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Sample records for age household size

  1. Sensitivity of Household Transmission to Household Contact Structure and Size

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Achla; Lewis, Bryan; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objective Study the influence of household contact structure on the spread of an influenza-like illness. Examine whether changes to in-home care giving arrangements can significantly affect the household transmission counts. Method We simulate two different behaviors for the symptomatic person; either s/he remains at home in contact with everyone else in the household or s/he remains at home in contact with only the primary caregiver in the household. The two different cases are referred to as full mixing and single caregiver, respectively. Results The results show that the household’s cumulative transmission count is lower in case of a single caregiver configuration than in the full mixing case. The household transmissions vary almost linearly with the household size in both single caregiver and full mixing cases. However the difference in household transmissions due to the difference in household structure grows with the household size especially in case of moderate flu. Conclusions These results suggest that details about human behavior and household structure do matter in epidemiological models. The policy of home isolation of the sick has significant effect on the household transmission count depending upon the household size. PMID:21829625

  2. Some Home Truths on Household Size and Wealth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, Robert McC.

    1982-01-01

    Uses cross-cultural sociological and archaeological data to support the conclusion that wealth, measured in land and livestock, and household size are positively correlated. Social stratification is reflected in average household size and socioeconomic change affects the proportions of different household sizes in the population. (Author/AM)

  3. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T.

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  4. Household Crowding and Food Insecurity Among Inuit Families With School-Aged Children in the Canadian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Ayotte, Pierre; Riva, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation of household crowding to food insecurity among Inuit families with school-aged children in Arctic Quebec. Methods. We analyzed data collected between October 2005 and February 2010 from 292 primary caregiver–child dyads from 14 Inuit communities. We collected information about household conditions, food security, and family socioeconomic characteristics by interviews. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between household crowding and food insecurity. Results. Nearly 62% of Inuit families in the Canadian Arctic resided in more crowded households, placing them at risk for food insecurity. About 27% of the families reported reducing the size of their children’s meals because of lack of money. The likelihood of reducing the size of children’s meals was greater in crowded households (odds ratio = 3.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.12). After we adjusted for different socioeconomic characteristics, results remained statistically significant. Conclusions. Interventions operating across different levels (community, regional, national) are needed to ensure food security in the region. Targeting families living in crowded conditions as part of social and public health policies aiming to reduce food insecurity in the Arctic could be beneficial. PMID:25602890

  5. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status.

  6. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  7. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke exposure to children's subsequent classroom engagement at age 10. From child ages 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At age 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes.

  8. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Laura J.; Glass, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Roth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (household and neighborhood conditions, using a 16-item environmental checklist and a 3-item social cohesion scale, and physical capacity with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and peak expiratory flow. Structural equation models were used to decompose total educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β=0.055, p<0.05) and peak flow (β=0.095, p<0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.013, p<0.05), grip strength (β=0.007, p<0.05), and peak flow (β=0.010, p<0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.012, p<0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to support aging in place

  9. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Glass, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L; Roth, David L

    2015-03-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (household and neighborhood conditions, using a 16-item environmental checklist and a 3-item social cohesion scale, and physical capacity with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and peak expiratory flow. Structural equation models were used to decompose total educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β = 0.055, p < 0.05) and peak flow (β = 0.095, p < 0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.013, p < 0.05), grip strength (β = 0.007, p < 0.05), and peak flow (β = 0.010, p < 0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.012, p < 0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to

  10. Division of Household Labor and the Well-Being of Retirement-Aged Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Darlene L.; Bengtson, Vern L.

    1995-01-01

    A model specifying that certain subjective beliefs and structural conditions affect the symbolic meaning wives give to their household labor divisions was tested on 144 retirement-age married women. Results indicate that wives perceive less spousal support when housework divisions are more unequal, and that this lack of spousal support leads to…

  11. The Effects of Age and Household Income on the Use of Literate Language Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmon, Regina D.; McDade, Hiram L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of literate language features (LLFs) in the oral narratives of African American and Caucasian American preschoolers residing in either low- or middle-income homes to determine whether differences existed as a result of age or household income. The oral narratives of 96 preschoolers enrolled in public school programs and…

  12. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    PubMed

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning.

  13. Household Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Richard R.; Rathje, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a theoretical model for archaeologists which relates household functions to variations in household size and organization. Household functions are defined as resource production and distribution, transmission of property, and family reproduction. The applicability of this model to a project on Mayan archaeology is discussed. (AM)

  14. Surgical need in an aging population: a cluster based household survey in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Wong, Evan; Gupta, Shailvi; Bastola, Santosh; Shrestha, Sunil; Kushner, Adam; Nwomeh, Benedict C.

    2015-01-01

    Background With an aging global population comes significant non-communicable disease burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An unknown proportion of this burden is treatable with surgery. For health system planning, this study aimed to estimate the surgical needs of individuals over 50 years in Nepal. Methods A two-stage, cluster randomized, community-based survey was performed in Nepal using the validated Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) tool. SOSAS collects household demographics, randomly selects household members for verbal head-to-toe examinations for surgical conditions and completes a verbal autopsy for deaths in the preceding year. Only respondents older than 50 years were included in the analysis. Results The survey sampled 1,350 households, totaling 2,695 individuals (97% response rate). Of these, 273 surgical conditions were reported by 507 persons ages ≥50 years. Extrapolating, there are potentially 2.1 million people over age 50 with surgically treatable conditions needing care in Nepal (95%CI 1.8 – 2.4 million; 46,000 – 62,6000 per 100,000 persons). One in five deaths were potentially treatable or palliated by surgery. Though a growth or mass (including hernias and goiters) was the most commonly reported surgical condition (25%), injuries and fractures were also common and associated with the greatest disability. Literacy and distance to secondary and tertiary health facilities were associated with lack of care for surgical conditions (p<0.05). Conclusion There is a large unmet surgical need among the elderly in Nepal. Low literacy and distance from a capable health facility are the greatest barriers to care. As the global population ages, there is an increasing need to improve surgical services and strengthen health systems to care for this group. PMID:25934023

  15. Changes in the carbon footprint of Japanese households in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Shigetomi, Yosuke; Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Tohno, Susumu

    2014-06-03

    As the aging and low birthrate trends continue in Japan, and as changes in the working population and consumption patterns occur, new factors are expected to have an impact on consumption-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We present the impacts of changes in the composition of Japanese households on GHG emission structures using current (2005) consumption-based accounting on the commodity sectors that are expected to require priority efforts for reducing emissions in 2035. This is done using the Global Link Input-Output model (GLIO) and domestic household consumption data and assuming that recent detailed consumption expenditures based on the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) will continue into the future. The results show that consumption-based GHG emissions derived from Japanese household consumption in 2035 are estimated to be 1061 Mt-CO2eq (4.2% lower than in 2005). This study can be used to reveal more information and as a resource in developing policies to more meticulously and efficiently reduce emissions based on emission and import rates for each domestic and overseas commodity supply chain.

  16. Size, longevity and cancer: age structure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is significant recent interest in Peto's paradox and the related problem of the evolution of large, long-lived organisms in terms of cancer robustness. Peto's paradox refers to the expectation that large, long-lived organisms have a higher lifetime cancer risk, which is not the case: a paradox. This paradox, however, is circular: large, long-lived organisms are large and long-lived because they are cancer robust. Lifetime risk, meanwhile, depends on the age distributions of both cancer and competing risks: if cancer strikes before competing risks, then lifetime risk is high; if not, not. Because no set of competing risks is generally prevalent, it is instructive to temporarily dispose of competing risks and investigate the pure age dynamics of cancer under the multistage model of carcinogenesis. In addition to augmenting earlier results, I show that in terms of cancer-free lifespan large organisms reap greater benefits from an increase in cellular cancer robustness than smaller organisms. Conversely, a higher cellular cancer robustness renders cancer-free lifespan more resilient to an increase in size. This interaction may be an important driver of the evolution of large, cancer-robust organisms. PMID:27629030

  17. Food insufficiency in the households of reproductive-age Ecuadorian women: association with food and nutritional status indicators.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Maria Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of Ecuadorian households with reproductive-aged women (n = 10,784) were used to analyze the prevalence of household food insufficiency (HFI) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, food acquisition and expenditure patterns, dietary diversity, and anthropometric indicators. Fifteen percent of households had food insufficiency and 15% had marginal food sufficiency. HFI was associated with poverty-linked indicators. Marginally food sufficient households reported social and economic capital than food which appeared protective against HFI. Food insufficiency was associated with reduced household acquisition/expenditures on high quality protein and micronutrient-rich food sources. HFI was not associated with adult or adolescent female overweight/obesity but was associated with short adult stature (< 1.45 m). The ongoing nutrition transition in Ecuador is expected to continue to modify population food security, diet, and nutrition. Systematic surveillance of household level food security is needed to inform recent food-related policies and programs implemented by the Ecuadorian government.

  18. Population Characteristics of Farm Operator Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, John M.; Manny, Elsie S.

    A 1968 analysis used 1964 data to compare all U.S. farm operator households on the bases of age, color, sex, educational attainment, and size of farm business (gross sales). In addition, 30 counties were selected for special income data study. Results from both studies indicated that relatively deprived farm operator households were: (1) composed…

  19. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5–14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  20. Measles Vaccination Coverage among Latino Children Aged 12 to 59 Months in Los Angeles County: A Household Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Donnell P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the results of a household survey of measles vaccination coverage among Hispanic American children aged 12 to 59 months. Between 81 percent and 91 percent of the children have been vaccinated, a percentage insufficient to stop the high rate of measles transmission within this population. Recommends that public health efforts be focused on…

  1. Size and age of the universe.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, S

    1981-08-21

    The age of the universe based on abundances of isotopes is in the range 10 billion to 15 billion years. This is consistent with the age range 12 billion to 20 billion years calculated from the evolution of the oldest galactic stars. A third estimate of the age of the universe is based on the Hubble relation between the velocities of galaxies and their distances from us, where the inverse of the Hubble parameter H is a measure of the age of a uniformly expanding universe. Evidence that has been accumulating over the past few years indicates that the expansion of the universe may exhibit a rather large local perturbation due to the gravitational attraction of the Virgo supercluster. Different types of observations still produce conflicting evidence about the velocity with which the Local Group of galaxies (of which our Milky Way system is a member) is falling into the Virgo cluster. The results to date indicate that this velocity lies somewhere in the range 0 to 500 kilometers per second. The resulting ambiguity in the flow pattern for relatively nearby galaxies makes values of H derived from galaxies with radial velocities less than 2000 kilometers per second particularly uncertain, and this restricts determinations of H to distant galaxies, for which distances are particularly uncertain. The best that can be said at present is that H(-1) yields a maximum time scale in the range 10 billion to 20 billion years.

  2. Martian crater size distributions and terrain age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, N. G.; Strom, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The crater size/frequency distributions of large ( 8 km) craters on the Moon and terrestrial planets display two very different curves representing two crater populations. The heavily cratered regions of the Moon, Mercury, and Mars show the same highly structured curve which cannot be represented by a single slope distribution function. In contrast, the lunar post mare crater population has a size/frequency distribution which differs significantly from that in the highlands over the same diameter range, and can be represented by a single-slope distribution function of -2.8 differential. On areas of martian lightly cratered northern plains, the crater population is essentially identical to that of the post mare population. This indicates that the same two families of impacting objects were responsible for the cratering records on both Moon and Mars. The thickness of mantling material varies among the various plains units, and can be calculated from the depth/diameter scaling relations for martian craters.

  3. Child, Household, and Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Hospitalization for Influenza Among Children 6–59 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young children are at increased risk of severe outcomes from influenza illness, including hospitalization. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for influenza-associated hospitalizations among children in US Emerging Infections Program sites. Methods: Cases were children 6–59 months of age hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed influenza infections during 2005–2008. Age- and zip-code-matched controls were enrolled. Data on child, caregiver and household characteristics were collected from parents and medical records. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for hospitalization. Results: We enrolled 290 (64%) of 454 eligible cases and 1089 (49%) of 2204 eligible controls. Risk for influenza hospitalization increased with maternal age <26 years [odds ratio (OR): 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–2.9]; household income below the poverty threshold (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4–3.6); smoking by >50% of household members (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4–6.6); lack of household influenza vaccination (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5) and presence of chronic illnesses, including hematologic/oncologic (OR: 11.8, 95% CI: 4.5–31.0), pulmonary (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9–4.4) and neurologic (OR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.2) conditions. Full influenza immunization decreased the risk among children 6–23 months of age (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9) but not among those 24–59 months of age (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8–3.0; P value for difference = 0.01). Conclusions: Chronic illnesses, young maternal age, poverty, household smoking and lack of household influenza vaccination increased the risk of influenza hospitalization. These characteristics may help providers to identify young children who are at greatest risk for severe outcomes from influenza illness. PMID:24642518

  4. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  5. Influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajao, K O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adebayo, A A; Fatusi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2010-12-01

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. Household food insecurity and poor care practices also place children at risk of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 423 mothers of under-five children and their children in the households selected through multistage sampling methods. Food-insecure households were five times more likely than secure households to have wasted children (crude OR = 5.707, 95 percent CI = 1.31-24.85). Children with less educated mothers were significantly more likely to be stunted. The prevalence of food insecurity among households in Ile-Ife was high. Households with food insecurity and less educated mothers were more likely to have malnourished children.

  6. Maternal Size and Age Shape Offspring Size in a Live-Bearing Fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni

    PubMed Central

    Kindsvater, Holly K.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution. PMID:23139785

  7. Tooth Size Variation Related to Age in Amboseli Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Dotras, Laia; Alberts, Susan C.; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We measured the molar size from a single population of wild baboons from Amboseli (Kenya), both females (n = 57) and males (n = 50). All the females were of known age; the males represented a mix of known-age individuals (n = 31) and individuals with ages estimated to within 2 years (n = 19). The results showed a significant reduction in the mesiodistal length of teeth in both sexes as a function of age. Overall patterns of age-related change in tooth size did not change whether we included or excluded the individuals of estimated age, but patterns of statistical significance changed as a result of changed sample sizes. Our results demonstrate that tooth length is directly related to age due to interproximal wearing caused by M2 and M3 compression loads. Dental studies in primates, including both fossil and extant species, are mostly based on specimens obtained from osteological collections of varying origins, for which the age at death of each individual in the sample is not known. Researchers should take into account the phenomenon of interproximal attrition leading to reduced tooth size when measuring tooth length for ondontometric purposes. PMID:21325862

  8. Parameters of Household Composition as Demographic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data, such as Census statistics, enable the re-enactment of household lifecourse through the construction of the household composition matrix, a tabulation of persons in households by their age and by the age of their corresponding household-heads. Household lifecourse is represented in the household composition matrix somewhat…

  9. Geographic range size and evolutionary age in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, T J; Gaston, K J

    2000-01-01

    Together with patterns of speciation and extinction, post-speciation transformations in the range sizes of individual species determine the form of contemporary species range-size distributions. However, the methodological problems associated with tracking the dynamics of a species' range size over evolutionary time have precluded direct study of such range-size transformations, although indirect evidence has led to several models being proposed describing the form that they might take. Here, we use independently derived molecular data to estimate ages of species in six monophyletic groups of birds, and examine the relationship between species age and global geographic range size. We present strong evidence that avian range sizes are not static over evolutionary time. In addition, it seems that, with the regular exception of certain taxa (for example island endemics and some threatened species), range-size transformations are non-random in birds. In general, range sizes appear to expand relatively rapidly post speciation; subsequently; and perhaps more gradually, they then decline as species age. We discuss these results with reference to the various models of range-size dynamics that have been proposed. PMID:11052534

  10. Variance of size-age curves: Bootstrapping with autocorrelation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullock, S.H.; Turner, R.M.; Hastings, J.R.; Escoto-Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, Z.R.A.; Rodrigues-Navarro, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    We modify a method of estimating size-age relations from a minimal set of individual increment data, recognizing that growth depends not only on size but also varies greatly among individuals and is consistent within an individual for several to many time intervals. The method is exemplified with data from a long-lived desert plant and a range of autocorrelation factors encompassing field-measured values. The results suggest that age estimates based on size and growth rates with only moderate autocorrelation are subject to large variation, which raises major problems for prediction or hindcasting for ecological analysis or management.

  11. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a…

  12. Household food insecurity is not associated with BMI for age or weight for height among Brazilian children aged 0-60 months.

    PubMed

    Kac, Gilberto; Schlüssel, Michael M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Velásquez-Melendez, Gustavo; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI), weight for height z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z) in a representative sample of children 0-60 months of age (n = 3,433) in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006-07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (β coefficients and 95% CI) taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%), born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9%) and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%). The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119) and WHZ (P = 0.198). Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.35 - -0.03, P = 0.047), and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.42 - -0.09, P = 0.009). Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0-60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0-60 months.

  13. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income.

  14. Out-of-pocket Costs of Disabilities and Their Association with Household Socioeconomic Status Among School-aged Children in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hong-Luu; Kizuki, Masashi; Takano, Takehito; Seino, Kaoruko; Watanabe, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of disability of school-aged children and to evaluate the association between disabilities and household socioeconomic status, as well as the economic burden of disability and household socioeconomic status in Vietnam. Materials and Methods: Nationally representative data for 9,882 children aged 6 to 17 years from the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2006 were used. Disabilities were measured in six basic functional domains, including vision, hearing, remembering or concentrating, mobility, self-care, and communication. We evaluated the association between area, household income, educational attainment, or occupation of household head, and each difficulty. The ratio of health-care expenditure to per capita household income was compared by presence of a disability as well as household socioeconomic status. Results: The prevalence of difficulty was 1.9% for vision and 2.3% for at least one of the other five domains. Difficulty in vision was more prevalent in the richer households (p=0.001), whereas difficulty in the other five domains was more prevalent in the poorer households (p=0.002). The ratio of health-care expenditure to per capita household income was greater than 0.05 in 4.6% of children. The adjusted odds ratio of children with difficulty in vision having a health-care expenditure share greater than 0.05 compared with children without difficulty was 4.78 (95% CI: 2.95, 7.73; p<0.001), and that for difficulty in the other five domains was 3.13 (95% CI: 2.04, 4.80; p<0.001). Among children with difficulty in at least one of the five domains other than vision, the proportion of children with a health-care expenditure share greater than 0.05 was higher among children from the poorer households (p=0.033). Conclusions: Children with a disability spent more on health care relative to their income than those without. Visual disability was more prevalent among children from the richer

  15. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (<3 people/household) were 4 times as likely in natural areas as large households. Longer residency in natural areas predicted less environmentally oriented attitudes, suggesting that living in natural areas does not foster more concern for nature. Because populaces are rapidly aging, growing more educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results

  16. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers’ perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the “Take Cover” communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  17. The age distribution of self-reported personality disorder traits in a household population.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    Stability over time is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of a personality disorder (PD) according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated considerable changes of personality disorder traits during life-span, an observation which challenges this assumption. We measured self-reported DSM-IV personality disorder traits in a nationally representative community sample using a cross-sectional design. We investigated the association of dimensional PD scores with age. Our analyses confirmed a decreasing prevalence of personality disorder mean scores across age groups in the population, particularly Cluster B, with an increase in self-reported schizoid and obsessive-compulsive scores. Furthermore, specific interactions of demographic characteristics and age were identified. Analyses of transition points in the distribution of personality disorders across different age groups did not demonstrate increasing stability after age 30 as previously observed for normal personality traits. Significant changes occurred primarily after the third decade.

  18. Size and Age Dependence of Koronis Family Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.

  19. Surface ages of mid-size saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sisto, Romina P.; Zanardi, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The observations of the surfaces of the mid-sized saturnian satellites made by Cassini-Huygens mission have shown a variety of features that allows study of the processes that took place and are taking place on those worlds. Research of the saturnian satellite surfaces has clear implications not only for Saturn's history and Saturn's surroundings, but also for the Solar System. Crater counting from high definition images is very important and could serve for the determination of the age of the surfaces. In a recent paper, we have calculated the production of craters on the mid-sized saturnian satellites by Centaur objects considering the current configuration of the Solar System. Also, we have compared our results with crater counts from Cassini images by other authors and we have noted that the number of observed small craters is less than our calculated theoretical number. In this paper we estimate the age of the surface for each observed terrain on each mid-sized satellite of Saturn. All the surfaces analyzed appear to be old with the exception of Enceladus. However, we have noticed that since there are less observed small craters than calculated (except on Iapetus), this results in younger ages than expected. This could be the result of efficient endogenous or exogenous process(es) for erasing small craters and/or crater saturation at those sizes. The size limit from which the observed number of smaller craters is less than the calculated is different for each satellite, possibly indicating processes that are unique to each, but other potential common explanations for this paucity of small craters would be crater saturation and/or deposition of E-ring particles. These processes are also suggested by the findings that the smaller craters are being preferentially removed, and the erasure process is gradual. On Enceladus, only mid and high latitude plains have remnants of old terrains; the other regions could be young. In particular, the regions near the South

  20. Household Food Insecurity and Its Association with Nutritional Status of Children 6–59 Months of Age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ejajo, Tekle; Alemseged, Fissahaye; Massa, Desalegn

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. Food insecurity is one of the determinant factors of malnutrition in developing countries; however its role remains unclear. Objective. To assess household food insecurity and its association with the nutritional status of children 6–59 months of age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to 30, 2014 on a sample of 508 mother/child pairs of 6–59-month-old children. Sample households with eligible children were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with nutritional status of children. P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of household food insecurity was 75.8%. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children were 45.6%, 26.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Household food insecurity was significantly associated with underweight (AOR = 3.82; CI = 1.78–8.19) and stunting (AOR = 6.7; CI = 3.71–12.1) but not with wasting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Household food insecurity and the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting, among children 6 to 59 months, were high. Intervention programs should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status of children.

  1. Household air pollution from wood burning in two reconstructed houses from the Danish Viking Age.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J M; Ryhl-Svendsen, M

    2015-06-01

    During 13 winter weeks, an experimental archeology project was undertaken in two Danish reconstructed Viking Age houses with indoor open fireplaces. Volunteers inhabited the houses under living conditions similar to those of the Viking Age, including cooking and heating by wood fire. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at varying distances to the fireplace. Near the fireplaces CO (mean) was 16 ppm. PM2.5 (mean) was 3.40 mg/m(3) , however, measured in one house only. The CO:PM mass ratio was found to increase from 6.4 to 22 when increasing the distance to the fire. Two persons carried CO sensors. Average personal exposure was 6.9 ppm, and from this, a personal PM2.5 exposure of 0.41 mg/m(3) was estimated. The levels found here were higher than reported from modern studies conducted in dwellings using biomass for cooking and heating. While this may be due to the Viking house design, the volunteer's lack of training in attending a fire maybe also played a role. Even so, when comparing to today's issues arising from the use of open fires, it must be assumed that also during the Viking Age, the exposure to woodsmoke was a contributing factor to health problems.

  2. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000.

  3. Periods of child growth up to age 8 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: key distal household and community factors.

    PubMed

    Schott, Whitney B; Crookston, Benjamin T; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2013-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7266 children in the Young Lives (YL) study in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. HAZ at about age 1 year and age in months predicted much of the variation in HAZ at age 5 years, but 40-71% was not predicted. Similarly, HAZ at age 5 years and age in months did not predict 26-47% of variation in HAZ at 8 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that parental schooling, consumption, and mothers' height are key correlates of HAZ at about age 1 and also are associated with unpredicted change in HAZ from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years, given initial HAZ. These results underline the importance of a child's starting point in infancy in determining his or her growth, point to key distal household and community factors that may determine early growth in early life and subsequent growth recovery and growth failure, and indicate that these factors vary some by country, urban/rural designation, and child sex.

  4. Household-level predictors of the presence of servants in Northern Orkney, Scotland, 1851–1901

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Julia A.; Wood, James W.; Johnson, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Servants were an important part of the northwestern European household economy in the preindustrial past. This study examines household-level characteristics that are predictive of the presence of rural servants using data from Orkney, Scotland. The number of servants present in a household is related to household composition, landholding size, and the marital status of the household head. In addition, the sex of the particular servant hired reveals that the labor of male and female servants is not fungible. The sex of the servant hired is related to the ratio of male and female household members of working age, the occupation of the head, household composition, and the size of the household’s landholding. PMID:21927549

  5. Common Household Chemicals and the Allergy Risks in Pre-School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Sundell, Jan; Hasselgren, Mikael; Spengler, John; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown. Objective We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden. Methods In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls), air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs. Results A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs) in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 – 15.65 µg/m3) was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.1), 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 – 2.3), 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 – 4.7), and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.3), accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 – 2.8) compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs. Conclusion We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively. PMID:20976153

  6. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses.

  7. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Katharina; Tabatabai, Patrik; Rudolph, Jochen; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success. Objective To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 551 rural households in northwestern Burundi. Areas of inquiry included 1) socio-demographic information, 2) diarrhoea period prevalence and treatment, 3) behaviour and knowledge, 4) socio-economic indicators, 5) access to water and water chain as well as 6) sanitation and personal/children's hygiene. Results A total of 903 children were enrolled. The overall diarrhoea prevalence was 32.6%. Forty-six per cent (n=255) of households collected drinking water from improved water sources and only 3% (n=17) had access to improved sanitation. We found a lower prevalence of diarrhoea in children whose primary caretakers received hygiene education (17.9%), boiled water prior to its utilisation (19.4%) and were aged 40 or older (17.9%). Diarrhoea was associated with factors such as the mother's age being less than 25 and the conviction that diarrhoea could not be prevented. No gender differences were detected regarding diarrhoea prevalence or the caretaker's decision to treat. Conclusions Diarrhoea prevalence can be reduced through hygiene education and point-of use household water treatment such as boiling. In order to maximise the impact on children's health in the given rural setting, future interventions must assure systematic and regular hygiene education at the household and community level. PMID:25150028

  8. Household Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compiled to give readers information on current research in household production, this special issue focuses on the family as a provider of goods and services. It includes five feature articles, a summary of a survey of American farm women, and a brief analysis of sources of time-use data for estimating the value of household production. Covered…

  9. Particle size distribution of aerosols sprayed from household hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based and silicone-based compounds.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Japan has published safety guideline on waterproof aerosol sprays. Furthermore, the Aerosol Industry Association of Japan has adopted voluntary regulations on waterproof aerosol sprays. Aerosol particles of diameter less than 10 µm are considered as "fine particles". In order to avoid acute lung injury, this size fraction should account for less than 0.6% of the sprayed aerosol particles. In contrast, the particle size distribution of aerosols released by hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based or silicone-based compounds have not been investigated in Japan. Thus, the present study investigated the aerosol particle size distribution of 16 household hand-pump sprays. In 4 samples, the ratio of fine particles in aerosols exceeded 0.6%. This study confirmed that several hand-pump sprays available in the Japanese market can spray fine particles. Since the hand-pump sprays use water as a solvent and their ingredients may be more hydrophilic than those of aerosol sprays, the concepts related to the safety of aerosol-sprays do not apply to the hand pump sprays. Therefore, it may be required for the hand-pump spray to develop a suitable method for evaluating the toxicity and to establish the safety guideline.

  10. Household food insecurity in Mexico is associated with the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age, but not female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah

    2016-12-14

    We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration < 120 g/L based on measurement of capillary Hb concentrations. In multiple logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounding covariates, HFI was not associated with the co-occurrence of anemia and overweight among female adolescents. The adjusted odds of women of reproductive age from mildly and moderately food-insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy.

  11. Chinguetti - terrestrial age and pre-atmospheric size

    SciTech Connect

    Welten, K C; Masarik, J; Bland, P A; Caffee, M W; Russell, S S; Grady, M M; Denyer, I; Lloyd, J

    2000-01-14

    Chinguetti is a 4.5 kg mesosiderite find recovered from the Adra region of Mauretania. In this paper the authors analyse a portion of the recovered sample for cosmogenic radionuclides to determine its terrestrial age, and to determine its pre-atmospheric radius. They determined the terrestrial age of Chinguetti to be < 30 ky. They constrain the pre-atmospheric radius to 50--80 cm and the shielding depths of 15--25 cm. These data indicate that Chinguetti is a comparatively recent fall.

  12. Geographic variation in age, growth and size structure of Percilia irwini from south-central Chile.

    PubMed

    Aedo, J R; Belk, M C; Habit, E M

    2009-01-01

    Percilia irwini from the Andalién and Biobío River basins of south-central Chile exhibited a mean age of 1.4 years with a maximum age of 4 years. Size at age differed among river zones and males were 10% larger than females at all ages. Compared to other locations, populations of P. irwini inhabiting areas subject to industrial and domestic effluents exhibited smaller size structure.

  13. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... step-parent(s); and (iii) A child (other than a foster child) under 18 years of age who lives with and is under the parental control of a household member other than his or her parent. A child must be... household to select an adult parent of children (of any age) living in the household, or an adult who...

  14. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... step-parent(s); and (iii) A child (other than a foster child) under 18 years of age who lives with and is under the parental control of a household member other than his or her parent. A child must be... household to select an adult parent of children (of any age) living in the household, or an adult who...

  15. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... step-parent(s); and (iii) A child (other than a foster child) under 18 years of age who lives with and is under the parental control of a household member other than his or her parent. A child must be... household to select an adult parent of children (of any age) living in the household, or an adult who...

  16. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity: a national scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Zoe G; Fuller, Richard A; Dallimer, Martin; Loram, Alison; Gaston, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Ameliorating pressures on the ecological condition of the wider landscape outside of protected areas is a key focus of conservation initiatives in the developed world. In highly urbanized nations, domestic gardens can play a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and facilitating human-wildlife interactions, which benefit personal and societal health and well-being. The extent to which sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with engagement in wildlife gardening activities remain largely unresolved. Using two household-level survey datasets gathered from across Britain, we determine whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird feeding rose as house type became more detached and as the age of the head of the household increased. A clear, consistent pattern between households of varying size was less evident. When regularity of food provision was examined in the study cities, just 29% of households provided food at least once a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation organizations are successfully to promote public participation in wildlife gardening specifically and environmentally beneficial behaviour in society more generally.

  17. Electronic paper display preferred viewing distance and character size for different age groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the preferred viewing distance and character size for an electronic paper display for three age groups. Proofreading speed and accuracy ratio were measured during Chinese proofreading tests using the preferred character size and minimum acceptable character size. Data analysis showed that the mean preferred viewing distance for young, middle-aged and older groups was 503, 455 and 444 mm, respectively. The mean preferred character size determined by young, middle-aged and older groups was 42.0, 50.0 and 55.2 min arc, respectively. The proofreading test results indicated that the older group proofread significantly more slowly (1.25 word/sec) than the young (1.76 word/sec) and middle-aged groups (1.74 word/sec). Further, the participants proofread more correctly with their preferred character size (73.3%) than with their minimum acceptable character size (65.4%). This study provides valuable information for the design of Chinese text presentations for various age groups. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study confirmed the preferred viewing distance and character size for E-paper display were influenced by age. The preferred Chinese character size for young, middle-aged and older people was 42, 50 and 55 min arc, respectively. Therefore, the age factor should be considered for E-paper displays design and video display terminal (VDT) guidelines.

  18. Shrinking fish: comparisons of prehistoric and contemporary salmonids indicate decreasing size at age across millennia.

    PubMed

    Turrero, Pablo; García-Vázquez, Eva; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia

    2014-10-01

    A comparison of Upper Palaeolithic and contemporary salmonid vertebrae from the Iberian Peninsula indicates that there has been a significant decrease in the mean body size for a given age among Atlantic salmon and brown trout inhabiting the southernmost range of their endemic distribution. Mean size at age was greater in prehistoric specimens for all age classes during the freshwater phase of their life histories. Fisheries-induced evolution (selection for smaller sizes) is an obvious explanation for the observed reduction in fish body size, but recent changes in the aquatic habitat affecting density-dependent growth cannot be ruled out.

  19. Shrinking fish: comparisons of prehistoric and contemporary salmonids indicate decreasing size at age across millennia

    PubMed Central

    Turrero, Pablo; García-Vázquez, Eva; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of Upper Palaeolithic and contemporary salmonid vertebrae from the Iberian Peninsula indicates that there has been a significant decrease in the mean body size for a given age among Atlantic salmon and brown trout inhabiting the southernmost range of their endemic distribution. Mean size at age was greater in prehistoric specimens for all age classes during the freshwater phase of their life histories. Fisheries-induced evolution (selection for smaller sizes) is an obvious explanation for the observed reduction in fish body size, but recent changes in the aquatic habitat affecting density-dependent growth cannot be ruled out. PMID:26064529

  20. American household structure in transition.

    PubMed

    Glick, P C

    1984-01-01

    The number of U.S. households rose by 58 percent between 1960 and 1983, with nontraditional household types accounting for most of the increase. Whereas the number of households containing married couples with children younger than 18 rose by only four percent over the period, one-parent households increased by 175 percent; one-person households, by 173 percent; and households composed of unmarried couples, by 331 percent. In 1983, households maintained by married couples constituted six in 10 U.S. households; the second most common household type--adults living alone--accounted for about one-quarter of all households. Lone parents living with their children represent nearly one in 10 households. Almost all of these parents are women--of whom two-thirds are separated or divorced, one-quarter have never been married, and fewer than one in 10 are widows. Among adults living alone, women aged 45 and older predominate; but the rate at which the practice has been adopted since 1960 has been greatest among those under age 45. Most of the growth in the number of one-person households occurred during the 1970s. The increase in cohabitation--most of it also in the 1970s--has similarly been concentrated in the younger age-groups. The living arrangements of children younger than 18 have changed accordingly over the two decades. Since 1960, the number of children living with two parents has declined by nearly one-fifth, and the number living with one parent--generally the mother--has more than doubled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection.

  2. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-07

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population.

  3. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and drain ... absorbed through the skin. People respond to toxic substances in different ways. At high ...

  4. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p < .0001). Children living in food insecure with severe hunger households were 10.13, 10.07, and 4.54 times as likely to be underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households.

  5. Household Composition and Longitudinal Health Outcomes for Older Mexican Return Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Mudrazija, Stipica; López-Ortega, Mariana; Vega, William A.; Robledo, Luis Miguel Gutiérrez; Sribney, William

    2016-01-01

    Mexican return migrant population is increasing, yet our knowledge about their lives after resettlement in Mexico remains fragmentary. Using 2001–2012 longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we investigate difference in household composition for older migrants who returned from the United States compared to nonmigrants. Furthermore, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relationship between household composition and health and functional trajectories of return migrants and nonmigrants. The results indicate that return migrants with long duration of U.S. stay have different household composition than nonmigrants or short-term migrants: On average, they have smaller household size, including fewer females who may be available to offer assistance to older adults. Presence of middle-age females in the household has positive effects on health and functional trajectories. We highlight implications of this research for policy makers in Mexico and the United States. PMID:26966255

  6. Age modifies effect of body size on fecundity in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecundity of mosquitoes can vary with many factors, and can have a strong effect on population growth. This study reports the effects of body size, blood meal size and age on reproductive output of nulliparous Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of arboviruses and other pathogens. Mated adult female m...

  7. Adolescent mothers leaving multigenerational households.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Shebl, Fatma M; Magder, Laurence S; Black, Maureen M

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the multigenerational household; 56% lived in the household of origin continuously (IN), 21% left and never returned (OUT), and 23% had multiple moves in and out of the household (IN/OUT). Older adolescent maternal age, less supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relations, and high household density were associated with leaving the household of origin. The IN/OUT group had difficulty adopting the roles of adult and parent. Helping adolescent mothers and grandmothers negotiate roles to reduce conflict may promote autonomy and relatedness, allowing mothers to learn parenting skills, qualify for public assistance, and continue their education.

  8. Household and farm transitions in environmental context.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Susan Hautaniemi; Deane, Glenn D; Gutmann, Myron P

    2011-06-01

    Recent debate in the literature on population, environment, and land use questions the applicability of theory that patterns of farm extensification and intensification correspond to the life course of farmers and to the life cycle of farm families. This paper extends the debate to the agricultural development of the United States Great Plains region, using unique data from 1875 to 1930 that link families to farms over time in 25 environmentally diverse Kansas townships. Results of multilevel statistical modeling indicate that farmer's age, household size, and household structure are simultaneously related to both the extent of farm operations and the intensity of land use, taking into account local environmental conditions and time trends as Kansas was settled and developed. These findings validate farm- and life cycle theories and offer support for intergenerational motivations for farm development that include both daughters and sons. Environmental variation in aridity was a key driver of farm structure.

  9. Disentangling trait-based mortality in species with decoupled size and age.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Shay; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; van Rooij, Jules M; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    1. Size and age are fundamental organismal traits, and typically, both are good predictors of mortality. For many species, however, size and age predict mortality in ontogenetically opposing directions. Specifically, mortality due to predation is often more intense on smaller individuals whereas mortality due to senescence impacts, by definition, on older individuals. 2. When size-based and age-based mortality are independent in this manner, modelling mortality in both traits is often necessary. Classical approaches, such as Leslie or Lefkovitch matrices, usually require the model to infer the state of one trait from the state of the other, for example by assuming that explicitly modelled age (or stage) class structure provides implicit information on underlying size-class structure, as is the case in many species. 3. However, the assumption that one trait informs on the other is challenged when size and age are decoupled, as often occurs in invertebrates, amphibians, fish, reptiles and plants. In these cases, age-structured models may perform poorly at capturing size-based mortality, and vice versa. 4. We offer a solution to this dilemma, relaxing the assumption that class structure in one trait is inferable from class structure in another trait. Using empirical data from a reef fish, Sparisoma viride (Scaridae), we demonstrate how an individual-based model (IBM) can be implemented to model mortality as explicit, independent and simultaneous functions of individual size and age - an approach that mimics the effects of mortality in many wild populations. By validating this 'multitrait IBM' against three independent lines of empirical data, we determine that the approach produces more convincing predictions of size-class structure, longevity and post-settlement mortality for S. viride than do the trait-independent or single-trait mortality models tested. 5. Multitrait IBMs also allow trait-based mortality to be modelled either additively or multiplicatively, and

  10. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  11. Survey of composition and generation rate of household wastes in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao-yan; Li, Zhen-shan; Xie, Xin-yuan; Sui, Yu-mei; Yang, Lei; Chen, You

    2009-10-01

    It is recognized that information on both quantity and composition of residential waste is important for the effective planning of household waste handling infrastructure. In this paper, we present the results of a survey on household waste generation and composition in Beijing, China. Sample communities were selected by the integration of five indices including family population, income, age, and education. Wastes were sampled on a daily basis from 113 households in six different districts of Beijing City for ten days. The results showed that the generation rate of household wastes was 0.23 kg/pers/day. The bulk density was approximately 221 kg/m(3), and the moisture content was approximately 50%. Household waste consisted of kitchen waste, paper/cardboard, plastics, textiles, metals, glass and other wastes, the proportion of each waste was approximately 69.3%, 10.3%, 9.8%, 1.3%, 0.8%, 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively. An evaluation of the relationship between daily per capita generation of household waste and socio-economic factors indicated that household size and income both showed a negative relationship with household waste generation (kg/pers/day). As for the effect of education, families with a secondary educational level produced fewer household wastes (kg/pers/day) than those with a primary or advanced educational level.

  12. Analyzing nutrient distribution in different particle-size municipal aged refuse.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangke; Hou, Fen; Guo, Zhen; Yao, Gaoyi; Sang, Nan

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using aged municipal solid waste as farmland soil, it is essential to study its nutritive compositions for plant growth. Previous studies have demonstrated that the properties of different particle-size aged refuse are very different, therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the adequacy of three elements (N, P, K) and the fractionation of inorganic P in the aged refuse with a particle-size distribution of 900 to 300, 300 to 150, 150 to 105, 105 to 90 and 90 to 0 μm. The results indicate that (1) total quantities of N, P, K were much larger than that in the general soil and the quantities of available N, P and K were also adequate; (2) total content of P was sufficient, but the ratio of available-P to total P was not high enough; (3) with the decrease of particle size, the contents of these elements presented different trends. The results implicate that total contents of N, P and K were enough for the aged refuse being exploited as cultivated soil, and different gradation of aged refuse could be added to improve poor soils. It provides scientific evidence for utilizing different particle-size aged refuse comprehensively.

  13. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  14. Linked changes in marine dissolved organic carbon molecular size and radiocarbon age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. D.; Primeau, F. W.; Beaupré, S. R.; Guilderson, T. P.; Druffel, E. R. M.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a major global carbon reservoir, yet its cycling remains poorly understood. Previous work suggests that DOC molecular size and chemical composition can significantly affect its bioavailability. Thus, DOC size and composition may control DOC cycling and radiocarbon age (via Δ14C). Here we show that DOC molecular size is correlated to DOC Δ14C in the Pacific Ocean. Our results, based on a series of increasing molecular size fractions from three depths in the Pacific, show increasing DOC Δ14C with increasing molecular size. We use a size-age distribution model to predict the DOC and Δ14C of ultrafiltered DOC. The model predicts both large and small surface DOC with high Δ14C and a narrow range (200-500 Da) of low Δ14C DOC. Deep model offsets suggest different size distributions and/or Δ14C sources at 670-915 m. Our results suggest that molecular size and composition are linked to DOC reactivity and storage in the ocean.

