

    Given the concern over the potential for health risks associated with certain ingredients (e.g., phthalates) in personal care products, usage patterns of ∼30 types of personal care products (e.g., shampoo, sunscreen, fragrance, etc.) were collected in 604 California households through a telephone interview. Preferences in selecting products, e.g., scented or unscented, aerosol, and brand loyalty, were also investigated. Participants were recruited in three age groups, children (mostly preschoolers), their parents, and adults age 55 or older. Use frequencies of various product types varied by sex, age group, race, education, and climatic region. Product use by parent and child from the same household were correlated. Use frequencies of products in the same class (e.g., skincare) were moderately correlated, which may impact aggregate exposures. Use frequencies observed in this study were generally in the same range as those reported in the EPA Exposure Factor Handbook, but we found differences for some individual products. Our study provides additional data on population-based usage patterns of a large collection of commonly used personal care products pertaining to several age groups and socio-demographic strata. This information will be valuable for exposure and risk assessments. PMID:20696198

  19. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  20. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  1. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law. PMID:15927933

  2. Age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex nonlinear trajectory, with elevated loneliness levels among young adults and among the oldest old. The late-life increase in loneliness could be explained by lower income levels, higher prevalence of functional limitations, and higher proportion of singles in this age group. Consistent with an age-normative perspective, the association of income, relationship status, household size, and work status with loneliness differed between different age groups. In contrast, indicators of the quantity of social relationships (social engagement, number of friends, contact frequency) were universally associated with loneliness regardless of age. Overall, these findings show that sources of loneliness in older adults are well understood. Future research should focus on understanding the specific sources of loneliness in middle-aged adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148782

  3. Drug test feasibility in a general population household survey.

    PubMed

    Fendrich, Michael; Johnson, Timothy P; Wislar, Joseph S; Hubbell, Amy

    2004-03-01

    Drug testing was used as an adjunct to a general population household drug use survey administered via audio computer assisted self-interview. Participants, ages 18-40 years residing in Chicago, were recruited to participate in three different biological tests (hair, oral fluid, and urine) presented in random order subsequent to completing an interview. Subjects had the option of participating in zero to three different tests. We examined participation/refusal in tests, reaction to testing requests, as well as variables associated with participation and reaction. Subjects were randomly assigned to a low (US$ 10 per test) or high (US$ 20 per test) incentive condition. Over 90% of the sample participated in at least one test, usually the oral fluid test. Associations between refusal status and two variables, socioeconomic status (SES) and presence of children in the household, provided partial support for the notion that drug test participation parallels the survey response process in general. Incentive level did not directly increase drug test participation. Reporting of recent illicit drug use was associated with participation in only one procedure, hair testing. Type of test offered and individual differences in willingness to be drug tested were important predictors of drug test refusal and subject reaction to testing requests. Compared with urine and hair testing, oral fluid testing had lower refusal rates and was generally more acceptable to respondents in a general population survey. The findings support the feasibility of incorporating multiple drug tests with modest incentives into general population household surveys on drug abuse. PMID:15036546

  4. Age, Marital Processes, and Depressed Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila; Jacobs, Jamie

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We examined age-cohort differences in the interrelationships among marital processes and depressed affect. Design and Methods: We used data from individuals in first marriages that participated in the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH). The NSFH interviewed one adult per household of a nationally representative sample.…

  5. Household Disbandment in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Julie F.; Dingel, Molly; Bowen, Mary Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. This study described activities that older people undertake to reduce the volume of their possessions in the course of a residential move to smaller quarters, a process with practical, cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with members of 30 households who had moved in the prior year. The disbandment period, typically lasting about 2 months, was a particular focus of the interview. Results. The interviews suggested nine reasons why people had accumulated and kept things, which now became problematic for the impending move. The initial steps of disbandment entailed decisions about major furniture and meaningful gifts to family and friends, followed by evaluation of the remaining belongings for retention, sale, further gifts, donation, or discard. Things not divested by one means were reassigned to another strategy. People took pleasure in dispositions that saw their things used, cared for, and valued as they had done, thus fulfilling a responsibility to their belongings. Discussion. Disbandment is an acute episode of a more general, lifelong process of possession management. It is an encounter with things that are meaningful to the self, but as it unfolds, it also makes new meaning for things. PMID:15358801

  6. Anaerobic digestion for household organics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.; Kelleher, M.

    1995-04-01

    Considerable success in using anaerobic technology for processing household organics is being reported by several recently constructed facilities in Europe. Organic residuals collected separately in a Belgian town are processed to produce biogas and a compost-like material in less than one month. The dry anaerobic conversion process (DRANCO) was developed by Organic Waste Systems (OWS) in the 1980s, with the collaboration of Professor Willy Verstraete at the University of Ghent`s Laboratory of Applied Microbial Ecology. The patented process converts solid and semisolid organic residuals into biogas (for energy recovery) and a stable humus like product. The plant has competing odor sources such as the active landfill and the surrounding farmland - in fact, the smell of livestock manure is quite prevalent in this heavily agricultural area. Addition of the nonrecyclable paper fraction to the feedstock improves the carbon/nitrogen ratio, soaks up moisture, and absorbs odor. The entire Brecht facility does not occupy much space and total material retention time at the site is one month, compared to a number of months for aerobic systems. It also has a low staffing requirement, provides energy self-sufficiency, and the final soil enhancement product meets established quality standards.

  7. Short-term and long-term associations between household wealth and physical growth: a cross-comparative analysis of children from four low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Aditi; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jong-koo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Perkins, Jessica M.; Heo, Jongho; Ro, Young Sun; Subramanian, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stunting, a form of anthropometric failure, disproportionately affects children in developing countries with a higher burden on children living in poverty. How early life deprivation affects physical growth over various life stages is less well-known. Objective We investigate the short- and long-run associations between household wealth in early life with physical growth in childhood in four low- and middle-income countries to understand the persistent implications of early life conditions of poverty and resource constraints on physical growth. Design Longitudinal study of eight cohorts of children in four countries – Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam (n=10,016) – ages 6 months to 15 years, using data from the Young Lives project, 2002–2009. Physical growth outcomes are standardized height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) and stunting. The key exposure is household wealth measured at baseline using a wealth index, an asset-based indicator. Covariates include child's age and sex, caregiver's educational status, household size, and place of residence. Results Baseline wealth index is significantly associated with higher physical growth rates as suggested by higher HAZ and lower odds of stunting. We found these associations in all four countries, for younger and older cohorts and for children who experienced changes in living standards. For the older cohort, despite the timing of the first survey at age 7–8 years, which is beyond the critical period of 1,000 days, there are lasting influences of early poverty, even for those who experienced changes in wealth. Conclusions Household wealth in early life matters for physical growth with conditions of poverty and deprivation influencing growth faltering even beyond the 1,000 days window. The influences of early childhood poverty, so prevalent among children in low- and middle-income countries, must be addressed by policies and programs targeting early life but also focusing on older children experiencing growth

  8. Hepatitis B in household contacts of children with beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, D A; Spiliopoulou, I T; Papageorgiou, O G; Beratis, N G

    1990-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers have been studied in 184 household contacts of 110 thalassemic patients and 184 normal individuals matched for age and socioeconomic status with the study subjects. The mean age (+/- SD) in both patients and control subjects was 31.1 +/- 13.5 years. HBV infection had occurred in 51.6% of the household contacts and in 32.1% of the control subjects. This difference is highly significant (p less than 0.001). The most frequent marker observed was the antihepatitis B core IgG followed by the antihepatitis B surface antibody. It is noteworthy that none of the thalassemic patients infected in the past was seropositive for the hepatitis B surface antigen at the time of the study, whereas its frequency in the general population was 8.1%. The findings indicate that the household contacts of thalassemic patients have a greater seroprevalence for hepatitis B infection. Furthermore, the household contacts of thalassemic patients are infected at a younger age than the control population. The high infection rate with HBV in all groups tested suggests that vaccination should be considered not only for the household contacts of thalassemic patients but possibly for the entire Greek population. PMID:2125782

  9. Socioeconomic determinants of nutritional status of children in Lao PDR: effects of household and community factors.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-intercepts was used for estimating the determinants of child anthropometric indices. The empirical results revealed that children from households in southern Laos and from ethnic minority groups were less-nourished. Level of education of parents, attitudes of mothers towards domestic violence, assets of household, local health services, and the condition of sanitation and water were considered to be important determinants of nutritional status of children. The pattern of growth-faltering in children by age was identified. Children aged 12-59 months were less-nourished than those aged 0-11 months. The empirical results were consistent with the collective household model which incorporates a decision-making process within the household. Since there is scarce evidence about the predictors of childhood undernutrition in Laos, the findings of this study will serve as a benchmark for future research. PMID:21957672

  10. Household Products Database: Personal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... blemish control aftershave antibacterial antiperspirant baby bath baby lotion/ointment baby powder bar soap bar soap, antibacterial ... moisturizer, anti-aging facial moisturizer, w/sunscreen fade lotion/cream foot care for kids for men for ...

  11. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen in…

  12. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? What You Need to Know in an Emergency ... Aid: Poisoning First-Aid Kit Emergency Contact Sheet Lead Poisoning Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Babysitting: Dealing With ...

  13. Experiments in materials science from household items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1993-01-01

    Everyday household items are used to demonstrate some unique properties of materials. A coat hanger, rubber band, balloon, and corn starch have typical properties which we often take for granted but can be truly amazing.