  15. Study of the degradation of gelatin in paper upon aging using aqueous size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Anne-Laurence

    2002-03-15

    We studied the aging behaviour of gelatin used to size paper. Thus far, research on the aging of paper has largely ignored the sizing agent. Degradation of the protein was characterised and the impact of paper components, such as cellulose, and aluminium potassium sulphate was evaluated. Whatman No. 1 filter papers sized with two types of gelatins (A and B) were prepared as model samples. Commercially sized modern papers (Arches) were also studied in order to compare laboratory samples with real artist papers. Both types of papers were artificially aged (80 degrees C, 50% relative humidity for 35 and 94 days). Historic papers were included in the study in order to compare artificially aged with naturally aged gelatin. The aqueous extracts from the papers were characterised by aqueous size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using four PL-Aquagel-OH columns and UV photodiode array detection at 220, 254 and 280 nm. Results showed that gelatin undergoes hydrolysis upon aging, type A gelatin showing a faster degradation rate than type B. The result was an increase in the lower-molar-mass fractions, under 50,000 g mol(-1), and especially in a characteristic fraction with a peak molecular mass (MP) of 14,000 g mol(-1). A significant decrease in the extraction yields of alpha-, beta- and gamma-chains occurred after aging. This was attributed to crosslinking, leading to the formation of less-soluble polypeptides with very high molar mass (>800,000 g mol(-1)) Less than 10% alum had no impact on the degradation rate; higher alum contents accelerated hydrolysis reactions.

  16. Age, growth, and size of Lake Superior Pygmy Whitefish (Prosopium coulterii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Taylor; Derek Ogle,; Gorman, Owen T.; Vinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Pygmy Whitefish (Prosopium coulterii) are a small, glacial relict species with a disjunct distribution in North America and Siberia. In 2013 we collected Pygmy Whitefish at 28 stations from throughout Lake Superior. Total length was recorded for all fish and weight and sex were recorded and scales and otoliths were collected from a subsample. We compared the precision of estimated ages between readers and between scales and otoliths, estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters for male and female Pygmy Whitefish, and reported the first weight-length relationship for Pygmy Whitefish. Age estimates between scales and otoliths differed significantly with otolith ages significantly greater for most ages after age-3. Maximum otolith age was nine for females and seven for males, which is older than previously reported for Pygmy Whitefish from Lake Superior. Growth was initially fast but slowed considerably after age-3 for males and age-4 for females, falling to 3–4 mm per year at maximum estimated ages. Females were longer than males after age-3. Our results suggest the size, age, and growth of Pygmy Whitefish in Lake Superior have not changed appreciably since 1953.

  17. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  18. Association between household food insecurity and nutritional outcomes among children in Northeastern of Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ali Naser, Ihab; Wan Muda, Wan Manan; Wan Nik, Wan Suriati; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Abdullah, Mohamed Rusli

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and nutritional status of children in low-income households. A cross sectional study involved a survey of households (n = 223) receiving the financial assistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS Eligible mothers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria such as non-pregnant, non-lactating mothers, aged 18 to 55 years with their youngest children aged 2 to 12 years, were purposively selected. The Radimer/Cornell hunger and food-insecurity instrument was administered and children's height and weight were measured. RESULTS About 16.1% of the households were food secure, while 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity. Out of food insecure category, 29.6% households were food insecure, 19.3% women were individual food insecure and 35.0% fell into the child hunger category. Education of the mother (P = 0.047), household size (P = 0.024), number of children (P = 0.024), number of children going to school (P = 0.048), total monthly income (P < 0.001), income per capital (P < 0.001), number of household members contributing to the income (P = 0.018) and food expenditure (P = 0.006) were significant risk factors for household food insecurity. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting in children were 61.0%, 61.4% and 30.6% respectively. Based on multinomial logistic regression, children in food-insecure households were 2.15 times more likely to be underweight and three times to be stunted than children in the food-secure households. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that household food insecurity is associated with the nutritional status of the children in the rural area of Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:24944776

  19. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations, rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  20. Development of sizing system for girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrzenjak, Renata; Dolezal, Ksenija; Ujević, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Garment size system is an important factor for both the adult population and the population of children and adolescents when choosing a suitable and fitting clothing. To develop the size system anthropometric measurements of selected population should be carried out. For this purpose a sample of girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia were measured (4002 respondents distributed proportionately to the total population). As the basis for a new method of garment size system, the system and method defined in the standards EN 13402 (1st-3rd part) were used. Using the method of cluster analysis three body types of girls was obtained. The new size system for girls will contribute to better production planning of fitting patterns and larger selection of garment sizes for more demanding youthful consumers.

  1. The influence of body size on adult skeletal age estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate age estimations are essential to archaeological and forensic analyses. However, reliability for adult skeletal age estimations is poor, especially for individuals over the age of 40 years. This is the first study to show that body size influences skeletal age estimation. The İşcan et al., Lovejoy et al., Buckberry and Chamberlain, and Suchey-Brooks age methods were tested on 764 adult skeletons from the Hamann-Todd and William Bass Collections. Statures ranged from 1.30 to 1.93 m and body masses ranged from 24.0 to 99.8 kg. Transition analysis was used to evaluate the differences in the age estimations. For all four methods, the smallest individuals have the lowest ages at transition and the largest individuals have the highest ages at transition. Short and light individuals are consistently underaged, while tall and heavy individuals are consistently overaged. When femoral length and femoral head diameter are compared with the log-age model, results show the same trend as the known stature and body mass measurements. The skeletal remains of underweight individuals have fewer age markers while those of obese individuals have increased surface degeneration and osteophytic lipping. Tissue type and mechanical loading have been shown to affect bone turnover rates, and may explain the differing patterns of skeletal aging. From an archaeological perspective, the underaging of light, short individuals suggests the need to revisit the current research consensus on the young mortality rates of past populations. From a forensic perspective, understanding the influence of body size will impact efforts to identify victims of mass disasters, genocides, and homicides.

  2. The effects of socioeconomic parameters on household solid-waste generation and composition in developing countries (a case study: Ahvaz, Iran).

    PubMed

    Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Omrani, Ghasem Ali; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Raof, Farzaneh Fakheri

    2012-04-01

    Environment problems associated with the generation of waste are part of societal changes where households play an important role. These societal changes influence the size, structure and characteristic of given households. For the effective planning of solid-waste handling infrastructure, it is essential to know the quantity of waste generation and its composition. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in an urban municipal area in Iran to determine the household solid-waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socioeconomic parameters. The dependent variables were waste generation and composition, and independent variables were family size, family employment, age, number of room and education. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology and from five different socioeconomic groups. Waste collected from all groups of households were segregated and weighted. Waste generation rate was 5.4 kg/household/day. Household solid waste comprised of ten categories of wastes and with the largest component (76.9%). The generation and composition of household solid waste were correlated with family size, education level and households income. This paper adequately suggests new insights concerning the role of socioeconomic parameters in affecting the generation of household waste.

  3. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  4. Variation in age and size at maturity of the slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta)

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, J.W.; Semlitch, R.D.; Greene, J.L.; Schubauer, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The adaptive strategy of the slider turtle, Pseudemys scripta, in terms of age and size at sexual maturity is discussed. Populations from a natural aquatic habitat and from a cooling reservoir on the US DOE Savannah River Plant are compared. (HCR)

  5. Effects of Count Area Size on Model Ages Derived from Random CSFDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bogert, Carolyn; Michael, Gregory; Kneissl, Thomas; Hiesinger, Harald; Hendrik Pasckert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    As higher resolution imagery becomes available, smaller regions can be studied. These small areas, however, contain fewer craters for crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) analysis. For example, a study of irregular mare patches (IMPs) on the Moon [1] could only measure craters, at three IMPs, that were large enough for derivation of absolute model ages (AMAs), using the current lunar chronology and production functions (CF/PF, valid for craters 10mages of IMPs have significant implications for lunar evolution, the robustness of the AMAs is important. In addition, young craters used to define the lunar chronology (e.g., North Ray [3] and Cone [4] craters) have small count areas of less than 1 km^2. While, Hiesinger et al. [3] show that ages derived from small areas are consistent with ages of larger areas, they exhibit variability greater than the statistical error bars [3,4]. Pasckert et al. [5] investigated whether 25 4 km2 count areas within a 100 km2 count area on mare basalt in Tsiolkovsky crater reproduce the age of the larger area. While 19 of the ages are within the error bars of the large area, six of the ages are not. However, the disparate ages could reflect local resurfacing events associated with later volcanism or impact cratering [5]. To eliminate the effects of local geologic activity such that we can evaluate the effects of count area size alone on the robustness of AMAs, we generated random crater distributions for theoretical lunar surfaces with ages of 0.1-4 Ga. We then analyzed the effects of decreasing count area size on the resulting AMAs. The precision of AMAs is determined by the Poisson cratering process and the non-linearity of the CF for the crater measurements themselves [6]. Smaller count areas have fewer craters, such that this statistical precision decreases. However, our study also shows that the accuracy of the AMAs is decreased for smaller count areas. For example, 4 km2 areas on 0.1 Ga

  6. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W. Stewart; Brenner, Richard E.; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  7. Aged boreal biomass-burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number-size distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellite) measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in northwestern Ontario. The composite median size distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter) and σ = 1.5, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.09-0.17 μg m-3 ppbv-1 (parts per billion by volume) with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA (organic aerosol) production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period (plume age: 1-2 days), though it does not preclude OA production/loss at earlier stages. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We

  8. Age and gender based biomechanical shape and size analysis of the pediatric brain.

    PubMed

    Danelson, Kerry A; Geer, Carol P; Stitzel, Joel D; Slice, Dennis E; Takhounts, Erik G

    2008-11-01

    Injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of head injury and death for children in the United States. This study aims to describe the shape and size (morphologic) changes of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and ventricles of the pediatric occupant to better predict injury and assess how these changes affect finite element model (FEM) response. To quantify morphologic differences in the brain, a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) with a sliding landmark method was conducted to isolate morphologic changes using magnetic resonance images of 63 normal subjects. This type of geometric morphometric analysis was selected for its ability to identify homologous landmarks on structures with few true landmarks and isolate the shape and size of the individuals studied. From the resulting landmark coordinates, the shape and size changes were regressed against age to develop a model describing morphologic changes in the pediatric brain as a function of age. The most statistically significant shape change was in the cerebrum with p-values of 0.00346 for males and 0.00829 for females. The age-based model explains over 80% of the variation in size in the cerebrum. Using size and shape models, affine transformations were applied to the SIMon FEM to determine differences in response given differences in size and size plus shape. The geometric centroid of the elements exceeding 15% strain was calculated and compared to the geometric centroid of the entire structure. Given the same Haversine pulse, the centroid location, a metric for the spatial distribution of the elements exceeding an injury threshold, varied based on which transformation was applied to the model. To assess the overall response of the model, three injury metrics were examined to determine the magnitude of the metrics each element sustained and the overall volume of elements that experienced that value. These results suggested that the overall response of the model was driven by the

  9. 7 CFR 273.12 - Requirements for change reporting households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... income guideline for their household size. (A) Households with earned income certified for 6 months in... news media; posters in certification offices, issuance locations, or other sites frequented by... that it may report changes if income decreases or expenses or household size increase. (iii) If...

  10. Size and age-concentration relationships for perfluoroalkyl substances in stingray livers from eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Lai, Foon Yin; Townsend, Kathy; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-10-15

    While the literature has reported a widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine biota, very limited studies have been dedicated to the southern hemisphere. Hepatic concentrations of nine PFAAs were analysed in 49 stranded stingrays from eastern Australia using liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and relationships with biological parameters (i.e. body size, age and sex) were investigated. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were the predominant compounds quantified, with hepatic concentrations varying from 2 to 117 and from 0.2 to 19 ng·g(-1) w.w., respectively. A negative correlation between the concentration of PFASs in the livers of 32 blue-spotted stingrays and the body size/age was found. This relationship was independent of the animal's sex. We postulate that the dependence on body size is related to differing uptake kinetics of the chemicals, after the sting rays were exposed to an increased level of the contaminants in their environment. Such a pollution event could be related to a severe flood event that occurred at this location a few months before the samples' collection. Our results indicate that the influence of the body size/age should be taken into account when estimating bioaccumulation parameters from environmental measurements or exposure levels of biota to PFASs.

  11. Variation in Age and Size in Fennoscandian Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    DeFaveri, Jacquelin; Merilä, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Average age and maximum life span of breeding adult three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were determined in eight Fennoscandian localities with the aid of skeletochronology. The average age varied from 1.8 to 3.6 years, and maximum life span from three to six years depending on the locality. On average, fish from marine populations were significantly older than those from freshwater populations, but variation within habitat types was large. We also found significant differences in mean body size among different habitat types and populations, but only the population differences remained significant after accounting for variation due to age effects. These results show that generation length and longevity in three-spined sticklebacks can vary significantly from one locality to another, and that population differences in mean body size cannot be explained as a simple consequence of differences in population age structure. We also describe a nanistic population from northern Finland exhibiting long life span and small body size. PMID:24260496

  12. The Influence of the Size, Age and Sex on the Computed Tomographic Measured Size of the Pituitary Gland in Normal Horses.

    PubMed

    Crijns, C P; Van Bree, H J; Broeckx, B J G; Schauvliege, S; Van Loon, G; Martens, A; Vanderperren, K; Dingemanse, W B; Gielen, I M

    2017-02-27

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the size, age and sex of the horse on the size of the pituitary gland and determine the possibility of using the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio (P:B ratio) to allow comparison of different sized and aged horses. Thirty-two horses without pituitary pars inter-media dysfunction that underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) examination were included in a cross-sectional study. On the CT images, the pituitary gland height was measured and the P:B ratio was calculated. These measurements were correlated to the size, age and sex of the horses. The pituitary gland height was significantly associated with the size (P < 0.001) and the age (P < 0.001), but not with the sex (P = 0.40), of the horses. No significant association was found between the P:B ratio and the size (P = 0.25), the age (P = 0.06) or the sex (P = 0.25) of the horses. In conclusion, the pituitary gland size varies between different sized and aged horses. The use of the P:B ratio is a valuable metric for making comparisons between the pituitary glands of these horses.

  13. Size or spacing: Which limits letter recognition in people with age-related macular degeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a double dissociation of size and spacing limit on letter recognition — it is limited by size in the fovea and critical spacing in the normal periphery. Here, we evaluated whether size or spacing limits letter recognition in people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who must use their peripheral vision. We measured the size threshold for recognizing lowercase letters presented alone, or flanked by two letters at various center-to-center nominal letter spacings (multiples of letter size) for 11 observers with AMD. For comparison, similar measurements were obtained at 5 and 10° eccentricity in the nasal and lower visual fields in three older adults with normal vision. Single-letter size thresholds were worse for observers with AMD than at comparable retinal locations in the normal periphery. For flanked letters, size threshold improved with larger nominal spacing up to the critical spacing, beyond which size threshold was unaffected by the flankers. Seven AMD observers had a nominal critical spacing between 1.25× and 1.80×, values close to those in the normal fovea, suggesting that their letter recognition is size-limited; two had a nominal critical spacing of 3–4×, values close to those in the normal periphery, implying that their letter recognition is limited by spacing; and another two had a nominal critical spacing of ~2.3×, implying that their letter recognition is limited by both size and spacing. The wide range of nominal critical spacings observed in our AMD observers may reflect the degree of completeness of their adaptation process to vision loss. PMID:25014400

  14. Improving size estimates of open animal populations by incorporating information on age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manly, Bryan F.J.; McDonald, Trent L.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, Eric V.

    2003-01-01

    Around the world, a great deal of effort is expended each year to estimate the sizes of wild animal populations. Unfortunately, population size has proven to be one of the most intractable parameters to estimate. The capture-recapture estimation models most commonly used (of the Jolly-Seber type) are complicated and require numerous, sometimes questionable, assumptions. The derived estimates usually have large variances and lack consistency over time. In capture–recapture studies of long-lived animals, the ages of captured animals can often be determined with great accuracy and relative ease. We show how to incorporate age information into size estimates for open populations, where the size changes through births, deaths, immigration, and emigration. The proposed method allows more precise estimates of population size than the usual models, and it can provide these estimates from two sample occasions rather than the three usually required. Moreover, this method does not require specialized programs for capture-recapture data; researchers can derive their estimates using the logistic regression module in any standard statistical package.

  15. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  16. Effect of age and blood pressure on aortic size and stroke distance.

    PubMed Central

    Towfiq, B A; Weir, J; Rawles, J M

    1986-01-01

    The diameters of the ascending and descending aorta at the level of the carina were measured from computerised tomograms in 200 adults without cardiac or aortic disease. At all ages the ascending aorta had a greater cross sectional area than the descending aorta, and both areas increased significantly with age. The increase was proportionately greater in the descending than in the ascending aorta and the percentage changes were similar in males and females, the latter having a smaller mean descending aortic diameter. The extent of the increase in cross sectional area of the aorta is sufficient to explain the observed fall of stroke distance that occurs with age. The effect of changing blood pressure on aortic cross sectional area, and hence the relation between stroke distance and stroke volume, was calculated from published data on aortic compliance at different ages. Assuming constant peripheral resistance, stroke distance would change by 34, 82, and 94% for a 100% change of stroke volume at age 20, 50, and 80 respectively. At age 80 the aorta behaves like a rigid pipe but at age 20 its elasticity is such that constancy of aortic size cannot be assumed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3718794

  17. The influence of persistent individual differences and age at maturity on effective population size

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aline Magdalena; Engen, Steinar; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Ratios of effective populations size, Ne, to census population size, N, are used as a measure of genetic drift in populations. Several life-history parameters have been shown to affect these ratios, including mating system and age at sexual maturation. Using a stochastic matrix model, we examine how different levels of persistent individual differences in mating success among males may affect Ne/N, and how this relates to generation time. Individual differences of this type are shown to cause a lower Ne/N ratio than would be expected when mating is independent among seasons. Examining the way in which age at maturity affects Ne/N, we find that both the direction and magnitude of the effect depends on the survival rate of juveniles in the population. In particular, when maturation is delayed, lowered juvenile survival causes higher levels of genetic drift. In addition, predicted shifts in Ne/N with changing age at maturity are shown to be dependent on which of the commonly used definitions of census population size, N, is employed. Our results demonstrate that patterns of mating success, as well as juvenile survival probabilities, have substantial effects on rates of genetic drift. PMID:21436183

  18. Sexual dimorphism in human cranial trait scores: effects of population, age, and body size.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Heather M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Mosca, Laurel A

    2014-06-01

    Sex estimation from the skull is commonly performed by physical and forensic anthropologists using a five-trait scoring system developed by Walker. Despite the popularity of this method, validation studies evaluating its accuracy across a variety of samples are lacking. Furthermore, it remains unclear what other intrinsic or extrinsic variables are related to the expression of these traits. In this study, cranial trait scores and postcranial measurements were collected from four diverse population groups (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, medieval Nubians, and Arikara Native Americans) following Walker's protocols (total n = 499). Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of these traits in sex estimation, and to test for the effects of population, age, and body size on trait expressions. Results revealed significant effects of population on all trait scores. Sample-specific correct sex classification rates ranged from 74% to 94%, with an overall accuracy of 85% for the pooled sample. Classification performance varied among the traits (best for glabella and mastoid scores and worst for nuchal scores). Furthermore, correlations between traits were weak or nonsignificant, suggesting that different factors may influence individual traits. Some traits displayed correlations with age and/or postcranial size that were significant but weak, and within-population analyses did not reveal any consistent relationships between these traits across all groups. These results indicate that neither age nor body size plays a large role in trait expression, and thus does not need to be incorporated into sex estimation methods.

  19. When phenology matters: age-size truncation alters population response to trophic mismatch.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Thackeray, Stephen J; Winfield, Ian J; Maberly, Stephen C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2014-10-22

    Climate-induced shifts in the timing of life-history events are a worldwide phenomenon, and these shifts can de-synchronize species interactions such as predator-prey relationships. In order to understand the ecological implications of altered seasonality, we need to consider how shifts in phenology interact with other agents of environmental change such as exploitation and disease spread, which commonly act to erode the demographic structure of wild populations. Using long-term observational data on the phenology and dynamics of a model predator-prey system (fish and zooplankton in Windermere, UK), we show that age-size truncation of the predator population alters the consequences of phenological mismatch for offspring survival and population abundance. Specifically, age-size truncation reduces intraspecific density regulation due to competition and cannibalism, and thereby amplifies the population sensitivity to climate-induced predator-prey asynchrony, which increases variability in predator abundance. High population variability poses major ecological and economic challenges as it can diminish sustainable harvest rates and increase the risk of population collapse. Our results stress the importance of maintaining within-population age-size diversity in order to buffer populations against phenological asynchrony, and highlight the need to consider interactive effects of environmental impacts if we are to understand and project complex ecological outcomes.

  20. Evolution of age and length at maturation of Alaskan salmon under size-selective harvest

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Neala W; Dieckmann, Ulf; Heino, Mikko; Punt, André E; Quinn, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends and variation in life-history traits, including age and length at maturation, can be influenced by environmental and anthropogenic processes, including size-selective exploitation. Spawning adults in many wild Alaskan sockeye salmon populations have become shorter at a given age over the past half-century, but their age composition has not changed. These fish have been exploited by a gillnet fishery since the late 1800s that has tended to remove the larger fish. Using a rare, long-term dataset, we estimated probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs) for males and females in nine populations in two basins and correlated these changes with fishery size selection and intensity to determine whether such selection contributed to microevolutionary changes in maturation length. PMRN midpoints decreased in six of nine populations for both sexes, consistent with the harvest. These results support the hypothesis that environmental changes in the ocean (likely from competition) combined with adaptive microevolution (decreased PMRNs) have produced the observed life-history patterns. PMRNs did not decrease in all populations, and we documented differences in magnitude and consistency of size selection and exploitation rates among populations. Incorporating evolutionary considerations and tracking further changes in life-history traits can support continued sustainable exploitation and productivity in these and other exploited natural resources. PMID:24567750

  1. Effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccination during childhood (<7 years of age) for preventing pertussis in household contacts 1-9 years old in Catalonia and Navarra (Spain).

    PubMed

    Plans, P; Toledo, D; Sala, M R; Camps, N; Villanova, M; Rodríguez, R; Alvarez, J; Solano, R; García-Cenoz, M; Barrabeig, I; Godoy, P; Minguell, S

    2016-12-01

    Pertussis vaccination with 4-5 doses of acellular vaccines is recommended in Spain to all children at 2 months to 6 years of age. The effectiveness of the acellular pertussis vaccination was assessed in this study by comparing the incidence of secondary pertussis in vaccinated (4-5 doses) and unvaccinated or partially vaccinated (0-3 doses) household contacts 1-9 years old of confirmed cases of pertussis in Spain in 2012-13. Eighty-five percent of contacts had been vaccinated with 4-5 doses of acellular pertussis vaccines. During the 2-year study period, 64 cases of secondary pertussis were detected among 405 household contacts 1-9 years old: 47 among vaccinated and 17 among unvaccinated or partially vaccinated contacts. The effectiveness for preventing secondary pertussis, calculated as 1 minus the relative risk (RR) of secondary pertussis in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated/partially vaccinated contacts, was 50 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 19-69 %, p < 0.01] when household contacts were vaccinated using DTaP, Tdap, hexavalent or heptavalent vaccines, and it was 51.3 % (95 % CI: 21-70 %, p < 0.01) when they were vaccinated using DTaP or TdaP vaccines. The effectiveness adjusted for age, sex, pertussis chemotherapy and type of household contact was 58.6 % (95 % CI: 17-79 %, p < 0.05) when contacts were vaccinated using available acellular vaccines, and it was 59.6 % (95 % CI: 18-80 %, p < 0.01) when they were vaccinated using DTaP vaccines. Acellular pertussis vaccination during childhood was effective for preventing secondary pertussis in household contacts 1-9 years old of pertussis cases in Catalonia and Navarra, Spain.

  2. Economic Analysis of Quarterly Household Expenditures on Apparel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norum, Pamela S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of various socioeconomic and demographic variables on household expenditures for clothing were examined. Income, the age and sex composition of the household, marital status, education, occupation, and sewing activity were found to affect apparel expenditures significantly. (JOW)

  3. Influence of the Size Grading of the Polymer on the Artificial Ageing of The Bituminous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    saoudi, Nacira; Haddadi, Smail

    2011-12-01

    A binder of a hot bituminous concrete undergoes two type of ageing: a fast ageing with construction (coating, implemented and cooling at the room temperature) and a slow ageing once in the roadways. Ageing is expressed by two parallel reactions that occur during the oxidation; an oxidation of the basic bitumens and the degradation of polymer, oxidation of the modified binders had as consequence an increase in asphaltenes in the basic bitumen and a molecular reduction in size of the polymer modifiers. In this present work we studied the influence, of the grain seize (large and fine) of the waste and the content of an industrial waste for two hours of mixing time, on the rheological behavior of an aspahlt cement AC 35-50 on the effect of artificial ageing RTFOT (Rolling Thin Film Oven Test). This study shows that all the binders undergo an ageing after the RTFOT test. The results of this study show an increase of the softening point and the remaining penetrability of the modified bitumens with a larger grain seize according to the content of industrial waste.

  4. Household and preschooler vitamin A consumption in southwestern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, E T; Oniang'o, R

    1993-05-01

    This study examined the effects of an income-generating policy to expand the commercialization of subsistence agriculture in southwestern Kenya on household and preschooler macro- and micronutrient consumption. A representative sample of 617 household was included, and all preschoolers under the age of 6 y (1677) residing in these households were included in the study. Results of this analysis indicate that although increases in household income do result in improved household level vitamin A consumption, increases in household income are not significantly associated with the intake of dietary vitamin A by preschoolers. The analysis suggests that although increases in household income have some very positive effects on household food security and household micronutrient consumption, other community-based health, sanitation and nutrition interventions are needed to address the dietary needs of individuals within the household.

  5. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  6. One size may not fit all: anti-aging therapies and sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Burks, Tyesha N; Cohn, Ronald D

    2011-12-01

    Sarcopenia refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Several age-related changes occur in skeletal muscle including a decrease in myofiber size and number and a diminished ability of satellite cells to activate and proliferate upon injury leading to impaired muscle remodeling. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are unknown, it is tempting to hypothesize that interplay between biological and environmental factors cooperate in a positive feedback cycle contributing to the progression of sarcopenia. Indeed many essential biological mechanisms such as apoptosis and autophagy and critical signaling pathways involved in skeletal muscle homeostasis are altered during aging and have been linked to loss of muscle mass. Moreover, the environmental effects of the sedentary lifestyle of older people further promote and contribute the loss of muscle mass. There are currently no widely accepted therapeutic strategies to halt or reverse the progression of sarcopenia. Caloric restriction has been shown to be beneficial as a sarcopenia and aging antagonist. Such results have made the search for caloric restriction mimetics (CRM) a priority. However given the mechanisms of action, some of the currently investigated CRMs may not combat sarcopenia. Thus, sarcopenia may represent a unique phenotypic feature of aging that requires specific and individually tailored therapeutic strategies.

  7. Household food insecurity and child health.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pacific carbon cycling constrained by organic matter size, age and composition relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Brett D.; Beaupré, Steven R.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; McCarthy, Matthew D.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Marine organic matter is one of Earth’s largest actively cycling reservoirs of organic carbon and nitrogen. The processes controlling organic matter production and removal are important for carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, which regulate climate. However, the many possible cycling mechanisms have hindered our ability to quantify marine organic matter transformation, degradation and turnover rates. Here we analyse existing and new measurements of the carbon:nitrogen ratio and radiocarbon age of organic matter spanning sizes from large particulate organic matter to small dissolved organic molecules. We find that organic matter size is negatively correlated with radiocarbon age and carbon:nitrogen ratios in coastal, surface and deep waters of the Pacific Ocean. Our measurements suggest that organic matter is increasingly chemically degraded as it decreases in size, and that small particles and molecules persist in the ocean longer than their larger counterparts. Based on these correlations, we estimate the production rates of small, biologically recalcitrant dissolved organic matter molecules at 0.11-0.14 Gt of carbon and about 0.005 Gt of nitrogen per year in the deep ocean. Our results suggest that the preferential remineralization of large over small particles and molecules is a key process governing organic matter cycling and deep ocean carbon storage.

  9. In situ analysis of changes in telomere size during replicative aging and cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Telomeres have been shown to gradually shorten during replicative aging in human somatic cells by Southern analysis. This study examines telomere shortening at the single cell level by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH and confocal microscopy of interphase human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) demonstrate that telomeres are distributed throughout the nucleus with an interchromosomal heterogeneity in size. Analysis of HDFs at increasing population doubling levels shows a gradual increase in spot size, intensity, and detectability of telomeric signal. FISH of metaphase chromosomes prepared from young and old HDFs shows a heterogeneity in detection frequency for telomeres on chromosomes 1, 9, 15, and Y. The interchromosomal distribution of detection frequencies was similar for cells at early and late passage. The telomeric detection frequency for metaphase chromosomes also decreased with age. These observations suggest that telomeres shorten at similar rates in normal human somatic cels. T-antigen transformed HDFs near crisis contained telomere signals that were low compared to nontransformed HDFs. A large intracellular heterogeneity in telomere lengths was detected in two telomerase-negative cell lines compared to normal somatic cells and the telomerase-positive 293 cell line. Many telomerase-negative immortal cells had telomeric signals stronger than those in young HDFs, suggesting a different mechanism for telomere length regulation in telomerase-negative immortal cells. These studies provide an in situ demonstration of interchromosomal heterogeneity in telomere lengths. Furthermore, FISH is a reliable and sensitive method for detecting changes in telomere size at the single cell level. PMID:8698806

  10. Effect of temperature, ration, body size and age on sulphur isotope fractionation in fish.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Carolyn; Jennings, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Sulphur isotope analysis (delta(34)S) is increasingly identified as a valuable tool for source differentiation and the determination of trophic level in food webs, but there are still many uncertainties associated with the interpretation of delta(34)S data. To investigate the effects of temperature, ration, body size and age on sulphur trophic fractionation (Deltadelta(34)S) in fish, we reared European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) on identical diets at 11 and 16 degrees C at three ration levels for over 600 days. Deltadelta(34)S was between 0 and -1 per thousand. The effect of temperature on Deltadelta(34)S was small and inconsistent, varying over the course of the experiment and depending on ration. This contrasts with temperature effects on bass Deltadelta(13)C and Deltadelta(15)N, where Deltadelta(13)C increases at warm temperatures while Deltadelta(15)N falls. Body size and age had a positive relationship with Deltadelta(34)S but the relationship with size was not significant for bass that weighed >20 g. As Deltadelta(34)S is small and the range in delta(34)S of potential diet items can be much greater than the range in delta(13)C or delta(15)N, our results show that sulphur stable isotopes are particularly useful for source differentiation in fish.

  11. Quantifying six decades of fishery selection for size and age at maturity in sockeye salmon

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Neala W; Hard, Jeffrey J; Quinn, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    Life history traits of wild animals can be strongly influenced, both phenotypically and evolutionarily, by hunting and fishing. However, few studies have quantified fishery selection over long time periods. We used 57 years of catch and escapement data to document the magnitude of and trends in gillnet selection on age and size at maturity of a commercially and biologically important sockeye salmon stock. Overall, the fishery has caught larger fish than have escaped to spawn, but selection has varied over time, becoming weaker and less consistent recently. Selection patterns were strongly affected by fish age and sex, in addition to extrinsic factors including fish abundance, mesh size regulations, and fish length variability. These results revealed a more complex and changing pattern of selective harvest than the ‘larger is more vulnerable’ model, emphasizing the need for quantified, multi-year studies before conclusions can be drawn about potential evolutionary and ecological effects of fishery selection. Furthermore, the results indicate that biologically robust escapement goals and prevention of harvest of the largest individuals may help prevent negative effects of size-selective harvest. PMID:25567896

  12. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2007-01-01

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26–79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: Anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age. PMID:17335783

  13. Age and body size of captive hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development.

    PubMed

    Kawazu, Isao; Kino, Masakatsu; Maeda, Konomi; Teruya, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to record the age and body size of 23 captive female hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development. The age, straight carapace length (SCL), and body mass (BM) of the turtles were recorded between 2006 and 2014 at follicular development (determined via ultrasonography) these parameters were 17.7 ± 1.7 years (range: 13-20 years), 77.7 ± 3.3 cm (73.3-83.5 cm), and 61.1 ± 8.0 kg (48.2-76.1 kg), respectively. When the year of the onset of follicular development was designated year 0, the increase in SCL in years -7-0 and 0-3 averaged 2.2 cm and 1.0 cm, respectively. Correspondingly, the increase in BM in years -7-0 and 0-3 averaged 5.0 kg and 2.2 kg, respectively. This is the first study to report the age and body size of captive female hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development, which indicates the beginning of sexual maturation. The reduction in growth after follicular development suggests that at the onset of sexual maturation, female hawksbills may utilize energy for follicular development rather than growth.

  14. Family size, birth order, and parental age among male paraphilics and sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Langevin, Mara; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2007-08-01

    A sample of 1823 male paraphilics, sex offenders, and non-sex offender controls were compared on family size, birth order, and parents' ages at the time of the probands' births. Sample data were also compared to population data from Statistics Canada. The men in all groups were from larger than average Canadian families and they tended to be later born. Paraphilics and sex offenders had even larger families than offender controls. Their parents tended to be older at their birth with 34.2% of mothers and 51.3% of fathers over 30 years of age, but there were no statistically significant subgroup differences. There were also significantly more multiparous teenage mothers than expected and more paraphilics' fathers who were younger than the mothers, both factors associated in the literature with increased risk of perinatal complications and abnormalities. The confounding influences of parental age, birth order, and family size were examined and indicated the need for large samples and multivariate analysis in evaluating the role of family variables associated with paraphilics and sex offenders.

  15. Size separation method for absorption characterization in brown carbon: Application to an aged biomass burning sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Robert A.; Young, Cora J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols is derived from biomass burning (BB) and is primarily composed of extremely low volatility organic carbons. We use two chromatographic methods to compare the contribution of large and small light-absorbing BrC components in aged BB aerosols with UV-vis absorbance detection: (1) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and (2) reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We observe no evidence of small molecule absorbers. Most BrC absorption arises from large molecular weight components (>1000 amu). This suggests that although small molecules may contribute to BrC absorption near the BB source, analyses of aerosol extracts should use methods selective to large molecular weight compounds because these species may be responsible for long-term BrC absorption. Further characterization with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to SEC demonstrates an underestimation of the molecular size determined through MS as compared to SEC.

  16. Age differential response of Hyalella curvispina to a cadmium pulse: influence of sediment particle size.

    PubMed

    García, M E; Rodrígues Capítulo, A; Ferrari, L

    2012-06-01

    In Argentina periurban streams frequently receive agricultural, livestock and industrial discharges. Heavy metals have been found in the water column and sediments of numerous water bodies of the pampean region, at levels above the limits established for aquatic life protection. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a contaminant pulse of cadmium discharged into a water-sediment system of different particle sizes, by means of laboratory tests using juveniles and adults of Hyalella curvispina, a native amphipod. We found that the substrate particle size was a determining factor in the toxicity of cadmium and that the adults of H. curvispina were more sensitive than juveniles. We also observed a temporal difference between the two ages for the same type of sediment. Given the nature of the sediments of regional water bodies, it is expected that a discharge of cadmium, even at concentrations as low as those tested here, will affect the survival of native amphipods.

  17. Survival of female Lesser Scaup: Effects of body size, age, and reproductive effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Clark, R.G.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In birds, larger females generally have greater breeding propensity, reproductive investment, and success than do smaller females. However, optimal female body size also depends on how natural selection acts during other parts of the life cycle. Larger female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) produce larger eggs than do smaller females, and ducklings from larger eggs survive better than those hatching from smaller eggs. Accordingly, we examined patterns of apparent annual survival for female scaup and tested whether natural selection on female body size primarily was stabilizing, a frequent assumption in studies of sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, or was directional, counter-acting reproductive advantages of large size. We estimated survival using mark-recapture methods for individually marked females from two study sites in Canada (Erickson, Manitoba; St. Denis, Saskatchewan). Structurally larger (adults) and heavier (ducklings) females had lower survival than did smaller individuals in Manitoba; no relationship was detected in adults from Saskatchewan. Survival of adult females declined with indices of increasing reproductive effort at both sites; consequently, the cost of reproduction could explain age-related patterns of breeding propensity in scaup. Furthermore, if larger females are more likely to breed than are smaller females, then cost of reproduction also may help explain why survival was lower for larger females. Overall, we found that advantages of large body size of female scaup during breeding or as young ducklings apparently were counteracted by natural selection favoring lightweight juveniles and structurally smaller adult females through higher annual survival.

  18. Effect of set size, age, and mode of stimulus presentation on information-processing speed.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    First, second, and third grade pupils served as subjects in an experiment designed to show the effect of age, mode of stimulus presentation, and information value on recognition time. Stimuli were presented in picture and printed word form and in groups of 2, 4, and 8. The results of the study indicate that first graders are slower than second and third graders who are nearly equal. There is a gross shift in reaction time as a function of mode of stimulus presentation with increase in age. The first graders take much longer to identify words than pictures, while the reverse is true of the older groups. With regard to set size, a slope appears in the pictures condition in the older groups, while for first graders, a large slope occurs in the words condition and only a much smaller one for pictures.

  19. Determinants of Influenza Transmission in South East Asia: Insights from a Household Cohort Study in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Cauchemez, Simon; Ferguson, Neil M.; Fox, Annette; Mai, Le Quynh; Thanh, Le Thi; Thai, Pham Quang; Thoang, Dang Dinh; Duong, Tran Nhu; Minh Hoa, Le Nguyen; Tran Hien, Nguyen; Horby, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To guide control policies, it is important that the determinants of influenza transmission are fully characterized. Such assessment is complex because the risk of influenza infection is multifaceted and depends both on immunity acquired naturally or via vaccination and on the individual level of exposure to influenza in the community or in the household. Here, we analyse a large household cohort study conducted in 2007–2010 in Vietnam using innovative statistical methods to ascertain in an integrative framework the relative contribution of variables that influence the transmission of seasonal (H1N1, H3N2, B) and pandemic H1N1pdm09 influenza. Influenza infection was diagnosed by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody assay of paired serum samples. We used a Bayesian data augmentation Markov chain Monte Carlo strategy based on digraphs to reconstruct unobserved chains of transmission in households and estimate transmission parameters. The probability of transmission from an infected individual to another household member was 8% (95% CI, 6%, 10%) on average, and varied with pre-season titers, age and household size. Within households of size 3, the probability of transmission from an infected member to a child with low pre-season HI antibody titers was 27% (95% CI 21%–35%). High pre-season HI titers were protective against infection, with a reduction in the hazard of infection of 59% (95% CI, 44%–71%) and 87% (95% CI, 70%–96%) for intermediate (1∶20–1∶40) and high (≥1∶80) HI titers, respectively. Even after correcting for pre-season HI titers, adults had half the infection risk of children. Twenty six percent (95% CI: 21%, 30%) of infections may be attributed to household transmission. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis by influenza sub-type, age and pre-season HI titers in order to infer influenza transmission risks in and outside of the household. PMID:25144780

  20. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  1. The influence of maternal age and mating frequency on egg size and offspring performance in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W

    1993-10-01

    Maternal age influences offspring quality of many species of insects. This observed maternal age influence on offspring performance may be mediated through maternal age effects on egg size, which in turn may be directly influenced by the female's nutritional state. Thus, behaviors that influence a female's nutritional status will indirectly influence egg size, and possibly offspring life histories. Because males provide nutrients to females in their ejaculate, female mating frequency is one behavior which may influence her nutritional status, and thus the size of her eggs and the performance of her offspring. In this paper, I first quantify the influences of maternal age on egg size and offspring performance of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. I then examine whether nutrients transferred during copulation reduce the magnitude of maternal age effects on egg size and larval performance when mothers are nutrient-stressed. Egg size and egg hatchability decreased, and development time increased, with increasing maternal age. Multiple mating and adult feeding by females both resulted in increased egg size. This increase in egg size of females mated multiply did not translate into reduced development time or increased body size and egg hatchability, but did correlate with improved survivorship of offspring produced by old mothers. Thus, it appears that because the influence of mating frequency on egg size is small relative to the influence of maternal age, the influence of nutrients derived from multiple mating on offspring life history is almost undetectable (detected only as a small influence on survivorship). For C. maculatus, female multiple mating has been demonstrated to increase adult female survivorship (Fox 1993a), egg production (Credland and Wright 1989; Fox 1993a), egg size, and larval survivorship, but, contrary to the suggestion of Wasserman and Asami (1985), multiple mating had no detectable influence on offspring development time or body size.

  2. Estimating age ratios and size of Pacific walrus herds on coastal haulouts using video imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010–2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m2 (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03–0.06) and we documented ~30,000 animals along ~1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0–2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species.

  3. Estimating age ratios and size of pacific walrus herds on coastal haulouts using video imaging.

    PubMed

    Monson, Daniel H; Udevitz, Mark S; Jay, Chadwick V

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010-2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m(2) (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03-0.06) and we documented ∼30,000 animals along ∼1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0-2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species.

  4. Estimating Age Ratios and Size of Pacific Walrus Herds on Coastal Haulouts using Video Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Daniel H.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2013-01-01

    During Arctic summers, sea ice provides resting habitat for Pacific walruses as it drifts over foraging areas in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Climate-driven reductions in sea ice have recently created ice-free conditions in the Chukchi Sea by late summer causing walruses to rest at coastal haulouts along the Chukotka and Alaska coasts, which provides an opportunity to study walruses at relatively accessible locations. Walrus age can be determined from the ratio of tusk length to snout dimensions. We evaluated use of images obtained from a gyro-stabilized video system mounted on a helicopter flying at high altitudes (to avoid disturbance) to classify the sex and age of walruses hauled out on Alaska beaches in 2010–2011. We were able to classify 95% of randomly selected individuals to either an 8- or 3-category age class, and we found measurement-based age classifications were more repeatable than visual classifications when using images presenting the correct head profile. Herd density at coastal haulouts averaged 0.88 walruses/m2 (std. err. = 0.02), herd size ranged from 8,300 to 19,400 (CV 0.03–0.06) and we documented ∼30,000 animals along ∼1 km of beach in 2011. Within the herds, dependent walruses (0–2 yr-olds) tended to be located closer to water, and this tendency became more pronounced as the herd spent more time on the beach. Therefore, unbiased estimation of herd age-ratios will require a sampling design that allows for spatial and temporal structuring. In addition, randomly sampling walruses available at the edge of the herd for other purposes (e.g., tagging, biopsying) will not sample walruses with an age structure representative of the herd. Sea ice losses are projected to continue, and population age structure data collected with aerial videography at coastal haulouts may provide demographic information vital to ongoing efforts to understand effects of climate change on this species. PMID:23936106

  5. Quality of Piped and Stored Water in Households with Children Under Five Years of Age Enrolled in the Mali Site of the Global Enteric Multi-Center Study (GEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kelly K.; Sow, Samba O.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Farag, Tamer H.; Tamboura, Boubou; Doumbia, Mama; Sanogo, Doh; Diarra, Drissa; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Mintz, Eric; Panchalingam, Sandra; Wu, Yukun; Blackwelder, William C.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene information was collected during a matched case-control study of moderate and severe diarrhea (MSD) among 4,096 children < 5 years of age in Bamako, Mali. Primary use of piped water (conditional odds ratio [cOR] = 0.45; 0.34–0.62), continuous water access (cOR = 0.30; 0.20–0.43), fetching water daily (cOR = 0.77; 0.63–0.96), and breastfeeding (cOR = 0.65; 0.49–0.88) significantly reduced the likelihood of MSD. Fetching water in > 30 minutes (cOR = 2.56; 1.55–4.23) was associated with MSD. Piped tap water and courier-delivered water contained high (> 2 mg/L) concentrations of free residual chlorine and no detectable Escherichia coli. However, many households stored water overnight, resulting in inadequate free residual chlorine (< 0.2 mg/L) for preventing microbial contamination. Coliforms and E. coli were detected in 48% and 8% of stored household water samples, respectively. Although most of Bamako's population enjoys access to an improved water source, water quality is often compromised during household storage. PMID:23836570

  6. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  7. Guidelines for assessing the biofidelity of side impact dummies of various sizes and ages.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Annette L; Mertz, Harold J; Elhagediab, Ali M; Moss, Steve

    2002-11-01

    The Human Mechanical Simulation Subcommittee of the Human Biomechanics and Simulation Standards Committee of the Society of Automotive Engineers took on the task of defining test procedures and associated response guidelines to be used to assess the level of biofidelity of side impact dummies that are being developed. This paper describes the results of their efforts. Guidelines are provided for assessing the levels of biofidelity of dummies that represent 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old infants, 3-, 6-, and 10-year-old children, and of dummies that represent a small female, midsize male and large male adults. These guidelines were developed by normalizing the side impact biofidelity guidelines that were established by the International Standards Organization for the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the midsize adult male. The ISO guidelines can be used to define biofidelity guidelines for any size or age of dummy provided pertinent geometric, inertial and tissue properties are specified.

  8. Age-related ransparent root dentin: mineral concentration,crystallite size and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, John H.; Nalla, Ravi K.; Pople, John A.; Breunig, Tom M.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2004-12-29

    Many fractures occur in teeth that have been altered, forexample restored or endodontically repaired. It is therefore essential toevaluate the structure and mechanical properties of these altereddentins. One such altered form of dentin is transparent (sometimes calledsclerotic) dentin, which forms gradually with aging. The present studyfocuses on differences in the structure and mechanical properties ofnormal versus transparent dentin. The mineral concentration, as measuredby X-ray computed microtomography, was signifcantly higher in transparentdentin, the elevated concentration being consistent with the closure ofthe tubule lumens. Crystallite size, as measured by small angle X-rayscattering, was slightly smaller in transparent dentin, although theimportance of this ending requires further study. The elastic propertieswere unchanged by transparency; however, transparent dentin, unlikenormal dentin, exhibited almost no yielding before failure. In addition,the fracture toughness was lowered by roughly 20 percent while thefatigue lifetime was deleteriously affected at high stress levels. Theseresults are discussed in terms of the altered microstructure oftransparent dentin.

  9. Size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis and the significance of patients' age and sex.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A

    1981-01-01

    To determine the significance of patients' age and sex on the size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis, 420 consecutive phlebograms with acute deep vein thrombosis were studied. A significant correlation between the size of the thrombus and increasing age of the patient as well as the sex of male was noted. It is concluded that older patients and men often are at a high risk of pulmonary embolism at the time of diagnosis.

  10. Age and size at maturity: a quantitative review of diet-induced reaction norms in insects.

    PubMed

    Teder, Tiit; Vellau, Helen; Tammaru, Toomas

    2014-11-01

    Optimality models predict that diet-induced bivariate reaction norms for age and size at maturity can have diverse shapes, with the slope varying from negative to positive. To evaluate these predictions, we perform a quantitative review of relevant data, using a literature-derived database of body sizes and development times for over 200 insect species. We show that bivariate reaction norms with a negative slope prevail in nearly all taxonomic and ecological categories of insects as well as in some other ectotherm taxa with comparable life histories (arachnids and amphibians). In insects, positive slopes are largely limited to species, which feed on discrete resource items, parasitoids in particular. By contrast, with virtually no meaningful exceptions, herbivorous and predatory insects display reaction norms with a negative slope. This is consistent with the idea that predictable resource depletion, a scenario selecting for positively sloped reaction norms, is not frequent for these insects. Another source of such selection-a positive correlation between resource levels and juvenile mortality rates-should similarly be rare among insects. Positive slopes can also be predicted by models which integrate life-history evolution and population dynamics. As bottom-up regulation is not common in most insect groups, such models may not be most appropriate for insects.

  11. Age differences in search of web pages: the effects of link size, link number, and clutter.

    PubMed

    Grahame, Michael; Laberge, Jason; Scialfa, Charles T

    2004-01-01

    Reaction time, eye movements, and errors were measured during visual search of Web pages to determine age-related differences in performance as a function of link size, link number, link location, and clutter. Participants (15 young adults, M = 23 years; 14 older adults, M = 57 years) searched Web pages for target links that varied from trial to trial. During one half of the trials, links were enlarged from 10-point to 12-point font. Target location was distributed among the left, center, and bottom portions of the screen. Clutter was manipulated according to the percentage of used space, including graphics and text, and the number of potentially distracting nontarget links was varied. Increased link size improved performance, whereas increased clutter and links hampered search, especially for older adults. Results also showed that links located in the left region of the page were found most easily. Actual or potential applications of this research include Web site design to increase usability, particularly for older adults.

  12. An improved snow hydrology for GCMS. Part 1: Snow cover fraction, albedo, grain size, and age

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    A new, physically-based snow hydrology has been implemented into the NCAR CCM1. The snow albedo is based on snow depth, solar zenith angle, snow cover pollutants, cloudiness, and a new parameter, the snow grain size. Snow grain size in turn depends on temperature and snow age. An improved expression is used for fractional snow cover which relates it to surface roughness and to snow depth. Each component of the new snow hydrology was implemented separately and then combined to make a new control run integrated for ten seasonal cycles. With the new snow hydrology, springtime snow melt occurs more rapidly, leading to a more reasonable late spring and summer distribution of snow cover. Little impact is seen on winter snow cover, since the new hydrology affects snow melt directly, but snowfall only indirectly, if at all. The influence of the variable grain size appears more important when snow packs are relatively deep while variable fractional snow cover becomes increasingly important as the snow pack thins. Variable surface roughness affects the snow cover fraction directly, but shows little effect on the seasonal cycle of the snow line. As an application of the new snow hydrology, we have rerun simulations involving Antarctic and Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Relatively little difference is seen for Antarctica, but a profound difference occurs for the Northern Hemisphere. In particular, ice sheets computed using new snow accumulations from the GCM are more numerous and larger in extent with the new snow hydrology. The new snow hydrology leads to a better simulation of the seasonal cycle of snow cover, however, our primary goal in implementing it into the GCM is to improve the predictive capabilities of the model. Since the snow hydrology is based on fundamental physical processes, and has well-defined parameters. it should enable model simulations of climatic change in which we have increased confidence. 37 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evidence against the use of fecal pellet size for age determination in European wild rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouco, Carlos; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Moreno, Sacramento

    2009-09-01

    Techniques for estimating the age of wild animals are crucial to many aspects of the study of population biology. Accurate estimates of the proportion of different age classes in wild rabbit populations would be very useful, and the possibility that it could be obtained from the pellet size holds great appeal. However, this suggestion has created controversy in the literature as this technique has not been validated. This study involved assessment of whether threshold fecal pellet diameters could be used to differentiate adult and juvenile rabbits. The proportion of adults in four wild rabbit populations living in semi-natural conditions was compared with the proportion of animal pellets greater than threshold diameters of 6 mm and 4 mm. Our results suggest that inferring a relationship between the proportion of pellets >6 mm diameter and the proportion of adults in a population is not applicable to European wild rabbits, and that the use of this method could produce erroneous interpretations. The use of a 4 mm pellet diameter threshold appeared to produce even more inaccurate results. Studies that use this technique should include validation, as the results can vary greatly among individuals and populations.

  14. Intelligence and brain size in 100 postmortem brains: sex, lateralization and age factors.

    PubMed

    Witelson, S F; Beresh, H; Kigar, D L

    2006-02-01

    The neural basis of variation in human intelligence is not well delineated. Numerous studies relating measures of brain size such as brain weight, head circumference, CT or MRI brain volume to different intelligence test measures, with variously defined samples of subjects have yielded inconsistent findings with correlations from approximately 0 to 0.6, with most correlations approximately 0.3 or 0.4. The study of intelligence in relation to postmortem cerebral volume is not available to date. We report the results of such a study on 100 cases (58 women and 42 men) having prospectively obtained Full Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores. Ability correlated with cerebral volume, but the relationship depended on the realm of intelligence studied, as well as the sex and hemispheric functional lateralization of the subject. General verbal ability was positively correlated with cerebral volume and each hemisphere's volume in women and in right-handed men accounting for 36% of the variation in verbal intelligence. There was no evidence of such a relationship in non-right-handed men, indicating that at least for verbal intelligence, functional asymmetry may be a relevant factor in structure-function relationships in men, but not in women. In women, general visuospatial ability was also positively correlated with cerebral volume, but less strongly, accounting for approximately 10% of the variance. In men, there was a non-significant trend of a negative correlation between visuospatial ability and cerebral volume, suggesting that the neural substrate of visuospatial ability may differ between the sexes. Analyses of additional research subjects used as test cases provided support for our regression models. In men, visuospatial ability and cerebral volume were strongly linked via the factor of chronological age, suggesting that the well-documented decline in visuospatial intelligence with age is related, at least in right-handed men, to the decrease in cerebral

  15. Long term outcome of small versus appropriate size for gestational age co-twins/triplets

    PubMed Central

    Monset-Couchard, M; de Bethmann, O; Relier, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Small for gestational age (SGA) extremely low birthweight (ELBW < 1000 g) survivors often remain small and/or have subnormal school performance. Some are twins/triplets with larger appropriate size for gestational age (AGA) co-twins/triplets. Objective: To assess whether SGA ELBW twins/triplets remain different from their AGA co-twins/triplets. Design, setting: During 1981–1999, 353 SGA ELBW neonates were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit: 267 survived, 54/267 were twins/triplets, and 36/54 had AGA surviving co-twins/triplets. This longitudinal study describes the growth, neurodevelopmental outcome, and school performance of these 36 sets (3–17 years). The children were classified as normal, or having minor, moderate, or severe deficiencies. Results: Values for birth weight (mean intrapair z score difference 2.26), length (2.74), and head circumference (2.62) were lower in SGA neonates than in AGA co-twins/triplets. SGA survivors remained smaller at 3–6 years of age: mean intrapair z score difference in weight, 1.37, height, 1.54, head circumference, 1.21. From 6 to 17 years, smaller differences persisted. Former SGA children had a tendency to have motor deficiencies (nine SGA v three AGA) and mental retardation (seven v four), same hearing loss (two v two), but significantly more visual abnormalities (15 v 11), behavioural disturbances (14 v five), and speech problems (14 v eight). Twenty four sets were in the same normal level class, often supported by familial/professional help. Conclusions: Although raised in the same environment, SGA ELBW survivors remained smaller and had more visual/behavioural/speech problems, but most maintained grade level parity with their AGA siblings, with appropriate help. PMID:15210662

  16. DNA aptamer raised against advanced glycation end products (AGEs) improves glycemic control and decreases adipocyte size in fructose-fed rats by suppressing AGE-RAGE axis.

    PubMed

    Ojima, A; Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Higashimoto, Y; Ueda, S; Fukami, K; Okuda, S; Yamagishi, S

    2015-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) decrease adiponectin expression and suppress insulin signaling in cultured adipocytes through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) via oxidative stress generation. We have recently found that high-affinity DNA aptamer directed against AGE (AGE-aptamer) prevents the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy by blocking the harmful actions of AGEs in the kidney. This study examined the effects of AGE-aptamer on adipocyte remodeling, AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis, and adiponectin expression in fructose-fed rats. Although AGE-aptamer treatment by an osmotic mini pump for 8 weeks did not affect serum insulin levels, it significantly decreased average fasting blood glucose and had a tendency to inhibit body weight gain in fructose-fed rats. Furthermore, AGE-aptamer significantly suppressed the increase in adipocyte size and prevented the elevation in AGEs, RAGE, and an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), levels in adipose tissues of fructose-fed rats at 14-week-old, while it restored the decrease in adiponectin mRNA levels. Our present study suggests that AGE-aptamer could improve glycemic control and prevent adipocyte remodeling in fructose-fed rats partly by suppressing the AGE-RAGE-mediated oxidative stress generation. AGE-aptamer might be a novel therapeutic strategy for fructose-induced metabolic derangements.

  17. Relearning in the Elderly: Age-Related Effects on the Size of Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Hoeven, Nienke; de Bot, Kees

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study on learning new and relearning forgotten words of French as a foreign language in young (mean age 22.4), middle-aged (mean age 50.3), and elderly speakers (mean age 76.0). The three age groups performed similarly on relearning old words, but the younger learners were significantly better at learning new words. Data…

  18. Variation in flowering size and age of a facultative biennial, Aster kantoensis (Compositae), in response to nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Mitsuko; Tani, Takashi; Kachi, Naoki

    2009-10-01

    Although the flowering of facultative biennials is size-dependent, flowering size varies markedly within a single population as well as among populations. In this study, 15 half-sib families of the facultative biennial Aster kantoensis were grown from seeds at three nutrient levels (low, medium, and high). A significant nutrient × family interaction effect was found for bolting size, and among-family variation in bolting size increased with decreasing nutrient level. Growth from bolting to flowering tended to be greatest at the high nutrient level. Such responses of bolting size and growth from bolting to flowering resulted in an increase in flowering size at the high nutrient level and a significant variation in its reaction norm among families. For flowering age, there was a significant interaction of nutrient × family, and its among-family variation increased with decreasing nutrient levels, as was the case with bolting size. These results indicate that genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity of bolting size with nutrient availability was one cause of the variation in flowering size and age in the A. kantoensis population on the floodplain with the spatially heterogeneous nutrient availability. Moreover, responses of growth from bolting to flowering to nutrient availability could enhance the variation in flowering size.

  19. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  20. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J. C.; Osmond, C.; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C. H. D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown–heel, crown–buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6–10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = −4.69, CI: −7.31, −2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  1. Size, age, and habitat determine effectiveness of Palau's Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gouezo, Marine; Olsudong, Dawnette; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    Palau has a rich heritage of conservation that has evolved from the traditional moratoria on fishing, or “bul”, to more western Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), while still retaining elements of customary management and tenure. In 2003, the Palau Protected Areas Network (PAN) was created to conserve Palau’s unique biodiversity and culture, and is the country’s mechanism for achieving the goals of the Micronesia Challenge (MC), an initiative to conserve ≥30% of near-shore marine resources within the region by 2020. The PAN comprises a network of numerous MPAs within Palau that vary in age, size, level of management, and habitat, which provide an excellent opportunity to test hypotheses concerning MPA design and function using multiple discreet sampling units. Our sampling design provided a robust space for time comparison to evaluate the relative influence of potential drivers of MPA efficacy. Our results showed that no-take MPAs had, on average, nearly twice the biomass of resource fishes (i.e. those important commercially, culturally, or for subsistence) compared to nearby unprotected areas. Biomass of non-resource fishes showed no differences between no-take areas and areas open to fishing. The most striking difference between no-take MPAs and unprotected areas was the more than 5-fold greater biomass of piscivorous fishes in the MPAs compared to fished areas. The most important determinates of no-take MPA success in conserving resource fish biomass were MPA size and years of protection. Habitat and distance from shore had little effect on resource fish biomass. The extensive network of MPAs in Palau likely provides important conservation and tourism benefits to the Republic, and may also provide fisheries benefits by protecting spawning aggregation sites, and potentially through adult spillover. PMID:28358910

  2. Size, age, and habitat determine effectiveness of Palau's Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Golbuu, Yimnang; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gouezo, Marine; Olsudong, Dawnette; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    Palau has a rich heritage of conservation that has evolved from the traditional moratoria on fishing, or "bul", to more western Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), while still retaining elements of customary management and tenure. In 2003, the Palau Protected Areas Network (PAN) was created to conserve Palau's unique biodiversity and culture, and is the country's mechanism for achieving the goals of the Micronesia Challenge (MC), an initiative to conserve ≥30% of near-shore marine resources within the region by 2020. The PAN comprises a network of numerous MPAs within Palau that vary in age, size, level of management, and habitat, which provide an excellent opportunity to test hypotheses concerning MPA design and function using multiple discreet sampling units. Our sampling design provided a robust space for time comparison to evaluate the relative influence of potential drivers of MPA efficacy. Our results showed that no-take MPAs had, on average, nearly twice the biomass of resource fishes (i.e. those important commercially, culturally, or for subsistence) compared to nearby unprotected areas. Biomass of non-resource fishes showed no differences between no-take areas and areas open to fishing. The most striking difference between no-take MPAs and unprotected areas was the more than 5-fold greater biomass of piscivorous fishes in the MPAs compared to fished areas. The most important determinates of no-take MPA success in conserving resource fish biomass were MPA size and years of protection. Habitat and distance from shore had little effect on resource fish biomass. The extensive network of MPAs in Palau likely provides important conservation and tourism benefits to the Republic, and may also provide fisheries benefits by protecting spawning aggregation sites, and potentially through adult spillover.

  3. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man.

    PubMed

    Mezzano, D; Hwang, K; Catalano, P; Aster, R H

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 = 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets = 7.57 mu3, LD platelets = 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  4. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzano, D.; Hwang, K.; Catalano, P.; Aster, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 . 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets . 7.57 mu3, LD platelets . 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  5. Crater size-frequency distribution measurements and age of the Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, K. A.; Zanetti, M.; Jolliff, B.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC) is a 25 × 35 km feature on the lunar farside marked by elevated topography, high albedo, high thorium concentration, and high silica content. Morphologies indicate that the complex is volcanic in origin and compositions indicate that it represents rare silicic volcanism on the Moon. Constraining the timing of silicic volcanism at the complex is necessary to better understand the development of evolved magmas and when they were active on the lunar surface. We employ image analysis and crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements on several locations within the complex and at surrounding impact craters, Hayn (87 km diameter), and Compton (160 km diameter), to determine relative and absolute model ages of regional events. Using CSFD measurements, we establish a chronology dating regional resurfacing events and the earliest possible onset of CBVC volcanism at ∼3.8 Ga, the formation of Compton Crater at 3.6 Ga, likely resurfacing by volcanism at the CBVC at ∼3.5 Ga, and the formation of Hayn Crater at ∼1 Ga. For the CBVC, we find the most consistent results are obtained using craters larger than 300 m in diameter; the small crater population is affected by their approach to an equilibrium condition and by the physical properties of regolith at the CBVC.

  6. Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: Age-size statistics and species lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-08-01

    Neutral dynamics, where taxa are assumed to be demographically equivalent and their abundance is governed solely by the stochasticity of the underlying birth-death process, has proved itself as an important minimal model that accounts for many empirical datasets in genetics and ecology. However, the restriction of the model to demographic [O (√{N }) ] noise yields relatively slow dynamics that appears to be in conflict with both short-term and long-term characteristics of the observed systems. Here we analyze two of these problems—age-size relationships and species extinction time—in the framework of a neutral theory with both demographic and environmental stochasticity. It turns out that environmentally induced variations of the demographic rates control the long-term dynamics and modify dramatically the predictions of the neutral theory with demographic noise only, yielding much better agreement with empirical data. We consider two prototypes of "zero mean" environmental noise, one which is balanced with regard to the arithmetic abundance, another balanced in the logarithmic (fitness) space, study their species lifetime statistics, and discuss their relevance to realistic models of community dynamics.

  7. Exercise in youth: High bone mass, large bone size, and low fracture risk in old age.

    PubMed

    Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures.

  8. Recovery of Aging-Related Size Increase of Skin Epithelial Cells: In vivo Mouse and In vitro Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor; Guz, Natali V.; Iyer, Swaminathan; Hewitt, Amy; Sokolov, Nina A.; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Woodworth, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left midsection for 140 days (the right side served as control for placebo treatment). An average decrease in cell size of 56±16% resulted. A reduction of cell size was also observed on primary human skin epithelial cells of different in vitro age (passages from 1 to 8). A cell strain obtained from a pool of 6 human subjects was treated with cytochalasin B in vitro for 12 hours. We observed a decrease in cell size that became statistically significant and reached 20–40% for cells of older passage (6–8 passages) whereas no substantial change was observed for younger cells. These results may be important for understanding the aging processes, and for cosmetic treatment of aging skin. PMID:25807526

  9. Age and growth of the mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, with a review of the size and age of sex change among epinephelids.

    PubMed

    Marques, S; Ferreira, B P

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents results on the age, growth and population structure of a small grouper, the mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and discusses the observed size and age structure patterns in relation to reproductive strategies among the epinephelids. Ages were determined by examination of sectioned otoliths, which showed a distinct pattern of alternating translucent and opaque zones that formed annually, as validated with tetracycline labelling. The von Bertalanffy growth function was adjusted to the length-at-age data of the males and females, but no significant differences were observed between the resulting parameters. The females, however, were older at given sizes and attained larger sizes and ages, with a maximum observed longevity of 13 years and a total length (LT ) of 26 cm, while the males attained maximum longevities of only 10 years and a 22 cm maximum LT . The LT and age range for the sex change was 16-25 cm and 3-11 years. The total mortality rate (Z) was estimated to be 0·55 for females and 0·82 for males. With the males younger and smaller than the females, this species differed from the pattern commonly observed for protogynous epinephelids. Males had slower growth after maturation, probably due to energy allocation to sperm production during sexual development. This study shows that demography is an important tool to understand the pathways for reproductive strategies in grouper populations.

  10. Dual burden households and intra-household nutritional inequality in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Roemling, Cornelia; Qaim, Matin

    2013-12-01

    Overweight is an increasing problem in many developing countries, coexisting with underweight and contributing to a dual burden of malnutrition, sometimes in the same households. We analyze the phenomenon of dual burden households in Indonesia, using 15-year panel data. Currently, 16 percent of Indonesian households are classified as dual burden. In these households, children are often underweight, whereas adults are overweight. The nutrition transition seems to have differential impacts on the body mass index of different age cohorts. Dual burden households are a transitory phenomenon. This phenomenon started in the richer segments, but now the prevalence of dual burden households is highest in the poorest population groups. Most households that move out of the dual burden category end up as overweight. We also develop a continuous Theil index of intra-household nutritional inequality. While the overall prevalence of dual burden households has hardly changed over the last 10 years, the Theil index increased steadily. This underlines that the dual burden classification has limitations in terms of capturing nutritional dynamics. Socioeconomic determinants of dual burden and nutritional inequality are analyzed with regression models.

  11. Bacterial Populations in Complementary Foods and Drinking-water in Households with Children Aged 10-15 Months in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Boor, Kathryn J.; Ame, Shaali M.; Ali, Nadra S.; Jackson, Anna E.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria were quantified in samples of drinking-water and in two porridges prepared for infant-feeding [fortified instant soy-rice porridge (SRP) and cooked porridge (Lishe bora, LB)] in 54 households. Bacterial numbers were measured again after the porridges had been held at room temperature for four hours (T4). Findings were benchmarked against bacterial numbers in traditional complementary foods sampled from 120 households. Total bacteria, coliform, and Enterobacteriaceae counts were enumerated using Petrifilm™. The mean log bacterial numbers were the lowest for LB at T0 (2.24±0.84 cfu/g aerobic counts) and the highest for SRP at T4 (4.63±0.56 cfu/g aerobic counts). The total bacteria, coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts were higher at T4 than at T0 for LB (p≤0.001); however, only the coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts were higher at T4 than at T0 for SRP (p<0.001). Drinking-water, SRP0, traditional foods, and SRP4 all had the mean aerobic counts higher than the acceptable cut-off but the total bacterial count in SRP0 was not significantly (p=0.543) different from drinking-water. However, coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts in SRP0 were higher than in drinking-water (p<0.001). Also, although the aerobic counts of SRP4 were not significantly (p>0.999) different from traditional foods, the coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly higher in SRP4 than in traditional foods (p<0.001). It is, therefore, recommended that food safety concerns be addressed when improving complementary foods. PMID:19248647

  12. Sociodemographic patterns of household water-use costs in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xue; Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Padilla, Ingrid; Meeker, John D.; Cordero, Jose F.; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Variability of household water-use costs across different sociodemographic groups in Puerto Rico is evaluated using census microdata from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Multivariate analyses such as Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Factor Analysis (FA) are used to classify, extract and interpret the household water-use costs. The FA results suggest two principal varifactors in explaining the variability of household water-use costs (64% in 2000 and 50% in 2010), which are grouped into a soft coefficient (social, economic and demographic characteristics of household residents, i.e. age, size, income, education) and a hard coefficient (dwelling conditions, i.e. number of rooms, units in the building, building age). The demographic profile of a high water-use household in Puerto Rico tends to be that of renters, people who live in larger or older buildings, people living in metro areas, or those with higher education level and higher income. The findings and discussions from this study will help decision makers to plan holistic and integrated water management to achieve water sustainability. PMID:25897735

  13. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  14. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  15. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  16. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  17. Household and living arrangement projections at the subnational level: an extended cohort-component approach.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Land, Kenneth C; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan

    2013-06-01

    This article presents the core methodological ideas and empirical assessments of an extended cohort-component approach (known as the "ProFamy model"), and applications to simultaneously project household composition, living arrangements, and population sizes-gender structures at the subnational level in the United States. Comparisons of projections from 1990 to 2000 using this approach with census counts in 2000 for each of the 50 states and Washington, DC show that 68.0 %, 17.0 %, 11.2 %, and 3.8 % of the absolute percentage errors are <3.0 %, 3.0 % to 4.99 %, 5.0 % to 9.99 %, and ≥10.0 %, respectively. Another analysis compares average forecast errors between the extended cohort-component approach and the still widely used classic headship-rate method, by projecting number-of-bedrooms-specific housing demands from 1990 to 2000 and then comparing those projections with census counts in 2000 for each of the 50 states and Washington, DC. The results demonstrate that, compared with the extended cohort-component approach, the headship-rate method produces substantially more serious forecast errors because it cannot project households by size while the extended cohort-component approach projects detailed household sizes. We also present illustrative household and living arrangement projections for the five decades from 2000 to 2050, with medium-, small-, and large-family scenarios for each of the 50 states; Washington, DC; six counties of southern California; and the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Among many interesting numerical outcomes of household and living arrangement projections with medium, low, and high bounds, the aging of American households over the next few decades across all states/areas is particularly striking. Finally, the limitations of the present study and potential future lines of research are discussed.

  18. Optic Nerve Head (ONH) Topographic Analysis by Stratus OCT in Normal Subjects: Correlation to Disc Size, Age, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Barbara C.; Cantor, Louis B.; WuDunn, Darrell; Hoop, Joni; Lipyanik, Jennifer; Patella, Vincent Michael; Budenz, Donald L.; Greenfield, David S.; Savell, Jonathan; Schuman, Joel S.; Varma, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study optic nerve head (ONH) topography parameters measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in normal subjects and to analyze ONH data for differences in relation to disc size, ethnicity, and age. Methods Three hundred sixty-seven normal subjects underwent Stratus optical coherence tomography ONH measurement using the fast optic disc scan protocol software package 3.0. Only ONH scans meeting specific qualification criteria were included for data analysis ensuring appropriate scan quality and reliability. ONH topographic parameters of qualified scans were analyzed for differences in regards to optic disc size, age, and ethnicity. Results Two hundred and twelve qualified ONH scans were included for data analysis. Mean disc area was 2.27±0.41 mm2 and optic cup area, rim area, and horizontal integrated rim width increased with disc size, whereas vertical integrated rim area did not. Vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, and rim area decreased and cup area increased with age. Mean optic disc area was larger in African-Americans as compared with Hispanics or Whites and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusions Optic cup area, rim area, and horizontal integrated rim width correlated to disc size. Vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, rim area, and cup area, changed with age. African-American optic discs had larger disc area measurements as compared with Whites optic discs and this difference was statistically significant. PMID:19855299

  19. Household products: a review.

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, Marc A

    2003-10-01

    Household products include detergents, cleaners and polishes, bleaches, disinfectants and sterilizers, dust removers, antistatics and deodorizers, office materials, removers, and products for clothing. Many of these contain chemicals that present a risk to those who come into contact with them. This contact may be through inhalation or dermal exposure for human adults, or by ingestion for children. Pets are exposed through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. An emerging class of household products is the fabric refreshers, which may pose a hazard to humans and pets. This review explores the major chemicals expected in typical fabric refreshers, "and their potential hazards to household pets.

  20. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Walter S

    2011-12-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes), Myrtaceae (23) and Fabaceae (22). In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon.

  1. Pyroclasts Key to Age and Use of Meter-Size Granite Basins, Sierra Nevada, CA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. G.; Gorden, M. A.; Sisson, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    More than 1000 meter-size granite basins at more than 220 sites occur in a 240-km-long belt from Lake Isabella north to the San Joaquin River on the west slope of the southern Sierra Nevada. The circular basins are carved in granitic outcrops at an average elevation of 1950 m. They range in volume from 40 to 1400 liters, median 130 liters. The basins display features compatible with a man-made origin, but required enormous, sustained labor to excavate. Until now their apparent purpose was believed to be some aspect of food preparation (Moore, Gorden, Robinson, Moring, 2008). About 120 km north of this belt a separate cluster of more than 350 similar granite basins occurs near a rare salt spring. They were clearly made by Indians to contain saline water to produce salt by evaporation (Moore and Diggles, 2009). An early study identified rhyolitic volcanic ash in the bottom of many basins in Sequoia National Park at both Giant Forest and at Redwood Meadow 13 km ESE (Stewart, 1929). That ash is unavailable, having been removed in recent time. Subsequent study of meadowland soils identified two ash layers in the region from explosive eruptions in the Mono Lake area: Tephra 1 and Tephra 2 (Wood, 1977). Later work indicates that Tephra 1 was erupted from the Glass Creek vent of the Inyo Craters (Miller, 1985) and that its refined age by tree-ring techniques is AD 1350 (Millar, King, Westfall, Alden, Delany, 2006). A fossil forest killed by Tephra 1 differs from modern forests in that it grew in the warmer climate of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP)--a period when drought conditions prevailed at lower elevations (Stine, 1994; Millar et al, 2006). In July 2010 ash was discovered near the bottom of a pristine granite basin (TUL-496) in a remote area of Giant Sequoia National Monument 14.5 km NW of Giant Forest. High-beam-current electron microprobe analyses of pumice glasses give Zr 145-420 ppm, homogeneous within lapilli, and correlated with MgO and CaO concentrations. The

  2. Growth, size and age at maturity of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in an Iberian Peninsula population.

    PubMed

    Sarasola-Puente, Vanessa; Gosá, Alberto; Oromí, Neus; Madeira, María José; Lizana, Miguel

    2011-06-01

    The mean age of a population of agile frogs (Rana dalmatina) from the Iberian Peninsula was estimated using mark and recapture and skeletochronology. Life-history parameters, including growth rate, body length, age and size at maturity, sexual dimorphism and longevity, were studied. The regression between age and snout-vent length (SVL) was highly significant in both sexes. Males reached sexual maturity at two years of age, although sometimes they can reach it at only one year of age. The average SVL at maturity was 51.75 mm (standard error (SE)=0.71; n=45). Females reached sexual maturity at two years of age with an average SVL of 62.14 mm (SE=2.20; n=14). A subset of the female population reached sexual maturity at three years of age. Growth was rapid until sexual maturity was reached. There was an overlap of SVL between different age classes. Growth was continuous, fulfilling the conditions of Von Bertalanffy's model. The growth coefficient (K) was 0.840 in males and 0.625 in females. The maximum SVL was greater in females (73.00 mm) than in males (59.50mm). Sexual dimorphism was significantly biased towards females in all age classes. The maximum longevity observed was 6 years in females and 8 years in males. Management strategies for agile frogs should take into account factors such as these life-history characteristics.

  3. Spermidine Suppresses Age-Associated Memory Impairment by Preventing Adverse Increase of Presynaptic Active Zone Size and Release

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun K.; Pech, Ulrike; Fulterer, Andreas; Ender, Anatoli; Mauermann, Stephan F.; Andlauer, Till F. M.; Beuschel, Christine; Thriene, Kerstin; Quentin, Christine; Schwärzel, Martin; Mielke, Thorsten; Madeo, Frank; Dengjel, Joern; Fiala, André; Sigrist, Stephan J.

    2016-01-01

    Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ), increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age. These age-induced AZ changes, however, were fully suppressed by spermidine feeding. A genetically enforced enlargement of AZ scaffolds (four gene-copies of BRP) impaired memory formation in young animals. Thus, in the Drosophila nervous system, aging AZs seem to steer towards the upper limit of their operational range, limiting synaptic plasticity and contributing to impairment of memory formation. Spermidine feeding suppresses age-dependent memory impairment by counteracting these age-dependent changes directly at the synapse. PMID:27684064

  4. Size and Aging Effects on Antimicrobial Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Coated on Polyamide Fabrics Activated by Atmospheric DBD Plasma.

    PubMed

    Zille, Andrea; Fernandes, Margarida M; Francesko, Antonio; Tzanov, Tzanko; Fernandes, Marta; Oliveira, Fernando R; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Esteves, Maria F; Souto, António P

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the surface characteristics, antimicrobial activity, and aging effect of plasma-pretreated polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fabrics coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), aiming to identify the optimum size of nanosilver exhibiting antibacterial properties suitable for the manufacture of hospital textiles. The release of bactericidal Ag(+) ions from a 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 nm AgNPs-coated PA66 surface was a function of the particles' size, number, and aging. Plasma pretreatment promoted both ionic and covalent interactions between AgNPs and the formed oxygen species on the fibers, favoring the deposition of smaller-diameter AgNPs that consequently showed better immediate and durable antimicrobial effects against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surprisingly, after 30 days of aging, a comparable bacterial growth inhibition was achieved for all of the fibers treated with AgNPs <100 nm in size. The Ag(+) in the coatings also favored the electrostatic stabilization of the plasma-induced functional groups on the PA66 surface, thereby retarding the aging process. At the same time, the size-related ratio (Ag(+)/Ag(0)) of the AgNPs between 40 and 60 nm allowed for the controlled release of Ag(+) rather than bulk silver. Overall, the results suggest that instead of reducing the size of the AgNPs, which is associated with higher toxicity, similar long-term effects can be achieved with larger NPs (40-60 nm), even in lower concentrations. Because the antimicrobial efficiency of AgNPs larger than 30 nm is mainly ruled by the release of Ag(+) over time and not by the size and number of the AgNPs, this parameter is crucial for the development of efficient antimicrobial coatings on plasma-treated surfaces and contributes to the safety and durability of clothing used in clinical settings.

  5. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... residue-producing ). Common examples of this group are triclosan, triclocarban, and benzalkonium chloride. Did you know that over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products ...

  6. Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page gives an overview of how to safely manage household hazardous wastes like cleaners, paints and oils. Information is also provided on how to find recycling and disposal options for these products, as well as natural alternatives.

  7. Common household poisonings.

    PubMed

    Dymowski, J J; Uehara, D T

    1987-12-01

    Readily available household products represent a source of potential toxicity when ingested accidentally by children. Despite the large number of patients seen by physicians and a familiarity with many of these substances, patient management often remains a difficult problem. The current literature is reviewed with respect to appropriate management of ingestions of household cleaners, caustics, hydrocarbons, insecticides, rodenticides, plants, and other products often taken by children.

  8. Regional differences in size-at-age of the recovering burbot (Lota lota) population in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.; Tost, J.

    2007-01-01

    The burbot Lota lota population in Lake Erie increased dramatically between 1995 and 2003, due mainly to control of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in the late 1980s. We estimated total length- and weight-at-age at capture for burbot caught in annual gillnet surveys of eastern Lake Erie during August 1994–2003. Mean total length was generally greater for burbot age 4–9 years that were caught in New York waters than in either Ontario or Pennsylvania waters of Lake Erie. Similarly, mean weight was greater for burbot at ages 4 through 6 years in New York waters than in either Ontario or Pennsylvania waters. Age-9 burbot caught in Ontario waters had greater mean weight and mean total length than did age-9 burbot caught in Pennsylvania waters. One possible explanation for greater length- and weight-at-age for New York burbot may be greater abundance of prey fishes, particularly rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax and round goby Neogobius melanostomus in New York waters. Total lengths at ages 4–10 years were generally greater for burbot caught in Lake Erie during 1994–2003 than those from published studies of other large lakes in North America that we considered, including for Lake Erie in 1946. The regional differences in size-at-age have important management ramifications, particularly because a commercial fishery targeting burbot has been considered for Ontario waters of Lake Erie.

  9. An evaluation of the age-profile in the relationship between household income and the health of children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Murasko, Jason E

    2008-12-01

    Previous work has shown that the income gradient in child health for the United States becomes steeper with age. This paper shows a similar pattern using the 1996-2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS). A framework is also presented to evaluate cumulative and contemporaneous income effects through the use of baseline health controls. The analysis shows that poor health is more persistent in older children, and that the income gradient is substantially flattened over age groups when controlling for baseline health. However, even when controlling for baseline health, there remains a stronger effect from income on the health of adolescents. These results may reflect a cumulative effect from income that explains much of the strengthening association between income and health before adolescence, with a remaining stronger contemporaneous association in that age group. The analysis is unable to identify a major role of chronic conditions or injuries in these relationships.

  10. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  11. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  12. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation simulation - VII. The sizes of high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanwu; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, P. W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate high-redshift galaxy sizes using a semi-analytic model constructed for the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulation project. Our fiducial model, including strong feedback from supernovae and photoionization background, accurately reproduces the evolution of the stellar mass function and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Using this model, we study the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and find that the effective radius scales with UV luminosity as Re ∝ L0.25 at z ∼ 5-9. We show that recently discovered very luminous galaxies at z ∼ 7 and 11 lie on our predicted size-luminosity relations. We find that a significant fraction of galaxies at z > 8 will not be resolved by James Webb Space Telescope, but Giant Magellan Telescope will have the ability to resolve all galaxies in haloes above the atomic cooling limit. We show that our fiducial model successfully reproduces the redshift evolution of average galaxy sizes at z > 5. We also explore galaxy sizes in models without supernova feedback. The no-supernova feedback models produce galaxy sizes that are smaller than observations. We therefore confirm that supernova feedback plays an important role in determining the size-luminosity relation of galaxies and its redshift evolution during reionization.