  14. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  15. Education Financing of Rural Households in China

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The findings implied that the extension of financial services to children’s education could motivate parents to send their children for more education, increase disposable income of rural households by reducing precautionary savings, and provide better-educated labors in rural China. PMID:20835379

  16. Household context and child mortality in rural South Africa: the effects of birth spacing, shared mortality, household composition and socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen M; Clark, Samuel J

    2013-01-01

    Background Household characteristics are important influences on the risk of child death. However, little is known about this influence in HIV-endemic areas. We describe the effects of household characteristics on children’s risk of dying in rural South Africa. Methods We use data describing the mortality of children younger than 5 years living in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system study population in rural northeast South Africa during the period 1994–2008. Using discrete time event history analysis we estimate children’s probability of dying by child characteristics and household composition (other children and adults other than parents) (N = 924 818 child-months), and household socio-economic status (N = 501 732 child-months). Results Children under 24 months of age whose subsequent sibling was born within 11 months experience increased odds of dying (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.7). Children also experience increased odds of dying in the period 6 months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.6), 3–5 months (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5–5.9), and 2 months (OR 11.8; 95% CI 7.6–18.3) before another household child dies. The odds of dying remain high at the time of another child’s death (OR 11.7; 95% CI 6.3–21.7) and for the 2 months following (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.9–8.6). Having a related but non-parent adult aged 20–59 years in the household reduces the odds (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5–0.8). There is an inverse relationship between a child’s odds of dying and household socio-economic status. Conclusions This detailed household profile from a poor rural setting where HIV infection is endemic indicates that children are at high risk of dying when another child is very ill or has recently died. Short birth intervals and additional children in the household are further risk factors. Presence of a related adult is protective, as is higher socio-economic status. Such evidence can inform primary health care practice and facilitate targeting of community health

  17. Catastrophic Health Expenditure Among Iranian Rural and Urban Households, 2013 - 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasvand, Hesam; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Hadian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: During the last two decades, the trend of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) for health services by Iranian households has been a matter of concern and it has exposed a significant proportion of them to catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate three objectives: First, the mean of out-of-pocket payments among Iranian households for health services; second, the headcount and overshoot measures of catastrophic health expenditure; and finally the level of inequality in its distribution. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study on Iranian rural and urban households was conducted from April to June 2015. The sample sizes were 19437 rural and 18888 urban households that Iranian Statistical Centre (ISC) selected them through a three -step randomized clustered sampling. The headcount and overshoot measures for catastrophic health expenditure were calculated. Also, the concentration index was calculated in order to investigate the inequality in distribution of the mentioned measures. Results: The catastrophic health expenditure headcount ratio varied from 0.5% to 14.3% and from 0.48% to 13.27% for rural and urban households, respectively. Also, the overshoot of catastrophic health expenditure varied from 9.62% to 18.72% and from 8.8% to 17.74% for rural and urban households, respectively. Conclusions: Considering Iran’s economic condition during the last five years, the catastrophic health expenditure headcount ratio was more than 2% in Iran. PMID:26473081

  18. Household Demography and Early Childhood Mortality in a Rice-Farming Village in Northern Laos

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Shinsuke; Parker, Daniel M.; Jennings, Julia A.; Wood, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends Alexandr Chayanov’s model of changing household demography (specifically the ratio of food consumers to food producers) and its influence on agricultural behavior so that it includes possible adverse effects of a rising ratio on nutritional status and early childhood mortality within the household. We apply the model to 35 years’ worth of longitudinal demographic and economic data collected in the irrigated-rice growing village of Na Savang in northern Laos. When appropriate controls are included for other household variables, unobserved inter-household heterogeneity, and changes in local conditions and national policy over the study period, the analysis suggests that a unit increase in the household’s consumer/producer ratio induces something like a nine-fold increase in the risk of death among household members aged less than five years. Monte Carlo simulation studies suggest that this may be an over-estimate but also that the effect is probably real and likely to be an important factor in household demography. At the very least, the results suggest that Chayanov’s model still has theoretical relevance and deserves to be revived. PMID:25775467

  19. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Atlantic, and Pacific), MSA size, and the availability of rail. Extrapolating NHTS data within small geographic areas could risk developing and subsequently using unreliable estimates. For example, if a planning agency in City X of State Y estimates travel rates and other travel characteristics based on survey data collected from NHTS sample households that were located in City X of State Y, then the agency could risk developing and using unreliable estimates for their planning process. Typically, this limitation significantly increases as the size of an area decreases. That said, the NHTS contains a wealth of information that could allow statistical inferences about small geographic areas, with a pre-determined level of statistical certainty. The question then becomes whether a method can be developed that integrates the NHTS data and other data to estimate key travel characteristics for small geographic areas such as Census tract and transportation analysis zone, and whether this method can outperform other, competing methods.

  20. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level. PMID:27390633

  1. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated. PMID:20490914

  2. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  3. Intra-household relations and treatment decision-making for childhood illness: a Kenyan case study.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, C S; Murira, G; Masha, J; Snow, R W

    2002-01-01

    This study, conducted on the Kenyan coast, assesses the effect of intra-household relations on maternal treatment-seeking. Rural and urban Mijikenda mothers' responses to childhood fevers in the last 2 weeks (n=317), and to childhood convulsions in the previous year (n=43), were documented through survey work. The intra-household relations and decision-making dynamics surrounding maternal responses were explored through in-depth individual and group interviews, primarily with women (n=223). Responses to convulsions were more likely than responses to fevers to include a healer consultation (p<0.0001), and less likely to include the purchase of over-the-counter medications (p<0.0001). Mothers received financial or advisory assistance from others in 71% (n=236) of actions taken outside the household in response to fevers. In-depth interviews suggested that general agreement on appropriate therapy results in relatively few intra-household conflicts over the treatment of fevers. Disputes over perceived cause and appropriate therapy of convulsions, however, highlighted the importance of age, gender and relationship to household head in intra-household relations and treatment decision-making. Although mothers' treatment-seeking preferences are often circumscribed by these relations, a number of strategies can be drawn upon to circumvent 'inappropriate' decisions, sometimes with implications for future household responses to similar syndromes. The findings highlight the complexity of intra-household relations and treatment decision-making dynamics. Tentative implications for interventions aimed at improving the home management of malaria, and for further research, are presented. PMID:11814209

  4. Ultra-Processed Food Products and Obesity in Brazilian Households (2008–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. Methods The study was based on data from the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. Results The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Conclusion Greater household

  5. Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur) and rural (Kuala Terengganu) setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained. Results Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38%) were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001). The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33%) households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3%) households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5%) experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%). The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03) than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24). Conclusions While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination

  6. Geostatistical modelling of household malaria in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirombo, J.; Lowe, R.; Kazembe, L.

    2012-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most important diseases in the world today, common in tropical and subtropical areas with sub-Saharan Africa being the region most burdened, including Malawi. This region has the right combination of biotic and abiotic components, including socioeconomic, climatic and environmental factors that sustain transmission of the disease. Differences in these conditions across the country consequently lead to spatial variation in risk of the disease. Analysis of nationwide survey data that takes into account this spatial variation is crucial in a resource constrained country like Malawi for targeted allocation of scare resources in the fight against malaria. Previous efforts to map malaria risk in Malawi have been based on limited data collected from small surveys. The Malaria Indicator Survey conducted in 2010 is the most comprehensive malaria survey carried out in Malawi and provides point referenced data for the study. The data has been shown to be spatially correlated. We use Bayesian logistic regression models with spatial correlation to model the relationship between malaria presence in children and covariates such as socioeconomic status of households and meteorological conditions. This spatial model is then used to assess how malaria varies spatially and a malaria risk map for Malawi is produced. By taking intervention measures into account, the developed model is used to assess whether they have an effect on the spatial distribution of the disease and Bayesian kriging is used to predict areas where malaria risk is more likely to increase. It is hoped that this study can help reveal areas that require more attention from the authorities in the continuing fight against malaria, particularly in children under the age of five.

  7. Final Report, The Influence of Organic-Aerosol Emissions and Aging on Regional and Global Aerosol Size Distributions and the CCN Number Budget

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Neil M.

    2015-12-23

    We conducted laboratory experiments and analyzed data on aging of organic aerosol and analysis of field data on volatility and CCN activity. With supplemental ASR funding we participated in the FLAME-IV campaign in Missoula MT in the Fall of 2012, deploying a two-chamber photochemical aging system to enable experimental exploration of photochemical aging of biomass burning emissions. Results from that campaign will lead to numerous publications, including demonstration of photochemical production of Brown Carbon (BrC) from secondary organic aerosol associated with biomass burning emissions as well as extensive characterization of the effect of photochemical aging on the overall concentrations of biomass burning organic aerosol. Excluding publications arising from the FLAME-IV campaign, project research resulted in 8 papers: [11, 5, 3, 10, 12, 4, 8, 7], including on in Nature Geoscience addressing the role of organic compounds in nanoparticle growth [11

  8. Influence of household cleaning practices on the magnitude and variability of urinary monochlorinated bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Kalyvas, H; Andra, S S; Charisiadis, P; Karaolis, C; Makris, K C