  13. HIV Testing in the Past Year among the U.S. Household Population Aged 15-44: 2011-2013. NCHS Data Brief. Number 202

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copen, Casey E.; Chandra, Anjani; Febo-Vazquez, Isaedmarie

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, more than 1 million Americans aged 13 and over were living with HIV infection, and one in seven did not know their infection status. Routine, voluntary HIV testing is a recognized way to reduce HIV transmission. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report updates nationally representative estimates…

  14. Flexibility of Household Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Using data I collected in Africa, this paper examines a household's decision to adjust its size through child fostering, an institution where biological parents temporarily send children to live with other families. Households experiencing negative idiosyncratic income shocks, child gender imbalances, located further from primary schools, or with…

  15. Time bomb or hidden treasure? Characteristics of junk TVs and of the US households who store them

    SciTech Connect

    Milovantseva, Natalia; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► US households are storing 84.1 million broken or obsolete (junk) TVs. ► They represent 2.12 million metric tons of scrap. ► The value of these materials is approximately $21 per TV. ► Our count models characterize US households who store junk TVs. ► Our results are useful for designing more effective TV recycling programs. - Abstract: Within the growing stockpile of electronic waste (e-waste), TVs are especially of concern in the US because of their number (which is known imprecisely), their low recycling rate, and their material content: cathode ray tube televisions contain lead, and both rear projection and flat panel displays contain mercury, in addition to other potentially toxic materials. Based on a unique dataset from a 2010 survey, our count models show that pro-environmental behavior, age, education, household size, marital status, gender of the head of household, dwelling type, and geographic location are statistically significant variables for explaining the number of broken or obsolete (junk) TVs stored by US households. We also estimate that they are storing approximately 84.1 million junk TVs, which represents 40 pounds of scrap per household. Materials in each of these junk TVs are worth $21 on average at January 2012 materials prices, which sets an upper bound on collecting and recycling costs. This information should be helpful for developing more effective recycling strategies for TVs in the e-waste stream.

  16. Differences in Family Size and Marriage Age Expectation and Aspirations of Anglo, Mexican American and Native American Rural Youth in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, questionnaires were given to 587 sophomores and seniors in 12 rural high schools. Findings included significant differences between ethnic groups on expected and desired family size and marriage age; but no differences between age groups. (Author/SJL)

  17. Effects of neonatal litter size and age on ovarian gene expression and follicular development in gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gilts raised in small litters have greater ovulation rate, stay in the herd longer and produce more pigs. The objective was to understand how neonatal litter size affects gilt development. The hypothesis is that gilts reared in smaller litters have greater ovarian follicular development. Within 24 h...

  18. PLASMA STEROID CONCENTRATIONS IN RELATION TO SIZE AND AGE IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS FROM TWO FLORIDA LAKES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have reported a number of physiological differences among juvenile alligators from two well-studied populations (Lake Apopka and Lake Woodruff) in north central Florida. These studies obtained alligators of similar size from each lake under the assumption that th...

  19. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  20. Size-dependent chemical ageing of oleic acid aerosol under dry and humidified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kindi, Suad S.; Pope, Francis D.; Beddows, David C.; Bloss, William J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-12-01

    A chemical reaction chamber system has been developed for the processing of oleic acid aerosol particles with ozone under two relative humidity conditions: dry and humidified to 65 %. The apparatus consists of an aerosol flow tube, in which the ozonolysis occurs, coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) which measure the evolving particle size and composition. Under both relative humidity conditions, ozonolysis results in a significant decrease in particle size and mass which is consistent with the formation of volatile products that partition from the particle to the gas phase. Mass spectra derived from the ATOFMS reveal the presence of the typically observed reaction products: azelaic acid, nonanal, oxononanoic acid and nonanoic acid, as well as a range of higher molecular weight products deriving from the reactions of reaction intermediates with oleic acid and its oxidation products. These include octanoic acid and 9- and 10-oxooctadecanoic acid, as well as products of considerably higher molecular weight. Quantitative evaluation of product yields with the ATOFMS shows a marked dependence upon both particle size association (from 0.3 to 2.1 µm diameter) and relative humidity. Under both relative humidity conditions, the percentage residual of oleic acid increases with increasing particle size and the main lower molecular weight products are nonanal and oxononanoic acid. Under dry conditions, the percentage of higher molecular weight products increases with increasing particle size due to the poorer internal mixing of the larger particles. Under humidified conditions, the percentage of unreacted oleic acid is greater, except in the smallest particle fraction, with little formation of high molecular weight products relative to the dry particles. It is postulated that water reacts with reactive intermediates, competing with the processes which produce high molecular weight products. Whilst the

  1. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2011-04-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but to my knowledge, their combined effects have not yet been tested. Here, I found that in bulb mites ( Rhizoglyphus robini), maternal nutrition, offspring nutrition, and paternal phenotype (males are fighters, able to kill other mites, or benign scramblers) interactively affected offspring age and size at maturity. The largest effect occurred when both maternal and offspring nutrition was poor: in that case offspring from fighter sires required a significantly longer development time than offspring from scrambler sires. Investigating parental effects on the relationship between age and size at maturity revealed no paternal effects, and only for females was its shape influenced by maternal nutrition. Overall, this reaction norm was nonlinear. These non-genetic intergenerational effects may play a complex, yet unexplored role in influencing population fluctuations—possibly explaining why results from field studies often do not match theoretical predictions on maternal effects on population dynamics.

  2. Huntington CAG repeat size does not modify onset age in familial Parkinson’s disease: The GenePD Study

    PubMed Central

    McNicoll, Christopher F.; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Lew, Mark F.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Klein, Christine; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Mark, Margery H.; Growdon, John H.; Wooten, G. Frederick; Watts, Ray L.; Guttman, Mark; Racette, Brad A.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Ahmed, Anwar; Shill, Holly A.; Singer, Carlos; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Massood, Tiffany; Huskey, Karen W.; DeStefano, Anita L.; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Goldwurm, Stefano; Pezzoli, Gianni; Baker, Kenneth B.; Itin, Ilia; Litvan, Irene; Nicholson, Garth; Corbett, Alastair; Nance, Martha; Drasby, Edward; Isaacson, Stuart; Burn, David J.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Al-hinti, Jomana; Moller, Anette T.; Ostergaard, Karen; Sherman, Scott J.; Roxburgh, Richard; Snow, Barry; Slevin, John T.; Cambi, Franca; Gusella, James F.; Myers, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    The ATP/ADP ratio reflects mitochondrial function and has been reported to be influenced by the size of the Huntington disease gene (HD) repeat. Impaired mitochondrial function has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and therefore, we evaluated the relationship of the HD CAG repeat size to PD onset age in a large sample of familial PD cases. PD affected siblings (n=495) with known onset ages from 248 families, were genotyped for the HD CAG repeat. Genotyping failed in 11 cases leaving 484 for analysis, including 35 LRRK2 carriers. All cases had HD CAG repeats (range 15 to 34) below the clinical range for HD, although 5.2 percent of the sample (n=25) had repeats in the intermediate range (the intermediate range lower limit=27; upper limit=35 repeats), suggesting that the prevalence of intermediate allele carriers in the general population is significant. No relation between the HD CAG repeat size and the age at onset for PD was found in this sample of familial PD. PMID:18649400

  3. Influence of aggregate size, water cement ratio and age on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Elsharief, Amir; Cohen, Menashi D.; Olek, Jan

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the effect of water-cement ratio (w/c), aggregate size, and age on the microstructure of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between normal weight aggregate and the bulk cement paste. Backscattered electron images (BSE) obtained by scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the ITZ microstructure. The results suggest that the w/c plays an important role in controlling the microstructure of the ITZ and its thickness. Reducing w/c from 0.55 to 0.40 resulted in an ITZ with characteristics that are not distinguishable from those of the bulk paste as demonstrated by BSE images. Aggregate size appears to have an important influence on the ITZ characteristics. Reducing the aggregate size tends to reduce the ITZ porosity. The evolution of the ITZ microstructure relative to that of the bulk paste appears to depend on the initial content of the unhydrated cement grains (UH). The results suggest that the presence of a relatively low amount of UH in the ITZ at early age may cause the porosity of the ITZ, relative to that of the bulk paste, to increase with time. The presence of relatively large amount of UH in the ITZ at early ages may cause its porosity, relative to that of the bulk paste, to decrease with time.

  4. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  5. The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Family Size. Working Paper: 1146-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    Examined in this document is the effect the age at which a young woman has her first birth has on her later childbearing. Data from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women are used in conjunction with a review of related literature in examining such factors as fertility, premarital pregnancy,…

  6. Common INSIG2 polymorphisms are associated with age-related changes in body size and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol from young adulthood to middle age.

    PubMed

    Fornage, Myriam; Papanicolaou, George; Lewis, Cora E; Boerwinkle, Eric; Siscovick, David S

    2010-08-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acids synthesis. A polymorphism, rs7566605, located 10 kilobases upstream of the INSIG2 gene, was identified in a genomewide association study of obesity. We conducted an association study of 12 INSIG2 tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms with longitudinal measures of body size (body mass index and waist circumference) and lipid metabolism (plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides levels). We investigated their interaction with age in 4304 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults participants (49.5% blacks, 50.5% whites) followed prospectively for 20 years. rs7566605 was not associated with variation in body size or lipid metabolism at any age in either racial group. However, rs1352083 and rs10185316 were associated with age-related decline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in whites (P = .0005 and .04, respectively). A similar trend was observed in blacks who consistently maintained a body mass index less than 25 kg/m(2) over the study period. These data support a role of INSIG2 sequence variation in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  7. Size and age distributions of Juvenile Connecticut River American shad above Hadley Falls: Influence on outmigration representation and timing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, M. J.; Letcher, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    Age- and size-based habitat use and movement patterns of young-of-year American shad in rivers are not well understood. Adult females reach their natal rivers at different times and ascend the river at different rates, which may lead to variation of hatch dates at a single location. Also, shad are serial spawners, so eggs of the same female may be released at different distances from the river mouth. It has long been hypothesized that juvenile shad emigration is a function of size or age, and not necessarily keyed only to a decrease in water temperature during the fall. We seined three sites in the Connecticut River biweekly to collect pre-migrant shad during river residence (spring to fall). During emigration, samples were also collected weekly at two hydroelectric facilities. Otoliths were removed from ???20% of the fish to obtain age and growth rate information. We found increases in length and age over time until late in the season, after which such increases were mostly insigniftlant. Cohorts collected early in the year as pre-migrants were never sampled as migrants later in the year at the hydroelectric projects. Cohorts collected late in the year as migrants were never collected earlier in the year as pre-migrants. Only during a narrow window of time were fish collected as both pre-migrants and migrants. Fish that were hatched later in the season exhibited higher growth rates than fish that were hatched earlier in the season. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Size frequency distribution of Martian craters and relative age of light and dark terrains.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A.; King, E. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Light and dark terrains in and around Meridiani Sinus, mapped on the imagery from Mariner 6 and Mariner 7, were found to have significantly different cumulative size frequency distributions of craters. The light terrain on a mosaic of frames 6N11, 6N13, and 6N19 has a greater proportion of large craters and a lesser proportion of smaller craters than the dark terrain on the same frames. The light terrain is interpreted to be generally older than the dark terrain. The filling or partial filling of the smaller craters on the light terrain by surface detritus is suggested. Several wide-angle frames have remarkably similar cumulative crater size frequency distributions that may be representative of a large portion of the Martian surface.

  9. 40Ar/39Ar ages of lunar impact glasses: Relationships among Ar diffusivity, chemical composition, shape, and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Delano, J. W.

    2015-07-01

    Lunar impact glasses, which are quenched melts produced during cratering events on the Moon, have the potential to provide not only compositional information about both the local and regional geology of the Moon but also information about the impact flux over time. We present in this paper the results of 73 new 40Ar/39Ar analyses of well-characterized, inclusion-free lunar impact glasses and demonstrate that size, shape, chemical composition, fraction of radiogenic 40Ar retained, and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages are important for 40Ar/39Ar investigations of these samples. Specifically, analyses of lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites indicate that retention of radiogenic 40Ar is a strong function of post-formation thermal history in the lunar regolith, size, and chemical composition. This is because the Ar diffusion coefficient (at a constant temperature) is estimated to decrease by ∼3-4 orders of magnitude with an increasing fraction of non-bridging oxygens, X(NBO), over the compositional range of most lunar impact glasses with compositions from feldspathic to basaltic. Based on these relationships, lunar impact glasses with compositions and sizes sufficient to have retained ∼90% of their radiogenic Ar during 750 Ma of cosmic ray exposure at time-integrated temperatures of up to 290 K have been identified and are likely to have yielded reliable 40Ar/39Ar ages of formation. Additionally, ∼50% of the identified impact glass spheres have formation ages of ⩽500 Ma, while ∼75% of the identified lunar impact glass shards and spheres have ages of formation ⩽2000 Ma. Higher thermal stresses in lunar impact glasses quenched from hyperliquidus temperatures are considered the likely cause of poor survival of impact glass spheres, as well as the decreasing frequency of lunar impact glasses in general with increasing age. The observed age-frequency distribution of lunar impact glasses may reflect two processes: (i) diminished

  10. Changes in the magnetic and mechanical properties of thermally aged Fe-Cu alloys due to nano-sized precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Yuanfei; Deng, Shanquan; Xu, Ben; Li, Qiulin; Shu, Guogang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The changes in the magnetic properties, mechanical properties, and microstructural parameters of Fe-Cu alloys due to thermal aging have been investigated to improve the fundamental understanding of using magnetic technology for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of irradiation embrittlement in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Nano-sized Cu particles precipitated from a Fe matrix after thermal aging at 500 °C for various times, and the microstructure parameters were determined. The coercivity, Barkhausen noise (BN), Vickers hardness, and yield stress were also measured for these samples. These properties show the same hardening-softening trend with increasing aging time, which can be interpreted in terms of the microstructure parameters evolution based on the model of the pinning of precipitates on domain walls and dislocations. These results suggest the practicability of using magnetic technology for the NDE of the irradiation embrittlement of the RPV.

  11. Simulating the grain-size distribution of Wisconsinan age glaciofluvial sediments: Applications to fluid transport

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, E.K.; Anderson, M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    A sedimentary deposition model, SEDSIM, was used to simulate the deposition of glaciofluvial sediments in south-central Wisconsin. These types of deposits are present at or near the surface over much of the northern United States and have a high contamination potential. They also represent relatively recent analogs for ancient braided stream systems. Sixty sediment samples were used to determine the average sediment properties for a facies assemblage located 8-10 km from the ice margin. A regional depositional system was simulated, using SEDSIM, to determine the range of input values that reproduced the observed average sediment characteristics. Progressively smaller scale models were constructed to produce more detailed estimates of the grain-size distribution. the grain-size estimates from the finest scale model were translated into relative hydraulic conductivity values using the method of Hazen. The resulting conductivities were incorporated into a fluid flow model to illustrate the control that heterogeneity of petrologic properties has on the direction and rate of fluid movement. This work indicates that a wide range of input parameters will reproduce the bulk sediment properties. Furthermore, small-scale features may not be reproduced under the assumptions incorporated in the current SEDSIM code. Thus, for sedimentary depositional models to be used to predict permeability and porosity distributions, or to interpret paleo-flow conditions, one must determine calibration targets that are more sensitive to flow parameters than bulk grain-size distributions.

  12. An inquiry into the household economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The value of the time which people devote to each activity of their lives is compared with the money they spend on the activity. After tax wage rates are used to value an individual's time. The enormous size of the household economy and the fact that for most activities the value of the consumer's time devoted to an activity exceeds the money expenditures on the activity, suggest that there are many opportunities for productivity improvements in the household economy which have been overlooked in most traditional thinking on productivity.

  13. Age decreases mitochondrial motility and increases mitochondrial size in vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Susan; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Age is proposed to be associated with altered structure and function of mitochondria; however, in fully‐differentiated cells, determining the structure of more than a few mitochondria at a time is challenging. In the present study, the structures of the entire mitochondrial complements of cells were resolved from a pixel‐by‐pixel covariance analysis of fluctuations in potentiometric fluorophore intensity during ‘flickers’ of mitochondrial membrane potential.Mitochondria are larger in vascular myocytes from aged rats compared to those in younger adult rats.A subpopulation of mitochondria in myocytes from aged, but not younger, animals is highly‐elongated.Some mitochondria in myocytes from younger, but not aged, animals are highly‐motile.Mitochondria that are motile are located more peripherally in the cell than non‐motile mitochondria. Abstract Mitochondrial function, motility and architecture are each central to cell function. Age‐associated mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to vascular disease. However, mitochondrial changes in ageing remain ill‐defined because of the challenges of imaging in native cells. We determined the structure of mitochondria in live native cells, demarcating boundaries of individual organelles by inducing stochastic ‘flickers’ of membrane potential, recorded as fluctuations in potentiometric fluorophore intensity (flicker‐assisted localization microscopy; FaLM). In freshly‐isolated myocytes from rat cerebral resistance arteries, FaLM showed a range of mitochondrial X‐Y areas in both young adult (3 months; 0.05–6.58 μm2) and aged rats (18 months; 0.05–13.4 μm2). In cells from young animals, most mitochondria were small (mode area 0.051 μm2) compared to aged animals (0.710 μm2). Cells from older animals contained a subpopulation of highly‐elongated mitochondria (5.3% were >2 μm long, 4.2% had a length:width ratio >3) that was rare in younger animals (0.15% of mitochondria >2

  14. Slow Desorption of Phenanthrene from Silica Particles: Influence of Pore Size, Pore Water, and Aging Time

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Fortman, Timothy J.; Riley, Robert G.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Wang, Zheming; Truex, Michael J.; Peyton, Brent M.

    2006-01-16

    When micro-porous and meso-porous silica particles were exposed to aqueous phenanthrene solutions for various durations it was observed that sorbed-phase phenanthrene concentrations increased with aging time only for meso-porous but not micro-porous silicas. Desorption equilibrium was reached almost instantaneously for the micro-porous particles while both the rate and extent of desorption decreased with increasing aging time for the meso-porous silicas. These findings indicate that phenanthrene can be sequestered within the internal pore-space of meso-porous silicas while the internal surfaces of micro-porous silicas are not accessible to phenanthrene sorption, possibly due to the presence of physi- or chemi-sorbed water that may sterically hinder the diffusion of phenanthrene inside water-filled micro-pores. By contrast, the internal surfaces of these micro-porous silicas are accessible to phenanthrene when aging methods are employed which assure that pores are devoid of physi-sorbed water. Consequently, when phenanthrene was incorporated into these particles using either supercritical CO2 or via solvent soaking, the aqueous desorption kinetics were extremely slow indicating effective sequestration of phenanthrene inside micro-porous particles. Finally, a two-compartment conceptual model is used to interpret the experimental findings.

  15. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi.

    PubMed

    Vicente, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Gortazar, C

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer (Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (<1 year old) or yearlings (1-2 years old). Spleen size was negatively associated with nematode load in subadult females and in adult males. These two age classes are potentially the most nutritionally stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  16. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Gortazar, C.

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (<1 year old) or yearlings (1-2 years old). Spleen size was negatively associated with nematode load in subadult females and in adult males. These two age classes are potentially the most nutritionally stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  17. Age at Virologic Control Influences Peripheral Blood HIV Reservoir Size and Serostatus in Perinatally-Infected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Deborah; Patel, Kunjal; Karalius, Brad; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Ziemniak, Carrie; Ellis, Angela; Chen, Ya Hui; Richman, Douglas; Siberry, George K.; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Burchett, Sandra; Seage, George R.; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Importance Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated within several weeks of HIV infection in adults limits proviral reservoirs that preclude HIV cure. Biomarkers of restricted proviral reservoirs may aid in the monitoring of HIV remission or cure. Objectives To quantify peripheral blood proviral reservoir size in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and to identify correlates of limited proviral reservoirs. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study including 144 perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth (median age: 14.3 years), enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, on durable (median: 10.2 years) cART, stratified by age at virologic control. Main Outcome and Measures The primary endpoint was peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proviral load following virologic control at different ages. Correlations between proviral load and markers of active HIV production (HIV-specific antibodies, 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles), and markers of immune activation and inflammation were also assessed. Results Proviral reservoir size was markedly reduced in the PHIV+ youth who achieved virologic control by age 1 year (4.2 [interquartile range, 2.6-8 6] copies per 1 million PBMCs) compared to those who achieved virologic control between 1-5 years of age (19.4 [interquartile range, 5.5-99.8] copies per 1 million PBMCs) or after age 5 years (−(70.7 [interquartile range, 23.2-209.4] copies per 1 million PBMCs; P < .00l). A proviral burden <10 copies/million PBMCs was measured in 11 (79%), 20 (40%), and 13 (18%) participants with virologic control at ages <1 year, 1-5 years, and >5 years, respectively (p<0.001). Lower proviral load was associated with undetectable 2-LTR circles (p<0.001) and HIV negative or indeterminate serostatus (p<0.001), but not with concentrations of soluble immune activation markers CD14 and CD163. Conclusions and Relevance Early effective cART along with prolonged virologic suppression after perinatal HIV

  18. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  19. Adaptive-filtering of trisomy 21: risk of Down syndrome depends on family size and age of previous child

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, Markus; Krackow, Sven

    2007-02-01

    The neonatal incidence rate of Down syndrome (DS) is well-known to accelerate strongly with maternal age. This non-linearity renders mere accumulation of defects at recombination during prolonged first meiotic prophase implausible as an explanation for DS rate increase with maternal age, but might be anticipated from chromosomal drive (CD) for trisomy 21. Alternatively, as there is selection against genetically disadvantaged embryos, the screening system that eliminates embryos with trisomy 21 might decay with maternal age. In this paper, we provide the first evidence for relaxed filtering stringency (RFS) to represent an adaptive maternal response that could explain accelerating DS rates with maternal age. Using historical data, we show that the proportion of aberrant live births decrease with increased family size in older mothers, that inter-birth intervals are longer before affected neonates than before normal ones, and that primiparae exhibit elevated levels of DS incidence at higher age. These findings are predicted by adaptive RFS but cannot be explained by the currently available alternative non-adaptive hypotheses, including CD. The identification of the relaxation control mechanism and therapeutic restoration of a stringent screen may have considerable medical implications.

  20. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  1. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  2. Adaptive changes in size and age at metamorphosis can qualitatively vary with predator type and available defenses.

    PubMed

    Higginson, A D; Ruxton, G D

    2010-09-01

    In many taxa the timing of metamorphosis is plastic in response to predation risk during the pre-metamorphic stage, and trends in both age and body size at metamorphosis have been the subject of much study. The responses to cues of predators are predominantly to be larger or equal-sized at the same age or older at metamorphosis. These observations are in direct contrast with existing theoretical treatments of this plasticity, which mostly predict earlier and smaller metamorphosis and never later and larger metamorphosis without invoking indirect effects on growth rate. Here we resolve the discrepancy between theory and observation using a dynamic state-dependent model that incorporates morphological and behavioral responses to predation risk. We allow prey to choose the optimal activity level and/or investment in defense over the growth period. We show that under certain conditions, metamorphosis at a larger size and later time is likely to be optimal. Our analysis allows us to make testable predictions about the changes in activity level of prey as they grow and how the effect of providing refuges will vary with predator type. Several of these predictions are supported by a meta-analysis of metamorphic responses to caged predators by larval amphibians and insects. Our predictions lead to insights about the feedback effects of antipredator responses on growth and subsequent implications for life history.

  3. Size and age of the non structural carbohydrate pool in boreal trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Trumbore, S.

    2005-12-01

    Autotrophic respiration of trees is supposed to be closely linked to CO2 uptake by photosynthesis on a time scale of days. However, several studies have indicated that roots of boreal trees do not respired carbon (C) with a radiocarbon signature Δ14C similar to that of CO2 in the atmosphere, but C that is 3-4 years old. Also, estimates of gross primary productivity obtained by eddy covariance flux measurements do often not correlate with tree ring width (growth). Both these findings point to the presences of a large non-structural C (NSC) pool within the tree, mainly sugars and starches. The concentration of NSC in tree tissue is considered a measure of C shortage or surplus for growth. Studies indicate that the NSC pool in trees is usually large and relatively constant throughout the year, not affected by e.g. leaf flushing. While estimates of the size of the NSC pool are available for a number of trees from various ecosystems, estimated of its turnover time are lacking. We tested if our finding that boreal trees respire 3-4 year old C is an artifact resulting from the depletion of the NSC pool in excised roots over time. We incubated roots with a diameter of 2-4 mm while they were still attached to the tree, and excised roots after 3 hours, and 1 to 4 days. We sampled CO2 for Δ14C analysis of intact roots, freshly excised roots, and after 1 and 3 days. To obtain an estimate of the NSC pool size and its turnover time in roots of various diameter, we excised and incubated roots of 3 diameters: root hairs with mycorrhizal fungi, 2-4 mm, and 1-2 cm. We followed their respiration over the course of one full day. We will also compare the Δ14C of respired CO2 of freshly root hairs to that of the NSC in the roots. To obtain an estimate of the size and turnover of the whole tree NSC pool, we will measure the Δ14C of NSC in wood. Preliminary results indicate that CO2 fluxes were not correlated to temperature or the initial CO2 concentration in the chamber. While CO2

  4. Is there a threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury?

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R.; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care. PMID:26803373

  5. Tharsis volcanoes - Separation distances, relative ages, sizes, morphologies, and depths of burial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Network analysis indicates the separation distances of the Tharsis volcanoes to be 700 to 900 km; this is considered to be the thickness of the Tharsis thermal lithosphere or 'tectosphere' which has thickened with time. Although as a whole the Tharsis volcanoes exhibit a random distribution, preferential alignments emerge when the history of the region is divided into separate periods. The preferential alignments mimic those of fractures in the surrounding terrain. Photogeologic and morphometric data indicate that the volcanoes fall into four distinct classes: montes, tholi, paterae, and a class whose sole representative is Alba Patera. The volcanoes have been buried by lava up to about 4 km in thickness. The sizes of the volcanoes directly correlate with their separation distances from their nearest neighbors. It is concluded that the greater the lithosphere thickness, the larger will be the volcano and the greater its separation distance from its nearest neighbor.

  6. Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis within Households: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Gilman, Robert H.; Martin, Laura; Soto, Esther; Castro, Beatriz; Lopez, Sonia; Coronel, Jorge; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Lopez, Virginia; San Miguel, Angela; Quispe, Neyda; Asencios, Luis; Dye, Christopher; Moore, David A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease. The fitness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) relative to drug-susceptible tuberculosis is cited as one of the most important determinants of MDRTB spread and epidemic size. To estimate the relative fitness of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, we compared the incidence of tuberculosis disease among the household contacts of MDRTB index patients to that among the contacts of drug-susceptible index patients. Methods and Findings This 3-y (2010–2013) prospective cohort household follow-up study in South Lima and Callao, Peru, measured the incidence of tuberculosis disease among 1,055 household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases and 2,362 household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index cases. A total of 35/1,055 (3.3%) household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases developed tuberculosis disease, while 114/2,362 (4.8%) household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index patients developed tuberculosis disease. The total follow-up time for drug-susceptible tuberculosis contacts was 2,620 person-years, while the total follow-up time for MDRTB contacts was 1,425 person-years. Using multivariate Cox regression to adjust for confounding variables including contact HIV status, contact age, socio-economic status, and index case sputum smear grade, the hazard ratio for tuberculosis disease among MDRTB household contacts was found to be half that for drug-susceptible contacts (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.90, p = 0.017). The inference of transmission in this study was limited by the lack of genotyping data for household contacts. Capturing incident disease only among household contacts may also limit the extrapolation of these findings to the community setting. Conclusions The low relative fitness of MDRTB estimated by this study improves the chances of controlling drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, fitter

  7. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    PubMed

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  8. Decreased Fetal Size Is Associated With β-Cell Hyperfunction in Early Life and Failure With Age

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Manu V.; Zhu, Yimin; Wice, Mitchell B.; Coleman, Trey; Pappan, Kirk L.; Marshall, Connie A.; McDaniel, Michael L.; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Low birth weight is associated with diabetes in adult life. Accelerated or “catch-up” postnatal growth in response to small birth size is thought to presage disease years later. Whether adult disease is caused by intrauterine β-cell–specific programming or by altered metabolism associated with catch-up growth is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We generated a new model of intrauterine growth restriction due to fatty acid synthase (FAS) haploinsufficiency (FAS deletion [FASDEL]). Developmental programming of diabetes in these mice was assessed from in utero to 1 year of age. RESULTS—FASDEL mice did not manifest catch-up growth or insulin resistance. β-Cell mass and insulin secretion were strikingly increased in young FASDEL mice, but β-cell failure and diabetes occurred with age. FASDEL β-cells had altered proliferative and apoptotic responses to the common stress of a high-fat diet. This sequence appeared to be developmentally entrained because β-cell mass was increased in utero in FASDEL mice and in another model of intrauterine growth restriction caused by ectopic expression of uncoupling protein-1. Increasing intrauterine growth in FASDEL mice by supplementing caloric intake of pregnant dams normalized β-cell mass in utero. CONCLUSIONS—Decreased intrauterine body size, independent of postnatal growth and insulin resistance, appears to regulate β-cell mass, suggesting that developing body size might represent a physiological signal that is integrated through the pancreatic β-cell to establish a template for hyperfunction in early life and β-cell failure with age. PMID:18591393

  9. Household Poverty in Rural and Metropolitan-Core Areas of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David L.; Hirschl, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1985 wave) indicate that rural households have the highest probability of poverty, followed by metropolitan-core households. Household factors (educational attainment, family structure, age, minority status) and the local opportunity structure were important determinants of poverty, but controlling for…

  10. The Relationship of Age to Personal Network Size, Relational Multiplexity, and Proximity to Alters in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emily J.; Marcum, Christopher S.; Boessen, Adam; Almquist, Zack W.; Hipp, John R.; Nagle, Nicholas N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the association of age and other sociodemographic variables with properties of personal networks; using samples of individuals residing in the rural western United States and the City of Los Angeles, we evaluate the degree to which these associations vary with geographical context. For both samples, we test the hypothesis that age is negatively associated with network size (i.e., degree) and positively associated with network multiplexity (the extent of overlap) on 6 different relations: core discussion members, social activity participants, emergency contacts, neighborhood safety contacts, job informants, and kin. We also examine the relationship between age and spatial proximity to alters. Method. Our data consist of a large-scale, spatially stratified egocentric network survey containing information about respondents and those to whom they are tied. We use Poisson regression to test our hypothesis regarding degree while adjusting for covariates, including education, gender, race, and self-reported sense of neighborhood belonging. We use multiple linear regression to test our hypotheses on multiplexity and distance to alters. Results. For both rural and urban populations, we find a nonmonotone association between age and numbers of core discussants and emergency contacts, with rural populations also showing nonmonotone associations for social activity partners and kin. These nonmonotone relationships show a peak in expected degree at midlife, followed by an eventual decline. We find a decline in degree among the elderly for all relations in both populations. Age is positively associated with distance to nonhousehold alters for the rural population, although residential tenure is associated with shorter ego-alter distances in both rural and urban settings. Additionally, age is negatively associated with network multiplexity for both populations. Discussion. Although personal network size ultimately declines with age, we find that

  11. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.

  12. Toxicity of iron-based nanoparticles to green algae: Effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state and environmental aging.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Lin, Daohui

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing environmental application and discharge of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), a comprehensive understanding of their fate and ecotoxicological effect in the aquatic environment is very urgent. In this study, toxicities of 4 zero-valent iron NPs (nZVI) of different sizes, 2 Fe2O3 NPs of different crystal phases, and 1 type of Fe3O4 NPs to a green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were investigated, with a focus on the effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state, and environmental aging. Results show that the algal growth inhibition of nZVI increased significantly with decreasing particle size; with similar particle sizes (20-30 nm), the algal growth inhibition decreased with oxidation of the NPs with an order of nZVI > Fe3O4 NPs > Fe2O3 NPs, and α-Fe2O3 NPs presented significantly higher toxicity than γ-Fe2O3 NPs. The NP-induced oxidative stress was the main toxic mechanism, which could explain the difference in algal toxicity of the NPs. The NP-cell heteroagglomeration and physical interactions also contributed to the nanotoxicity, whereas the effect of NP dissolution was negligible. The aging in distilled water and 3 surface water samples for 3 months increased surface oxidation of the iron-based NPs especially nZVI, which decreased the toxicity to algae. These findings will be helpful for the understanding of the fate and toxicity of iron-based NPs in the aquatic environment.

  13. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, E; Araújo, M F; Silva, R J C; Senna-Martinez, J C; Vaz, J L Inês

    2011-09-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction.

  14. Solvent dependence of laser-synthesized blue-emitting Si nanoparticles: Size, quantum yield, and aging performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yunzi; Kitasako, Takumi; Maeda, Makoto; Saitow, Ken-ichi

    2017-04-01

    Pulsed-laser ablation of silicon (Si) was conducted in six different organic solvents using a nanosecond laser. Si nanoparticles (Si-NPs) that exhibited blue photoluminescence (PL) were generated in all the solvents, but a significant solvent dependence emerged: particle size, PL spectra, and PL quantum yield (QY). The results of solvent dependence were well characterized using an atomic ratio in a solvent molecule. The highest QY was observed for the smallest Si-NPs (ca. 2 nm) synthesized in 1-octyne. The QY was enhanced by aging in 1-octyne, and its mechanism was attributed to alkyl passivation of dangling bonds on the Si-NPs.

  15. Epidemic growth rate and household reproduction number in communities of households, schools and workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Pellis, Lorenzo; Ferguson, Neil M.; Fraser, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel and coherent modelling framework for the characterisation of the real-time growth rate in SIR models of epidemic spread in populations with social structures of increasing complexity. Known results about homogeneous mixing and multitype models are included in the framework, which is then extended to models with households and models with households and schools/workplaces. Efficient methods for the exact computation of the real-time growth rate are presented for the standard SIR model with constant infection and recovery rates (Markovian case). Approximate methods are described for a large class of models with time-varying infection rates (non-Markovian case). The quality of the approximation is assessed via comparison with results from individual-based stochastic simulations. The methodology is then applied to the case of influenza in models with households and schools/workplaces, to provide an estimate of a household-to-household reproduction number and thus asses the effort required to prevent an outbreak by targeting control policies at the level of households. The results highlight the risk of underestimating such effort when the additional presence of schools/workplaces is neglected. Our framework increases the applicability of models of epidemic spread in socially structured population by linking earlier theoretical results, mainly focused on time-independent key epidemiological parameters (e.g. reproduction numbers, critical vaccination coverage, epidemic final size) to new results on the epidemic dynamics. PMID:21120484

  16. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  17. Micro-oxygenation strategy depends on origin and size of oak chips or staves during accelerated red wine aging.

    PubMed

    Del Alamo, María; Nevares, Ignacio; Gallego, Laura; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-02-15

    The practice of wine aging in stainless steel tank involves storing wine in contact with wood and dosing it with small oxygen quantities in order to obtain a final wine more stable in time and with the same characteristics of barrel-aged wines. Oxygen dosing is a key factor and, to achieve a correct development of wine, needs to be applied according to wine necessities and to the kind of wood chosen. This paper shows the results obtained from the study of oxygen required by a same wine aged in tanks with different alternative products (chips and staves) made of American (Q. alba), French (Q. petraea) and Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), with a strategy of micro-oxygenation as required. The results indicate that the size and origin of the wood used determine the oxygen management during the process. In fact, wine treated with big pieces (staves) consumes more oxygen and, with regard to wood origin, wine aged with French oak (Q. petraea) products needs of a higher oxygen dosage.

  18. Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Dachner, Naomi; Gundersen, Craig; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household food insecurity, a measure of income-related problems of food access, is growing in Canada and is tightly linked to poorer health status. We examined the association between household food insecurity status and annual health care costs. Methods: We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18–64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals’ direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. Results: Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. Compared with total annual health care costs in food-secure households, adjusted annual costs were 16% ($235) higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–23% [$141–$334]), 32% ($455) higher in households with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 25%–39% [$361–$553]) and 76% ($1092) higher in households with severe food insecurity (95% CI 65%–88% [$934–$1260]). When costs of prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program were included, the adjusted annual costs were 23% higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% CI 16%–31%), 49% higher in those with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 41%–57%) and 121% higher in those with severe food insecurity (95% CI 107%–136%). Interpretation: Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. Policy interventions at the provincial or federal level designed to reduce household food

  19. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  20. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18–45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64–0.70% per year in women and 0.80–00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3–4% per year in men and 2.5–3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2–5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass. PMID:22934016

  1. Effects of Size and Age of the Host Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) on Production of the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Broski, Scott A; King, B H

    2017-02-01

    One method of control of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), and other filth flies is by repeated release of large numbers of pupal parasitoids such as Spalangia endius Walker. Rearing these parasitoids may be facilitated by understanding how host factors affect their production. Previous studies have examined the effects of host size and host age on parasitoid production, but have not examined the interaction between host size and host age or the effects with older females, which may be less capable of drilling tough hosts. Females were given hosts of a single size-age category (small young, small old, large young, or large old) for 2 wk. The effect of host size and of host age on parasitoid production depended on female age. On their first day of oviposition, females produced more offspring from large than from small hosts, but host age had no significant effect. The cumulative number of parasitoids produced in the first week was not significantly affected by host size or host age. However, the cumulative number of parasitoids produced over 2 wk was affected by both host size and host age, with the greatest number of parasitoids produced from small young hosts. Thus, not only are smaller hosts cheaper to produce, but these results suggest that their use may have no effect or a positive effect on the number of parasitoids that can be produced when females are ovipositing for a week or two.

  2. Age, sex, body anthropometry, and ACL size predict the structural properties of the human anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Javad; Mansouri, Hossein; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Slauterbeck, James R; Hardy, Daniel M; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2011-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury continues to be at the forefront of sports injury concerns because of its impact on quality of life and joint health prognosis. One strategy is to reduce the occurrence of this injury by identifying at-risk subjects based on key putative risk factors. The purpose of our study was to develop models that predict the structural properties of a subject's ACL based on the combination of known risk factors. We hypothesized that the structural properties of the ACL can be predicted using a multi-linear regression model based on significant covariates that are associated with increased risk of injury, including age, sex, body size, and ACL size. We also hypothesized that ACL size is a significant contributor to the model. The developed models had predictive capabilities for the structural properties of the ACL: load at failure (R2 = 0.914), elongation at failure (R2 = 0.872), energy at failure (R2 = 0.913), and linear stiffness (R2 = 0.756). Furthermore, sex, age, body mass, BMI, and height were contributors (p < 0.05) to all predicted structural properties. ACL minimal area was a contributor to elongation, energy at failure, and linear stiffness (p < 0.05), but not to load at failure. ACL volume was also a contributor to elongation and energy at failure (p < 0.05), but not to linear stiffness and load at failure models. ACL length was not a significant contributor to any structural property. The clinical significance of this research is its potential, after continued development and refinement of the model, for application to prognostic studies that are designed to identify individuals at increased risk for injury to the ligament.

  3. Effect of parental age and associated size on fecundity, growth and survival in the yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    PubMed

    Dzyuba, Borys; Van Look, Katrien J W; Cliffe, Alex; Koldewey, Heather J; Holt, William V

    2006-08-01

    Seahorses, together with the pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae), are the only vertebrates in which embryonic development takes place within a specialised body compartment, the brood pouch, of the male instead of the female. Embryos develop in close association with the brood pouch epithelium in a manner that bears some resemblance to embryo-placental relationships in mammals. We have explored the hypothesis that parental body size and age should affect offspring postnatal growth and survival if brood pouch quality impacts upon prenatal embryonic nutrition or respiration. Using an aquarium population of the yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda, we show here that large parents produce offspring whose initial postnatal growth rates (weeks one to three) were significantly higher than those of the offspring of younger and smaller parents. Whereas 90% of offspring from the larger parents survived for the duration of the study (7 weeks), less that 50% of offspring from smaller parents survived for the same period. For the offspring of large parents, growth rates from individual males were negatively correlated with the number of offspring in the cohort (r=-0.82; P<0.05); this was not the case for offspring from small parents (r=0.048; P>0.9). Observations of embryos within the pouch suggested that when relatively few embryos are present they may attach to functionally advantageous sites and thus gain physiological support during gestation. These results suggest that male body size, and pouch size and function, may influence the future fitness and survival of their offspring.

  4. Utilising psychophysical techniques to investigate the effects of age, typeface design, size and display polarity on glance legibility

    PubMed Central

    Dobres, Jonathan; Chahine, Nadine; Reimer, Bryan; Gould, David; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychophysical research on text legibility has historically investigated factors such as size, colour and contrast, but there has been relatively little direct empirical evaluation of typographic design itself, particularly in the emerging context of glance reading. In the present study, participants performed a lexical decision task controlled by an adaptive staircase method. Two typefaces, a ‘humanist’ and ‘square grotesque’ style, were tested. Study I examined positive and negative polarities, while Study II examined two text sizes. Stimulus duration thresholds were sensitive to differences between typefaces, polarities and sizes. Typeface also interacted significantly with age, particularly for conditions with higher legibility thresholds. These results are consistent with previous research assessing the impact of the same typefaces on interface demand in a simulated driving environment. This simplified methodology of assessing legibility differences can be adapted to investigate a wide array of questions relevant to typographic and interface designs. Practitioner Summary: A method is described for rapidly investigating relative legibility of different typographical features. Results indicate that during glance-like reading induced by the psychophysical technique and under the lighting conditions considered, humanist-style type is significantly more legible than a square grotesque style, and that black-on-white text is significantly more legible than white-on-black. PMID:26727912

  5. Utilising psychophysical techniques to investigate the effects of age, typeface design, size and display polarity on glance legibility.

    PubMed

    Dobres, Jonathan; Chahine, Nadine; Reimer, Bryan; Gould, David; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-10-01

    Psychophysical research on text legibility has historically investigated factors such as size, colour and contrast, but there has been relatively little direct empirical evaluation of typographic design itself, particularly in the emerging context of glance reading. In the present study, participants performed a lexical decision task controlled by an adaptive staircase method. Two typefaces, a 'humanist' and 'square grotesque' style, were tested. Study I examined positive and negative polarities, while Study II examined two text sizes. Stimulus duration thresholds were sensitive to differences between typefaces, polarities and sizes. Typeface also interacted significantly with age, particularly for conditions with higher legibility thresholds. These results are consistent with previous research assessing the impact of the same typefaces on interface demand in a simulated driving environment. This simplified methodology of assessing legibility differences can be adapted to investigate a wide array of questions relevant to typographic and interface designs. Practitioner Summary: A method is described for rapidly investigating relative legibility of different typographical features. Results indicate that during glance-like reading induced by the psychophysical technique and under the lighting conditions considered, humanist-style type is significantly more legible than a square grotesque style, and that black-on-white text is significantly more legible than white-on-black.

  6. Morphometric analysis of pulp size in maxillary permanent central incisors correlated with age: An indirect digital study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, S. V.; Mamatha, G. P.; Sunita, J. D.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Sardana, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Teeth are hardest part of the body and are least affected by the taphonomic process. They are considered as one of the reliable methods of identification of a person in forensic sciences. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish morphometeric measurements by AutoCad 2009 (Autodesk, Inc) of permanent maxillary central incisors in different age groups of Udaipur population. Setting and Design: Hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Udaipur. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out on 308 subjects of both genders with the age range of 9-68 years. Standardized intra-oral radiographs were made by paralleling technique and processed. The radiographs were scanned and the obtained images were standardized to the actual size of radiographic film. This was followed by measuring them using software AutoCad 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: F-test, post-hoc test, Pearson's correlation test. Results: For left maxillary central incisor, the total pulp area was found to be of 38.41 ± 12.88 mm and 14.32 ± 7.04 mm respectively. For right maxillary central incisor, the total pulp size was 38.39 ± 14.95 mm and 12.35 ± 5 mm respectively. Males (32.50, 32.87 mm2) had more pulp area when compared with females (28.82, 30.05 mm2). Conclusion: There was a decrease in total pulp area with increasing age which may be attributed to secondary dentin formation. PMID:26816461

  7. INS VNTR class genotype and indexes of body size and obesity: population-based studies of 7,999 middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Manjinder S; Heude, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth H; Luben, Robert; Luan, Jian'an; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Todd, John; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2005-09-01

    The relevance of the insulin gene (INS) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism to indexes of body size and adult obesity is inconclusive. Given the equivocal reports on the association between the VNTR class genotype at the insulin gene locus and indexes of body size and obesity, we assessed these associations in a series of cohort studies based on 7,999 middle-aged men and women. We found no convincing evidence that INS VNTR class genotype was associated with indexes of body size and adult obesity. These data suggest that INS VNTR class is not an important determinant of size and body weight regulation in middle-aged men and women.

  8. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  9. Country food sharing networks, household structure, and implications for understanding food insecurity in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Collings, Peter; Marten, Meredith G; Pearce, Tristan; Young, Alyson G

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural context of food insecurity among Inuit in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. An analysis of the social network of country food exchanges among 122 households in the settlement reveals that a household's betweenness centrality-a measure of brokerage-in the country food network is predicted by the age of the household. The households of married couples were better positioned within the sharing network than were the households of single females or single males. Households with an active hunter or elder were also better positioned in the network. The households of single men and women appear to experience limited access to country food, a considerable problem given the increasing number of single-adult households over time. We conclude that the differences between how single women and single men experience constrained access to country foods may partially account for previous findings that single women in arctic settlements appear to be at particular risk for food insecurity.

  10. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: Is tree size, age, competition, or climate response most important?

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane R; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Bradford, John B; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-06-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2 and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests' ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals' size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species like Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92-95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth responses

  11. Relationships between molecular weight and fluorescence properties for size-fractionated dissolved organic matter from fresh and aged sources.

    PubMed

    Cuss, C W; Guéguen, C

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between the molecular weight (MW) and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are important considerations for studies seeking to connect these properties to water treatment processes. Relationships between the size and fluorescence properties of nine allochthonous DOM sources (i.e. leaf leachates, grass, and headwaters) were measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detectors. Correlations between optical properties and MW were readily apparent using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled to self-organizing maps (SOM): protein/polyphenol-like fluorescence (peaks B and T) was highest at lower molecular weights (<0.5 kDa), fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (peaks A, C, and M) was highest at mid-weights (0.5-1 kDa), and humic-like fluorescence (Peaks A + C) was highest at larger molecular weights (>1 kDa). Proportions of peaks B, T, and A + C were significantly correlated with MW (p < 0.001). The first principal component (PC1, 42% of variation in fluorescence properties) was a significant predictor of sample MW (R² = 0.63, p < 0.05), while scores on PC2 (27% of total variance) traced a source-based gradient from deciduous leachates/headwaters through to coniferous leachates/headwaters. PC3 (13% of var.) was also correlated with MW (p < 0.005). A secondary peak in peak T fluorescence was associated with larger size fractions in aged sources, and scores on PC1 also traced a path from the leachates of fresher leaves, through more humified leaves, to headwaters. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the structure of aged DOM arises through supramolecular assembly.

  12. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Jane R.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests’ ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals’ size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species likeAcer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92–95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth

  13. Digestive organ sizes and enzyme activities of refueling western sandpipers (Calidris mauri): contrasting effects of season and age.

    PubMed

    Stein, R Will; Place, Allen R; Lacourse, Terri; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Williams, Tony D

    2005-01-01

    We examined seasonal and age-related variation in digestive organ sizes and enzyme activities in female western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) refueling at a coastal stopover site in southern British Columbia. Adult sandpipers exhibited seasonal variation in pancreatic and intestinal enzyme activities but not in digestive system or organ sizes. Spring migrants had 22% higher total and 67% higher standardized pancreatic lipase activities but 37% lower total pancreatic amylase activity than fall migrants, which suggests that the spring diet was enriched with lipids but low in glycogen. Spring migrants also had 47% higher total intestinal maltase activity as well as 56% higher standardized maltase and 13% higher standardized aminopeptidase-N activities. Spring migrants had higher total enzymic capacity than fall migrants, due primarily to higher total lipase and maltase activities. During fall migration, the juvenile's digestive system was 10% larger than the adult's, and it was composed differently: juveniles had a 16% larger small intestine but a 27% smaller proventriculus. The juvenile's larger digestive system was associated with lower total enzymic capacity than the adult's due to 20% lower total chitinase and 23% lower total lipase activities. These results suggest that juvenile western sandpipers may process food differently from adults and/or have a lower-quality diet.

  14. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl ( Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often covaries with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

  15. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl (Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often co-varies with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

  16. Age- and size-related changes in the inner ear and hearing ability of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Higgs, Dennis M; Souza, Marcy J; Wilkins, Heather R; Presson, Joelle C; Popper, Arthur N

    2002-06-01

    Fishes, unlike most other vertebrate groups, continue to add sensory hair cells to their ears for much of their lives. However, it is not clear whether the addition ever stops or how the addition of sensory cells impacts hearing ability. In this article, we tested both questions using the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Our results not only have important implications for understanding the consequences of adding sensory receptors, but these results for normal zebrafish also serve as valuable baseline information for future studies of select mutations on the ear and hearing of this species. Our results show that hair cell production continues in uncrowded zebrafish up to 10 months of age (about one-third of a normal life span), but despite this addition there is no change in hearing sensitivity or bandwidth. Therefore, hearing is not related to the number of sensory cells in the ear in juvenile and adult animals. We also show that despite no net addition of hair cells after about 10 months, hair cells are still being produced, but at a lower rate, presumably to replace cells that are dying. Moreover, crowding of zebrafish has a marked impact on the growth of the fish and on the addition of sensory cells to the ear. We also demonstrate that fish size, not age, is a better indicator of developmental state of zebrafish.

  17. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-11-01

    Land clearing for crops and plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (mean ± std. error) km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide a parameterization of plume shape that can help

  18. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001--2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krolewski, A. G.; Zender, C. S.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Land use for agriculture and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands, including in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (σ /√ {N}) km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to greater fuel loads and fire emissions in Indonesia. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide a parameterization of plume shape that can help atmospheric models estimate the effects of

  19. Automated pediatric abdominal effective diameter measurements versus age-predicted body size for normalization of CT dose.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Phillip M; Vachon, Linda A; Duddalwar, Vinay A

    2013-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in adjusting CT radiation dose data for patient body size. A method for automated computation of the abdominal effective diameter of a patient from a CT image has previously only been tested in adult patients. In this work, we tested the method on a set of 128 pediatric patients aged 0.8 to 12.9 years (average 8.0 years, SD = 3.7 years) who had CT abdomen/pelvis exams performed on a Toshiba Aquilion 64 scanner. For this set of patients, age-predicted abdominal effective diameter extrapolated based on data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements was a relatively poor predictor of measured effective diameter. The mean absolute percentage error between the CTDI normalization coefficient calculated from a manually measured effective diameter and the coefficient determined by age-predicted effective diameter was 12.3 % with respect to a 32 cm phantom (range 0.0-52.8 %, SD 8.7 %) and 12.9 % with respect to a 16 cm phantom (range 0.0-56.4 %, SD 9.2 %). In contrast, there is a close correspondence between the automated and manually measured patient effective diameters, with a mean absolute error of 0.6 cm (error range 0.2-1.3 cm). This correspondence translates into a high degree of correspondence between normalization coefficients determined by automated and manual measurements; the mean absolute percentage error was 2.1 % with respect to a 32 cm phantom (range 0.0-8.1 %, SD = 1.4 %) and 2.3 % with respect to a 16 cm phantom (range 0.0-9.3 %, SD = 1.6 %).

  20. Effects of age, size, and density on natural survival for an important coral reef fishery species, yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claisse, J. T.; McTee, S. A.; Parrish, J. D.

    2009-03-01

    Hundreds of thousands of juvenile yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens, are caught each year in the state of Hawai’i (USA) for the live aquarium trade. As part of an extensive adaptive management strategy built around a network of protected areas, an emphasis was placed on understanding this important species’ life history. Multiple capture-mark-recapture techniques and a model selection approach to data analysis in Program MARK were used to estimate the effects of individual age and conspecific density on natural per-capita daily survival probabilities of yellow tang recruits (recently settled individuals, 30-50 mm total length) and the effects of body size and site on natural per-capita monthly survival probabilities for juveniles (58-127 mm total length). The models of recruit survival that included additive effects of density and age were best supported by the data and indicated an increase of survival with age and decrease of survival with increased conspecific density. At 1 day post-settlement, the model averaged daily per-capita survival probability ranged from 0.963 (95% CI: 0.932-0.981) at a low density of 0.1 recruits m-2 to 0.848 (95% CI: 0.752-0.911) at a high density of 1.3 recruits m-2. The best supported model of juvenile survival had no effect of fish length or site, with a constant monthly per-capita survival of 0.939 (95% CI: 0.925-0.950). Only about 1% of recruits may survive to adulthood when protected from fishing. These results can be used to better analyze and interpret data from protected area monitoring surveys and refine management practices. Continued long-term monitoring, combined with targeted life history studies and demographic modeling, is needed to further investigate the population level effects of fishing yellow tang juveniles.

  1. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life (“Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach” [1]). PMID:27115023

  2. Survey data on household electricity consumption and living status in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shuwen; Jia, Yanqin; Ye, Liqiong; Dai, Runqi; Li, Na

    2016-06-01

    Based on 1128 survey questionnaires, main information on urban and rural household electricity consumption was obtained. Original data included household income, the price of electricity, all kinds of electrical appliances, purchase price of main appliances, household size, electricity consumption, as well as power, daily use time of electrical appliances in this data article. These data fully reflected behavior, preferences and living pattern of sample households in electricity use and provided the basis for analyzing the relationship between household electricity consumption and the quality of life ("Does electricity consumption improve residential living status in less developed regions? An empirical analysis using the quantile regression approach" [1]).

  3. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  4. Population Sizes, Immigration, and Growth of Epiphytic Bacteria on Leaves of Different Ages and Positions of Field-Grown Endive (Cichorium endivia var. latifolia).

    PubMed

    Jacques, M; Kinkel, L L; Morris, C E

    1995-03-01

    Total, fluorescent, and pectolytic epiphytic bacterial population sizes were quantified on leaves of different age groups of broad-leaved endive during field cultivation from leaf emergence until harvest. Greater bacterial population densities (log(inf10) CFU per square centimeter) were observed on outer leaves than on inner leaves of the plants throughout the growing season. These differences were statistically significant for total bacterial populations at all sampling times and were often significant for fluorescent and pectolytic bacterial populations. At harvest, a linear gradient of decreasing densities of epiphytic bacteria from outer (older) to inner (younger) leaves of the head was significant. Leaf age influenced the frequency distribution and variability of bacterial population sizes associated with leaves of broad-leaved endive. Total bacterial population sizes were greater at leaf emergence for leaves emerging during the second half of the cultivation period than for leaves emerging earlier. The size of fluorescent and pectolytic bacterial populations on newly emerged leaves increased throughout the season as plants aged. To assess the importance of plant age on bacterial immigration at leaf emergence, bacterial densities were quantified on leaves emerging simultaneously on plants of different ages. In two of the three experiments, greater bacterial population sizes were observed on leaves emerging on younger plants. This indicates that factors other than an increase in concentration of airborne bacteria can lead to increases in population sizes at leaf emergence as plants age in the field. Results of leaf pruning experiments suggested that adjacent leaves may act as a barrier for immigration of fluorescent bacteria on newly emerged leaves. Survival of an inoculated strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens on newly emerged leaves generally did not vary with the age of plants. However, these effects were not consistent among experiments, suggesting that

  5. Child Care Use in Minnesota: Report of the 2009 Statewide Household Child Care Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Valorose, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This report on a statewide telephone survey describes child care use in Minnesota among households with children 12 and younger. Minnesota has an estimated 908,000 children ages 12 and younger; 24 percent are ages 0 to 2, 24 percent ages 3 to 5, 30 percent ages 6 to 9 and 23 percent ages 10 to 12. Of the nearly 500,000 households with one or more…

  6. Experimental selection for body size at age modifies early life-history traits and muscle gene expression in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ian P G; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-11-15

    The short generation time of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) was exploited to investigate the effects of selection for body size at age on early life-history traits and on the transcriptional response to a growth stimulus in skeletal muscle of adult fish. Replicate populations were either unselected (U-lineage) or subjected to four generations of experimental selection for small (S-lineage) or large (L-lineage) body size at 90 days post-fertilization. Body mass was on average 16.3% and 41.0% higher in the L- than in the U- and S-lineages, respectively. Egg diameter was 6.4% lower with 13% less yolk in the S-lineage compared with the other lineages. Maternal transcripts for igf2r, bmpr1aa, igf1ar, igf2a, igfbp5a, ghra and igfbp3 in 2-4 cell stage embryos were higher in the L- than in the S-lineage. Larvae from the L-lineage were significantly larger, but survivorship at the end of the first month was similar between lineages. Gene expression was measured in the fast muscle of adult fish fasted for 7 days and then re-fed to satiation for 48 h. The expression of 11 insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and 12 other nutritionally responsive genes was similar for the S- and L-lineages as was gut fullness with feeding. Transcript abundance for four genes (igf1a, igf2r, igfbp1a and igfbp1b) showed either regulated or constitutive differences between the S- and L-lineages. For example, igf2 receptor transcript abundance was higher and igbp1a/b transcript abundance was lower in the L- than in the S-lineage, consistent with an effect of selection on insulin-like growth factor signalling.

  7. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Avijit; Pal, Prasenjit; Datta, M.; Paul, Rajesh; Pal, Saumen K.; Majumdar, Debasis; Biswas, Chanchal K.; Pan, Subhransu

    2014-01-01

    Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010) and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i) to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii) to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year), higher parity order (>2.31), more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg) and larger previous litter size (>1.65) showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm), body length (>54.86 cm), withers height (>48.85 cm), croup height (>50.67 cm), distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm) and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm) for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus. PMID:25049997

  8. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  9. The Division of Household Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna D.; Huber, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the following hypotheses concerning division of household labor (DOHL) between husbands and wives: (1) the division of household labor is somewhat affected by the availability of time, especially the wife's time; (2) there are strong effects of relative power, as measured by market-related resources, marital…

  10. Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households. PMID:25983667

  11. Household cleaning activities as noningestion exposure determinants of urinary trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Charisiadis, P; Andra, S S; Makris, K C; Christodoulou, M; Christophi, C A; Kargaki, S; Stephanou, E G

    2014-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies linking drinking water total trihalomethanes (THM) with pregnancy disorders or bladder cancer have not accounted for specific household cleaning activities that could enhance THM exposures. We examined the relation between household cleaning activities (washing dishes/clothes, mopping, toilet cleaning, and washing windows/surfaces) and urinary THM concentrations accounting for water sources, uses, and demographics. A cross-sectional study (n = 326) was conducted during the summer in Nicosia, Cyprus, linking household addresses to the geocoded public water pipe network, individual household tap water, and urinary THM measurements. Household tap water THM concentrations ranged between 3-129 μg L(-1), while the median (Q1, Q3) creatinine-adjusted urinary THM concentration in females (669 ng g(-1) (353, 1377)) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that in males (399 ng g(-1), (256, 681)). Exposure assessment, based on THM exposure equivalency units, showed that hand dishwashing, mopping, and toilet cleaning significantly (p < 0.001) increased urinary THM levels. The effect of dishwashing by females ≥36 y of age remained significant, even after adjusting for potential confounders. No significant (p > 0.05) association was observed between ingestion-based THM exposure equivalency units and urinary THM. Noningestion routes of THM exposures during performance of routine household cleaning activities were shown for the first time to exert a major influence on urinary THM levels. It is warranted that future pregnancy-birth cohorts include monitoring of noningestion household THM exposures in their study design.

  12. Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

  13. Household energy use in non-OPEC developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Energy use in the residential sector in India, Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, the Sudan, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Guatemala is presented. Whenever possible, information is included on the commercial fuels (oil, gas, coal, and electricity) and on what are termed noncommercial fuels (firewood, animal dung, and crop residues). Of special interest are the differences in the consumption patterns of urban and rural areas, and of households at different income levels. Where the data allow, the effect of household size on energy consumption is discussed. Section II is an overview of the data for all eight countries. Section III examines those areas (India, Brazil, Mexico City) for which data exist on the actual quantity of energy consumed by households. Korea, the Sudan, and Pakistan, which collect data on household expenditures on fuels, are discussed in Section IV. The patterns of ownership of energy-using durables in Malaysia and Guatemala are discussed in Section V. (MCW)

  14. Path Analysis of Household Energy Use - Neighborhood Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenjin, Nanako

    Many have studied residential energy use in relation with appliance types and efficiency, dwelling types, behavior, socio-demographics, and geography. Yet little is understood about the interrelations among the variables in the context of energy use. We used data collected through residential energy surveys from two neighborhoods in California. Path analysis models with emphasis on the appliance characteristics, appliance usage, and household energy use were developed and statistically tested. Our study showed that even a simple demographic variable like household size has unique effect channels on household energy use and also the channel was significant in one neighborhood but not in the other. While our model leaves much to be improved, the model supports a framework of energy use to explain energy use from a behavioral perspective in which household decisions were related to socio-demographic characteristics but neighborhood difference also plays a major role.

  15. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  17. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  18. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    PubMed

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  19. Household air pollution and its effects on health

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity. PMID:27853506

  20. A field study of household attack rates and the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in reducing household transmission of pertussis.

    PubMed

    Terry, Janet B; Flatley, Christopher J; van den Berg, Debra J; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Trent, Marianne; Turahui, John A; Greenwood, Michelle C; Corben, Paul W; Bell, Greg J

    2015-03-31

    Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) is an endemic, highly contagious bacterial respiratory infection, which is notifiable to Australian state and territory health departments. Between 2008 and 2011 there was a substantial outbreak in New South Wales with an initial increase in cases occurring in North Coast New South Wales from late 2007. During September and October 2011 the North Coast Public Health Unit conducted a household study of secondary attack rates to assess the effectiveness of pertussis vaccination as well as the timely use of antibiotics in preventing household transmission. At the time the study was commenced, notified cases included a large proportion of individuals with a documented history of vaccination against pertussis. We found lower attack rates amongst vaccinated compared with non-vaccinated subjects in all age groups, with the exception of the 5-11 years age group, who were also primarily responsible for the introduction of pertussis into the household. There was an increased risk of pertussis transmission from the household first primary case to contacts when antibiotic treatment was commenced later than 7 days after the onset of symptoms compared with within 7 days. This protective effect of timely antibiotic treatment in relation to transmission highlights the need to control for antibiotic treatment in field studies of pertussis. The benefits of timely diagnosis and use of antibiotics in preventing household transmission underscore the importance of early presentation and diagnosis of pertussis cases, particularly in households with susceptible occupants.

  1. Time bomb or hidden treasure? Characteristics of junk TVs and of the US households who store them.

    PubMed

    Milovantseva, Natalia; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Within the growing stockpile of electronic waste (e-waste), TVs are especially of concern in the US because of their number (which is known imprecisely), their low recycling rate, and their material content: cathode ray tube televisions contain lead, and both rear projection and flat panel displays contain mercury, in addition to other potentially toxic materials. Based on a unique dataset from a 2010 survey, our count models show that pro-environmental behavior, age, education, household size, marital status, gender of the head of household, dwelling type, and geographic location are statistically significant variables for explaining the number of broken or obsolete (junk) TVs stored by US households. We also estimate that they are storing approximately 84.1 million junk TVs, which represents 40 pounds of scrap per household. Materials in each of these junk TVs are worth $21 on average at January 2012 materials prices, which sets an upper bound on collecting and recycling costs. This information should be helpful for developing more effective recycling strategies for TVs in the e-waste stream.

  2. Household Water Chlorination Reduces Incidence of Diarrhea among Under-Five Children in Rural Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mengistie, Bezatu; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Background Household water treatment has been advocated as a means of decreasing the burden of diarrheal diseases among young children in areas where piped and treated water is not available. However, its effect size, the target population that benefit from the intervention, and its acceptability especially in rural population is yet to be determined. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of household water chlorination in reducing incidence of diarrhea among children under-five years of age. Method A cluster randomized community trial was conducted in 36 rural neighborhoods of Eastern Ethiopia. Households with at least one child under-five years of age were included in the study. The study compared diarrhea incidence among children who received sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach) for household water treatment and children who did not receive the water treatment. Generalized Estimation Equation model was used to compute adjusted incidence rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. Result In this study, the incidence of diarrhea was 4.5 episodes/100 person week observations in the intervention arm compared to 10.4 episodes/100 person week observations in the control arm. A statistically significant reduction in incidence of diarrhea was observed in the intervention group compared to the control (Adjusted IRR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.36–0.48). Conclusion Expanding access to household water chlorination can help to substantially reduce child morbidity and achieve millennium development goal until reliable access to safe water is achieved. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01376440 PMID:24194899

  3. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  4. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women.

  5. Iranian Household Financial Protection against Catastrophic Health Care Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, M Nekoei; Banshi, M; Javar, M Akbari; Amiresmaili, M; Ganjavi, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protecting households against financial risks is one of objectives of any health system. In this regard, Iran’s fourth five year developmental plan act in its 90th article, articulated decreasing household’s exposure to catastrophic health expenditure to one percent. Hence, this study aimed to measure percentage of Iranian households exposed to catastrophic health expenditures and to explore its determinants. Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was carried out retrospectively. Households whose financial contributions to the health system exceeded 40% of disposable income were considered as exposed to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. Influential factors on catastrophic healthcare expenditures were examined by logistic regression and chi-square test. Results: Of 39,088 households, 80 were excluded due to absence of food expenditures. 2.8% of households were exposed to catastrophic health expenditures. Influential factors on catastrophic healthcare were utilizing ambulatory, hospital, and drug addiction cessation services as well as consuming pharmaceuticals. Socioeconomics characteristics such as health insurance coverage, household size, and economic status were other determinants of exposure to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. Conclusion: Iranian health system has not achieved the objective of reducing catastrophic healthcare expenditure to one percent. Inefficient health insurance coverage, different fee schedules practiced by private and public providers, failure of referral system are considered as probable barriers toward decreasing households’ exposure to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. PMID:23193508

  6. Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems.

  7. Evaluation of tropically-adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Heifer age and size at first conception and characteristics of their first calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate genetic effects for age and size at estimated time of first conception, and temperament in straightbred and crossbred heifers (n = 554) produced from Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, and to evaluate first parturition performance of heifers, includi...

  8. Body size variation of four latitudinally-separated populations of a toad species: age and growth rate as the proximate determinants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tonglei; Lu, Xin

    2013-09-01

    Age and growth rate are critical parameters determining the body size of adult anurans, which grow indeterminately. Therefore, evaluating their relative importance and selective pressures acting on them may help to explain variation in body size of anurans across geographical populations. Based on the data on body size and skeletochronological age of 4 Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans) populations that are widely separated in latitude, the present study showed that toads at the northern extremity of the range were the oldest, on average, and grew relatively fast, toads at the southern end of the range were relatively old but grew fastest, whereas mid-latitude toads were intermediate in both traits. These results indicated that relative contributions of age and growth rate to body size differed among populations. From a life history perspective, greater age attained by toads at higher latitudes should result from delayed maturation, and faster growth from an adaptive response to strong seasonal time constraints; in contrast, selective pressures on the 2 parameters at lower latitudes might be associated, respectively, with low adult death rates and longer favorable growing seasons.

  9. Household food security is inversely associated with undernutrition among adolescents from Kilosa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Lorraine S; Wilde, Parke E; Semu, Helen; Levinson, F James

    2012-09-01

    Household food insecurity contributes to poor nutritional health, with negative consequences on growth and development during childhood. Although early childhood nutrition needs have received much attention, another important nutritional phase is adolescence. In a sample of 670 adolescents from Kilosa District, Tanzania, this study used 3 approaches to better understand the relationship between food insecurity and undernutrition. First, this study examined the associations between 3 commonly used measures of household food security and undernutrition among 670 adolescents from Kilosa District, Tanzania. The measures of household food security, energy adequacy per adult equivalent, dietary diversity score, and coping strategies index, were strongly correlated with each other and household assets (P < 0.05). Second, this study measured the nutritional status of adolescents in this district, finding a high prevalence of undernutrition (21% with BMI-for-age <5th percentile of the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO reference). Third, this study measured the association between the log odds of undernutrition (as the dependent variable) and each of the 3 measures of household food security. In separate models, household energy adequacy per adult equivalent and household dietary diversity score were inversely associated with undernutrition after adjusting for gender, age, puberty, and the interaction between age and puberty. By contrast, a greater use of coping strategies was not associated with undernutrition. Strategies focused on increasing household energy intake and improving dietary diversity among the most vulnerable households could improve the nutritional health of adolescents.

  10. A multinational study of the relationships between nighttime urinary melatonin production, age, gender, body size, and latitude.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, L; Bratlid, T; von Knorring, L; Eberhard, G; Yuwiler, A

    1999-01-01

    Overnight urines were collected each month for 12-16 months from 321 normal subjects at 19 medical centers in 14 countries distributed on 5 continents at latitudes from 31 01 South to 77 00 North. Mean melatonin concentration was found to negatively correlate with age, weight, and height. When the sexes were considered separately melatonin only correlated with age for female and with age and weight for males. A weak correlation with latitude, but not longitude, was also found.

  11. Unwanted childbearing and household food insecurity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shivani A; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-04-01

    Household food insecurity is a population health concern disproportionately affecting families with children in the United States. Unwanted childbearing may place unanticipated strain on families to meet basic needs, heightening the risk for household food insecurity. We investigated the association between mother's and father's report of unwanted childbearing and exposure to household food insecurity among children residing in two-parent households in the United States. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort, a nationally representative cohort of US children (n ∼ 6150), were used to estimate the odds of household food insecurity when children were aged 9 months and 2 years, separately, based on parental report of unwanted childbearing. The majority of children were reported as wanted by both parents (74.4%). Of the sample, report of unwanted childbearing by father-only was 20.0%, mother-only was 3.4% and joint mother and father was 2.2%. Household food insecurity was higher when children were 9 months compared with 2 years. In adjusted models accounting for confounders, children born to mothers and fathers who jointly reported unwanted childbearing were at higher odds of exposure to household food insecurity at 9 months [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.97, 5.57] and 2 years (AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.68). In two-parent households, we found that children raised by parents reporting unwanted childbearing were more likely to be exposed to food insecurity and potentially related stressors. Further studies that prospectively measure wantedness before the child's birth will aid in confirming the direction of this association.

  12. HDL efflux capacity, HDL particle size, and high-risk carotid atherosclerosis in a cohort of asymptomatic older adults: the Chicago Healthy Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Mutharasan, R Kannan; Thaxton, C Shad; Berry, Jarett; Daviglus, Martha L; Yuan, Chun; Sun, Jie; Ayers, Colby; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Wilkins, John T

    2017-03-01

    HDL efflux capacity and HDL particle size are associated with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) events in middle-aged individuals; however, it is unclear whether these associations are present in older adults. We sampled 402 Chicago Healthy Aging Study participants who underwent a dedicated carotid MRI assessment for lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) plaque. We measured HDL particle size, HDL particle number, and LDL particle number with NMR spectroscopy, as well as HDL efflux capacity. We quantified the associations between HDL particle size and HDL efflux using adjusted linear regression models. We quantified associations between the presence of LRNC and HDL and LDL particle number, HDL particle size, and HDL efflux capacity using adjusted logistic regression models. HDL efflux capacity was directly associated with large (β = 0.037, P < 0.001) and medium (β = 0.0065, P = 0.002) HDL particle concentration and inversely associated with small (β = -0.0049, P = 0.018) HDL particle concentration in multivariable adjusted models. HDL efflux capacity and HDL particle number were inversely associated with prevalent LRNC plaque in unadjusted models (odds ratio: 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.96), but not after multivariable adjustment. HDL particle size was not associated with prevalent LRNC. HDL particle size was significantly associated with HDL efflux capacity, suggesting that differences in HDL efflux capacity may be due to structural differences in HDL particles. Future research is needed to determine whether HDL efflux is a marker of ASCVD risk in older populations.

  13. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... school-age child, your home should be a safe place for your little one to explore. After all, touching, holding, climbing, and exploring are the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD Date ... Aid: Choking Choosing Safe Toys for Toddlers and Preschoolers Choosing Safe Toys ...

  14. The Net Worth of Female-Headed Households: A Comparison to Other Types of Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Lee, Yongwoo

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the level of assets and debts that female-headed households have in comparison to those of married-couple households and other types of households. The empirical results revealed that the amounts of net worth of married-couple households and male-headed households were significantly…

  15. Long-term growth trajectories in a changing climate: disentangling age from size effects in old Fagus trees from contrasting bioclimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the drivers promoting exceptional longevity in trees and how their growth performances vary approaching maximum lifespan still represent intriguing challenges not only for tree biology, but also for modelling the long-term forest ecosystem functioning under a changing environment. Tree growth rate is expected to increase with increasing stem size, but higher risk of hydraulic failure and mortality can affect larger trees under increasingly dry conditions. In turn, very old trees are characterized by slow growth and smaller size, factors able to confer advantages against biotic and abiotic disturbances. Rising evidences that very old trees are negligibly affected by the progressive deterioration of physiological functions associated with age support the idea that size, not age, is the main constrain to tree lifespan, so that negative senescence has been proposed as a frequent phenomenon in trees. Additional empirical knowledge is needed to thoroughly assess how complex, uneven-aged old-growth forests cope under climate change in order to define their role in terrestrial carbon cycle. We used a tree-ring network of 8 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests containing several of the oldest crossdated broadleaf trees of the Northern Hemisphere (400-600 years old) to analyse how their growth rates vary along age/size development. We sampled advanced old-growth stands, where canopy tree mortality is naturally occurring, divided among contrasting bioclimatic conditions: eastern Alps and central Apennines (rainy vs. dry summer). To disentangle the long-term effects of size and age on long-term tree growth history, we reconstructed Basal Area Increment (BAI) along size (DBH) development, grouping growth trajectories in different age classes. On average, BAI increased continuously as stem size increased, regardless of bioclimatic region and age class. Old trees grew the slowest and kept increasing BAI trends. In turn, especially on the drier

  16. One Size Fits All? Applying Theoretical Predictions about Age and Emotional Experience to People with Functional Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Jennifer R.; Charles, Susan T.; Luong, Gloria; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether commonly observed age differences in affective experience among community samples of healthy adults would generalize to a group of adults who live with significant functional disability. Age differences in daily affect and affective reactivity to daily stressors among a sample of participants with spinal cord injury were compared to a non-injured sample. Results revealed that patterns of affective experience varied by sample. Among non-injured adults, older age was associated with lower levels of daily negative affect (NA), higher levels of daily positive affect (PA), and less negative affective reactivity in response to daily stressors. In contrast, among participants with spinal cord injury, no age differences emerged. Findings, which support the model of Strength and Vulnerability Integration (SAVI), underscore the importance of taking life context into account when predicting age differences in affective well-being. PMID:26322552

  17. Risk factors of functional disability among community-dwelling elderly people by household in Japan: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the number of elderly people needing care is increasing rapidly in the home setting in Japan, family size and ability to provide such support are declining. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of functional disability by household composition among community-dwelling elderly people. Methods A total of 1347 elderly people aged 70 years and over participated in a baseline geriatric health examination for this prospective cohort study. In the health examination, we conducted an interview survey using a questionnaire in July 2004 and July 2005. Questionnaire items covered the following: age, sex, household, medical history, instrumental activities of daily living, intellectual activity, social role, Motor Fitness Scale, falls experienced during the past year, Dietary Variety Score, frequency of going outdoors, cognitive impairment, and depressive status. We defined the occurrence of functional disability as certification for long-term care needs of the subjects. The certification process started with a home visit for an initial assessment to evaluate nursing care needs using a questionnaire on current physical and mental status. The onset of functional disability was followed from July 2004 to March 2011. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the risk factors related to the onset of functional disability, adjusted for age and sex. Results Of the 1084 participants, 433 were male (39.9%), and the average age was 77.8 (standard deviation, 5.4). Up to March 2011, functional disabilities occurred in 226 participants (20.9%). Elderly people living only with their children demonstrated a significantly higher risk for functional disability than the three-generation household group (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–2.40). The risk factors for functional disability varied according to household group. Conclusions In Japan, the number of vulnerable households with elderly people in need of

  18. The Effect of Household Smoking Bans on Household Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Romer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because household smoking levels and adoption of domestic smoking rules may be endogenously related, we estimated a nonrecursive regression model to determine the simultaneous relationship between home smoking restrictions and household smoking. Methods. We used data from a May–June 2012 survey of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, households with smokers (n = 456) to determine the simultaneous association between smoking levels in the home and the presence of home restrictions on smoking. Results. We found that home smoking rules predicted smoking in the home but smoking in the home had no effect on home smoking restrictions. Conclusions. Absent in-home randomized experiments, a quasi-experimental causal inference suggesting that home smoking rules result in lower home smoking levels may be plausible. PMID:24524533

  19. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He age dispersion arising from analysis of variable grain sizes and broken crystals - examples from the Scottish Southern Uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuszczak, Katarzyna; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronometry is a powerful technique for deciphering denudation of the uppermost crust. However, the age dispersion of single grains from the same rock is typical, and this hampers establishing accurate thermal histories when low grain numbers are analysed. Dispersion arising from the analysis of broken crystal fragments[1] has been proposed as an important cause of age dispersion, along with grain size and radiation damage. A new tool, Helfrag[2], allows constraints to be placed on the low temperature history derived from the analysis of apatite crystal fragments. However, the age dispersion model has not been fully tested on natural samples yet. We have performed AHe analysis of multiple (n = 20-25) grains from four rock samples from the Scottish Southern Uplands, which were subjected to the same exhumation episodes, although, the amount of exhumation varied between the localities. This is evident from the range of AFT ages (˜60 to ˜200 Ma) and variable thermal histories showing either strong, moderate and no support for a rapid cooling event at ˜60 Ma. Different apatite size and fragment geometry were analysed in order to maximise age dispersion. In general, the age dispersion increases with increasing AFT age (from 47% to 127%), consistent with the prediction from the fragmentation model. Thermal histories obtained using Helfrag were compared with those obtained by standard codes based on the spherical approximation. In one case, the Helfrag model was capable of resolving the higher complexity of the thermal history of the rock, constraining several heating/cooling events that are not predicted by the standard models, but are in good agreement with the regional geology. In other cases, the thermal histories are similar for both Helfrag and standard models and the age predictions for the Helfrag are only slightly better than for standard model, implying that the grain size has the dominant role in generating the age dispersion

  20. Influence of secondary preparative parameters and aging effects on PLGA particle size distribution: a sedimentation field flow fractionation investigation.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Vighi, Eleonora; Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Leo, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles in the 200-400-nm size range were formulated through nanoprecipitation and solvent evaporation methods. Different concentrations of the polymer and stabilizer (Pluronic® F 68) were tested in order to identify the best conditions for making poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles of suitable size, stable in time, and to be used as carriers for brain-targeting drugs. The particles with the best characteristics for delivery system design were those formulated by nanoprecipitation with an organic/water phase ratio of 2:30, a polymer concentration of 25 mg/mL, and a surfactant concentration of 0.83 mg/mL; their surface charge was reasonably negative (approximately -27 mV) and the average size of the almost monodisperse population was roughly 250 nm. Particle characterization was obtained through ζ-potential measurements, scanning electron microscope observations, and particle size distribution determinations; the latter achieved by both photon-correlation spectroscopy and sedimentation field flow fractionation. Sedimentation field flow fractionation, which is considered more reliable than photon-correlation spectroscopy in describing the possible particle size distribution modifications, was used to investigate the effects of 3 months of storage at 4 °C had on the lyophilized particles. Figure Particle size ditribution from the SdFFF and the PCS techniques.

  1. Birth size and childhood growth as determinants of physical functioning in older age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna; Salonen, Minna K; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Eriksson, Johan G

    2011-12-15

    The study reports on the associations of infant and childhood anthropometric measurements, early growth, and the combined effect of birth weight and childhood body mass index with older age physical functioning among 1,999 individuals born in 1934-1944 and belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Physical functioning was assessed by the Short Form 36 scale. Anthropometric data from infancy and childhood were retrieved from medical records. The risk of lower Short Form 36 physical functioning at the mean age of 61.6 years was increased for those with birth weight less than 2.5 kg compared with those weighing 3.0-3.5 kg at birth (odds ratio (OR) = 2.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57, 4.72). The gain in weight from birth to age 2 years was associated with decreased risk of lower physical functioning for a 1-standard deviation increase (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.94). The risk of lower physical functioning was highest for individuals with birth weight in the lowest third and body mass index at 11 years of age in the highest third compared with those whose birth weight was in the middle third and body mass index at age 11 years was in the highest third (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.83, 5.19). The increasing prevalence of obesity at all ages and the aging of populations warrant closer investigation of the role of weight trajectories in old age functional decline.

  2. Reduction of fibroblast size/mechanical force down-regulates TGF-β type II receptor: implications for human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Gary J; Shao, Yuan; He, Tianyuan; Qin, Zhaoping; Perry, Daniel; Voorhees, John J; Quan, Taihao

    2016-02-01

    The structural integrity of human skin is largely dependent on the quality of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM), which is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. Normally, fibroblasts attach to the ECM and thereby achieve stretched, elongated morphology. A prominent characteristic of dermal fibroblasts in aged skin is reduced size, with decreased elongation and a more rounded, collapsed morphology. Here, we show that reduced size of fibroblasts in mechanically unrestrained three-dimensional collagen lattices coincides with reduced mechanical force, measured by atomic force microscopy. Reduced size/mechanical force specifically down-regulates TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII) and thus impairs TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Both TβRII mRNA and protein were decreased, resulting in 90% loss of TGF-β binding to fibroblasts. Down-regulation of TβRII was associated with significantly decreased phosphorylation, DNA-binding, and transcriptional activity of its key downstream effector Smad3 and reduced expression of Smad3-regulated essential ECM components type I collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2). Restoration of TβRII significantly increased TGF-β induction of Smad3 phosphorylation and stimulated expression of ECM components. Reduced expression of TβRII and ECM components in response to reduced fibroblast size/mechanical force was fully reversed by restoring size/mechanical force. Reduced fibroblast size was associated with reduced expression of TβRII and diminished ECM production, in aged human skin. Taken together, these data reveal a novel mechanism that provides a molecular basis for loss of dermal ECM, with concomitant increased fragility, which is a prominent feature of human skin aging.

  3. The foundation of kinship: households.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Donna L; Chabot-Hanowell, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Men's hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women's roles as critical to household formation, pair-bonding, and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions could emerge. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species, creating what we term "kinship ecologies." We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women's contributions, bonds men to women, and bonds generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history.