    2014-08-15

    Low-dose health effects of BPA have not been adequately explored in the presence of BPA metabolites of chlorinated structure that may exert larger estrogenic effects than those of their parent compound. We hypothesized that chlorine-containing cleaning products used in household cleaning activities could modify the magnitude of total urinary BPA concentration measurements via the production of chlorinated BPA (ClBPA) derivatives. Our objective was to investigate the influence of typical household cleaning activities (dishwashing, toilet cleaning, mopping, laundry, etc.) on the magnitude and variability of urinary total BPA and mono-ClBPA levels in the general adult population. A cross-sectional study (n=224) included an adult (≥18 years) pool of participants from the general population of Nicosia, Cyprus. First morning urine voids were collected, and administered questionnaires included items about household cleaning habits, demographics, drinking water consumption rates and water source/usage patterns. Urinary concentrations of total BPA (range: 0.2-82 μg L(-1)), mono-ClBPA (16-340 ng L(-1)), and total trihalomethanes (0.1-5.0 μg L(-1)) were measured using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and large volume injection. Linear multiple regression analysis revealed that dishwashing along with age and gender (females) were able to predict urinary mono-ClBPA levels (ng g(-1)), even after adjusting for covariates; this was not the case for urinary total BPA levels (ng g(-1)). Significant (p<0.001) association was observed between urinary mono-ClBPA and THM levels, underlying the important role of disinfectant (chlorine) in promoting formation of both ClBPA and THM. Urinary mono-ClBPA levels were measured for the first time using an appreciable sample size, highlighting the co-occurring patterns of both total BPA and mono-ClBPA. Epidemiological studies and probabilistic BPA risk assessment exercises should consider assessing daily

  9. Control of household air pollution for child survival: estimates for intervention impacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels affects 2.8 billion people in developing countries, including children and pregnant women. The aim of this review is to propose intervention estimates for child survival outcomes linked to HAP. Methods Systematic reviews with meta-analysis were conducted for ages 0-59 months, for child pneumonia, adverse pregnancy outcomes, stunting and all-cause mortality. Evidence for each outcome was assessed against Bradford-Hill viewpoints, and GRADE used for certainty about intervention effect size for which all odds ratios (OR) are presented as protective effects. Results Reviews found evidence linking HAP exposure with child ALRI, low birth weight (LBW), stillbirth, preterm birth, stunting and all-cause mortality. Most studies were observational and rated low/very low in GRADE despite strong causal evidence for some outcomes; only one randomised trial was eligible.Intervention effect (OR) estimates of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.75) for ALRI, 0.71 (0.65, 0.79) for LBW and 0.66 (0.54, 0.81) for stillbirth are proposed, specific outcomes for which causal evidence was sufficient. Exposure-response evidence suggests this is a conservative estimate for ALRI risk reduction expected with sustained, low exposure. Statistically significant protective ORs were also found for stunting [OR=0.79 (0.70, 0.89)], and in one study of pre-term birth [OR=0.70 (0.54, 0.90)], indicating these outcomes would also likely be reduced. Five studies of all-cause mortality had an OR of 0.79 (0.70, 0.89), but heterogenity precludes a reliable estimate for mortality impact. Although interventions including clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves are available and can deliver low exposure levels, significant challenges remain in achieving sustained use at scale among low-income households. Conclusions Reducing exposure to HAP could substantially reduce the risk of several child survival outcomes, including fatal pneumonia

  10. [[The method for projecting households by family type in terms of headship cohort change--Part 2. Projecting marital status and headship rates by family type in household formation stage

    PubMed

    Oe, M

    1994-01-01

    "This article is Part 2 of the study on the method for projecting households [in Japan] by family type.... Part 1 was on modelling the transition process among different family types of households headed by [persons] over 35 years old, and on the method for projecting households by family type using the transition model.... Part 2 focuses on the method for projecting households in the formation stage headed by [those] under 34 years old.... Among projection outcomes, the proportion never married of males aged 30-34 goes up from 32.8 per cent to 37.3 per cent between 1990 and 2010, and the proportion never married of females aged 25-29 from 40.4 per cent to 47.1 per cent. [The] tendency of late marriage will continue to the beginning of the twenty-first century." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12288665

  11. Development and Validation of an Older Occupant Finite Element Model of a Mid-Sized Male for Investigation of Age-related Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Urban, Jillian E; Jones, Derek A; Stitzel, Joel D; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-11-01

    The aging population is a growing concern as the increased fragility and frailty of the elderly results in an elevated incidence of injury as well as an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. To assess elderly injury risk, age-specific computational models can be developed to directly calculate biomechanical metrics for injury. The first objective was to develop an older occupant Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) representative of a 65 year old (YO) and to perform regional validation tests to investigate predicted fractures and injury severity with age. Development of the GHBMC M50 65 YO model involved implementing geometric, cortical thickness, and material property changes with age. Regional validation tests included a chest impact, a lateral impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal bar impact, a pelvic impact, and a lateral sled test. The second objective was to investigate age-related injury risks by performing a frontal US NCAP simulation test with the GHBMC M50 65 YO and the GHBMC M50 v4.2 models. Simulation results were compared to the GHBMC M50 v4.2 to evaluate the effect of age on occupant response and risk for head injury, neck injury, thoracic injury, and lower extremity injury. Overall, the GHBMC M50 65 YO model predicted higher probabilities of AIS 3+ injury for the head and thorax. PMID:26660751

  12. [Child malnutrition and maternal overweight in same households in poor urban areas of Benin].

    PubMed

    Deleuze Ntandou Bouzitou, Gervais; Fayomi, Benjamin; Delisle, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of child malnutrition and maternal overweight in the same households typifies rapid nutrition transition in developing countries (DCs). It is reportedly less common in Africa than in Latin America or Asia, but the phenomenon is still little documented. The purpose of our study in poor urban neighbourhoods of the capital city of Benin (West Africa) was to assess the magnitude of the overlap of child protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and maternal overweight within households, and to compare these households with other nutritional phenotypes in terms of socio-economic circumstances and diet quality. Our hypothesis was that both child PEM and maternal overweight could stem from poor socio-economic conditions, including lack of sanitation, and poor diet quality. Food diversity was used as an index of diet quality, or the qualitative dimension of food security. A random sample of 148 households that included a least the biological mother, one child between 6 and 59 months of age and a second one between 5 and 11 years was selected in two poor neighbourhoods of the capital city of Cotonou to assess the prevalence of "double burden" households and of other nutritional phenotypes of households: with PEM only in at least one child; with maternal overweight only; and without PEM or overweight. Body weights and heights of mothers and of the two targeted children were measured. As long as one child had low weight-for-height or height-for-age (z-score <-2.0), the household came under the "PEM" type. In mothers, overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) > or = 25, obesity > or = 30 and chronic energy deficiency <18.5. We retained 126 households for interviews with mothers on socio-economic circumstances and food diversity. A socio-economic status (SES) score was constructed on the basis of household amenities and maternal education. Food insecurity was based on reported shortage of food in the last year in the household. Based on the frequency of consumption

  13. Impact of house-hold food insecurity on nutritional status of HIV-infected children attending an ART centre in Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Suresh, E; Srinivasan, R; Valan, A S; Klinton, Joel S; Padmapriyadarsini, C

    2015-03-01

    We studied the level of food insecurity among households with HIV-infected children and its relationship with childhood nutritional indicators. Among the 147 children assessed, food insecurity was present in 59% of households. Majority of children with stunting belonged to-food insecure families. Stunting and Underweight were more prevalent among children >5 years of age. PMID:25849010

  14. ONSET OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN HIV/AIDS-AFFECTED HOUSEHOLDS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Magadi, Monica A; Uchudi, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the effect of orphanhood and HIV status of adults in a household on onset of sexual activity among adolescent girls and boys aged 15-17 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from nineteen countries of sub-Saharan Africa where HIV test data were collected during 2003-2008 from nationally representative samples of men and women of reproductive age. The results highlight increased vulnerability among adolescent boys and girls living in households where an adult is infected with HIV, and adolescent boys who are paternal orphans. On average, adolescent boys and girls living in households where at least one adult is HIV-positive have about 25% higher odds of having initiated sexual activity compared with their counterparts of similar characteristics in households where no adult is HIV-positive. Furthermore, adolescent boys who are paternal orphans have about 25% higher odds of having initiated sexual activity than their non-orphan counterparts of similar individual characteristics. Further analysis reveals that household circumstances relating to living arrangements and poverty are important pathways through which household HIV/AIDS status is linked to adolescent sexual debut. The findings underscore the importance of international efforts in the sub-Saharan Africa region to address the plight of other children in HIV/AIDS-affected households, beyond orphans. PMID:24871370

  15. Kin and Youths in the Social Networks of Youth-Headed Households in Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Casares, Monica

    2010-01-01

    In settings highly affected by HIV/AIDS, households headed by children may result from strained family relations, poverty, and stigma associated with the disease. Understanding local systems and dynamics of support is essential to planning comprehensive models of care. This study measured size and composition of the support and conflict networks…

  16. Children's Evaluations of Gender-Stereotypic Household Activities in the Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine; Killen, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to analyze children's (N = 120) evaluations about parental decisions regarding gender-stereotypic household family activities. Children at 5, 8, and 10 years of age were individually interviewed. Contrary to prevailing findings, the majority of children used stereotypic expectations and…

  17. Is There an Impact of Household Computer Ownership on Children's Educational Attainment in Britain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    If personal computers (PCs) are used to facilitate learning, then a home computer might be considered a potential input in an educational production function. Using data on British youths from the British Household Panel Survey between 1991 and 2001, this paper explores the link between ownership of a home computer at ages 15 and 17 and subsequent…