  4. The foundation of kinship: Households

    PubMed Central

    Leonetti, Donna L.; Chabot-Hanowell, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as critical to household formation, pair bonding and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems could emerge that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species creating what we term “kinship ecologies.” We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women’s contributions, bonds men to women and generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history. PMID:21799658

  5. Age-related difference in size of brain regions for song learning in adult male dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Deviche, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    In seasonally breeding adult male songbirds, the volumes of several song control regions (SCRs) change seasonally in parallel with plasma testosterone (T) levels and decrease following gonadectomy. Testosterone treatment to castrates prevents this decrease, indicating T dependency. During the breeding season, second-year (SY: birds entering their first breeding season) free-ranging male Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) have smaller testes than older (after second-year, ASY: birds entering at least their second breeding season) birds. SY males also have lower plasma T concentrations than ASY males at the beginning of the breeding season. We investigated differences in song structure of the two age groups and the relationship between age differences in gonadal function and SCR sizes. The average number of syllables per song, syllable duration, trill rate, song duration, and variability in song duration were age-independent. Two brain regions that are thought to be involved primarily in song learning and perception were 13 and 18% larger, respectively, in SY than in ASY males, the opposite of what would be expected based solely on reproductive measures (testis mass and cloacal protuberance width). In contrast, the volumes of two regions that directly control song expression did not differ with age. The lack of age-related size differences in regions that are required for song production may indicate that male juncos of all ages have similar brain space requirements for motor production. Where there were size differences, they were restricted to regions primarily controlling vocal behavior acquisition/perception, suggesting that first time breeders need more brain space than experienced breeders to acquire crystallized song and/or acoustically perceive aspects of their environment.

  6. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education).

  7. Over-the-counter medication patterns in households in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Zaghloul, Ashraf Ahmad; Elsergany, Moetaz; El-Enein, Nagwa Abou; Alsuwaidi, Hamda; Ayoub, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication and acquisition of over-the-counter (OTC) medications are emerging community health issues. Besides being a cheap alternative for treating common illnesses, the behavior entails serious ramifications, such as medication wastage, increasing pathogen resistance, and adverse drug reactions. The present study was conducted to explore the extent of OTC medications in households in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), including native UAE and expatriate families. Methods The study employed a population-based, cross-sectional, analytical study design. The study population included native and expatriate households residing in the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE. The snowball sampling technique was used, and the sample included a total of 335 households. Results Expatriate households acquired more OTC medications than did native households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.7). The demographic determinants for expatriate households were number of family members (aOR=1.6), age of children in the family (aOR=1.8), and annual income (aOR=0.5). Expatriate households purchased more OTC medication practices than did native households (aOR=2.2). In the statistical sense, expatriate household practices were buying medication upon relatives’ advice (aOR=0.3), storage condition of medication (aOR=2.4), and disposal of expired medication (aOR=0.6). The highest percentages of OTC medications in native and expatriate households were those related to gastric and ear, nose, and throat illnesses. Conclusion The presence of OTC medications in expatriate households was two-fold more common than in native households in Sharjah, UAE. There were significant associations for behaviors related to the reasons why OTC medications were purchased and stored within the household for both native and expatriate families. PMID:24403846

  8. Environmental Contamination in Households of Patients with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bobr, Aleh; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Johnston, Brian D.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Khoruts, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) is common and difficult to treat, potentially necessitating fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Although C. difficile spores persist in the hospital environment and cause infection, little is known about their potential presence or importance in the household environment. Households of R-CDI subjects in the peri-FMT period and of geographically matched and age-matched controls were analyzed for the presence of C. difficile. Household environmental surfaces and fecal samples from humans and pets in the household were examined. Households of post-FMT subjects were also examined (environmental surfaces only). Participants were surveyed regarding their personal history and household cleaning habits. Species identity and molecular characteristics of presumptive C. difficile isolates from environmental and fecal samples were determined by using the Pro kit (Remel, USA), Gram staining, PCR, toxinotyping, tcdC gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Environmental cultures detected C. difficile on ≥1 surface in 8/8 (100%) peri-FMT households, versus 3/8 (38%) post-FMT households and 3/8 (38%) control households (P = 0.025). The most common C. difficile-positive sites were the vacuum (11/27; 41%), toilet (8/30; 27%), and bathroom sink (5/29; 17%). C. difficile was detected in 3/36 (8%) fecal samples (two R-CDI subjects and one household member). Nine (90%) of 10 households with multiple C. difficile-positive samples had a single genotype present each. In conclusion, C. difficile was found in the household environment of R-CDI patients, but whether it was found as a cause or consequence of R-CDI is unknown. If household contamination leads to R-CDI, effective decontamination may be protective. PMID:26921425

  9. Environmental Contamination in Households of Patients with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Megan K; Bobr, Aleh; Kuskowski, Michael A; Johnston, Brian D; Sadowsky, Michael J; Khoruts, Alexander; Johnson, James R

    2016-05-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) is common and difficult to treat, potentially necessitating fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Although C. difficilespores persist in the hospital environment and cause infection, little is known about their potential presence or importance in the household environment. Households of R-CDI subjects in the peri-FMT period and of geographically matched and age-matched controls were analyzed for the presence ofC. difficile Household environmental surfaces and fecal samples from humans and pets in the household were examined. Households of post-FMT subjects were also examined (environmental surfaces only). Participants were surveyed regarding their personal history and household cleaning habits. Species identity and molecular characteristics of presumptive C. difficile isolates from environmental and fecal samples were determined by using the Pro kit (Remel, USA), Gram staining, PCR, toxinotyping, tcdC gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Environmental cultures detected C. difficile on ≥1 surface in 8/8 (100%) peri-FMT households, versus 3/8 (38%) post-FMT households and 3/8 (38%) control households (P= 0.025). The most common C. difficile-positive sites were the vacuum (11/27; 41%), toilet (8/30; 27%), and bathroom sink (5/29; 17%).C. difficile was detected in 3/36 (8%) fecal samples (two R-CDI subjects and one household member). Nine (90%) of 10 households with multiple C. difficile-positive samples had a single genotype present each. In conclusion,C. difficile was found in the household environment of R-CDI patients, but whether it was found as a cause or consequence of R-CDI is unknown. If household contamination leads to R-CDI, effective decontamination may be protective.

  10. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers.

  11. Tracking the provenance of Greenland-sourced, Holocene aged, individual sand-sized ice-rafted debris using the Pb-isotope compositions of feldspars and 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblendes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Lee F.; Bailey, Ian; Foster, Gavin L.; Allen, Georgina; Kelley, Simon P.; Andrews, John T.; Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Storey, Craig D.

    2016-01-01

    The provenance of sand-sized ice-rafted debris (IRD) sourced from Greenland is currently difficult to determine. Such knowledge, if it could be ascertained with a high degree of certainty, could be applied to the Greenland-proximal marine records to improve both our understanding of modern-day spatial patterns of iceberg rafting and the past history of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Recent studies have highlighted the utility of the Pb-isotope composition of individual sand-sized feldspars and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual sand-sized hornblendes in this regard. However, before any such provenance toolkit can be applied to the palaeo-record, it is necessary first to determine whether this approach can be used to track the sources of known recent Greenland-proximal IRD deposition. To this end we present new records of the Pb-isotope composition and the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual sand-sized grains of feldspars and hornblendes, respectively, from modern Greenland glacifluvial and fjord sands and Holocene to modern Greenland-proximal marine sediments. These new data demonstrate that sand-sized feldspars and hornblendes glacially eroded by the GIS exhibit distinct intra- and inter-tectonic terrane differences in their Pb-isotope compositions and ages and that these differences are clearly expressed in the geochemistry and geochronology of sand-sized IRD deposited in marine sediments around Greenland. Although overlap exists between some Greenland-proximal IRD 'source fields' defined by these data, our approach has the potential to both better understand spatial patterns of Greenland-derived IRD in the modern day as well as during past episodes of iceberg calving.

  12. Small Body Size at Birth and Behavioural Symptoms of ADHD in Children Aged Five to Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, J.; Raikkonen, K.; Kajantie, E.; Heinonen, K.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Jarvenpaa, A.-L.; Strandberg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural disorders with a neurodevelopmental background, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with a non-optimal foetal environment, reflected in small body size at birth. However, the evidence stems from highly selected groups with birth outcomes biased towards the extreme low end of the…

  13. Effects of age and size on critical swimming speed of juvenile Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis at seasonal temperatures.

    PubMed

    He, X; Lu, S; Liao, M; Zhu, X; Zhang, M; Li, S; You, X; Chen, J

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the critical swimming speed (Ucrit , cm s(-1) ) with ontogeny of 2·5-12·5 month-old juvenile anadromous Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinesis were measured in a modified Blazka-type swimming tunnel. The absolute Ucrit increased with length, mass and age; the relative U(')crit (body lengths, s(-1) ), however, decreased. Juvenile A. sinesis did not display a parr-smolt transformation at the length or age threshold to tolerate full-strength seawater.

  14. Age- and size-specific patterns of heavy metals in the organs of freshwater fish Abramis brama L. populating a low-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Anna; Salánki, János; Specziár, András

    2003-03-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the muscle, gill and liver of bream Abramis brama L. to study the relationship between the heavy metal load of fish and their age and size, and the seasonal variation of pollutant loads. Fish were collected from the Western basin of Lake Balaton (Hungary) in October 1999 and May 2000. The average metal concentrations of different organs varied in the following ranges: Cd 0.42-2.10; Cu 1.77-56.2; Hg 0.01-0.19; Pb 0.44-3.24; Zn 10.9-82.5 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were detected in the gill or liver of fish, whereas the highest Hg concentrations were measured in the muscle. In the liver of bream for cadmium, copper and mercury the Pearson correlation analysis revealed positive associations related to age and size (length, net weight), as well as for the mercury load of all three investigated organs. In the muscle and gill the copper, lead and zinc concentrations, similarly to the lead and zinc concentrations of the liver, the associations related to age and size were negative. The correlations between the heavy metal concentrations of organs and the individual condition factors of fish samples proved to have opposite trends compared to those related to the age and size of fish. The seasonal variations in the heavy metal load of bream could be attributed rather to the seasonal change in the condition factor of fish than to variations in the pollutant load of the site.

  15. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  16. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 2: Crater Size-frequency Distribution Curves and Geomorphic Unit Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In assessing the relative ages of the geomorphic/geologic units, crater counts of the entire unit or nearly the entire unit were made and summed in order to get a more accurate value than obtainable by counts of isolated sections of each unit. Cumulative size-frequency counts show some interesting relationships. Most of the units show two distinct crater populations with a flattening out of the distribution curve at and below 10 km diameter craters. Above this crater size the curves for the different units diverge most notably. In general, the variance may reflect the relative ages of these units. At times, however, in the larger crater size range, these curves can overlap and cross on another. Also the error bars at these larger sizes are broader (and thus more suspect), since counts of larger craters show more scatter, whereas the unit areas remain constant. Occasional clusters of relatively large craters within a given unit, particularly one of limited areal extent, can affect the curve so that the unit might seem to be older than units which it overlies or cuts.

  17. Making Psychology a Household Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  18. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  19. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Comparison Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2007-05-01

    In 1969, the U. S. Department of Transportation began collecting detailed data on personal travel to address various transportation planning issues. These issues range from assessing transportation investment programs to developing new technologies to alleviate congestion. This 1969 survey was the birth of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State (NYS), the state procured an additional sample of households in both the 1995 and 2001 surveys. In the 1995 survey, NYS procured an addition sample of more than 9,000 households, increasing the final NY NPTS sample size to a total of 11,004 households. Again in 2001, NYS procured 12,000 additional sample households, increasing the final New York NHTS sample size to a total of 13,423 households with usable data. These additional sample households allowed NYS to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas significantly smaller than for what the national NPTS and NHTS data are intended. Specifically, these larger sample sizes enable detailed analysis of twelve individual Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Furthermore, they allowed NYS to address trends in travel behavior over time. In this report, travel data for the entire NYS were compared to those of the rest of the country with respect to personal travel behavior and key travel determinants. The influence of New York City (NYC) data on the comparisons of the state of New York to the rest of the country was also examined. Moreover, the analysis examined the relationship between population density and travel patterns, and the similarities and differences among New

  20. A STUDY ON VISUAL LIMITATION OF AGE, NUMERICAL SIZE, AND EXPOSURE TIME WHILE USERS OPERATE MOBILE DEVICES.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Po-Chan

    2015-12-01

    Technological advances have driven the development of information technology (IT) products and communication using mobile devices has become a part of daily life. When using mobile devices, reading time and font size are important communication elements that significantly affect reading performance. However, studies of reading performance in older samples have mainly used printed material or computer monitors; this study examined the performance of users when reading text messages on the interfaces of mobile devices and described their visual limitations. Sixty-two participants took part in the experiment, which involved displaying different font sizes and exposure times. The younger group read 10-point font accurately, while the older group had much worse accuracy, even at 14 points. The younger group correctly read text messages displayed for 0.4 sec. above 80% of the time, while the older group's accuracy was severely impaired even when text was displayed for 1 sec.

  1. Ages and stratigraphy of lunar mare basalts in Mare Frigoris and other nearside maria based on crater size-frequency distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W.; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2010-03-01

    We report on ages derived from impact crater counts for exposed mare basalt units in the northern part of the lunar nearside hemisphere (Mare Frigoris), the eastern and northeastern part of the nearside hemisphere (Lacus Temporis, Joliot, Hubble, Goddard, Mare Marginis, and Mare Smythii), the central part of the nearside hemisphere (Palus Putredinis, Mare Vaporum, and Sinus Medii), and the southwestern part of the nearside hemisphere (Grimaldi, Crüger, Rocca A, Lacus Aestatis, and Schickard). In Mare Frigoris, we dated 37 basalt units, showing ages from 2.61 to 3.77 Gyr, with most units being formed in the late Imbrian period between 3.4 and 3.8 Gyr ago. In Mare Vaporum we dated six spectrally homogeneous units that show model ages of 3.10 to 3.61 Gyr. Our model ages of basalts in Mare Marginis range from 3.38 to 3.88 Gyr and are mostly older than basalts in Mare Smythii (3.14-3.48 Gyr). The model ages of four units in Sinus Medii indicate that the basalts in this region formed 3.63 to 3.79 Gyr ago. We find an excellent agreement of our crater size-frequency model ages of the Palus Putredinis area, which contains the Apollo 15 landing site, with the radiometric ages of Apollo 15 samples. According to our crater counts, basalts in Palus Putredinis are 3.34 Gyr old and this compares favorably with the radiometric ages of 3.30-3.35 Gyr of the olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts of the Apollo 15 landing site. Lacus Aestatis is a small irregular-shaped mare patch in the southwestern nearside and shows an Imbrian age of 3.50 Gyr; basalts in Lacus Temporis in the northeastern nearside formed between 3.62 and 3.74 Gyr ago and are, therefore, older than the basalts in Lacus Aestatis. We found that basalts in craters of the southwestern nearside (Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, and Rocca A) are also mostly younger than basalts in craters of the northeastern nearside (Hubble, Joliot, and Goddard). While basalt ages vary between 3.16 and 3.75 Gyr in the southwest

  2. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  3. Assessing changes in the UK pet cat and dog populations: numbers and household ownership.

    PubMed

    Murray, J K; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Roberts, M A; Browne, W J

    2015-09-12

    The main aim of this study was to replicate methodology used to estimate the size of the UK pet cat and dog populations in 2006 and the proportion of households owning cats/dogs in 2007, to produce updated data to compare trends in ownership and population sizes. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect telephone interview data from 3155 households in the UK. 2011 UK human census data were used to predict the size of the cat and dog populations owned by households in the UK in 2011. Of the households, 23 per cent (714/3155) owned one or more cats and 30 per cent (940/3155) owned one or more dogs. There was some overlap in pet ownership with 7 per cent (210/3155) of households owning both one or more cats and one or more dogs. There was a small but significant decrease in the proportion of households that owned one or more cats in 2011 compared with 2007, with no change in the proportion owning dogs. However, overall, the total number of cats and dogs that were estimated to be owned by UK households did not change significantly between 2006 and 2011. The estimated size (and 95% CIs) of the pet cat and dog populations in the UK in 2011 was 10,114,764 cats (9,138,603-11,090,924) and 11,599,824 dogs (10,708,070-12,491,578).

  4. Prediction of Child Health by Household Density and Asset-Based Indices in Impoverished Indigenous Villages in Rural Panamá

    PubMed Central

    Halpenny, Carli M.; Koski, Kristine G.; Valdés, Victoria E.; Scott, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection over a 16-month period and stunting of preschool children were compared between more spatially dense versus dispersed households in rural Panamá. Chronic protozoan infection was associated with higher household density, lower household wealth index, poor household water quality, yard defecation, and the practice of not washing hands with soap before eating. Models for chronic diarrhea confirmed the importance of household wealth, water quality, sanitation, and hygiene practices. Furthermore, chronic protozoan infection was an important predictor for low height-for-age, along with low household wealth index scores, but not household density. Thus, despite better access to health related infrastructure in the more densely populated households, chronic protozoan infection was more common, and was associated with higher rates of child stunting, compared with more dispersed households. PMID:22302864

  5. The effect of household poverty on tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Siroka, A; Law, I; Macinko, J; Floyd, K; Banda, R P; Hoa, N B; Tsolmon, B; Chanda-Kapata, P; Gasana, M; Lwinn, T; Senkoro, M; Tupasi, T; Ponce, N A

    2016-12-01

    pSETTING: Households in Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Rwanda, Tanzania, Viet Nam and Zambia.OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between household socio-economic level, both relative and absolute, and individual tuberculosis (TB) disease.

  6. Shock sensitivity of a double-base propellant as a function of age, processing method, and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, H. W.

    2017-01-01

    Shock sensitivity of a double-base propellant (nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose with smaller quantities of other ingredients) was compared for fresh and aged samples. Because the available amount of propellant was less than that needed for extrusion, most samples were pressed. The large-scale gap test (LSGT) was consistent for 240-g samples of fresh propellant whether extruded as one piece or 6-mm pieces pressed together directly into the confinement tube. The latter had the same density but with microscopic gaps between pieces and nitrocellulose fibers randomly oriented instead of being aligned with the extrusion axis. In a further reduction of the amount of required propellant, 11-g samples pressed from 3-mm pieces had the same critical shock pressure in the Insensitive High Explosive gap test (IHEGT), which has a LSGT donor and replicates its confinement. There was just enough propellant aged for 13 and 16 years to press several IHEGT samples each. The critical shock pressure was somewhat lower for aged propellant. These results demonstrate how smaller tests can mimic results in larger ones upon proper consideration of shock, detonation, and material science.

  7. Sampling biases of the BG-sentinel trap with respect to physiology, age, and body size of adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ball, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott R

    2010-07-01

    Currently, Aedes aegypti (L.) control strategies are being developed that involve manipulation of the vector at the adult stage (e.g., the use of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia to shorten the life span of the vector population). These novel strategies demand adult sampling methods to measure changes in population size, structure (age, sex ratio), and, ultimately, the success of the program. Each sampling method presents certain biases. Once these biases are defined, methods used to estimate population size and structure can be calibrated accordingly, resulting in more accurate and complex estimates of the vector population. A series of mark-release-recapture experiments with adult Ae. aegypti were conducted in a large outdoor flight cage and an indoor setting in far north Queensland, Australia. The biases of the BG-Sentinel trap (BGS) were investigated across several categories, as follows: 1) mosquito age; 2) sex; 3) physiological status; and 4) body size. Biases were not detected across age groups or body sizes. A significant bias was detected across physiological groups: nulliparous females were recaptured at a significantly lower rate than all other groups except blood-fed parous females, which were also recaptured at a low rate by the BGS. Males were recaptured at a higher rate than all groups, but only a significant difference in recapture rates was observed between males and nulliparous females. Previous studies show that the BGS is a highly effective tool for Ae. aegypti surveillance. The BGS proves to be a reliable tool in Ae. aegypti surveillance with consistent sampling outcomes. The sampling bias of the BGS is measurable and can be used to generate more accurate estimates of the adult population and its attributes.

  8. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparsø, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  9. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; de Craen, Anton J M; Bis, Joshua C; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W K; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Jackson, Anne U; Jacobs, Kevin B; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A F; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L; Montasser, May E; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M; Ryan, Kathy A; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L; Wang, Sophie R; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S; de Geus, Eco J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heath, Andrew C; Henders, Anjali K; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Andrew P; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M; Rice, Treva K; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarzynski, Mark A; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A; Scott, William R; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P Eline; Smit, Jan H; Sparsø, Thomas H; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P; Stringham, Heather M; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C; van Schoor, Natasja M; Asselbergs, Folkert W; de Bakker, Paul I W; Beckmann, Jacques S; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Chasman, Daniel I; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D; Moll, Frans L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Musk, Arthur W; Nieminen, Markku S; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Staessen, Jan A; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L M; Vermeulen, Sita H; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J; Cupples, L Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rao, D C; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C; McCarthy, Mark I; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Heid, Iris M; North, Kari E; Borecki, Ingrid B; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J F

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  10. Lead poisoning among household members exposed to lead-acid battery repair shops in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Ostrowski, S; Burr, G; Jackson-Hunt, L; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-12-01

    To investigate the risk of lead poisoning among household members exposed to 'backyard' battery repair shops (BBRS) in Kingston, Jamaica, environmental and blood lead (PbB) were measured at 24 households (112 individuals) with a BBRS worker or located at a BBRS premises and at 18 neighbourhood control households (74 individuals). Elevated PbB (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per decilitre [micrograms/dl]) was common among subjects of all ages living at BBRS premises, especially among children less than age 12, 43% of whom had PbB greater than 70 micrograms/dl. Potentially hazardous soil and house dust lead levels were also common at BBRS premises, where 84% of yards had soil lead levels above 500 parts per million (geometric mean 3388 parts per million [ppm] at BBRS premises households with a BBRS worker). Geometric mean blood and environmental lead levels were significantly lower at control households, where less than 10% of subjects in all age groups had elevated PbB (maximum 33 micrograms/dl). Sharing a premises with a BBRS was a stronger determinant of household blood lead and environmental contamination than was the presence of a BBRS worker in a household. Blood lead levels were associated with soil and house dust lead levels in all age groups. We conclude that small battery repair shops, which have also been described in other developing countries, create a high lead poisoning risk for nearby residents.

  11. Appliance Ownership and Household Work Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovingood, Rebecca P.; McCullough, Jane L.

    1986-01-01

    Data from 2,100 two-parent, two-child households were analyzed to determine the relationships of demographic variables, ownership of 11 appliances, and time spent in four categories of household tasks. Little evidence was found that appliance ownership is related to less time being spent in household tasks. (Author/CT)

  12. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and customarily purchase food and prepare meals together for home consumption. (b) Special household... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household...

  13. National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

  14. Under five diarrhea among model household and non model households in Hawassa, South Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional community based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has been implementing a community-level health intervention package (referred to as “Health Extension Program”) to improve the health of children in particular. However, its effect on the major childhood illnesses in Ethiopia has not been studied. This study was conducted to determine whether a fully-implemented health extension program reduces diarrhea in children under the age of five. Method A Community-based comparative cross-sectional study was carried out by comparing model households (i.e. households that fully implemented the health extension package) with non-model households (i.e. households that did not fully implement the health extension package). The study participants were mothers having children under the age of five. Data were collected through a household survey. A multiple logistic regression model was used to control known confounders. Result After controlling potential confounding factors using a logistic regression model, under five year children residing in non-model households, were more likely to have diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey compared to those residing in model households [AOR: 2.65, 95%CI (1.11, 6.27)]. Conclusion Diarrhea among under five children significantly reduced among families who fully implemented basic health packages. The finding suggests that being a model HH can have a positive impact on diarrhea morbidity among under five children. PMID:24555706

  15. 3.5-D model of sediment age and grain size for the Northern Gulf of Aqaba-Elat (Red Sea) using submarine cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanari, Mor; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Tibor, Gideon; Goodman Tchernov, Beverly N.; Bookman, Revital; Taha, Nimer; Marco, Shmuel

    2016-04-01

    The Northern Gulf of Aqaba-Elat (NGAE) is the northeast extension of the Red Sea, located at the southernmost part of the Dead Sea Fault, at the transition zone between the deep en-echelon submarine basins of the Red Sea and the shallow continental basins of the Arava Valley (Israel and Jordan). We aim to characterize the top sedimentary cover across the NGAE in order to check the effect of tectonics on the sedimentary column, using high resolution grain size data and radiocarbon dating of core sediments. We analyzed 11 piston cores and 9 short cores: high resolution grain-size and radiocarbon age determinations were used to compile a 3.5-D (3.5 dimensional) model of age-depth-grain size for the top 3-5 meters of the NGAE. Two general trends of the grain size spatial distribution are observed: grains are coarsest at the NE corner of the NGAE (Aqaba coastline) and grow finer with the distance to the west on the shelf and with the distance from shore to the south. Long- and short-term accumulation rates were compiled for the entire NGAE, demonstrating a distinct E-W trend on the shelf and a NNE-SSW trend in the deep basin. The 3.5-D age-depth-grain size model conforms to- and validates the tectonic structure of the shelf detailed by previous authors. We suggest that the impact of tectonic structure of the shelf is highly significant in terms of spatial variations across the shelf, both in age of the sediment and its grain size characteristics. The temporal-spatial distribution of the grain size in the deep basin of the NGAE reveals a correlation between sediment age, dominant grain size and active tectonics: fine-grain, old sediment in the margins (Late Pleistocene, as old as >40 ka on the west margin; Early Holocene, as old as 7.5 ka, on the east margin), and Late Pleistocene sediment farther south from the dominant active diagonal fault which underlies the Elat Canyon. Young coarse sediment is present in the middle of the basin, where most of the active sediment

  16. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls characterized by boll age, size, and damage ratings.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Brewer, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Adamczyk, J J

    2013-02-01

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant), has been present in south Texas for several years but has more recently been documented as an economic threat to cultivated cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. Our studies over 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and two locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated feeding-injury of the verde plant bug to a range of cotton boll age classes defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis to the time of infesting) for first-position cotton bolls infested with the plant bugs. The most detrimental damage to younger cotton holls from verde plant bug feeding was boll abscission. Cotton bolls <04 accumulating daily degree-days (ACDD), or a boll diameter of 1.3 cm were subject to 60-70% higher boll abscission when compared with the noninfested controls. Significantly higher boll abscission occurred from verde plant bug injured bolls compared with the controls up to 162 ACDD or a mean boll diameter 2.0 cm. Cotton seed weights were significantly reduced up to 179 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.0 cm at Weslaco in 2009, and up to 317 ACDD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco in 2010 when compared with the noninfested controls. Lint weight per cotton boll for infested and noninfested bolls was significantly reduced up to 262 ACDD or boll diameter 2.5 for Corpus Christi in 2010 and up to 288 ACCD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco, TX, in 2010. Damage ratings (dependant variable) regressed against infested and noninfested seed-cotton weights showed that in every instance, the infested cotton bolls had a strong and significant relationship with damage ratings for all age classes of bolls. Damage ratings for the infested cotton bolls that did not abscise by harvest showed visual signs of verde plant bug feeding injury and the subsequent development ofboll rot; however, these two forms of injury causing lint and seed mass loss are hard to differentiate from open or boll-locked cotton bolls. Based on the results of both lint

  17. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  18. Smog chamber study on aging of combustion soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system: Changes of mass, size, effective density, morphology and mixing state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kangwei; Chen, Linghong; Han, Ke; Lv, Biao; Bao, Kaiji; Wu, Xuecheng; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric soot aging process is always accompanied by secondary particle formation, which is a comprehensive environmental issue that deserves great attention. On one hand, aging of primary soot could change its own physicochemical properties; on the other hand, complex air pollution caused by pollutant emission from various sources (e.g., vehicle exhausts, coal-fired flue gases and biogenic VOCs emission) may contribute to secondary particle formation onto primary particle surface. In this study, aging of combustion soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions in several smog chamber experiments. During the evolution of soot, several physical properties such as mass, size, effective density, morphology and mixing state were determined simultaneously by an integrated aerosol analytical system of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer-Condensation Particle Counter (DMA-APM-CPC) and Transmission Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (TEM/EDX) techniques. Here, based on the experimental results of soot aging under different gas-phase composition and relative humidity (RH), we firstly proposed possible aging pathways of soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system. A synergetic effect was speculated to exist between SO2 and isoprene on soot aging process, which led to more secondary particle formation. At the same time, TEM/EDX analysis showed that a competitive mechanism between H2SO4(g) and isoprene oxidation vapor may exist: H2SO4(g) firstly condensed onto fresh soot, then an acceleration of isoprene oxidation products formed onto H2SO4 pre-coated soot. In isoprene/SO2/NOx system, high RH conditions could contribute to soot aging and new particle formation. The changes of effective density and dynamic shape factor of soot also indicated that high RH conditions could accelerate soot aging process, and led chain-like soot into more spherical

  19. Inconsistent pathways of household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Lisa Aberg, Helena; Lagerkvist, Anders; Berg, Per E.O.

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  20. National and sub-national age-sex specific and cause-specific mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to household air pollution from solid cookfuel use (HAP) in Iran, 1990-2013.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Mehrnoosh; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Saeedi, Reza

    2017-03-21

    National and sub-national mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for household air pollution from solid cookfuel use (HAP) in Iran, 1990-2013 were estimated based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013). The burden of disease attributable to HAP was quantified by the comparative risk assessment method using four inputs: (1) exposure to HAP, (2) the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), (3) exposure-response relationships of related causes (4) disease burden of related causes. All across the country, solid fuel use decreased from 5.26% in 1990 to 0.15% in 2013. The drastic reduction of solid fuel use leaded to DALYs attributable to HAP fell by 97.8% (95% uncertainty interval 97.7-98.0%) from 87,433 (51072-144303) in 1990 to 1889 (1016-3247) in 2013. Proportion of YLLs in DALYs from HAP decreased from 95.7% in 1990 to 86.6% in 2013. Contribution of causes in the attributable DALYs was variable during the study period and in 2013 was in the following order: ischemic heart disease for 43.4%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for 24.7%, hemorrhagic stroke for 9.7%, lower respiratory infections for 9.3%, ischemic stroke for 7.8%, lung cancer for 3.4% and cataract for 1.8%. Based on the Gini coefficient, the spatial inequality of the disease burden from HAP increased during the study period. The remained burden of disease was relatively scarce and it mainly occurred in seven southern provinces. Further reduction of the disease burden from HAP as well as compensation of the increasing spatial inequality in Iran could be attained through an especial plan for providing cleaner fuels in the southern provinces.

  1. Age-related differences in sequential modulations of problem-size and rule-violation effects during arithmetic problem verification tasks.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2016-04-01

    Young and older adults were asked to verify true (e.g., 5 × 61 = 305) and false (5 × 61 = 315) arithmetic problems. Half the problems were small (e.g., 5 × 17 = 85) and half were large problems (e.g., 5 × 93 = 465). Half the false problems respected the five rule (i.e., the product of an operand multiplied by five ends with either 5 or 0), and half violated this rule (e.g., 21 × 5 = 115 vs. 21 × 5 = 113). Both young and older adults showed problem-size effects (i.e., they verified small problems more quickly than large problems) and five-rule violation effects (i.e., they verified problem violating five rule more quickly than problems respecting five rule). Moreover, we found sequential modulations of these problem-size and five-rule effects. Problem-size effects were larger on current problems following large problems than after small problems, and five-rule violation effects were larger after problems violating the five rule than after no-rule violation problems. Finally, sequential modulations of problem-size effects were larger in older adults than in young adults, and there were no age-related differences in sequential modulations of five-rule violation effects. These findings speak to the determiners of arithmetic performance, as to how well arithmetic calculation and non-calculation strategies are executed and selected on current problems depends on strategies used with preceding problems.

  2. A community survey of the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban south western, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Ojo, Ololade Olusola; Ariyibi, Ebenezer Kayode; Kolawole, Tolutope Fasanmi; Ogunleye, Ayodele Idowu

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The use of solid fuels for cooking is associated with indoor pollution and lung diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban South Western, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study of households in urban (Ado-Ekiti) and rural (Ido-Ekiti) local council areas from April to July 2010. Female respondents in the households were interviewed by trained interviewers using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results A total of 670 households participated in the study. Majority of rural dwellers used single source of energy for cooking (55.6%) and urban dwellers used multiple source of energy (57.8%). Solid fuel use (SFU) was higher in rural (29.6%) than in urban areas (21.7%). Kerosene was the most common primary source of energy for cooking in both urban and rural areas (59.0% vs.66.6%) followed by gas (17.8%) and charcoal (6.6%) in the urban areas, and firewood (21.6%) and charcoal (7.1%) in the rural areas. The use of solid fuel was strongly associated with lack of ownership of dwellings and larger household size in urban areas, and lower level of education and lower level of wealth in the rural areas. Kerosene was associated with higher level of husband education and modern housing in urban areas and younger age and indoor cooking in rural areas. Gas was associated with high income and modern housing in the urban areas and high level of wealth in rural areas. Electricity was associated with high level of education, availability of electricity and old age in urban and rural areas respectively. Conclusion The use of solid fuel is high in rural areas, there is a need to reduce poverty and improve the use of cleaner source of cooking energy particularly in rural areas and improve lung health. PMID:22826727

  3. Husband and Wife Perspectives on Farm Household Decision-making Authority and Evidence on Intra-household Accord in Rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C Leigh; Reynolds, Travis W; Gugerty, Mary Kay

    2017-02-01

    We use OLS and logistic regression to investigate variation in husband and wife perspectives on the division of authority over agriculture-related decisions within households in rural Tanzania. Using original data from husbands and wives (interviewed separately) in 1,851 Tanzanian households, the analysis examines differences in the wife's authority over 13 household and farming decisions. The study finds that the level of decision-making authority allocated to wives by their husbands, and the authority allocated by wives to themselves, both vary significantly across households. In addition to commonly considered assets such as women's age and education, in rural agricultural households women's health and labor activities also appear to matter for perceptions of authority. We also find husbands and wives interviewed separately frequently disagree with each other over who holds authority over key farming, family, and livelihood decisions. Further, the results of OLS and logistic regression suggest that even after controlling for various individual, household, and regional characteristics, husband and wife claims to decision-making authority continue to vary systematically by decision-suggesting that decision characteristics themselves also matter. The absence of spousal agreement over the allocation of authority (i.e., a lack of "intra-household accord") over different farm and household decisions is problematic for interventions seeking to use survey data to develop and inform strategies for reducing gender inequalities or empowering women in rural agricultural households. Findings provide policy and program insights into when studies interviewing only a single spouse or considering only a single decision may inaccurately characterize intra-household decision-making dynamics.

  4. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    PubMed Central

    Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of

  5. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1.

    PubMed

    Biritwum, Richard B; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18-49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of drinking

  6. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) Mediated Silencing of Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) Signaling Is Essential for Testicular Aging and Regulating Testis Size

    PubMed Central

    Oldknow, Karla J.; Seebacher, Jan; Goswami, Tapasree; Villen, Judit; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Schneyer, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) is a glycoprotein that binds and inhibits the action of TGFβ ligands such as activin. The roles played by FSTL3 and activin signaling in organ development and homeostasis are not fully understood. The authors show mice deficient in FSTL3 develop markedly enlarged testes that are also delayed in their age-related regression. These FSTL3 knockout mice exhibit increased Sertoli cell numbers, allowing for increased spermatogenesis but otherwise showing normal testicular function. The data show that FSTL3 deletion leads to increased AKT signaling and SIRT1 expression in the testis. This demonstrates a cross-talk between TGFβ ligand and AKT signaling and leads to a potential mechanism for increased cellular survival and antiaging. The findings identify crucial roles for FSTL3 in limiting testis organ size and promoting age-related testicular regression. PMID:23407452

  7. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  8. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  9. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  10. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  11. 25 CFR 700.69 - Head of household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Head of household. 700.69 Section 700.69 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.69 Head of household. (a) Household. A household is: (1) A... and is now legally divorced. (b) Head of household. The head of household is that individual...

  12. Association of Body Size at Birth and Childhood Growth With Hip Fractures in Older Age: An Exploratory Follow-Up of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Tuija M; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Osmond, Clive; Salonen, Minna K; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2017-02-09

    Childhood growth has been linked with bone properties in adulthood, whereas less is known about the contribution of early growth to bone fracture risk. We investigated the association of body size at birth and childhood growth with hip fractures and pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in older age. Men and women, born full term, from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n = 8345) were followed until the age of 68 to 80 years. Height and weight from birth to 11 years were obtained from health care records and diagnoses of hip fractures and osteoporosis drug purchases from national registers. Independent associations of each age period were analyzed using Cox models adjusted for age, childhood and adulthood socioeconomic status, and drugs affecting bone metabolism. In men, the risk of hip fractures was nonlinearly associated with childhood growth. Compared to intermediate increase, low and high increase in height between 2 and 7 years (p < 0.001) were associated with all hip fractures and hip fractures sustained after the age of 50 years. Further, compared to intermediate gain, low and high gain in BMI between 7 and 11 years (p = 0.001) were associated with greater risk of hip fractures in men. In women, growth was not associated with the risk of hip fractures but greater weight (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.94; p = 0.001) and BMI (HR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.95; p = 0.003) gain between ages 2 and 7 years were associated with a decreased risk of pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis. In men, growth was not associated with the risk of pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis. In conclusion, growth during childhood may contribute to the risk of hip fractures in later life among men. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, K; Makulska, J; Jagusiak, W; Węglarz, A

    2017-02-01

    Cow longevity and lifetime performance traits are good indicators of breeding effectiveness and animal welfare. They are also interrelated with the economics of dairy herd. Unfortunately, a high milk yield is often associated with deteriorated cow health and fertility and, consequently, with an increased culling rate. This situation, observed also in the Polish population of Holstein-Friesian cattle, inspired us to undertake a study on the associations between some factors and lifetime performance characteristics. The data set consisted of the records on 135 496 cows, including 131 526 of the Black and White strain (BW), and 3970 of the Red and White strain (RW) covered by performance recording and culled in 2012. It was found that cows of the BW strain and those from the largest herds (>100 cows) reached higher lifetime and mean daily energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields than cows of the RW strain and those from smaller herds culled at a similar age. Cows youngest at first calving (<2.0 years) were characterised by the highest lifetime ECM yield. It indicates that heifers can be bred even when they are younger than 15 to 16 months with no significant negative effect on their later performance. Infertility and reproduction problems (39.6%) and udder diseases (15.5%) constituted the most frequent reasons for cow culling. Cow longevity and lifetime productivity were considerably affected by the interactions between the studied factors.

  14. Household food security status measured by the US-Household Food Security/Hunger Survey Module (US-FSSM) is in line with coping strategy indicators found in urban and rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Usfar, Avita A; Fahmida, Umi; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty

    2007-01-01

    The food security assessment used by the United State's Food Security/Hunger Survey Module (US- FSSM) was used in five studies: these were in two urban and four rural areas in Indonesia between February 2004- August 2005. The number of households assessed was 3,704 and consisted of 45% urban and 55% rural. All households had children below five years. This paper aims to assess the applicability of US-FSSM for measuring household food-insecurity in Indonesia. Common coping-strategies discussed are to borrow money from the family, get an additional job, to lessen portion size of food, and to sell small assets. Although households in urban and rural areas were similar in size/number of children and male headed; the urban households were more income-secure, educated, and had better access to electrical appliances. A majority of the households was food-insecure (77% and 84% in urban and rural consecutively). More food-insecure households without and with hunger were found in rural areas. The number of affirmative responses to 17 out of 18 questions in the USFSSM was more in the rural households, showing less fortunate cases of food-insecurity. For a given coping strategy, as food-security status becomes more severe, the higher the percentage of households employing it. For a given food-security status, percentage of households was higher among lower-degree and less among higher-degree coping. Combining food-security and coping-strategy indicators may help to identify transient-food-secure households. Observing both indicators throughout different time of the year continuously may further identify adaptive mechanism by chronic-food-insecure households. Information on household food diversity could enrich findings on dietary intake modification, hence moving from food-security to nutrition-security.

  15. Age and evolution of the lower NW flank of the Hecates Tholus volcano, Mars, based on crater size-frequency distribution on CTX images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, M. A.; Michael, G. G.; Centeno, J. D.

    2013-09-01

    We present results of crater size-frequency distribution (SFD) analysis of the lower NW flank of the Hecates Tholus volcano, Elysium volcanic province of Mars, by the use of images acquired by the Context (CTX) instrument on board of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (6 m/pixel in resolution). Previous similar works were focused on the caldera complex of the volcano and some sectors of the lower NW flank. In this study, we analyzed the complete crater population of the main geomorphological units characterizing this sector of the volcano (de Pablo, M.A., Centeno, J.D. [2012]. Journal of Maps 8(3), 208-2014), discarding areas with possible clustering to avoid erroneous results. In total, 16 areas corresponding to 10 geomorphological units were measured and absolute model ages were derived for them. The ages correspond to ages of origin as well as of the end of resurfacing events, depending on the analyzed sector, resulting in some cases in more than one age per area. Our results are in general in agreement with previous works, and establish that the age of the origin of the Hecates Tholus volcano could be at least 3.8 Ga, with possible volcanic eruptions occurring until at least 335 Ma. Glacial events were also dated at 90 Ma, 30 Ma, 16 Ma, and 6 Ma, although it is possible to recognize ages which could also be related to the recent ice ages of Mars, between 2 and 0.4 Ma. Our results allowed us to determine that glacial processes could have been active as far back as 1.4 Ga, with possible events at intermediate ages. We deduced from the resulting ages and our observations on CTX images and the available geomorphological map of the area, that glacial-related processes played an important role in sculpting this flank of the volcano, and the possible level of the glacial sheet at the edge of the main depression of this flank was also deduced, with altitudes ranging between -2035 m and -2490 m, in agreement with the presence of smooth outcrops and roche moutonnées in the

  16. Multigenerational: Households and the School Readiness of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Raley, R Kelly

    2013-04-01

    Following the ongoing increase in nonmarital fertility, policy makers have looked for ways to limit the disadvantages faced by children of unmarried mothers. Recent initiatives included marriage promotion and welfare-to-work programs. Yet policy might also consider the promotion of three generational households. We know little about whether multigenerational households benefit children of unwed mothers, although they are mandated for unmarried teen mothers applying for welfare benefits. Multigenerational households are also becoming increasingly common. Thus, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 217), this study examines whether grandparent-headed coresidential households benefit preschool-aged children's school readiness, employing propensity score techniques to account for selection into these households. Findings reveal living with a grandparent is not associated with child outcomes for families that select into such arrangements but is positively associated with reading scores and behavior problems for families with a low propensity to coreside. The implications of these findings for policy are discussed.

  17. Factors associated with the household income of persons living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiulan; Zhang, Yurong; Aleong, Tamara; Baker, Tobi; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2012-05-01

    This study provides a profile of 866 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in three provinces in rural China and identifies factors associated with per-capita income in AIDS-affected households. The majority of the participants were female, married, had completed primary school, and were 30-49 years of age. Thirty percent of respondents lived in a household with at least one other HIV/AIDS patient and 15% had experienced the death of a household member due to HIV/AIDS. Therefore, health professionals should be aware of issues of grief and caregiver burnout among rural PLWHA and their families. Three-quarters of the respondents continued to work after being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Household per capita income was significantly higher for married individuals and those still working. Possible government and workplace policy initiatives that endeavor to increase income and mitigate the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on households are discussed.

  18. [Disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China].

    PubMed

    Yin, P; Cai, Y; Liu, J M; Liu, Y N; Qi, J L; Wang, L J; You, J L; Zhou, M G

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To assess the disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China. Methods: Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in China (GBD 2013), we used population attributable fractions (PAF) to analyze the burden of different diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 2013 in China(not inclnding HongKang, Macao, Taiwan). We compared PAF, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 31 provinces in mainland China in 1990 and 2013, and stratified the burden by age group. The estimated world average population during 2000- 2025 was used to calculate age-standardized mortality and DALY rates. Results: In 2013, 14.9% of lower respiratory infections in children <5, 32.5% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 12.0% of ischemic stroke, 14.2% of hemorrhagic stroke, 10.9% of ischemic heart disease, and 13.7% of lung cancer were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution. In addition, 807 000 deaths were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution, including 296 000 from COPD, 169 000 from hemorrhagic stroke, 152 000 from ischemic heart disease, 88 000 from ischemic stroke, 75 000 from lung cancer, and 28 000 from lower respiratory infections in children <5. The age-standardized mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased by 59.3% from 158.8/100 000 in 1990 to 64.6/100 000 in 2013. The age-standardized mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all 31 provinces, with the highest decline observed in Shanghai (96.3%), and lowest in Xinjiang (39.9%). In 2013, the age-standardized DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution was highest in Guizhou (2 233.0/100 000) and lowest in Shanghai (27.0/100 000). The DALY rate was the highest for the >70 age group (7 006.0/100 000). Compared with 1990, the 2013 mortality rate and DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all age

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  1. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S M S; Hoque, A T M Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy=0.236, p<0.05), education level (r xy=0.244, p<0.05) and monthly income (r xy=0.671, p<0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US dollars 0.3 to US dollars 0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this

  2. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sujauddin, Mohammad Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-07-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r{sub xy} = 0.236, p < 0.05), education level (r{sub xy} = 0.244, p < 0.05) and monthly income (r{sub xy} = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them

  3. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  4. Local density and group size interacts with age and sex to determine direction and rate of social dispersal in a polygynous mammal

    PubMed Central

    Marjamäki, Paula H; Contasti, Adrienne L; Coulson, Tim N; McLoughlin, Philip D

    2013-01-01

    Movement away from an area or social group in response to increasing density (density-dependent dispersal) is known for most species; why it evolves is fundamental to our understanding of ecology and evolution. However, we have yet to fully appreciate how individuals of varying conditions (e.g., age and sex) might differently consider effects of density (quorum) when deciding to disperse or not, and scale dependence in their sense of quorum. We tracked movements of all individuals of a naturalized population of feral horses (Equus ferus caballus; Sable Island National Park Reserve, Nova Scotia, Canada) during a period of rapid population growth (N increased from 375 to 484 horses from 2008 to 2010). Permanent dispersal from breeding groups (bands) was positively density dependent for all age and sex categories with respect to local density (horses/km2, bounded by the 99th percentile of individual movements [8000 m]), but was negatively and positively density dependent for males and females, respectively, in relation to group (band) size. Dispersal was generally female biased, with the exception of foals which moved with their mothers (no sex effect), and for yearlings and subadults when band sizes were smaller than average, in which case males dispersed at higher rates than females. Dispersal distance was positively related to local density. We conclude that dispersal rate can be both positively and negatively density dependent for feral horses, contingent on the state of individuals and the scale at which quorum with respect to choosing to disperse or not is assessed. Scale effects and interactions of density-dependent and sex- and age-biased dispersal may have both ecological and evolutionary consequences through effects on resource and mate competition. PMID:24101995

  5. Estrogenic effects from household stoves.

    PubMed

    Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

    2002-09-01

    With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot.

  6. Marriage process and household formation in Bolivia and Argentina: the impact of migration in a peasant society.

    PubMed

    Dandler, J; Balan, J

    1988-06-01

    The impact of migration on family formation and fertility in peasant societies in Bolivia and Argentina was the focus of a large-scale research project. The project, conducted throughout 1984 and 1985, examined marriage patterns among peasants from rural communities in Bolivia who had settled in 3 locations: a lowland agricultural area; a provincial capital; and Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study sought to discover the interrelationship between economic diversification, land shortage, urban migration, and the onset of fertility decline, by comparing behavior patterns of younger and older (above age 30) respondents. The household is the basic structural unit of the Andean peasant region. Land is given to adult children after marriage, thereby maintaining the size of landholdings. There were significant differences, however, between mountain and valley communities. Age at marriage was 3 years younger in the mountain village, a pattern maintained when mountain peasants migrated to agricultural areas. In both communities, generational independence was achieved through access to the land. In valley communities, young females provide a source of labor and cash income for their families, while young males leave home, if only temporarily, to find work. Both these factors contribute to raise the age of marriage and delay household formation. But, young men who have migrated and then return follow the marriage patterns of the village mountain area. This is not true of those who migrate to the city, where contraceptive use is increasing and a fertility decline is evident. Migration to cities engenders a change in family formation, household autonomy, and a wage-earning rather than a land-based economic structure. In mountains and frontier communities, no contraception is practiced, nor is it available as it is in the cities and Buenos Aires. Family planning programs need to address the need for local contraceptive information and services.

  7. Distribution of molar mass and branching index of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis trees of different age by size exclusion chromatography coupled with online viscometry.

    PubMed

    Phan, T N; Lan, N T; Nga, N T

    2004-05-01

    Natural rubber from hevea brasiliensis trees (Thailand, RRIM 600 clone) of different age (8, 20, and 35 years) were characterized by size exclusion chromatography coupled with online viscometry according to their distribution of molar mass and branching index at a temperature of 70 degrees C using cyclohexane as solvent. Washing with an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate and subsequent saponification purified the natural rubber samples. With this procedure physical branching points caused by phospholipids, proteins and hydrophobic terminal units, mainly fatty acids, of the natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) molecule, could be removed leading to completely soluble polymer samples. All samples investigated possess a very broad (10 to 50,000 kg/mol) and distinct bimodal molar mass distribution. With increasing age the peak area in the low molar mass region decreases favoring the peak area in the high molar mass region. By plotting the branching index as a function of the both, the molar mass and the age of the trees.

  8. Deletion of Mbtps1 (Pcsk8, S1p, Ski-1) Gene in Osteocytes Stimulates Soleus Muscle Regeneration and Increased Size and Contractile Force with Age*

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Jeff P.; Huffman, Nichole T.; Vallejo, Julian; Brotto, Leticia; Chittur, Sridar V.; Breggia, Anne; Stern, Amber; Huang, Jian; Mo, Chenglin; Seidah, Nabil G.; Bonewald, Lynda; Brotto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Conditional deletion of Mbtps1 (cKO) protease in bone osteocytes leads to an age-related increase in mass (12%) and in contractile force (30%) in adult slow twitch soleus muscles (SOL) with no effect on fast twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles. Surprisingly, bone from 10–12-month-old cKO animals was indistinguishable from controls in size, density, and morphology except for a 25% increase in stiffness. cKO SOL exhibited increased expression of Pax7, Myog, Myod1, Notch, and Myh3 and 6-fold more centralized nuclei, characteristics of postnatal regenerating muscle, but only in type I myosin heavy chain-expressing cells. Increased expression of gene pathways mediating EGF receptor signaling, circadian exercise, striated muscle contraction, and lipid and carbohydrate oxidative metabolism were also observed in cKO SOL. This muscle phenotype was not observed in 3-month-old mice. Although Mbtps1 mRNA and protein expression was reduced in cKO bone osteocytes, no differences in Mbtps1 or cre recombinase expression were observed in cKO SOL, explaining this age-related phenotype. Understanding bone-muscle cross-talk may provide a fresh and novel approach to prevention and treatment of age-related muscle loss. PMID:26719336

  9. [Size and age structure of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Pisces: Xiphidae), at Cabo San Lucas, Baja California sur, México].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Felipe Neri Melo; Uraga, Roberto Felix

    2004-12-01

    The striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) is found in temperate and tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. It is particularly abundant in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula. Specimens brought to Cabo San Lucas port (22 degrees 53' N y 109 degrees 54' W) by the sport fishery fleet that operates withing a radius of 54 km from 1988 to 1993 were sexes, measured and weighed. A total 1030 individuals were sampled. Dorsal fin spines (389) were collected for age estimation. The spines were sectioned and hyaline-opaque bands counted. The relation of length to spine radius was similar for males and females. The fourth dorsal spine reflected the growth of the fish. The rhythm of growth mark formation is yearly and related to the sea surface temperature. Ten age groups were found and the seventh group was the most abundant, followed by groups "6" and "8". The age structure of the striped marlin was stable in the study period. The observed sizes were 160-280 cm jaw length with 90% of the organisms measuring between 190 and 225 cm. The small individuals recruit to the fishery from June to December.

  10. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children.

  11. Household After-Tax Incomes 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles T.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, mean after-tax household income increased faster than inflation for the fourth consecutive year. Mean household income after taxes was $22,650 in 1985, up by 0.9 percent over the 1984 figure. Mean household income before taxes ($29,070) increased by 1.3 percent after adjusting for inflation. The mean after-tax incomes of both White…

  12. Placental and fetal growth restriction, size at birth and neonatal growth alter cognitive function and behaviour in sheep in an age- and sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Damien S; Hazel, Susan J; Kind, Karen L; Liu, Hong; Marini, Danila; Giles, Lynne C; De Blasio, Miles J; Owens, Julie A; Pitcher, Julia B; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction and slow neonatal growth in humans are each associated with poorer learning, memory and cognitive flexibility in childhood and adulthood. The relative contributions of pre- and post-natal growth to cognitive outcomes are unclear, however. We therefore compared performance in learning, memory and reversal tasks using a modified Y-maze at 18 and 40 weeks of age in offspring of placentally-restricted (PR: 10 M, 13 F) and control (23 M, 17 F) ovine pregnancies. We also investigated relationships between size at birth, neonatal growth rates and cognitive outcomes. PR had limited effects on cognitive outcomes, with PR males requiring more trials to solve the initial learning task than controls (P=0.037) but faster completion of reversal tasks in both sexes at 18 weeks of age. In males, neonatal growth rate correlated inversely with numbers of trials and total time required to solve memory tasks at 40 weeks of age. In females, bleat frequency in the first reversal task at 18 weeks of age correlated positively with birth weight (r=0.734, P<0.05) and neonatal growth rate (r=0.563, P<0.05). We conclude that PR induces limited effects on cognitive outcomes in sheep, with some evidence of impaired learning in males, but little effect on memory or cognitive flexibility in either sex. Rapid neonatal growth predicted improved memory task performance in males, suggesting that strategies to optimize neonatal growth may have long-term cognitive benefits but that these may be sex-specific.

  13. Perceptions of Body Size in Mothers and Their Young Children in the Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Julee B; Page, Rachel A; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Little specific information has been published about the health of people who live in the Galapagos Islands. As part of determining the status of the nutrition transition that may be occurring in the islands mothers of young children in the Galapagos perceptions of their child's body size and therefore health status was evaluated along with actual body size. Methods This paper presents data collected as part of a pilot study that used a mixed methods approach to identify and describe health and nutrition issues for mother-child pairs on Isla Isabela in Galapagos, Ecuador. It includes participant anthropometric assessment and self-perception of body size using silhouettes for themselves and one of their children along with open-ended questions to elicit further understanding of body size perceptions. Twenty mothers of children greater than 6 months of age but less than 6 years of age were interviewed. Results The women preferred a smaller body size for themselves but a larger body size for their children. Findings of different body size combinations between mothers and children in the same household demonstrated that the island is undergoing or may be post the nutrition transition. Discussion This dual burden of body weights (especially overweight or obese mothers) in the same household with underweight, normal and overweight or obese children and the potential nutrition related chronic disease burden in the future will require more educational resources and innovative health services than are currently available for the people of the Galapagos.

  14. Growing up without parents: socialisation and gender relations in orphaned-child-headed households in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Francis-Chizororo, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The most distressing consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic's impact on children has been the development of child-headed households (CHHs). Child 'only' households challenge notions of the ideal home, family, and 'normal' childhood, as well as undermining international attempts to institute children's rights. The development of these households raises practical questions about how the children will cope without parental guidance during their childhood and how this experience will affect their adulthood. Drawing on ethnographic research with five child heads and their siblings, this article explores how orphaned children living in 'child only' households organise themselves in terms of household domestic and paid work roles, explores the socialisation of children by children and the negotiation of teenage girls' movement. Further, it examines whether the orphaned children are in some way attempting to 'mimic' previously existing family/household gender relations after parental death. The study showed that all members in the CHHs irrespective of age and gender are an integral part of household labour including food production. Although there is masculinisation of domestic chores in boys 'only' households, roles are distributed by age. On the other hand, households with a gender mix tended to follow traditional gender norms. Conflict often arose when boys controlled teenage girls' movement and sexuality. There is a need for further research on CHHs to better understand orphans' experiences, and to inform policy interventions.

  15. Household food insecurity and coping strategies in a poor rural community in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument. T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were utilized for comparison of factors between food secure and food insecure households and determination of factors associated with household food insecurity, respectively. More of the food insecure households were living below the poverty line, had a larger household size, more children and school-going children and mothers as housewives. As food insecure households had more school-going children, reducing expenditures on the children's education is an important strategy to reduce household expenditures. Borrowing money to buy foods, receiving foods from family members, relatives and neighbors and reducing the number of meals seemed to cushion the food insecure households from experiencing food insufficiency. Most of the food insecure households adopted the strategy on cooking whatever is available at home for their meals. The logistic regression model indicates that food insecure households were likely to have more children (OR=1.71; p<0.05) and non-working mothers (OR=6.15; p<0.05), did not own any land (OR=3.18; p<0.05) and adopted the strategy of food preparation based on whatever is available at their homes (OR=4.33; p<0.05). However, mothers who reported to borrow money to purchase food (OR=0.84; p<0.05) and households with higher incomes of fathers (OR=0.99; p<0.05) were more likely to be food secure. Understanding the factors that contribute to household food insecurity is imperative so that

  16. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  17. Ages and relative sizes of pre-2004 tsunamis in the Bay of Bengal inferred from geologic evidence in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; Rajendran, Kusala; Andrade, Vanessa; Srinivasalu, S.

    2013-04-01

    Geologic evidence along the northern part of the 2004 Aceh-Andaman rupture suggests that this region generated as many as five tsunamis in the prior 2000 years. We identify this evidence by drawing analogy with geologic records of land-level change and the tsunami in 2004 from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (A&N). These analogs include subsided mangrove swamps, uplifted coral terraces, liquefaction, and organic soils coated by sand and coral rubble. The pre-2004 evidence varies in potency, and materials dated provide limiting ages on inferred tsunamis. The earliest tsunamis occurred between the second and sixth centuries A.D., evidenced by coral debris of the southern Car Nicobar Island. A subsequent tsunami, probably in the range A.D. 770-1040, is inferred from deposits both in A&N and on the Indian subcontinent. It is the strongest candidate for a 2004-caliber earthquake in the past 2000 years. A&N also contain tsunami deposits from A.D. 1250 to 1450 that probably match those previously reported from Sumatra and Thailand, and which likely date to the 1390s or 1450s if correlated with well-dated coral uplift offshore Sumatra. Thus, age data from A&N suggest that within the uncertainties in estimating relative sizes of paleo-earthquakes and tsunamis, the 1000 year interval can be divided in half by the earthquake or earthquakes of A.D. 1250-1450 of magnitude >8.0 and consequent tsunamis. Unlike the transoceanic tsunamis generated by full or partial rupture of the subduction interface, the A&N geology further provides evidence for the smaller-sized historical tsunamis of 1762 and 1881, which may have been damaging locally.

  18. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

  19. Effects of type and particle size of dietary fiber on growth performance and digestive traits of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Moreno, E; González-Alvarado, J M; González-Sánchez, D; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2010-10-01

    A trial was conducted to study the effects of type and particle size of dietary fiber on growth performance and digestive traits of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. There was a negative control diet with 1.54% crude fiber, a positive control diet that included 3% cellulose (CEL), and 4 additional diets arranged factorially that included 3% oat hulls (OH) or sugar beet pulp (SBP) ground through a 0.5- or a 2.0-mm screen. For the entire experimental period, fiber inclusion improved BW gain (P≤0.01) and feed conversion ratio (P≤0.001), but particle size of the fiber source did not affect performance. The relative weight of the gizzard was higher (P≤0.001) with OH and SBP than with CEL or the control diet. Also, gizzard weight decreased (P≤0.001) with a reduction in particle size of the fiber source. Fiber inclusion increased HCl concentration and reduced gizzard pH (P≤0.01), and the effects were more noticeable with OH and SBP than with CEL. Fiber inclusion increased total tract apparent retention of nitrogen (P≤0.001) and soluble ash (P≤0.001) as well as the AMEn of the diet (P≤0.001). All of these effects were in general more pronounced with OH than with CEL, with SBP being intermediate. A reduction in particle size of the OH and SBP improved total tract apparent retention of DM (P≤0.001), nitrogen (P≤0.05), and soluble ash (P≤0.01) as well as the AMEn of the diet (P≤0.05). It is concluded that additional OH and SBP improves gizzard weight and growth performance in young chicks fed low-fiber diets and that the effects are more pronounced with OH than with CEL. Particle size of OH and SBP does not affect broiler performance, but coarse grinding increases gizzard development and reduces nutrient digestibility in young birds.

  20. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.

  1. Which U.S. Households Use Education Loans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chungwen; Fisher, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study uses the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) to investigate the characteristics of households that hold at least one loan for educational expenses. The benefit of using household-level data is that a single household may have education loans for multiple people in the household, including the household head, spouse/partner,…

  2. Potential barriers to healthcare in Malawi for under-five children with cough and fever: a national household survey.

    PubMed

    Ustrup, Marte; Ngwira, Bagrey; Stockman, Lauren J; Deming, Michael; Nyasulu, Peter; Bowie, Cameron; Msyamboza, Kelias; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Bresee, Joseph; Fischer, Thea K

    2014-03-01

    Failure to access healthcare is an important contributor to child mortality in many developing countries. In a national household survey in Malawi, we explored demographic and socioeconomic barriers to healthcare for childhood illnesses and assessed the direct and indirect costs of seeking care. Using a cluster-sample design, we selected 2,697 households and interviewed 1,669 caretakers. The main reason for households not being surveyed was the absence of a primary caretaker in the household. Among 2,077 children aged less than five years, 504 episodes of cough and fever during the previous two weeks were reported. A trained healthcare provider was visited for 48.0% of illness episodes. A multivariate regression model showed that children from the poorest households (p = 0.02) and children aged > 12 months (p = 0.02) were less likely to seek care when ill compared to those living in wealthier households and children of higher age-group respectively. Families from rural households spent more time travelling compared to urban households (68.9 vs 14.1 minutes; p < 0.001). In addition, visiting a trained healthcare provider was associated with longer travel time (p < 0.001) and higher direct costs (p < 0.001) compared to visiting an untrained provider. Thus, several barriers to accessing healthcare in Malawi for childhood illnesses exist. Continued efforts to reduce these barriers are needed to narrow the gap in the health and healthcare equity in Malawi.

  3. A life-course approach to studying transitions among Canadian seniors in couple-only households.

    PubMed

    Strohschein, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study tracked the occurrence of death, widowhood, institutionalization, and coresidence with others between 1994 and 2002 for a nationally representative sample of 1,580 Canadian respondents who, at initial interview, were aged 55 and older and living in a couple-only household. Although the majority of seniors remained in a couple-only household throughout the duration of the survey, nearly one in four who experienced a first transition underwent one or more subsequent transitions. Age, economic resources, and health were significant predictors of a specific first transition and multiple transitions. More work is needed to understand the dynamics of the aging process.

  4. Are we safe? NLM's household products database.

    PubMed

    Bronson Fitzpatrick, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This column features an overview of the Division of Specialized Information Services, National Library of Medicine Household Products Database. Basic searching techniques are presented, as well as a brief overview of the data contained in this file. The Household Products Database contains information on chemical ingredients in various products used in U.S. homes.

  5. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2 tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.

  6. Characterization of household waste in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.

  7. Unemployment and Household Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir, Boas

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between unemployment of men and women and the division of labor in their households and how the psychological well-being of unemployed individuals related to the division of labor in their families. Changes in the employment status of men and women had only limited effects on household division of labor. (Author/ABL)

  8. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  9. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  10. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  11. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  12. Temporal trends of mercury, cesium, potassium, selenium, and thallium in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Lake Hazen, Nunavut, Canada: effects of trophic position, size, and age.

    PubMed

    Gantner, Nikolaus; Power, Michael; Babaluk, John A; Reist, James D; Köck, Günter; Lockhart, Lyle W; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2009-02-01

    Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.), the top predator in High Arctic lakes, often is used as a bioindicator of Hg contamination in Arctic aquatic ecosystems. The present study investigated effects of trophic position, size, and age of Arctic char in Lake Hazen, the largest lake in the Canadian High Arctic (81 degrees 50'N, 70 degrees 25'W), on Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, several essential (Se, K) and nonessential elements (Tl, Cs) in char muscle tissue were examined to compare their behavior to that of Hg. Trophic position of Arctic char was identified by stable isotope (delta15N) signature. Temporal trends of Hg from seven sampling campaigns over a 16-year period (1990-2006) were investigated for the overall data and for one trophic class. Concentrations of Hg were not correlated with age but were positively related to fork length and trophic position. Large char with greater delta15N signatures (> 12 per thousand) had larger Hg concentrations (0.09-1.63 microg/g wet wt) than small char with smaller delta15N signatures (< 12 per thousand, 0.03-0.32 microg/g wet wt), indicating that Hg concentrations increased with trophic position. Nonessential Cs and Tl showed relationships to age, length, and trophic position similar to those of Hg, indicating their potential to bioaccumulate and biomagnify. Essential Se and K did not show these relationships. Concentrations of Hg were adjusted using delta15N, leading to less within-year variability and a more consistent temporal trend. The delta15N-adjusted trend showed no decline of Hg in Arctic char from Lake Hazen (1990-2006) in the overall data set and in the small morphotype. Trends for the same period before the adjustment were not significant for the overall data set, but a slight decrease was apparent in the small morphotype. The results confirm the need to consider trophic position and fish size when monitoring temporal trends of Hg, particularly for species with different morphotypes.

  13. Can Households Cope with Health Shocks in Vietnam?

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sophie; Palmer, Michael; Mont, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the economic impact of health shocks on working‐age adults in Vietnam during 2004–2008, using a fixed effects specification. Health shocks cover disability and morbidity and are measured by ‘days unable to carry out regular activity’, ‘days in bed due to illness/injury’, and ‘hospitalization’. Overall, Vietnamese households are able to smooth total non‐health expenditures in the short run in the face of a significant rise in out‐of‐pocket health expenditures. However, this is accomplished through vulnerability‐enhancing mechanisms, especially in rural areas, including increased loans and asset sales and decreased education expenditures. Female‐headed and rural households are found to be the least able to protect consumption. Results highlight the need to extend and deepen social protection and universal health coverage. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26017577

  14. Can Households Cope with Health Shocks in Vietnam?

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sophie; Palmer, Michael; Mont, Daniel; Groce, Nora

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic impact of health shocks on working-age adults in Vietnam during 2004-2008, using a fixed effects specification. Health shocks cover disability and morbidity and are measured by 'days unable to carry out regular activity', 'days in bed due to illness/injury', and 'hospitalization'. Overall, Vietnamese households are able to smooth total non-health expenditures in the short run in the face of a significant rise in out-of-pocket health expenditures. However, this is accomplished through vulnerability-enhancing mechanisms, especially in rural areas, including increased loans and asset sales and decreased education expenditures. Female-headed and rural households are found to be the least able to protect consumption. Results highlight the need to extend and deepen social protection and universal health coverage. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nutritional status of toddlers and preschoolers according to household income level: overweight tendency and micronutrient deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Shin, Sam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES The effects of malnutrition on growth of toddlers and preschoolers by socioeconomic status are not well known. This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary intake on growth outcomes in toddlers and preschoolers by household income level. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study population was a total of 1,687 children aged 1 to 5 years that participated in the KNHANES from 2009 to 2011. Growth of children was assessed by height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH). Children were classified into three groups according to children's HFA and WFH compared to the 10th and 90th percentiles of the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescent Growth Standard. Average monthly household income was divided into quartile groups. Dietary intake data were obtained by using the one day 24-hr recall method. Risks of inadequate intake of nutrients and unfavorable growth were estimated by using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, region, and energy intake. RESULTS The low HFA group (< 10th percentile) had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, and thiamin as compared with the high group (≥ 90th percentile). For WFH status, vitamin C intake was lower in the low group than in the high group. Household income level was related to WFH status but not HFA. Children from lower income households were more likely to have high WFH than those from higher income households (P for trend = 0.038). Household income status was also significantly related with risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients such as thiamin (P for trend = 0.032) and vitamin C (P for trend = 0.002), showing higher odds of inadequate intakes in children from lower income households. CONCLUSIONS Children from lower income households were prone to be overweight and to have inadequate intakes of micronutrients such as thiamin and vitamin C. To reduce nutritional and health disparities, collective action in the public sector is required from early life. PMID:26425286

  16. Household expenditure for dental care in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries.

  17. Household willingness to pay for azithromycin treatment for trachoma control in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Kevin D.; Lynch, Matthew; West, Sheila; Munoz, Beatriz; Mkocha, Harran A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Household willingness to pay for treatment provides important information for programme planning. We tested for relationships between socioeconomic status, risk of trachoma, perceptions of the effects of azithromycin, and the household willingness to pay for future mass treatment with azithromycin. METHODS: We surveyed 394 households in 6 villages located in central United Republic of Tanzania regarding their willingness to pay for future azithromycin treatment. A random sample of households with children under 8 years of age was selected and interviewed following an initial treatment programme in each village. Data were gathered on risk factors for trachoma, socioeconomic status, and the perceived effect of the initial azithromycin treatment. Ordered probit regression analysis was used to test for statistically significant relationships. FINDINGS: 38% of responding households stated that they would not be willing to pay anything for future azithromycin treatment, although they would be willing to participate in the treatment. A proxy for cash availability was positively associated with household willingness to pay for future antibiotic treatment. Cattle ownership (a risk factor) and being a household headed by a female not in a polygamous marriage (lower socioeconomic status) were associated with a lower willingness to pay for future treatment. A perceived benefit from the initial treatment was marginally associated with a willingness to pay a higher amount. CONCLUSIONS: As those at greatest risk of active trachoma indicated the lowest willingness to pay, imposing a cost recovery fee for azithromycin treatment would likely reduce coverage and could prevent control of the disease at the community level. PMID:12751418

  18. Household computer and Internet access: The digital divide in a pediatric clinic population.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Aaron E; Rivara, Frederick P; Ebel, Beth; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2005-01-01

    Past studies have noted a digital divide, or inequality in computer and Internet access related to socio-economic class. This study sought to measure how many households in a pediatric primary care outpatient clinic had household access to computers and the Internet, and whether this access differed by socio-economic status or other demographic information. We conducted a phone survey of a population-based sample of parents with children ages 0 to 11 years old. Analyses assessed predictors of having home access to a computer, the Internet, and high-speed Internet service. Overall, 88.9% of all households owned a personal computer, and 81.4% of all households had Internet access. Among households with Internet access, 48.3% had high speed Internet at home. There were significant associations between home computer ownership or Internet access and parental income or education. There was no relationship these factors and high speed Internet access. Over 60% of families with annual household income of $10,000-$25,000, and nearly 70% of families with only a high-school education had Internet access at home. While income and education remain significant predictors of household computer and internet access, many patients and families at all economic levels have access, and might benefit from health promotion interventions using these modalities.

  19. Geographical heterogeneity and influenza infection within households

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although it has been suggested that schoolchildren vaccination reduces influenza morbidity and mortality in the community, it is unknown whether geographical heterogeneity would affect vaccine effectiveness. Methods A 3-year prospective, non-randomized sero-epidemiological study was conducted during 2008–2011 by recruiting schoolchildren from both urban and rural areas. Respective totals of 124, 206, and 176 households were recruited and their household contacts were followed. Serum samples were collected pre-vaccination, one-month post-vaccination and post-season from children and household contacts for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. A multivariate logistic model implemented with generalized estimation equations (GEE) was fitted with morbidity or a four-fold increase in HI titer of the household contacts for two consecutive sera as the dependent variable; with geographical location, vaccination status of each household and previous vaccination history as predictor variables. Results Although our results show no significant reduction in the proportion of infection or clinical morbidity among household contacts, a higher risk of infection, indicated by odds ratio > 1, was consistently observed among household children contacts from the un-vaccinated households after adjusting for confounding variables. Interestingly, a statistically significant lower risk of infection was observed among household adult contacts from rural area when compared to those from urban area (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82-0.97 for Year 2 and OR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75-0.96 for Year 3). Conclusions A significant difference in the risk of influenza infection among household adults due to geographical heterogeneity, independent of schoolchildren vaccination status, was revealed in this study. Its impact on vaccine effectiveness requires further study. PMID:24993483

  20. Perceived Barriers to Savings among Low- to Moderate-Income Households that Do Not Save Regularly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Teresa; Bowen, Cathy Faulcon; Cheang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the differences in barriers to savings among low- to moderate-income households who do not save regularly. Characteristics associated with individuals who perceived they could and could not save included age, presence of child under 18 years of age, and gender. Having no money left over, being late on bills and/or…

  1. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management.

  2. Quantifying carbon footprint reduction opportunities for U.S. households and communities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Kammen, Daniel M

    2011-05-01

    Carbon management is of increasing interest to individuals, households, and communities. In order to effectively assess and manage their climate impacts, individuals need information on the financial and greenhouse gas benefits of effective mitigation opportunities. We use consumption-based life cycle accounting techniques to quantify the carbon footprints of typical U.S. households in 28 cities for 6 household sizes and 12 income brackets. The model includes emissions embodied in transportation, energy, water, waste, food, goods, and services. We further quantify greenhouse gas and financial savings from 13 potential mitigation actions across all household types. The model suggests that the size and composition of carbon footprints vary dramatically between geographic regions and within regions based on basic demographic characteristics. Despite these differences, large cash-positive carbon footprint reductions are evident across all household types and locations; however, realizing this potential may require tailoring policies and programs to different population segments with very different carbon footprint profiles. The results of this model have been incorporated into an open access online carbon footprint management tool designed to enable behavior change at the household level through personalized feedback.

  3. Community and household socioeconomic factors associated with pesticide-using, small farm household members' health: a multi-level, longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies using multi-level models to examine health inequalities in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) are rare. We explored socio-economic gradients in health among small farm members participating in a pesticide-related health and agriculture program in highland Ecuador. Methods We profiled 24 communities through key informant interviews, secondary data (percent of population with unsatisfied basic needs), and intervention implementation indicators. Pre (2005) and post (2007) surveys of the primary household and crop managers included common questions (education, age, and the health outcome - digit span scaled 0-10)) and pesticide-related practice questions specific to each. Household assets and pesticide use variables were shared across managers. We constructed multi-level models predicting 2007 digit span for each manager type, with staged introduction of predictor variables. Results 376 household managers (79% of 2005 participants) and 380 crop managers (76% of 2005 participants) had complete data for analysis. The most important predictor of 2007 digit span was 2005 digit span: β (Standard Error) of 0.31(0.05) per unit for household and 0.17(0.04) for crop managers. Household asset score was next most important: 0.14(0.06) per unit for household and 0.14(0.05) for crop managers. Community percent with unsatisfied basic needs was associated with reductions in 2007 digit span: -0.04(0.01) per percent for household and -0.03(0.01) for crop managers. Conclusions The important roles of life endowments and/or persistent neurotoxicity were exemplified by limited change in the health outcome. Gradients by household assets and community deprivation were indicative of ongoing, structural inequities within this LMIC. PMID:22094171

  4. The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Cubison, M. J.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Collins, D. R.

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (N{sub CCN}) are derived using Kohler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated N{sub CCN} is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, N{sub CCN} may be derived within {approx}20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition) if great majority of particles has an overall {kappa} (hygroscopicity parameter) value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its {kappa} from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their {kappa} to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, N{sub CCN} may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also indicates that, at least for very active

  5. A strategy to increase adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves in rural Kenyan households

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to household air pollutants released during cooking has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes among residents of rural areas in low-income countries. Improved cookstoves are one of few available interventions, but achieving equity in cookstove access has been challenging. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed. To evaluate a project designed to motivate adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) in an impoverished, rural African population, we assessed the perceived benefits of the cookstoves (in monetary and time-savings terms), the rate of cookstove adoption, and the equity of adoption. Methods The project was conducted in 60 rural Kenyan villages in 2008 and 2009. Baseline (n = 1250) and follow-up (n = 293) surveys and a stove-tracking database were analyzed. Results At baseline, nearly all respondents used wood (95%) and firepits (99%) for cooking; 98% desired smoke reductions. Households with upesi jiko subsequently spent <100 Kenyan Shillings/week on firewood more often (40%) than households without upesi jiko (20%) (p = 0.0002). There were no significant differences in the presence of children <2 years of age in households using upesi jiko (48%) or three-stone stoves (49%) (p = 0.88); children 2–5 years of age were less common in households using upesi jiko versus three-stone stoves (46% and 69%, respectively) (p = 0.0001). Vendors installed 1,124 upesi jiko in 757 multi-family households in 18 months; 68% of these transactions involved incentives for vendors and purchasers. Relatively few (<10%) upesi jiko were installed in households of women in the youngest age quartile (<22 years) or among households in the poorest quintile. Conclusions Our strategy of training of local vendors, appropriate incentives, and product integration effectively accelerated cookstove adoption into a large number of households. The strategy also created opportunities to reinforce health messages

  6. Heterogeneity in hedonic modelling of house prices: looking at buyers' household profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestens, Yan; Thériault, Marius; Des Rosiers, François

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces household-level data into hedonic models in order to measure the heterogeneity of implicit prices regarding household type, age, educational attainment, income, and the previous tenure status of the buyers. Two methods are used for this purpose: a first series of models uses expansion terms, whereas a second series applies Geographically Weighted Regressions. Both methods yield conclusive results, showing that the marginal value given to certain property specifics and location attributes do vary regarding the characteristics of the buyer’s household. Particularly, major findings concern the significant effect of income on the location rent as well as the premium paid by highly-educated households in order to fulfil social homogeneity.

  7. Active tuberculosis among Iraqi schoolchildren with positive skin tests and their household contacts.

    PubMed

    Al Kubaisy, W; Al Dulayme, A; Hashim, D S

    2003-07-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Iraq, schoolchildren with a positive tuberculin skin test during the nationwide survey in 2000 were followed up in 2002 to determine prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and risk factors among household contacts. Of 205 children, 191 remained skin-test positive in 2002. Based on X-ray and clinical examination, 9 children (4.4%) were active TB cases. Among 834 household contacts, there were 144 new TB cases, giving a cumulative incidence of 17.3%. Risk factors for TB among household contacts were: age > or = 15 years; technical/professional job; smoking; low body mass index; diabetes mellitus; steroid therapy; and closeness of contact with the index cases. Based on past history of TB in index children and their contacts, 77.2% of new TB cases were attributable to household contacts.

  8. Household vulnerability to food crisis and mortality in the drought-prone areas of northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ezra, M; Kiros, G E

    2000-07-01

    This study examines the association between a household's degree of vulnerability to food crisis and the incidence of deaths using primary survey data carried out to look at the demographic consequences of drought and famine in the drought-prone areas of northern Ethiopia. Retrospective data on the occurrences of deaths within a household were collected for the period 1984 to 1994. Consistent with previous studies, the findings confirm that mortality was clustered among the age groups 1-4 and 5-9 and varied considerably by famine and non-famine years. Enormous variation in incidence of deaths was also observed by region, ethnicity and religion. Most importantly, the analysis provides substantial evidence that the level of household vulnerability to food crisis is strongly related to the number of hunger-related deaths reported in a household.

  9. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Goshe, Lisa R.; Coggins, Lewis; Shaver, Donna J.; Higgins, Ben; Landry, Andre M.; Bailey, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM) and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp’s ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr) and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL)) estimated using the “rapprochement” skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp’s ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends. PMID:28333937

  10. Variability in age and size at maturation, reproductive longevity, and long-term growth dynamics for Kemp's ridley sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Avens, Larisa; Goshe, Lisa R; Coggins, Lewis; Shaver, Donna J; Higgins, Ben; Landry, Andre M; Bailey, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of protected sea turtle populations requires knowledge not only of mean values for demographic and life-history parameters, but also temporal and spatial trends, variability, and underlying causes. For endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), the need for baseline information of this type has been emphasized during attempts to understand causes underlying the recent truncation in the recovery trajectory for nesting females. To provide insight into variability in age and size at sexual maturation (ASM and SSM) and long-term growth patterns likely to influence population trends, we conducted skeletochronological analysis of humerus bones from 333 Kemp's ridleys stranded throughout the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from 1993 to 2010. Ranges of possible ASMs (6.8 to 21.8 yr) and SSMs (53.3 to 68.3 cm straightline carapace length (SCL)) estimated using the "rapprochement" skeletal growth mark associated with maturation were broad, supporting incorporation of a maturation schedule in Kemp's ridley population models. Mean ASMs estimated from rapprochement and by fitting logistic, generalized additive mixed, and von Bertalanffy growth models to age and growth data ranged from 11 to 13 yr; confidence intervals for the logistic model predicted maturation of 95% of the population between 11.9 and 14.8 yr. Early juvenile somatic growth rates in the GOM were greater than those previously reported for the Atlantic, indicating potential for differences in maturation trajectories between regions. Finally, long-term, significant decreases in somatic growth response were found for both juveniles and adults, which could influence recruitment to the reproductive population and observed nesting population trends.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  12. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  13. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2016-01-01

    A third of the world’s population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5–4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean

  14. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  15. Prevalence of child malnutrition in agro-pastoral households in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fentaw, Rabia; Bogale, Ayalneh; Abebaw, Degnet

    2013-04-01

    Based on data generated from 180 randomly selected households with children age under five years old in Aysaita district of Afar region of Ethiopia, this study explored prevalence of malnutrition and scrutinized household characteristics, maternal characteristics, specifics of the child and economic variables associated with child malnutrition. The height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ) and weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) were used to measure the extent of stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The results revealed that prevalence of long term nutritional imbalance and malnutrition status indicator (i.e. stunting) was 67.8%. The short term measure (wasting) was found to be 12.8% and underweight was found to be 46.1%. Moreover, children in households which are headed by women, and characterized by more dependency ratio, less access to assets, health services and institutions are more likely to be undernourished.

  16. Prevalence of child malnutrition in agro-pastoral households in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentaw, Rabia; Abebaw, Degnet

    2013-01-01

    Based on data generated from 180 randomly selected households with children age under five years old in Aysaita district of Afar region of Ethiopia, this study explored prevalence of malnutrition and scrutinized household characteristics, maternal characteristics, specifics of the child and economic variables associated with child malnutrition. The height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ) and weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) were used to measure the extent of stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The results revealed that prevalence of long term nutritional imbalance and malnutrition status indicator (i.e. stunting) was 67.8%. The short term measure (wasting) was found to be 12.8% and underweight was found to be 46.1%. Moreover, children in households which are headed by women, and characterized by more dependency ratio, less access to assets, health services and institutions are more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23610605

  17. Usage pattern of personal care products in California households.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Ritz, Beate; Cassady, Diana L; Lee, Kiyoung; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-11-01

    Given the concern over the potential for health risks associated with certain ingredients (e.g., phthalates) in personal care products, usage patterns of ∼30 types of personal care products (e.g., shampoo, sunscreen, fragrance, etc.) were collected in 604 California households through a telephone interview. Preferences in selecting products, e.g., scented or unscented, aerosol, and brand loyalty, were also investigated. Participants were recruited in three age groups, children (mostly preschoolers), their parents, and adults age 55 or older. Use frequencies of various product types varied by sex, age group, race, education, and climatic region. Product use by parent and child from the same household were correlated. Use frequencies of products in the same class (e.g., skincare) were moderately correlated, which may impact aggregate exposures. Use frequencies observed in this study were generally in the same range as those reported in the EPA Exposure Factor Handbook, but we found differences for some individual products. Our study provides additional data on population-based usage patterns of a large collection of commonly used personal care products pertaining to several age groups and socio-demographic strata. This information will be valuable for exposure and risk assessments.