  18. Urban household food security, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Balachander, J

    1997-12-01

    This article discusses the success of the Madagascar Food Security and Nutrition project in decreasing malnutrition and monitoring child health. Success has occurred in the following realms: effective collaboration between government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), capacity building through investment in training of community workers, increased quality of services provided by community nutrition workers, community involvement, government commitment, and a flexible program design. NGOs were able to respond to community concerns by adding program inputs without losing the focus on core nutrition interventions. Community workers were selected from a group of mothers. Women were trained to monitor the growth of all children under age 5. Children who were severely malnourished were identified and referred to rehabilitation centers for treatment lasting up to 3 weeks. The program offered support and nutrition education for mothers of sick children. One drawback of the treatment program was the inability of mothers to stay for long periods of time during the duration of treatment. The program offers distribution of iodine capsules as part of a long-term salt iodization program that is supported by UNICEF and the World Bank. The program also offers microcredit. Since 1993, 28,000 children under age 5 have been weighed each month. These children came from two provinces and belonged to 300,000 families. The monitored children were 66% of the total number of children aged under 5 years. Malnutrition rates decreased from 46% to 37%. PMID:12293185

  19. Equity in dental care among Canadian households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Changes in third party financing, whether public or private, are linked to a household's ability to access dental care. By removing costs at point of purchase, changes in financing influence the need to reach into one's pocket, thus facilitating or limiting access. This study asks: How have historical changes in dental care financing influenced household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care in Canada? Methods This is a mixed methods study, comprised of an historical review of Canada's dental care market and an econometric analysis of household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care. Results We demonstrate that changes in financing have important implications for out-of-pocket expenditures: with more financing come drops in the amount a household has to spend, and with less financing come increases. Low- and middle-income households appear to be most sensitive to changes in financing. Conclusions Alleviating the price barrier to care is a fundamental part of improving equity in dental care in Canada. How people have historically spent money on dental care highlights important gaps in Canadian dental care policy. PMID:21496297

  20. Method for residual household waste composition studies.

    PubMed

    Sahimaa, Olli; Hupponen, Mari; Horttanainen, Mika; Sorvari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    The rising awareness of decreasing natural resources has brought forward the idea of a circular economy and resource efficiency in Europe. As a part of this movement, European countries have identified the need to monitor residual waste flows in order to make recycling more efficient. In Finland, studies on the composition of residual household waste have mostly been conducted using different methods, which makes the comparison of the results difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method for residual household waste composition studies. First, a literature review on European study methods was performed. Also, 19 Finnish waste composition studies were compared in order to identify the shortcomings of the current Finnish residual household waste composition data. Moreover, the information needs of different waste management authorities concerning residual household waste were studied through a survey and personal interviews. Stratification, sampling, the classification of fractions and statistical analysis were identified as the key factors in a residual household waste composition study. The area studied should be divided into non-overlapping strata in order to decrease the heterogeneity of waste and enable comparisons between different waste producers. A minimum of six subsamples, each 100 kg, from each stratum should be sorted. Confidence intervals for each waste category should be determined in order to evaluate the applicability of the results. A new three-level classification system was created based on Finnish stakeholders' information needs and compared to four other European waste composition study classifications. PMID:26337965

  1. Adaptation of Locally Available Portion Sizes for Food Frequency Questionnaires in Nutritional Epidemiological Studies: How Much Difference does it Make?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Verma, Sonika; Singh, Abhishek; Tandon, Nikhil; Puri, Seema; Arora, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is need for employing strategies to minimize measurement errors while administering semi-quantitative FFQ. The current study was planned to adapt and standardize locally available portion sizes for semi-quantitative FFQ to improve its validity and document the process of standardization of portion sizes. Methodology: The study was conducted in 9 villages of the INCLEN-SOMAARTH DDESS (Demographic, Development and Environmental Surveillance Site), Palwal district, Haryana, India. The subjects in these nine villages are part of a cohort study to assess the interaction between societal and household factors with food intake and physical activity of children. Systematic utensil survey was undertaken in 3 randomly chosen households per village i.e. 27 households and the portion sizes were derived from a total of 74 serving utensils. The derived sizes were classified as small (240 ml), medium (320 ml) and large (600 ml). The semi-quantitative FFQ with locally derived portion sizes was then administered to 63 children in 6-12 year age group. Results: The volume of food measured by the reference portion sizes generally being employed in the national surveys, would have been underestimated the food consumed by the child by 55-60% as compared to what was being consumed by the children in the study area. The correlation between food intake assessed by 24-hr recall method and FFQ using derived (local) portion sizes was better as compared to that obtained with the semi-quantitative FFQ done with reference portions. Conclusion: In conclusion, local portion size adaptation of FFQ for semi-quantification is useful to mitigate measurement errors associated with this technique. PMID:27385878

  2. Employment and Household Tasks of Japanese Couples, 1994–2009

    PubMed Central

    Tsuya, Noriko O.; Bumpass, Larry L.; Choe, Minja Kim; Rindfuss, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines changes in the relationship between employment and household tasks of Japanese couples, using data drawn from national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2000 and 2009 of persons aged 20–49 and from the 2009 follow-up of the 2000 survey. Wives’ employment is structured by their husbands’ employment time and earning power, as well as by their family situations including the presence and age of children and coresidence with parents. Housework hours of husbands, though very low, increased over time, while wives’ hours decreased. Wives housework time decreases as their employment time increases. Marriage dramatically increases women’s housework time but produces little change in men’s time. Husbands’ housework hours are positively correlated with reported marital satisfaction of both spouses. PMID:24031165

  3. Ghrelin receptor regulates appetite and satiety during aging in mice by regulating meal frequency and portion size but not total food intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is often associated with overweight and obesity. There exists a long-standing debate about whether meal pattern also contributes to the development of obesity. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin regulates appetite and satiety by activating its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)...

  4. How should we measure maternal mortality in the developing world? A comparison of household deaths and sibling history approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kenneth; El Arifeen, Shams; Koenig, Michael; Al-Sabir, Ahmed; Jamil, Kanta; Raggers, Han

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is one of six health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there is no consensus about how to measure MMR in the many countries that do not have complete registration of deaths and accurate ascertainment of cause of death. In this study, we compared estimates of pregnancy-related deaths and maternal mortality in a developing country from three different household survey measurement approaches: a module collecting information on deaths of respondents' sisters; collection of information about recent household deaths with a time-of-death definition of maternal deaths; and a verbal autopsy instrument to identify maternal deaths. METHODS: We used data from a very large nationally-representative household sample survey conducted in Bangladesh in 2001. A total of 104 323 households were selected for participation, and 99 202 households (95.1% of selected households, 98.8% of contacted households) were successfully interviewed. FINDINGS: The sisterhood and household death approaches gave very similar estimates of all-cause and pregnancy-related mortality; verbal autopsy gave an estimate of maternal deaths that was about 15% lower than the pregnancy-related deaths. Even with a very large sample size, however, confidence intervals around mortality estimates were similar for all approaches and exceeded +/- 15%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that with improved training for survey data collectors, both the sisterhood and household deaths methods are viable approaches for measuring pregnancy-related mortality. However, wide confidence intervals around the estimates indicate that routine sample surveys cannot provide the information needed to monitor progress towards the MDG target. Other approaches, such as inclusion of questions about household deaths in population censuses, should be considered. PMID:16583075

  5. Class Size and Sorting in Market Equilibrium: Theory and Evidence. NBER Working Paper No. 13303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquiola, Miguel; Verhoogen, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how schools choose class size and how households sort in response to those choices. Focusing on the highly liberalized Chilean education market, we develop a model in which schools are heterogeneous in an underlying productivity parameter, class size is a component of school quality, households are heterogeneous in income and…

  6. Household food insecurity and diet diversity after the major 2010 landslide disaster in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Rukundo, Peter M; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Oshaug, Arne; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-02-28

    In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls - 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (P<0·01)--but higher diet diversity score (DDS) - 7·1 (se 0·1) v. 5·9 (se 0·1) (P<0·01). On controlling for disaster and covariates, recipients of relief food had higher food insecurity - 12·0 (se 0·6) v. 10·4 (se 0·3) (P=0·02)--whereas farmers had higher DDS - 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (P<0·01). Household size increased the likelihood of food insecurity (OR 1·15; 95% CI 1·00, 1·32; P<0·05) but reduced DDS (OR 0·93; 95% CI 0·87, <1·00; P=0·04). Low DDS was more likely in disaster affected (OR 4·22; 95% CI 2·65, 6·72; P<0·01) and farmers (OR 2·52; 95% CI 1·37, 4·64; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, affected households had higher food insecurity - 12·3 (se 0·8) v. 2·6 (se 0·8) (P<0·01)--but lower DDS - 5·8 (se 0·3) v. 7·0 (se 0·3) (P=0·02). The latter reduced with increased age (OR 0·99; 95% CI 0·97, 1·00; P<0·05), lowest education (OR 0·54; 95% CI 0·31, 0·93; P=0·03), farmers (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P=0·04) and asset ownership (OR 0·56; 95% CI 0·39, 0·81; P<0·01). Addressing social protection could mitigate food insecurity. PMID:26777212

  7. Household Health Costs: Direct, Indirect and Intangible

    PubMed Central

    YOUSEFI, Mehdi; ASSARI ARANI, Abbas; SAHABI, Bahram; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoshirvan; FAZAELI, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed at identifying components of the household health costs. Methods This study was a qualitative research conducted in two main phases. The first phase consisted of interviews with sample households selected in eight provinces of Iran. They were to identify components of the household health costs. In the second phase, components were determined as direct, indirect and intangible based on a content analysis. Results In the first phase of the study, 93 components of households’ health costs were identified. According to the content analysis, 44 components were categorized as direct costs, 10 components were indirect and 39 components were categorized as intangible. Conclusion All components of households’ health costs including: direct, indirect and intangible costs, should be considered in the planning and policy-making in the health system. PMID:26060744

  8. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  9. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  10. A Comparison of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Households in Rural Uganda With and Without a Resident With Type 2 Diabetes, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Bahendeka, Silver K.; Gregg, Edward W.; Whyte, Susan R.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined the health consequences of living in a household with a person who has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the association of sharing a household with a person with diagnosed T2D and risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases in Uganda, a low-income country. Methods Ninety households with 437 residents in southwestern Uganda were studied from December 2012 through March 2013. Forty-five of the households had a member with diagnosed T2D (hereafter “diabetic household”), and 45 households had no member with diagnosed T2D (hereafter “nondiabetic household”). We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hypertension, anthropometry, aerobic capacity, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, and diabetes-related knowledge of people without diagnosed T2D living in diabetic and nondiabetic households. Results People living in diabetic households had a significantly higher level of diabetes-related knowledge, lower levels of FPG (5.6 mmol/L vs 6.0 mmol/L), and fewer smoked (1.3% vs 12.9%) than residents of nondiabetic households. HbA1c was significantly lower in people aged 30 years or younger (5.2% vs 5.4%) and in males (5.2% vs 5.4%) living in diabetic households compared to residents of nondiabetic households. No differences were found between the 2 types of households in overweight and obesity, upper-arm fat area, intake of staple foods or cooking oil, or physical activity. Conclusions Sharing a household with a person with T2D may have unexpected benefits on the risk factor profile for cardio-metabolic diseases, probably because of improved health behaviors and a closer connection with the health care system. Thus, future studies should consider the household for interventions targeting primary and secondary prevention of T2D. PMID:25837257

  11. Factors Affecting Domestic Water Consumption in Rural Households upon Access to Improved Water Supply: Insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

  12. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

  13. Patterns of rural household energy use: a study in the White Nile province - the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Abdu, A.S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The study investigates rural household domestic energy consumption patterns in a semiarid area of the Sudan. It describes the socioeconomic and evironmental context of energy use, provides an estimation of local woody biomass production and evaluates ecological impacts of increased energy demand on the local resource base. It is based on findings derived from field surveys, a systematic questionnaire and participant observations. Findings indicate that households procure traditional fuels by self-collection and purchases. Household members spent on average 20% of their working time gathering fuels. Generally per caput and total annual expenditure and consumption of domestic fuels are determined by household size, physical availability, storage, prices, income, conservation, substitution and competition among fuel resource uses. Households spend on average 16% of their annual income on traditional fuels. Aggregation of fuels on heat equivalent basis and calculation of their contribution shows that on average firewood provides 63%, charcoal 20.7%, dung 10.4%, crop residues 3.4% and kerosene/diesel 2.5% of the total demand for domestic purposes. Estimated total household woodfuel demand exceeds woody biomass available from the local forests. This demand is presently satisfied by a net depletion of the local forests and purchases from other areas. Degradation of the resource base is further exacerbated by development of irrigation along the White Nile River, increasing livestock numbers (overgrazing) and forest clearance for rainfed cultivation. The most promising relevant and appropriate strategies to alleviate rural household domestic energy problems include: conservation of the existing forest, augmentation through village woodlots and community forestry programmes and improvements in end-use (stoves) and conversion (wood to charcoal) technologies.

  14. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2013-12-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer's education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking. PMID:24966446

  15. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia*

    PubMed Central

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer’s education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking. PMID:24966446

  16. The Relationship of Childhood Maltreatment and Household Dysfunction and Drug Use in Later Life in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Dastjerdi, Qasem; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    Few studies have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and substance use in later life considering household dysfunction variables especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries. The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and substance misuse during later life in an Iranian sample. A case control study was conducted in Kerman, a city located in southern Iran in 2005. Cases were 200 men and women referred to outpatient clinics of the city seeking treatment for substance use disorder. Controls (n = 200) were selected from the general population. With emphasizing the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of child abuse/neglect and household dysfunction. Using multivariate logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics, childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and substance use disorder were analyzed. The mean age of case group was 32.5±8.3 and in control group was 28±9.3 (p< 0.01). Most of subjects in both groups were male. The prevalence of sexual abuse, household substance use and household criminality were higher in substance dependent patients comparing to control group. The highest odds of substance use disorder was associated with household substance abuse (OR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.53-4.10) and sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association with substance use disorder in later life (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03-2.92). The related factors uncovered by the study conduct us to early interventions among dysfunctional families to decrease the maladaptive lives and stressful household environments.

  17. The Economic impact of Non-communicable Diseases on households in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and injuries account for an estimated 62% of the total age-standardized burden of forgone Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Public and private financing of clinical services to reduce the NCD burden is a major challenge. Methods We used National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) survey data from 1995-96 and 2004 covering nearly 200 thousand households to assess healthcare utilization patterns and out of pocket health spending by disease category. For this purpose, self-reported diseases and conditions were categorized into NCDs and non-NCDs. Survey data were used to assess how households financed their overall health expenditures and related this pattern to specific health conditions. We measured catastrophic spending on NCD-related hospitalization, defined as occurring when health expenditures exceeded 40% of a household's ability to pay, that is, household consumption spending less combined survival consumption expenditure; and impoverishment when per capita expenditure within the household decreased to below the poverty line once health spending was netted out. Results The share of NCDs in out of pocket health expenses incurred by households increased over time, from 31.6 percent in 1995-96 to 47.3 percent in 2004. In both years, own savings and income were the most important source of financing for many health conditions, typically between 40-60 percent of all spending, whereas 30-35 percent was from borrowing. The odds of catastrophic hospitalization expenditures for cancer was nearly 170% greater and for CVD and injuries 22 percent greater than the odds due to communicable diseases. Impoverishment patterns were similar. Conclusions Out of pocket expenses for treating NCDs rose sharply over the period from 1995-96 to 2004. When NCDs are present, the financial risks to which Indians households are exposed are significant. PMID:22533895

  18. Personal Exposure to Household Particulate Matter, Household Activities and Heart Rate Variability among Housewives

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Li; Chen, Hua-Wei; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV) has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM) and household activities. Methods We performed 24-h continuous monitoring of electrocardiography and measured household PM exposure among 50 housewives. The outcome variables were log10-transformed standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD). Household PM was measured as the mass concentration of PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5). We used mixed-effects models to examine the association between household PM2.5 exposure and log10-transformed HRV indices. Results After controlling for potential confounders, an interquartile range change in household PM2.5 with 1- to 4-h mean was associated with 1.25–4.31% decreases in SDNN and 0.12–3.71% decreases in r-MSSD. Stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense may increase household PM2.5 concentrations and modify the effects of household PM2.5 on HRV indices among housewives. Conclusions Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased SDNN and r-MSSD among housewives, especially during stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense. PMID:24594880

  19. Complex Households and the Distribution of Multiple Resources in Later Life: Findings from A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juyeon; Link, Arts; Waite, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The availability of social and financial resources has profound implications for health and well-being in later life. Older adults often share resources with others who live with them, sometimes in households including relatives or friends. We examine differences in social support, social connections, money, and the household environment across types of living arrangements, develop hypotheses from two theoretical perspectives, one focusing on obligations toward kin, and one focused on social exchange within households, and test them using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We find that availability of resources is not consistently associated with the presence of grandchildren and other young relatives, but often differs with presence of other adults. These findings suggest that a single type of resource tells us little about the distribution of the resources of older adults, and call on us to examine multiple resources simultaneously. PMID:25904682

  20. Complex Households and the Distribution of Multiple Resources in Later Life: Findings From a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyeon; Waite, Linda J

    2016-02-01

    The availability of social and financial resources has profound implications for health and well-being in later life. Older adults often share resources with others who live with them, sometimes in households including relatives or friends. We examine differences in social support, social connections, money, and the household environment across types of living arrangements, develop hypotheses from two theoretical perspectives, one focusing on obligations toward kin, and one focused on social exchange within households, and test them using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We find that availability of resources is not consistently associated with the presence of grandchildren and other young relatives, but often differs with presence of other adults. These findings suggest that a single type of resource tells us little about the distribution of the resources of older adults, and call on us to examine multiple resources simultaneously. PMID:25904682

  1. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste. PMID:25445261

  2. Household water treatment using sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets: a randomized, controlled trial to assess microbiological effectiveness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Saeed, Tanveer F; Boisson, Sophie; Edmondson, Paul; Shipin, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the microbiologic effectiveness of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets used on a routine basis at the household level by a vulnerable population. In a 4-month trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, one half of the 100 participating households received NaDCC tablets and instructions on how to use the same; the other one half received a placebo and the same instructions. Monthly samples of stored drinking water from intervention households were significantly lower in thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) than those of control households (geometric mean, 2.8 [95% CI: 2.2, 3.6] versus 604.1 [95% CI: 463.2, 787.9]; P < 0.0001). While 61.7% (116/188) of samples from the intervention households met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for 0 TTCs in drinking water, none of the 191 samples from control households met such a benchmark. Residual free chlorine in water samples suggested that householders consistently used the intervention, but 11.7% of samples exceeded the WHO guideline value of 5.0 mg/L, underscoring the need to ensure that tablet dose and vessel size are compatible. PMID:17255252

  3. Nutritional assessment of rural villages and estates in Peninsular Malaysia: I Socio-economic profile of households.

    PubMed

    Chee, H; Khor, G; Tee, E S

    1997-03-01

    A nutritional study was carried out on six (five rural and one urban) low income groups in Peninsular Malaysia from 1992-1995. In this paper, the socio-economic data for the five rural groups - padi farmers, rubber smallholders, coconut smallholders, estate workers, and fishermen - are presented. With the exception of the estate workers, the sample was predominantly Malay, with an overall mean household size of 5.30. Household incomes were generally low, and 47% of all households had incomes that were below the poverty line income (PLI) of RM405. Based on this PLI, the prevalence of poverty was above 50% among the padi, rubber, coconut, and fishing households. Nevertheless, the study population appeared to be better off in terms of the other indicators examined. Poultry rearing, for example, was widespread in the padi, rubber, and coconut villages; 65% of all households owned at least one motorised vehicle, 53% owned a refrigerator, and 83% owned a television set. Furthermore, over 80% of all households had access to piped water, 96% had electricity supply, and over 90% had a flush or pour-flush latrine. In comparison to the 1979-1983 poverty villages study (Chong et al., 1984), the households in the current study enjoyed better living conditions. Strict comparisons between the two studies, however, is difficult owing to the different criteria adopted in the selection of the study villages. PMID:22692232

  4. Simulation of Malaria Transmission among Households in a Thai Village using Remotely Sensed Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Adimi, Farida; Zollner, Gabriela E.; Coleman, Russell E.

    2007-01-01

    We have used discrete-event simulation to model the malaria transmission in a Thailand village with approximately 700 residents. Specifically, we model the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Some of the meteorological and environmental parameters used in the simulation are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the Ikonos satellite data. Parameters used in the simulations reflect the realistic condition of the village, including the locations and sizes of the households, ages and estimated immunity of the residents, presence of farm animals, and locations of larval habitats. Larval habitats include the actual locations where larvae were collected and the probable locations based on satellite data. The output of the simulation includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Simulated transmission under homogeneous environmental condition was compared with that predicted by a SEIR model. Sensitivity of the output with respect to some extrinsic and intrinsic factors was investigated. Results were compared with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired over 4.5 years (June 1999 - January 2004) in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The simulation method is useful for testing transmission hypotheses, estimating the efficacy of insecticide applications, assessing the impacts of nonimmune immigrants, and predicting the effects of socioeconomic, environmental and climatic changes.

  5. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). PMID:21689921

  6. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  7. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  8. Patterns of rural household energy use: a study in the White Nile province - the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Abdu, A.S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This study investigates rural household domestic energy consumption patterns in a semiarid area of the Sudan. It describes the socio-economic and environmental context of energy use, provides an estimation of local woody biomass production, and evaluates ecological impacts of increased energy demand on the local resource base. It is based on findings derived from field surveys, a systematic questionnaire, and participant observations. Findings indicate that households procure traditional fuels by self-collection and purchases. Household members spent on average 29 percent of their working time gathering fuels. Analysis of firewood consumption across income groups shows little variation among the households. In contrast, charcoal use rises with increasing income. Fuel consumption data are further subjected to regression analysis. Firewood is significantly determined by household size, while charcoal, kerosene/diesel (El Jaz El Ahmer), use are dependent on annual expenditure. Patterns of dung and crop remains use fit the framework of low resource base, high forestry depletion rates, and low incomes for most of the study area.

  9. CO2 Emissions from Direct Energy Use of Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix

    2015-10-01

    India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities. PMID:26359859

  10. A myostatin inhibitor (propeptide-Fc) increases muscle mass and muscle fiber size in aged mice but does not increase bone density or bone strength.

    PubMed

    Arounleut, Phonepasong; Bialek, Peter; Liang, Li-Fang; Upadhyay, Sunil; Fulzele, Sadanand; Johnson, Maribeth; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W

    2013-09-01

    Loss of muscle and bone mass with age are significant contributors to falls and fractures among the elderly. Myostatin deficiency is associated with increased muscle mass in mice, dogs, cows, sheep and humans, and mice lacking myostatin have been observed to show increased bone density in the limb, spine, and jaw. Transgenic overexpression of myostatin propeptide, which binds to and inhibits the active myostatin ligand, also increases muscle mass and bone density in mice. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that in vivo inhibition of myostatin using an injectable myostatin propeptide (GDF8 propeptide-Fc) would increase both muscle mass and bone density in aged (24 mo) mice. Male mice were injected weekly (20 mg/kg body weight) with recombinant myostatin propeptide-Fc (PRO) or vehicle (VEH; saline) for four weeks. There was no difference in body weight between the two groups at the end of the treatment period, but PRO treatment significantly increased mass of the tibialis anterior muscle (+ 7%) and increased muscle fiber diameter of the extensor digitorum longus (+ 16%) and soleus (+ 6%) muscles compared to VEH treatment. Bone volume relative to total volume (BV/TV) of the femur calculated by microCT did not differ significantly between PRO- and VEH-treated mice, and ultimate force (Fu), stiffness (S), toughness (U) measured from three-point bending tests also did not differ significantly between groups. Histomorphometric assays also revealed no differences in bone formation or resorption in response to PRO treatment. These data suggest that while developmental perturbation of myostatin signaling through either gene knockout or transgenic inhibition may alter both muscle and bone mass in mice, pharmacological inhibition of myostatin in aged mice has a more pronounced effect on skeletal muscle than on bone. PMID:23832079

  11. Size-fractionation and characterization of landfill leachate and the improvement of Cu{sup 2+} adsorption capacity in soil and aged refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Lou Ziyang; Chai Xiaoli; Niu Dongjie; Ou Yuanyang; Zhao Youcai

    2009-01-15

    Leachate was collected from an anaerobic lagoon at Shanghai Laogang refuse landfill, the largest landfill in China, and the sample was separated into six fractions using micro-filtration membranes, followed by ultra-filtration membranes. Several parameters of the samples were measured, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total solids (TS), pH, total phosphate (TP), total nitrogen (TN), fixed solids (FS), NH{sub 4}{sup +}, orthophosphate, color, turbidity, and conductivity. These parameters were then quantitatively correlated with the molecular weight cutoff of the membrane used. Organic matter in the dissolved fraction (MW < 1 kDa) predominated in the leachate, accounting for 65% of TOC. Thermal infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the filter residues. Asymmetric and symmetric stretching of methyl and methylene groups, and of functional groups containing nitrogen and oxygen atoms, were observed. In addition, the ability of two different samples to adsorb heavy metals was tested. Cu{sup 2+} was chosen as the representative heavy metal in this study, and the samples were soil; aged refuse, which had spent 8 years in a conventional sanitary landfill; and samples of soil and aged refuse treated for 48 h with leachate in the ratio of 5 g of sample per 50 ml of leachate. Cu{sup 2+} uptake by the raw soil was {approx}4.60 {mu}g/g, while uptake by the leachate-contacted soil and leachate-contacted aged refuse were 5.66 and 5.11 {mu}g/g, respectively. These results show that the organic matter in the leachate enhanced the capacity of aqueous solutions to adsorb Cu{sup 2+}.

  12. Multigenerational: Households and the School Readiness of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Raley, R. Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Following the ongoing increase in nonmarital fertility, policy makers have looked for ways to limit the disadvantages faced by children of unmarried mothers. Recent initiatives included marriage promotion and welfare-to-work programs. Yet policy might also consider the promotion of three generational households. We know little about whether multigenerational households benefit children of unwed mothers, although they are mandated for unmarried teen mothers applying for welfare benefits. Multigenerational households are also becoming increasingly common. Thus, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 217), this study examines whether grandparent-headed coresidential households benefit preschool-aged children’s school readiness, employing propensity score techniques to account for selection into these households. Findings reveal living with a grandparent is not associated with child outcomes for families that select into such arrangements but is positively associated with reading scores and behavior problems for families with a low propensity to coreside. The implications of these findings for policy are discussed. PMID:23847390

  13. Economic consequences of population size, structure and growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, R

    1983-01-01

    There seems to be 4 major approaches to conceptualizing and modeling demographic influences on economic and social welfare. These approaches are combined in various ways to construct richer and more comprehensive models. The basic approaches are: demographic influences on household or family behavior; population growth and reproducible capital; population size and fixed factors; and population and advantages of scale. These 4 models emphasize the supply side effects of population. A few of the ways in which these theories have been combined are sketched. Neoclassical growth models often have been combined with age distributed populations of individuals (or households), assumed to pursue optimal life cycle consumption and saving. In some well known development models, neoclassical growth models for the modern sector are linked by labor markets and migration to fixed factor (land) models of the traditional (agricultural) sector. A whole series of macro simulation models for developed and developing countries was based on single sector neoclassical growth models with age distributed populations. Yet, typically the household level foundations of assumed age distribution effects were not worked out. Simon's (1977) simulation models are in a class by themselves, for they are the only models that attempt to incorporate all the kinds of effects discussed. The economic demography of the individual and family cycle, as it is affected by regimes of fertility, mortality, and nuptiality, taken as given, are considered. The examination touches on many of the purported consequences of aggregate population growth and age composition, since so many of these are based implicitly or explicitly on assertions about micro level behavior. Demographic influences on saving and consumption, on general labor supply and female labor supply, and on problems of youth and old age dependency frequently fall in this category. Finally, attention is focused specifically on macro economic issues in

  14. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

  15. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    PubMed

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

  16. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  17. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  18. Household Information Systems: An Integrated View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Higgins, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Describes the first stage in a study of home information systems in the United Kingdom that is being conducted to develop a theory of household information systems that will inform investors, producers, and consumers in a given region. Highlights include methodology, questions for structured interviews, task model, and technical model. (Author/LRW)

  19. Capability and Health Functioning in Ethiopian Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabsout, Ramzi

    2011-01-01

    From a recent Ethiopian representative household survey this paper empirically operationalizes concepts from the capability approach to shed light on the relationship between conversion factors, capability inputs and health functionings. The subjects of the study are women in partnership. The results suggest their health functionings are…

  20. Suicidality in a Sample of Arctic Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggarty, John M.; Cernovsky, Zack; Bedard, Michel; Merskey, Harold

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association of suicidal ideation and behavior with depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Canadian Arctic Inuit community. Inuit (N = 111) from a random sample of households completed assessments of anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, and suicidality. High rates of suicidal ideation within the past week (43.6%), and…

  1. So exactly what is a "household"?

    PubMed

    Mullins, D

    2000-07-01

    The huge increase in HIV/AIDS in southern Africa has disrupted family life and the means of making a living. This has made Oxfam examine its definitions of a ¿household¿ and changed the kind of support it had given people affected by HIV/AIDS. It is shown that there are more than 23 million HIV-positive people living in southern Africa; nearly 70% of global cases in a region which has only 10% of the global population. When chronic illness and death strikes, the composition of a household change dramatically and affects the roles of household members. It is usually the women who have to cope with the increased burden of caring for the sick, and take the greater responsibility of earning money and providing food. Also, girls often take over the roles of their sick mothers and care for other family members and are taken out of school to save money on school expenses so that they can provide care for the sick. In view of this, Oxfam has been working to incorporate a gender analysis and pays more attention to gender roles in both male- and female-headed households. PMID:12296261

  2. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  3. SOURCES OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS IN HOUSEHOLD WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a literature search into the occurrence of EPA's selected 129 priority pollutants in household wastewater. The study identifies consumer product categories and general types of products containing the toxic compounds used in and around the home...

  4. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  5. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... otherwise dependent on a member of the household, unless State law defines such a person as an adult. (2... with § 273.11(q). (xi) Persons ineligible under § 273.24, the time limit for able-bodied adults....

  6. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... otherwise dependent on a member of the household, unless State law defines such a person as an adult. (2... with § 273.11(q). (xi) Persons ineligible under § 273.24, the time limit for able-bodied adults....

  7. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... otherwise dependent on a member of the household, unless State law defines such a person as an adult. (2... with § 273.11(q). (xi) Persons ineligible under § 273.24, the time limit for able-bodied adults....

  8. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... otherwise dependent on a member of the household, unless State law defines such a person as an adult. (2... with § 273.11(q). (xi) Persons ineligible under § 273.24, the time limit for able-bodied adults....

  9. Independence, Individualism & Connection among Share Householders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natalier, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    How do young people who are financially dependent on their parents but living in share households conceive of the concept of independence? The meanings of independence are discussed in relation to a qualitative study of young people who described themselves as independent although they accepted money on a regular basis from their parents. Their…

  10. NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE (NHSDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) is sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The survey has been conducted since 1971 and serves as the primary source of information on the prevalence and incidence of illicit drug, al...

  11. Effective household disinfection methods of kitchen sponges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several household disinfecting treatments to kill bacteria, yeasts and molds on kitchen sponges were evaluated. Sponges were soaked in 10 percent bleach for 3 min, lemon juice (pH 2.9) or deionized water for 1 min; placed in a microwave oven for 1 min; or placed in a dishwasher operating with a dryi...

  12. Household and Structural Pests. MEP 307.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, F. E.

    This pamphlet is a non-technical description of common household arthropod pests in Maryland. Since most of the pests can be found in houses throughout North America, this publication has a wide geographic range of use. General discussions of arthropod structure, growth and development, and metamorphosis are given before the pages on specific…

  13. The implications of small stem cell niche sizes and the distribution of fitness effects of new mutations in aging and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Cannataro, Vincent L; McKinley, Scott A; St Mary, Colette M

    2016-04-01

    Somatic tissue evolves over a vertebrate's lifetime due to the accumulation of mutations in stem cell populations. Mutations may alter cellular fitness and contribute to tumorigenesis or aging. The distribution of mutational effects within somatic cells is not known. Given the unique regulatory regime of somatic cell division, we hypothesize that mutational effects in somatic tissue fall into a different framework than whole organisms; one in which there are more mutations of large effect. Through simulation analysis, we investigate the fit of tumor incidence curves generated using exponential and power-law distributions of fitness effects (DFE) to known tumorigenesis incidence. Modeling considerations include the architecture of stem cell populations, that is, a large number of very small populations, and mutations that do and do not fix neutrally in the stem cell niche. We find that the typically quantified DFE in whole organisms is sufficient to explain tumorigenesis incidence. Further, deleterious mutations are predicted to accumulate via genetic drift, resulting in reduced tissue maintenance. Thus, despite there being a large number of stem cells throughout the intestine, its compartmental architecture leads to the accumulation of deleterious mutations and significant aging, making the intestinal stem cell niche a prime example of Muller's Ratchet. PMID:27099622

  14. The hefty penalty on marriage facing many households with children.

    PubMed

    Carasso, Adam; Steuerle, C Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Over the past seventy years Congress has enacted dozens of tax and transfer programs, giving little if any attention to the marriage subsidies and penalties that they inadvertently impose. Although the programs affect both rich and poor Americans, the penalties fall most heavily on low- or moderate-income households with children. In this article, Adam Carasso and Eugene Steuerle review important penalties and subsidies, explain how they work, and help fill a big research gap by beginning to provide comprehensive data on the size of the penalties and subsidies arising from all public programs considered together. Marriage penalties arise because of the combination of variable U.S. tax rates and joint, rather than individual, filing by married couples for benefits and taxes. If graduated taxes were accompanied by individual filing or if all income and transfers were taxed at a flat rate, there would be no marriage penalties. Specifically, the penalties are a result of policymakers' efforts to achieve the goal of progressivity--giving greater tax and welfare benefits to those with lower income--while trying to keep down program costs. Thus benefits in transfer programs fall, sometimes steeply, as households earn more income. Combining the direct tax rate in the tax code and the benefit reduction rates in the transfer system can result in extremely high effective marginal tax rates for many low- to moderate-income families-rates far higher than those of families earning over 90,000 dollars. These high rates lead to the marriage penalties because additional income brought into a household by marriage thus causes other benefits to be reduced or lost altogether. In extreme cases, households can lose a dollar or more for every dollar earned. In recent years lawmakers have begun to try to reduce marriage penalties, primarily by reforming welfare and cutting taxes, but huge penalties remain. The authors offer several options for reducing or eliminating the marriage penalty

  15. Household chemicals: management of intoxication and antidotes.

    PubMed

    Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to household products is very common, but in industrialized countries severe or fatal poisoning with household products is rare today, due to the legal restriction of sale of hazardous household products. The big challenge for physicians, pharmacologists and toxicologists is to identify the few exceptional life-threatening situations where immediate intervention is needed. Among thousands of innocuous products available for the household only very few are hazardous. Substances found in these products include detergents, corrosives, alcohols, hydrocarbons, and some of the essential oils. The ingestion of batteries and magnets and the exposure to cyanoacrylates (super glue) can cause complications in exceptional situations. Among the most dangerous substances still present in household products are ethylene glycol and methanol. These substances cause major toxicity only through their metabolites. Therefore, initial symptoms may be only mild or absent. Treatment even in asymptomatic patients has to be initiated as early as possible to inhibit production of toxic metabolites. For all substances not only the compound itself but also the route of exposure is relevant for toxicity. Oral ingestion and inhalation generally lead to most pronounced symptoms, while dermal exposure is often limited to mild irritation. However, certain circumstances need special attention. Exposure to hydrofluoric acid may lead to fatal hypocalcemia, depending on the concentration, duration of exposure, and area of the affected skin. Accidents with hydrocarbon pressure injectors and spray guns are very serious events, which may lead to amputation of affected limbs. Button batteries normally pass the gastrointestinal tract without problems even in toddlers; in rare cases, however, they get lodged in the esophagus with the risk of localized tissue damage and esophageal perforation. PMID:20358689

  16. Do the maximum sizes, ages and patterns of growth of three reef-dwelling labrid species at two latitudes differ in a manner conforming to the metabolic theory of ecology?

    PubMed

    Lek, E; Fairclough, D V; Hall, N G; Hesp, S A; Potter, I C

    2012-11-01

    The size and age data and patterns of growth of three abundant, reef-dwelling and protogynous labrid species (Coris auricularis, Notolabrus parilus and Ophthalmolepis lineolata) in waters off Perth at c. 32° S and in the warmer waters of the Jurien Bay Marine Park (JBMP) at c. 30° S on the lower west coast of Australia are compared. Using data for the top 10% of values and a randomization procedure, the maximum total length (L(T) ) and mass of each species and the maximum age of the first two species were estimated to be significantly greater off Perth than in the JBMP (all P < 0.001) and the maximum ages of O. lineolata in the two localities did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). These latitudinal trends, thus, typically conform to those frequently exhibited by fish species and the predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE). While, in terms of mass, the instantaneous growth rates of each species were similar at both latitudes during early life, they were greater at the higher latitude throughout the remainder and thus much of life, which is broadly consistent with the MTE. When expressed in terms of L(T), however, instantaneous growth rates did not exhibit consistent latitudinal trends across all three species. The above trends with mass, together with those for reproductive variables, demonstrate that a greater amount of energy is directed into somatic growth and gonadal development by each of these species at the higher latitude. The consistency of the direction of the latitudinal trends for maximum body size and age and pattern of growth across all three species implies that each species is responding in a similar manner to differences between the environmental characteristics, such as temperature, at those two latitudes. The individual maximum L(T), mass and age and pattern of growth of O. lineolata at a higher and thus cooler latitude on the eastern Australian coast are consistent with the latitudinal trends exhibited by those characteristics

  17. Children caring for their "caregivers": exploring the caring arrangements in households affected by AIDS in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Reflecting dominant understandings of childhood, many researchers describe orphans as an emotional and financial cost to the households in which they live. This has created a representation of orphans as a burden, not only to their fostering household, but also to society. This article seeks to challenge this representation by exploring children's contributions to their fostering households. Drawing on research from Bondo District in Kenya, this article brings together the views of 36 guardians and 69 orphaned children between the ages of 11 and 17, who articulated their circumstances through photography and drawing. Nearly 300 photos and drawings were selected by the children and subsequently described in writing. An additional 44 in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted to explore findings further. The data suggest that many fostering households benefit tremendously from absorbing orphaned children. All orphans were found to contribute to their fostering household's income and provide valuable care or support to ageing, ailing or young members of their households. The article concludes that caution should be exercised in using the term "caregiver" to describe foster parents due to the reciprocity, and indeed at times a reversal, of caring responsibilities. PMID:20390486

  18. Household income and health care expenditures in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Parker, S W; Wong, R

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of household health expenditures in Mexico. Our analysis involves the estimation of household monetary health care expenditures, using the economic and demographic characteristics of the household as covariates. We pay particular attention to the impact of household income on health expenditures, estimating the elasticity of health care expenditures with respect to income for different income groups and according to health insurance status. For the empirical analysis, we use the Mexican National Survey of Income and Expenditures of 1989. Our principle findings show that monetary health expenditures by Mexican households are sensitive to changes in household income levels and that the group which is most responsive to changes in income levels in the lower-income uninsured group. This suggests that in times of economic crisis, these households reduce cash expenditures on health care by proportionately more than higher-income and insured households. PMID:10168755

  19. TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD FLOORING SURFACES TO FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods was measured to determine if excess dietary exposure potentially occurs when children's foods contact contaminated surfaces prior to being. Three common household surfaces (ceramic tile, hardwood flooring, and carpet) w...

  20. Food variety and dietary diversity scores to understand the food-intake pattern among selected Malaysian households.

    PubMed

    Zainal Badari, Shamsul A; Arcot, Jayashree; Haron, Sharifah A; Paim, Laily; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Masud, Jariah

    2012-01-01

    Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p < .01), sex (p < .05), and household food expenditure (p < .01) had a significant influence on both FVS and DDS. The food-intake pattern of Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods. PMID:22794127

  1. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD) study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006–2011) was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt) within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm. Results A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 5.72; 95% CI 1.64–19.97); that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39–33.56) and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14–16.47). Conclusion This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors. PMID:26731114

  2. Incarceration in the household: academic outcomes of adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Emily Bever; Loper, Ann Booker

    2012-11-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, yet there is relatively little information on how the removal of these adults from households impacts the youth who are left behind. This study used a child-centered lens to examine the impact of incarceration on the school outcomes of youth who resided with a family member or family associate who was incarcerated prior to the youth's 18th birthday. We used data from 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult (n = 3,338, 53 % female). Initial analyses indicated that youth who experienced a household members' incarceration evidenced more socioeconomic challenges, more frequent home adversities, and lower cognitive skills relative to youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Results also revealed that youth who had experienced a household member's incarceration were more likely to report extended absence from school and were less likely to graduate from high school relative to those youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Counter to our hypotheses, results revealed the incarceration of an extended family member being in the household was the only relation significantly associated with worse school outcomes. Plausibly, families who allow non-immediate criminally involved individuals to reside in the household are experiencing a more pervasive chaotic home environment than those with a parent or sibling incarcerated. Our study suggests that efforts to address the needs of children with incarcerated parents need to be widened to those who experience the loss of any household member due to incarceration. PMID:22714743

  3. How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature and a large scale crowdsourcing experiment, we estimate that an average 20-year-old native speaker of American English knows 42,000 lemmas and 4,200 non-transparent multiword expressions, derived from 11,100 word families. The numbers range from 27,000 lemmas for the lowest 5% to 52,000 for the highest 5%. Between the ages of 20 and 60, the average person learns 6,000 extra lemmas or about one new lemma every 2 days. The knowledge of the words can be as shallow as knowing that the word exists. In addition, people learn tens of thousands of inflected forms and proper nouns (names), which account for the substantially high numbers of 'words known' mentioned in other publications. PMID:27524974

  4. How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the literature and a large scale crowdsourcing experiment, we estimate that an average 20-year-old native speaker of American English knows 42,000 lemmas and 4,200 non-transparent multiword expressions, derived from 11,100 word families. The numbers range from 27,000 lemmas for the lowest 5% to 52,000 for the highest 5%. Between the ages of 20 and 60, the average person learns 6,000 extra lemmas or about one new lemma every 2 days. The knowledge of the words can be as shallow as knowing that the word exists. In addition, people learn tens of thousands of inflected forms and proper nouns (names), which account for the substantially high numbers of ‘words known’ mentioned in other publications. PMID:27524974

  5. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Parizeau, Kate; Massow, Mike von; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  6. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Bachan, Lauren K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstances surrounding fostering vary, the literature’s key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. OBJECTIVE This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. METHODS This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT), a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. RESULTS This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households. The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. CONCLUSION Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in household wealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared. PMID:25419172

  7. Diversity Comes in All Sizes and Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold

    1997-01-01

    Discusses demographic diversification and implications for the American educational system. The United States is aging rapidly, has polarized wealth and poverty, has more Latin American and Asian immigrants, and is becoming increasingly mobile, suburban, and non-Caucasian. The best predictors of school achievement are household income and parents'…

  8. Transmission of Novel Influenza A(H1N1) in Households with Post-Exposure Antiviral Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    van Boven, Michiel; Donker, Tjibbe; van der Lubben, Mariken; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Rianne B.; te Beest, Dennis E.; Koopmans, Marion; Meijer, Adam; Timen, Aura; Swaan, Corien; Dalhuijsen, Anton; Hahné, Susan; van den Hoek, Anneke; Teunis, Peter; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Wallinga, Jacco

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite impressive advances in our understanding of the biology of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus, little is as yet known about its transmission efficiency in close contact places such as households, schools, and workplaces. These are widely believed to be key in supporting propagating spread, and it is therefore of importance to assess the transmission levels of the virus in such settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimate the transmissibility of novel influenza A(H1N1) in 47 households in the Netherlands using stochastic epidemic models. All households contained a laboratory confirmed index case, and antiviral drugs (oseltamivir) were given to both the index case and other households members within 24 hours after detection of the index case. Among the 109 household contacts there were 9 secondary infections in 7 households. The overall estimated secondary attack rate is low (0.075, 95%CI: 0.037–0.13). There is statistical evidence indicating that older persons are less susceptible to infection than younger persons (relative susceptibility of older persons: 0.11, 95%CI: 0.024–0.43. Notably, the secondary attack rate from an older to a younger person is 0.35 (95%CI: 0.14–0.61) when using an age classification of ≤12 versus >12 years, and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.12–0.50) when using an age classification of ≤18 versus >18 years. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the overall household transmission levels of novel influenza A(H1N1) in antiviral-treated households were low in the early stage of the epidemic. The relatively high rate of adult-to-child transmission indicates that control measures focused on this transmission route will be most effective in minimizing the total number of infections. PMID:20628642

  9. Factors associated with transmission of influenza-like illness in a cohort of households containing multiple children

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chelsea R; McCaw, James M; Fairmaid, Emily J; Brown, Lorena E; Leder, Karin; Sinclair, Martha; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    Background Household studies of influenza-like illness (ILI) afford opportunities to study determinants of respiratory virus transmission. Objectives We examined predictors of ILI transmission within households containing at least two children. Methods A prospective cohort study recorded ILI symptoms daily for 2712 adult and child participants during the 1998 influenza season in Victoria, Australia. Logistic and Poisson regressions were used to explore predictors of household transmission of ILI and the secondary household attack proportion (SHAP). A date of illness onset during the influenza season was used as a proxy indicator of ILI associated with influenza infection (as opposed to other aetiological causes). Results A total of 1009 ILI episodes were reported by 781 of 2712 (29%) participants residing in 157 households. Transmission, defined as detection of ILI in one or more household members following identification of an index case, was observed in 206 of 705 (29%) household introductions. Transmission of ILI was significantly associated with the onset of ILI in the index case during the peak influenza season compared with the remainder of the observation period (37% versus 27%, odds ratio = 1·59, 95% CI 1·09, 2·31, P = 0·017). The SHAP was 0·12, higher if the index case was of secondary school age [incidence risk ratio (IRR) = 1·80, 95% CI 1·08, 2·98, P = 0·022]. Conclusions Risk of household transmission of ILI was increased during the peak influenza season, indicating an increased burden of disease during the period of influenza circulation. In this cohort, secondary-school-aged children and adults were important transmitters of ILI. PMID:26061755

  10. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of…

  11. Changing Composition of Michigan Households. Policy Report 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menchik, Bettie Landauer

    2002-01-01

    This report on Michigan's demographics examines the changing composition of Michigan's households and the ramification for Michigan schools. The report states that between 1980 and 2000, Michigan's population grew by 7.3 percent, while the number of households grew by 590,448, or 18 percent. Households are growing faster than the population…

  12. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....