  18. Anaerobic digestion for household organics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.; Kelleher, M.

    1995-04-01

    Considerable success in using anaerobic technology for processing household organics is being reported by several recently constructed facilities in Europe. Organic residuals collected separately in a Belgian town are processed to produce biogas and a compost-like material in less than one month. The dry anaerobic conversion process (DRANCO) was developed by Organic Waste Systems (OWS) in the 1980s, with the collaboration of Professor Willy Verstraete at the University of Ghent`s Laboratory of Applied Microbial Ecology. The patented process converts solid and semisolid organic residuals into biogas (for energy recovery) and a stable humus like product. The plant has competing odor sources such as the active landfill and the surrounding farmland - in fact, the smell of livestock manure is quite prevalent in this heavily agricultural area. Addition of the nonrecyclable paper fraction to the feedstock improves the carbon/nitrogen ratio, soaks up moisture, and absorbs odor. The entire Brecht facility does not occupy much space and total material retention time at the site is one month, compared to a number of months for aerobic systems. It also has a low staffing requirement, provides energy self-sufficiency, and the final soil enhancement product meets established quality standards.

  19. Incarceration and Household Asset Ownership.

    PubMed

    Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.

  20. Household Disbandment in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Julie F.; Dingel, Molly; Bowen, Mary Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. This study described activities that older people undertake to reduce the volume of their possessions in the course of a residential move to smaller quarters, a process with practical, cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with members of 30 households who had moved in the prior year. The disbandment period, typically lasting about 2 months, was a particular focus of the interview. Results. The interviews suggested nine reasons why people had accumulated and kept things, which now became problematic for the impending move. The initial steps of disbandment entailed decisions about major furniture and meaningful gifts to family and friends, followed by evaluation of the remaining belongings for retention, sale, further gifts, donation, or discard. Things not divested by one means were reassigned to another strategy. People took pleasure in dispositions that saw their things used, cared for, and valued as they had done, thus fulfilling a responsibility to their belongings. Discussion. Disbandment is an acute episode of a more general, lifelong process of possession management. It is an encounter with things that are meaningful to the self, but as it unfolds, it also makes new meaning for things. PMID:15358801

  1. Eating together and eating alone: meal arrangements in British households.

    PubMed

    Yates, Luke; Warde, Alan

    2017-03-01

    Sociology traditionally accounts for eating in terms of the social organization of meals, their provision and consumption. A recurrent public concern is that the meal is being subverted. This paper examines meal arrangements in British households in 2012, drawing on an online survey in the format of a food diary administered to 2784 members of a supermarket consumer panel. It charts the organization of contemporary eating occasions, paying attention to socio-demographic variation in practice. Especially, it explores companionless meals, putting them in contexts of food provisioning and temporal rhythms. Findings show that eating alone is associated with simpler, quicker meals, and that it takes place most commonly in the morning and midday. Those living alone eat alone more often, but at similar meal times, and they take longer over their lone meals. Comparison with a similar study in 1955-6 suggests some fragmentation or relaxation in collective schedules. The implications are not straightforward, and the causes probably lie more in institutional shifts than personal preferences. Declining levels of commensality are, however, associated with a reduction in household size and, especially in households with children, difficulties of coordinating family members' schedules.

  2. Slant plane CSAR processing using Householder transform.

    PubMed

    Burki, Jehanzeb; Barnes, Christopher F

    2008-10-01

    Fourier analysis-based focusing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected during circular flight path is a recent advancement in SAR signal processing. This paper uses the Householder transform to obtain a ground plane circular SAR (CSAR) signal phase history from the slant plane CSAR phase history by inverting the linear shift-varying system model, thereby circumventing the need for explicitly computing a pseudo-inverse. The Householder transform has recently been shown to have improved error bounds and stability as an underdetermined and ill-conditioned system solver, and the Householder transform is computationally efficient.

  3. Time, hedonic migration, and household production.

    PubMed

    Shields, M P

    1995-02-01

    "A hedonic migration model is developed where regional amenities are viewed as influencing household production within the framework of the new demand theory. The inputs to household production are goods, time and housing. It is shown that economic growth in the economy as a whole will increase the relative attractiveness of regions that are relatively time-saving, in the sense that they have a lower time elasticity of household production. Hence, migration will flow into time saving regions and housing costs in those regions will rise as real GDP grows." The implied geographical focus is on the United States.

  4. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  5. Adult education and child mortality in India: the influence of caste, household wealth, and urbanization

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Dugravot, Aline; Smith, George Davey; Subramanyam, Malavika; Subramanian, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between adult education and child mortality, and to explore the influence of other socioeconomic markers - caste, household wealth and urbanization - on this association. Methods Data were drawn from the 1998–1999 Indian National Family Health Survey from 26 states on 66367 children aged 5 or under. Adult education, head of household and spouse, was categorized into 0, 1–8, and 9 or more years of schooling. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between measures of education and child mortality in analysis adjusted for other socioeconomic markers. Effect modification by caste, household wealth and urbanization was assessed by fitting an interaction term with education. Results Compared to those with no education, 9 or more years of education for the head of household (OR=0.54: 95% CI=0.48–0.62) and the spouse (OR=0.44: 95% CI=0.36–0.54) was associated with lower child mortality in analyses adjusted for age, sex and state of residence. Further adjustments for caste and urbanization attenuated these associations slightly and substantially when adjustments were made for household wealth. Nevertheless, in fully adjusted models, nine or more years of education for the head of household (OR=0.81: 95% CI=0.70–0.93) and the spouse (OR=0.75: 95% CI=0.60–0.94) remained associated with child mortality. There was no effect modification by caste, household wealth and urbanization of the association between adult education and child mortality. Conclusion Our results suggest that adult education has a protective association with child mortality in India. Caste, household wealth and urbanization do not modify or completely attenuate this association. PMID:18300716

  6. Experiments in materials science from household items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, F. Xavier

    1993-01-01

    Everyday household items are used to demonstrate some unique properties of materials. A coat hanger, rubber band, balloon, and corn starch have typical properties which we often take for granted but can be truly amazing.

  7. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  8. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of site and in a locked cabinet. Laundry detergent pods are more dangerous than other detergent types. If you have children under 6 years old, consider using traditional detergent rather than pods. Store household cleaning products and ...

  9. Oregon's Toxic Household Products Law.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C M; Giffin, S; Hall, R; Henderson, M; Buhler, D R

    2000-01-01

    In 1991, Oregon became the first state in the U.S. to require the addition of an aversive agent to ethylene glycol-containing antifreeze and methanol-containing windshield wiper fluid. This new law, entitled "Toxic Household Products (THP) Act," was designed to reduce pediatric and animal poisonings from accidental ingestion of these two potentially lethal consumer automotive products. While not the stated intention of the law, addition of aversive agents to consumer automotive products could also reduce adult poisonings associated with intentional (suicides or alcoholics ingesting methanol-containing windshield wiper fluid) or accidental exposures. This law went into effect April 30, 1995, following settlement of a lawsuit brought by the Chemical Manufacturing Specialties Association (CSMA), a trade group representing the five largest manufacturers of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze in the U.S. This paper discusses the major policy issues that arose following the passage of Oregon's THP Act. Major provisions of the law are provided along with a discussion of CSMA's opposition to the Act's implementation. A description of the eventual settlement that was reached with CSMA as well as the major components of Oregon Health Division's (OHD) enforcement program are also highlighted. Data are presented for 1987 through 1998 on the number of exposures and severity of effects for pediatric cases (children < 6 years old) following exposure to both of these potentially lethal automotive products. However, because of the low incidence of exposures each year, these data are insufficient to draw any conclusions on the impact of the THP Act.

  10. Household Contamination with Salmonella enterica1

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dale D.; Roozen, Paivi M.; Szymanski, Maryanne H.; Scheenstra, Beth C.; Cady, Kirsten M.; Besser, Thomas E.; Chudek, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Household contamination with Salmonella enterica increases when occupational exposure exists (cattle farms with known salmonellosis in cattle, a salmonella research laboratory, or a veterinary clinic experiencing an outbreak of salmonellosis). Fifteen of 55 (27.2%) vacuum cleaner bags from households with occupational exposure to S. enterica were positive versus 1 of 24 (4.2% without known exposure. Use of a carpet cleaner and several cleaners/disinfectants reduced, but failed to eliminate, S. enterica from artificially contaminated carpet. PMID:12533294

  11. Investigation of aged aerosols in size-resolved Asian dust storm particles transported from Beijing, China to Incheon, Korea using low-Z particle EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Hwang, H. J.; Liu, X.; Dong, S.; Ro, C.-U.

    2013-10-01

    This is the first study of Asian dust storm (ADS) particles collected in Beijing, China and Incheon, Korea during the same spring ADS event. Using a seven-stage May impactor and a quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA, also known as low-Z particle EPMA), we examined the composition and morphology of 4200 aerosol particles at stages 1-6 (with a size cut-off of 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter, respectively) collected during an ADS event on 28-29 April 2005. The results showed that there were large differences in the chemical compositions between particles in sample S1 collected in Beijing immediately after the peak time of the ADS and in samples S2 and S3, which were collected in Incheon approximately 5 h and 24 h later, respectively. In sample S1, mineral dust particles accounted for more than 88% in relative number abundance at stages 1-5, and organic carbon (OC) and reacted NaCl-containing particles accounted for 24% and 32%, respectively, at stage 6. On the other hand, in samples S2 and S3, in addition to approximately 60% mineral dust, many sea salt particles reacted with airborne SO2 and NOx, often mixed with mineral dust, were encountered at stages 1-5, and (C, N, O, S)-rich particles (likely a mixture of water-soluble organic carbon with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3) and K-containing particles were abundantly observed at stage 6. This suggests that the secondary aerosols and the internal mixture of mineral dust with sea spray aerosol increased when the ADS particles passed over the Yellow Sea. In the reacted or aged mineral dust and sea salt particles, nitrate-containing and both nitrate- and sulfate-containing species vastly outnumbered the sulfate-containing species, implying that ambient nitrogen oxides had a greater influence on the atmospheric particles during the ADS episode than SO2. In addition to partially- or totally-reacted CaCO3, reacted or aged Mg-containing aluminosilicates (likely including amesite

  12. Socioeconomic determinants of nutritional status of children in Lao PDR: effects of household and community factors.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-intercepts was used for estimating the determinants of child anthropometric indices. The empirical results revealed that children from households in southern Laos and from ethnic minority groups were less-nourished. Level of education of parents, attitudes of mothers towards domestic violence, assets of household, local health services, and the condition of sanitation and water were considered to be important determinants of nutritional status of children. The pattern of growth-faltering in children by age was identified. Children aged 12-59 months were less-nourished than those aged 0-11 months. The empirical results were consistent with the collective household model which incorporates a decision-making process within the household. Since there is scarce evidence about the predictors of childhood undernutrition in Laos, the findings of this study will serve as a benchmark for future research.

  13. An Environmental Evaluation of Household Garbage Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruki, Kazuhito

    The garbage emitted from households and industries has constantly increased for the recent years, and its treatment cost has been financially burden to the municipal government. Many municipal governments recommend their households to purchase household garbage processors in order to reduce the volume of garbage transferred to and incinerated at their facilities. Actually, there are 1,535 municipal governments, which subsidize their households to purchase electrical garbage processors and/or containers. These subsidies should be assessed from various points of view such as cost and benefit of municipal governments and households, and also global or local environmental loads. An environmental planning department of a city office sent questionnaires to households to investigate utilizations of subsidized processors and/or containers. An environmental organization of citizen supported the department with designing a questionnaire form and analyzing data collected by the questionnaire. In this paper, the processes of designing the form and analyzing the data are explained, and then the evaluation of the subsidy is presented. The conclusions are as follows: Electrical garbage processors would be beneficial for local environmental problems such as lack of final landfill site. However, the processors would increase the CO2 emission, unless the electricity consumption can be improved.

  14. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben

    2011-09-01

    Head lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.

  15. Effects of leaf age and tree size on stomatal and mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis in mountain beech (Nothofagus solandrii var. cliffortiodes).

    PubMed

    Whitehead, David; Barbour, Margaret M; Griffin, Kevin L; Turnbull, Matthew H; Tissue, David T

    2011-09-01

    Mesophyll conductance, g(m), was estimated from measurements of stomatal conductance to carbon dioxide transfer, g(s), photosynthesis, A, and chlorophyll fluorescence for Year 0 (current-year) and Year 1 (1-year-old) fully sunlit leaves from short (2 m tall, 10-year-old) and tall (15 m tall, 120-year-old) Nothofagus solandrii var. cliffortiodes trees growing in adjacent stands. Rates of photosynthesis at saturating irradiance and ambient CO(2) partial pressure, A(satQ), were 25% lower and maximum rates of carboxylation, V(cmax), were 44% lower in Year 1 leaves compared with Year 0 leaves across both tree sizes. Although g(s) and g(m) were not significantly different between Year 0 and Year 1 leaves and g(s) was not significantly different between tree heights, g(m) was significantly (19%) lower for leaves on tall trees compared with leaves on short trees. Overall, V(cmax) was 60% higher when expressed on the basis of CO(2) partial pressure at the chloroplasts, C(c), compared with V(cmax) on the basis of intercellular CO(2) partial pressure, C(i), but this varied with leaf age and tree size. To interpret the relative stomatal and mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis, we used a model of carbon isotopic composition for whole leaves incorporating g(m) effects to generate a surface of 'operating values' of A over the growing season for all leaf classes. Our analysis showed that A was slightly higher for leaves on short compared with tall trees, but lower g(m) apparently reduced actual A substantially compared with A(satQ). Our findings showed that lower rates of photosynthesis in Year 1 leaves compared with Year 0 leaves were attributable more to increased biochemical limitation to photosynthesis in Year 1 leaves than differences in g(m). However, lower A in leaves on tall trees compared with those on short trees could be attributed in part to lower g(m) and higher stomatal, L(s), and mesophyll, L(m), limitations to photosynthesis, consistent with steeper hydraulic

  16. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Atlantic, and Pacific), MSA size, and the availability of rail. Extrapolating NHTS data within small geographic areas could risk developing and subsequently using unreliable estimates. For example, if a planning agency in City X of State Y estimates travel rates and other travel characteristics based on survey data collected from NHTS sample households that were located in City X of State Y, then the agency could risk developing and using unreliable estimates for their planning process. Typically, this limitation significantly increases as the size of an area decreases. That said, the NHTS contains a wealth of information that could allow statistical inferences about small geographic areas, with a pre-determined level of statistical certainty. The question then becomes whether a method can be developed that integrates the NHTS data and other data to estimate key travel characteristics for small geographic areas such as Census tract and transportation analysis zone, and whether this method can outperform other, competing methods.

  17. Household context and child mortality in rural South Africa: the effects of birth spacing, shared mortality, household composition and socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Kahn, Kathleen; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen M; Clark, Samuel J

    2013-01-01

    Background Household characteristics are important influences on the risk of child death. However, little is known about this influence in HIV-endemic areas. We describe the effects of household characteristics on children’s risk of dying in rural South Africa. Methods We use data describing the mortality of children younger than 5 years living in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system study population in rural northeast South Africa during the period 1994–2008. Using discrete time event history analysis we estimate children’s probability of dying by child characteristics and household composition (other children and adults other than parents) (N = 924 818 child-months), and household socio-economic status (N = 501 732 child-months). Results Children under 24 months of age whose subsequent sibling was born within 11 months experience increased odds of dying (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.7). Children also experience increased odds of dying in the period 6 months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.6), 3–5 months (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5–5.9), and 2 months (OR 11.8; 95% CI 7.6–18.3) before another household child dies. The odds of dying remain high at the time of another child’s death (OR 11.7; 95% CI 6.3–21.7) and for the 2 months following (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.9–8.6). Having a related but non-parent adult aged 20–59 years in the household reduces the odds (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5–0.8). There is an inverse relationship between a child’s odds of dying and household socio-economic status. Conclusions This detailed household profile from a poor rural setting where HIV infection is endemic indicates that children are at high risk of dying when another child is very ill or has recently died. Short birth intervals and additional children in the household are further risk factors. Presence of a related adult is protective, as is higher socio-economic status. Such evidence can inform primary health care practice and facilitate targeting of community health

  18. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  19. The quality of life of families of female-headed households in Botswana: a secondary analysis of case studies.

    PubMed

    Akinsola, Henry A; Popovich, Judith M

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies note a positive relationship between female-headed households (FHHs) and poverty in urban and rural areas of Botswana. To explore this further, data were collected from 7 FHHs through participant observation and open-ended interviews. A secondary analysis of data described the quality of life (QOL) of members of the households according to one's ability to meet basic human needs (food, water, shelter, safety, and health). FHHs ranged in age from 40-91 years, with family size ranging from 1-11 members. Monthly income for 6 of the 7 families was 30 dollars (U.S.) per month or less. Physical living environments were overcrowded, with poorly maintained latrines and unsafe refuse disposal. Family illnesses included hypertension, cataracts, mental illness, knee pain, ringworm, leg sores, and tonsillitis. Health risk behaviours included unprotected sex, alcohol abuse, and breastfeeding among potentially HIV positive mothers. Although Botswana claims rapidly rising levels of national income after independence, the QOL of FHHs remains poor. We suggest that, to alleviate poverty, governments in developing African countries should explore strategies that effectively target families headed by women.

  20. The Association Between Household Consumer Durable Assets and Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the association between household consumer durable assets and maternal health-seeking behavior. Several studies have suggested a relationship between households' socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes. However, SES is a multidimensional concept that encompasses variables, such as wealth, education, and income. By grouping these variables together as one construct, prior studies have not provided enough insight into possible independent associations with health outcomes. This study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 2,065 women aged between 15 and 49 years to examine the association between household consumer durables (a component of SES) and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ghana. Results from a set of generalized linear models indicated that household consumer durable assets were positively associated with four measures of maternal health-seeking behaviors, namely, seeking prenatal care from skilled health personnel, delivery by skilled birth attendant, place of delivery, and the number of antenatal visits. Also, households with more assets whose residents lived in urban areas were more likely to use skilled health personnel before and during delivery, and at an approved health facility, compared those who lived in rural areas. Implications for health interventions and policies that focus on the most vulnerable households are discussed.

  1. Household Demography and Early Childhood Mortality in a Rice-Farming Village in Northern Laos

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Shinsuke; Parker, Daniel M.; Jennings, Julia A.; Wood, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends Alexandr Chayanov’s model of changing household demography (specifically the ratio of food consumers to food producers) and its influence on agricultural behavior so that it includes possible adverse effects of a rising ratio on nutritional status and early childhood mortality within the household. We apply the model to 35 years’ worth of longitudinal demographic and economic data collected in the irrigated-rice growing village of Na Savang in northern Laos. When appropriate controls are included for other household variables, unobserved inter-household heterogeneity, and changes in local conditions and national policy over the study period, the analysis suggests that a unit increase in the household’s consumer/producer ratio induces something like a nine-fold increase in the risk of death among household members aged less than five years. Monte Carlo simulation studies suggest that this may be an over-estimate but also that the effect is probably real and likely to be an important factor in household demography. At the very least, the results suggest that Chayanov’s model still has theoretical relevance and deserves to be revived. PMID:25775467

  2. High quality nutrient intake is associated with higher household expenditures by Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Hiyoshi, Ayako

    2012-08-01

    There is little evidence of socioeconomic differences in dietary intake in the Japanese population. This study examined the association between household expenditures and dietary intake using nationally representative surveys of Japan. We analyzed data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2007. For subjects ages 18 to 74 years (11,240 men and 11,472 women), the sex-specific association between household expenditure quartiles and selected nutrient intake was examined using comparison of means and prevalence of a healthy intake. Higher household expenditures were associated with an increase in the mean levels of total energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins A and C, niacin, and fiber for both men and women and salt for men. Prevalence comparison indicated that most of the recommendations for dietary intake were met for people with higher household expenditures than for those with lower household expenditures. There was no clear association between fat intake and expenditures. Higher household expenditures were associated with a healthy and balanced nutrient intake in Japanese adults. The findings suggest that socioeconomic differences in dietary patterns contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and morbidity in Japan.

  3. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  4. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

  5. Hawaii Poison Center data reveals a need for increasing hazard awareness about household products.

    PubMed

    Menon, P; Kodama, A M

    1998-04-01

    This study examined for the fiscal years 1995-1996 and 1996-1997, the frequency of calls to Hawaii Poison Center related to household products and pesticides poisoning, the frequency of the source of calls (professional versus layperson), and the patient's age distribution. The data was compared with the data recorded in 1989 which was reported earlier in the literature. We found the most frequent calls were from general public (6 to 8 times) and were related to household products (30% in 1996-97, 39% in 1995-96, and 39% in 1989) involving children less than 5 years of age. Results strongly suggest the need for increasing the awareness of hazards related to household products amongst the general public.

  6. Children in lesbian and single-parent households: psychosexual and psychiatric appraisal.

    PubMed

    Golombok, S; Spencer, A; Rutter, M

    1983-10-01

    Thirty-seven school-age children reared in 27 lesbian households were compared with 38 school-age children reared in 27 heterosexual single-parent households, with respect to their psychosexual development and their emotions, behaviour and relationships. Systematic standardized interviews with the mothers and with the children, together with parent and teacher questionnaires, were used to make the psychosexual and psychiatric appraisal. The two groups did not differ in terms of their gender identity, sex role behaviour or sexual orientation. Also, they did not differ on most measures of emotions, behaviour and relationships--although there was some indication of more frequent psychiatric problems in the single-parent group. It was concluded that rearing in a lesbian household per se did not lead to atypical psychosexual development or constitute a psychiatric risk factor.

  7. Targeted Beverage Taxes Influence Food and Beverage Purchases among Households with Preschool Children123

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069

  8. Ultra-Processed Food Products and Obesity in Brazilian Households (2008–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. Methods The study was based on data from the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. Results The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Conclusion Greater household

  9. Influence of household cleaning practices on the magnitude and variability of urinary monochlorinated bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Kalyvas, H; Andra, S S; Charisiadis, P; Karaolis, C; Makris, K C

    2014-08-15

    Low-dose health effects of BPA have not been adequately explored in the presence of BPA metabolites of chlorinated structure that may exert larger estrogenic effects than those of their parent compound. We hypothesized that chlorine-containing cleaning products used in household cleaning activities could modify the magnitude of total urinary BPA concentration measurements via the production of chlorinated BPA (ClBPA) derivatives. Our objective was to investigate the influence of typical household cleaning activities (dishwashing, toilet cleaning, mopping, laundry, etc.) on the magnitude and variability of urinary total BPA and mono-ClBPA levels in the general adult population. A cross-sectional study (n=224) included an adult (≥18 years) pool of participants from the general population of Nicosia, Cyprus. First morning urine voids were collected, and administered questionnaires included items about household cleaning habits, demographics, drinking water consumption rates and water source/usage patterns. Urinary concentrations of total BPA (range: 0.2-82 μg L(-1)), mono-ClBPA (16-340 ng L(-1)), and total trihalomethanes (0.1-5.0 μg L(-1)) were measured using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and large volume injection. Linear multiple regression analysis revealed that dishwashing along with age and gender (females) were able to predict urinary mono-ClBPA levels (ng g(-1)), even after adjusting for covariates; this was not the case for urinary total BPA levels (ng g(-1)). Significant (p<0.001) association was observed between urinary mono-ClBPA and THM levels, underlying the important role of disinfectant (chlorine) in promoting formation of both ClBPA and THM. Urinary mono-ClBPA levels were measured for the first time using an appreciable sample size, highlighting the co-occurring patterns of both total BPA and mono-ClBPA. Epidemiological studies and probabilistic BPA risk assessment exercises should consider assessing daily

  10. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-02-04

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  11. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. PMID:28165407

  12. Evidence of hepatitis A virus person-to-person transmission in household outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lyana Rodrigues; De Almeida, Adilson José; Tourinho, Renata dos Santos; Hasselmann, Bárbara; Ximenez, Lia Laura Lewis; De Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2014-01-01

    The person-to-person transmission of the hepatitis A virus primarily occurs in enclosed spaces, particularly in the presence of inadequate hygiene conditions and a high proportion of susceptible individuals. Thus, intimate family contact stands out as a risk factor for HAV infection dissemination. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of household HAV transmission. Blood samples were collected from patients with hepatitis A (index cases) and their family members (contacts) that were referred to an ambulatory care clinic specializing in viral hepatitis. A total of 97 samples were collected from 30 families with a confirmed hepatitis A case (index case). Serological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of hepatitis A were conducted on all samples. HAV infection (anti-HAV IgM + and/or HAV RNA +) was detected in 34.3% (23/67) of the contacts; 34.3% (23/67) of the contacts were immune to HAV, and 31.4% (21/67) were susceptible. In the household contacts, HAV immunity was significantly associated with older age; susceptibility to infection and HAV infection were associated with younger age. Household outbreaks were detected in 16/30 families studied. Co-circulation of subgenotypes IA and IB was found in the household outbreaks, and person-to-person transmission was evidenced in six of the household outbreaks, with 100% homology between the index case and contact strains. The results demonstrated the relevance of HAV household transmission, reaffirming the need for hepatitis A vaccine administration in susceptible contacts and effective infection control procedures to prevent the extension of household outbreaks.

  13. Evidence of Hepatitis A Virus Person-to-Person Transmission in Household Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Lyana Rodrigues; Almeida, Adilson José De; Tourinho, Renata dos Santos; Hasselmann, Bárbara; Lewis Ximenez, Lia Laura; De Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2014-01-01

    The person-to-person transmission of the hepatitis A virus primarily occurs in enclosed spaces, particularly in the presence of inadequate hygiene conditions and a high proportion of susceptible individuals. Thus, intimate family contact stands out as a risk factor for HAV infection dissemination. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of household HAV transmission. Blood samples were collected from patients with hepatitis A (index cases) and their family members (contacts) that were referred to an ambulatory care clinic specializing in viral hepatitis. A total of 97 samples were collected from 30 families with a confirmed hepatitis A case (index case). Serological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of hepatitis A were conducted on all samples. HAV infection (anti-HAV IgM + and/or HAV RNA +) was detected in 34.3% (23/67) of the contacts; 34.3% (23/67) of the contacts were immune to HAV, and 31.4% (21/67) were susceptible. In the household contacts, HAV immunity was significantly associated with older age; susceptibility to infection and HAV infection were associated with younger age. Household outbreaks were detected in 16/30 families studied. Co-circulation of subgenotypes IA and IB was found in the household outbreaks, and person-to-person transmission was evidenced in six of the household outbreaks, with 100% homology between the index case and contact strains. The results demonstrated the relevance of HAV household transmission, reaffirming the need for hepatitis A vaccine administration in susceptible contacts and effective infection control procedures to prevent the extension of household outbreaks. PMID:25050760

  14. Burns in Baghdad from 2003–2014: results of a randomized household cluster survey

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay T; Lafta, Riyadh; Shatari, Sahar A Esa Al; Cherewick, Megan; Burnham, Gilbert; Hagopian, Amy; Galway, Lindsay P; Kushner, Adam L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Civilians living amid conflict are at high-risk of burns. However, the epidemiology of burns among this vulnerable group is poorly understood, yet vital for health policy and relief planning. To address this gap, we aimed to determine the death and disability, healthcare needs and household financial consequences of burns in post-invasion Baghdad. Methods A two-stage, cluster randomized, community-based household survey was performed in May of 2014 to determine the civilian burden of injury from 2003 to 2014 in Baghdad. In addition to questions about cause of household member death, households were interviewed regarding burn specifics, healthcare required, disability, relationship to conflict and resultant financial hardship. Results Nine-hundred households, totaling 5,148 individuals, were interviewed. There were 55 burns, which were 10% of all injuries reported. There were an estimated 2,340 serious burn injures (39 per 100,000 persons) in Baghdad in 2003. The frequency of serious burn injuries generally increased post-invasion to 8,780 burns in 2013 (117 per 100,000 persons). Eight burns (15%) were the direct result of conflict. Individuals aged over 45 years had more than twice the odds of burn injury than children aged less than 13 years (aOR 2.42; 95%CI 1.08 – 5.44). Nineteen burns (35%) involved ≥20% body surface area. Death (16% of burn injuries), disability (40%), household financial hardship (48%) and food insecurity (50%) were common after burn injury. Conclusion Civilian burn injury in Baghdad is epidemic, increasing in frequency and associated with household financial hardship. Challenges of healthcare provision during prolonged conflict were evidenced by a high mortality rate and likelihood of disability after burn injury. Ongoing conflict will directly and indirectly generate more burns, which mandates planning for burn prevention and care within local capacity development initiatives, as well as humanitarian assistance. PMID:26526376

  15. Kin and Youths in the Social Networks of Youth-Headed Households in Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Casares, Monica

    2010-01-01

    In settings highly affected by HIV/AIDS, households headed by children may result from strained family relations, poverty, and stigma associated with the disease. Understanding local systems and dynamics of support is essential to planning comprehensive models of care. This study measured size and composition of the support and conflict networks…

  16. Method for residual household waste composition studies.

    PubMed

    Sahimaa, Olli; Hupponen, Mari; Horttanainen, Mika; Sorvari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    The rising awareness of decreasing natural resources has brought forward the idea of a circular economy and resource efficiency in Europe. As a part of this movement, European countries have identified the need to monitor residual waste flows in order to make recycling more efficient. In Finland, studies on the composition of residual household waste have mostly been conducted using different methods, which makes the comparison of the results difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method for residual household waste composition studies. First, a literature review on European study methods was performed. Also, 19 Finnish waste composition studies were compared in order to identify the shortcomings of the current Finnish residual household waste composition data. Moreover, the information needs of different waste management authorities concerning residual household waste were studied through a survey and personal interviews. Stratification, sampling, the classification of fractions and statistical analysis were identified as the key factors in a residual household waste composition study. The area studied should be divided into non-overlapping strata in order to decrease the heterogeneity of waste and enable comparisons between different waste producers. A minimum of six subsamples, each 100 kg, from each stratum should be sorted. Confidence intervals for each waste category should be determined in order to evaluate the applicability of the results. A new three-level classification system was created based on Finnish stakeholders' information needs and compared to four other European waste composition study classifications.

  17. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  18. Impact of house-hold food insecurity on nutritional status of HIV-infected children attending an ART centre in Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Suresh, E; Srinivasan, R; Valan, A S; Klinton, Joel S; Padmapriyadarsini, C

    2015-03-08

    We studied the level of food insecurity among households with HIV-infected children and its relationship with childhood nutritional indicators. Among the 147 children assessed, food insecurity was present in 59% of households. Majority of children with stunting belonged to-food insecure families. Stunting and Underweight were more prevalent among children >5 years of age.

  19. Household Context and Subjective Well-Being among the Oldest Old in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Feinian; Short, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the importance of household context to subjective well-being among the oldest old (aged 80 years and older) in China. Using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, the authors find that living arrangements have strong implications for elderly emotional health. First, living alone is associated with…

  20. 20 CFR 416.1142 - If you live in a public assistance household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If you live in a public assistance household. 416.1142 Section 416.1142 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1142 If you live...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1142 - If you live in a public assistance household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If you live in a public assistance household. 416.1142 Section 416.1142 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1142 If you live...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1142 - If you live in a public assistance household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If you live in a public assistance household. 416.1142 Section 416.1142 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1142 If you live...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1142 - If you live in a public assistance household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false If you live in a public assistance household. 416.1142 Section 416.1142 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1142 If you live...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1142 - If you live in a public assistance household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If you live in a public assistance household. 416.1142 Section 416.1142 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1142 If you live...

  5. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... children, and ages of the children, residing in the household; and (iv) That free board and a private room...; (iii) That the alien is free to leave the employer's premises during all non-work hours except the... performed by the alien; (vi) The total amount of any money to be advanced by the employer with details...

  6. Use-patterns of personal care and household cleaning products in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hidalgo, E; von Goetz, N; Siegrist, M; Hungerbühler, K

    2017-01-01

    Reliable consumer use data are needed to determine health risks posed by chemicals contained in household cleaning and personal care products. Essential information includes the amount of product applied, the frequency of use, and the site of application. To obtain such data, a survey was conducted in Switzerland to assess consumer usage patterns. The use-patterns of 12 household care products, 5 laundry products, and 22 personal care products were collected among the Swiss population (N = 759; ages 0-91) by postal questionnaire, providing for the first time in Europe comprehensive information regarding use of household cleaning and personal care products for the same study population. Apart from the investigation of use frequency, quantity, duration, and habits, also co-use analysis was performed separately for household and personal care products. Use-patterns are presented for both genders and all age groups, including children below the age of 12, who may be more vulnerable to adverse effects attributed to certain chemicals. Also, the currently missing use factors for cosmetic/baby wet wipes were assessed. Stratification of the data by gender, age and other socio-demographic factors, such as region affiliation, allowed us to identify differences between population sub-groups, emphasizing the need for region-specific exposure factors.

  7. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  8. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  9. Household Health Costs: Direct, Indirect and Intangible

    PubMed Central

    YOUSEFI, Mehdi; ASSARI ARANI, Abbas; SAHABI, Bahram; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoshirvan; FAZAELI, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed at identifying components of the household health costs. Methods This study was a qualitative research conducted in two main phases. The first phase consisted of interviews with sample households selected in eight provinces of Iran. They were to identify components of the household health costs. In the second phase, components were determined as direct, indirect and intangible based on a content analysis. Results In the first phase of the study, 93 components of households’ health costs were identified. According to the content analysis, 44 components were categorized as direct costs, 10 components were indirect and 39 components were categorized as intangible. Conclusion All components of households’ health costs including: direct, indirect and intangible costs, should be considered in the planning and policy-making in the health system. PMID:26060744

  10. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  11. How should we measure maternal mortality in the developing world? A comparison of household deaths and sibling history approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kenneth; El Arifeen, Shams; Koenig, Michael; Al-Sabir, Ahmed; Jamil, Kanta; Raggers, Han

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is one of six health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there is no consensus about how to measure MMR in the many countries that do not have complete registration of deaths and accurate ascertainment of cause of death. In this study, we compared estimates of pregnancy-related deaths and maternal mortality in a developing country from three different household survey measurement approaches: a module collecting information on deaths of respondents' sisters; collection of information about recent household deaths with a time-of-death definition of maternal deaths; and a verbal autopsy instrument to identify maternal deaths. METHODS: We used data from a very large nationally-representative household sample survey conducted in Bangladesh in 2001. A total of 104 323 households were selected for participation, and 99 202 households (95.1% of selected households, 98.8% of contacted households) were successfully interviewed. FINDINGS: The sisterhood and household death approaches gave very similar estimates of all-cause and pregnancy-related mortality; verbal autopsy gave an estimate of maternal deaths that was about 15% lower than the pregnancy-related deaths. Even with a very large sample size, however, confidence intervals around mortality estimates were similar for all approaches and exceeded +/- 15%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that with improved training for survey data collectors, both the sisterhood and household deaths methods are viable approaches for measuring pregnancy-related mortality. However, wide confidence intervals around the estimates indicate that routine sample surveys cannot provide the information needed to monitor progress towards the MDG target. Other approaches, such as inclusion of questions about household deaths in population censuses, should be considered. PMID:16583075

  12. Screening for asymptomatic scalp carriage in household contacts of patients with tinea capitis during 1997-2011: a retrospective hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Papadogeorgaki, Eleni; Athanasopoulou, Vasiliki; Antoniou, Christina; Stratigos, Alexander J

    2014-06-01

    For anthropophilic tinea capitis (TC), household spread and asymptomatic scalp carriage (ASC) is considered an important route of transmission and incomplete clearance. To investigate ASC in household contacts of patients diagnosed with TC in a tertiary hospital in Athens, Greece, we retrospectively reviewed the medical files of household contacts that were screened for ASC from 1997 to 2011. Only 34 household contacts of 15 index cases agreed to come for screening. Thirty-three (97%) household contacts were asymptomatic scalp carriers. The most commonly isolated species was Trichophyton violaceum (59%). There was a statistically significant association of ASC with the isolated dermatophyte species (T. violaceum, P-value: 0.029), and with the age of younger than 16 years old (P-value: 0.005), while there was no association with gender (P-value: 0.672). A small number of household contacts accepted to proceed for screening. ASC was found in nearly all screened household contacts and was associated with T. violaceum and younger age. The low number of household contacts that accepted screening may reflect the ignorance of the general population about the possibility of ASC among household contacts in case of a patient with TC.

  13. Employment and Household Tasks of Japanese Couples, 1994–2009

    PubMed Central

    Tsuya, Noriko O.; Bumpass, Larry L.; Choe, Minja Kim; Rindfuss, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines changes in the relationship between employment and household tasks of Japanese couples, using data drawn from national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2000 and 2009 of persons aged 20–49 and from the 2009 follow-up of the 2000 survey. Wives’ employment is structured by their husbands’ employment time and earning power, as well as by their family situations including the presence and age of children and coresidence with parents. Housework hours of husbands, though very low, increased over time, while wives’ hours decreased. Wives housework time decreases as their employment time increases. Marriage dramatically increases women’s housework time but produces little change in men’s time. Husbands’ housework hours are positively correlated with reported marital satisfaction of both spouses. PMID:24031165

  14. Factors influencing households' participation in recycling.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Paula; Reis, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    The success of a recycling programme depends on the active and sustained participation of citizens in the correct separation and collection of recyclable waste. An effective study of strategies aimed at augmenting people's involvement in recycling involves understanding which factors influence the decision to co-operate with a recycling programme. This research investigates the influence of attitudes, incentives, presence of children in household and information through direct media, on households' participation in recycling. The results suggest that positive attitudes toward recycling and information are important factors in explaining recycling participation. Some guidelines that may be considered in future communication and intervention strategies designed to promote recycling participation are discussed.

  15. Household food insecurity and diet diversity after the major 2010 landslide disaster in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Rukundo, Peter M; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Oshaug, Arne; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-02-28

    In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls - 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (P<0·01)--but higher diet diversity score (DDS) - 7·1 (se 0·1) v. 5·9 (se 0·1) (P<0·01). On controlling for disaster and covariates, recipients of relief food had higher food insecurity - 12·0 (se 0·6) v. 10·4 (se 0·3) (P=0·02)--whereas farmers had higher DDS - 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (P<0·01). Household size increased the likelihood of food insecurity (OR 1·15; 95% CI 1·00, 1·32; P<0·05) but reduced DDS (OR 0·93; 95% CI 0·87, <1·00; P=0·04). Low DDS was more likely in disaster affected (OR 4·22; 95% CI 2·65, 6·72; P<0·01) and farmers (OR 2·52; 95% CI 1·37, 4·64; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, affected households had higher food insecurity - 12·3 (se 0·8) v. 2·6 (se 0·8) (P<0·01)--but lower DDS - 5·8 (se 0·3) v. 7·0 (se 0·3) (P=0·02). The latter reduced with increased age (OR 0·99; 95% CI 0·97, 1·00; P<0·05), lowest education (OR 0·54; 95% CI 0·31, 0·93; P=0·03), farmers (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P=0·04) and asset ownership (OR 0·56; 95% CI 0·39, 0·81; P<0·01). Addressing social protection could mitigate food insecurity.

  16. A Comparison of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Households in Rural Uganda With and Without a Resident With Type 2 Diabetes, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Bahendeka, Silver K.; Gregg, Edward W.; Whyte, Susan R.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined the health consequences of living in a household with a person who has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the association of sharing a household with a person with diagnosed T2D and risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases in Uganda, a low-income country. Methods Ninety households with 437 residents in southwestern Uganda were studied from December 2012 through March 2013. Forty-five of the households had a member with diagnosed T2D (hereafter “diabetic household”), and 45 households had no member with diagnosed T2D (hereafter “nondiabetic household”). We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hypertension, anthropometry, aerobic capacity, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, and diabetes-related knowledge of people without diagnosed T2D living in diabetic and nondiabetic households. Results People living in diabetic households had a significantly higher level of diabetes-related knowledge, lower levels of FPG (5.6 mmol/L vs 6.0 mmol/L), and fewer smoked (1.3% vs 12.9%) than residents of nondiabetic households. HbA1c was significantly lower in people aged 30 years or younger (5.2% vs 5.4%) and in males (5.2% vs 5.4%) living in diabetic households compared to residents of nondiabetic households. No differences were found between the 2 types of households in overweight and obesity, upper-arm fat area, intake of staple foods or cooking oil, or physical activity. Conclusions Sharing a household with a person with T2D may have unexpected benefits on the risk factor profile for cardio-metabolic diseases, probably because of improved health behaviors and a closer connection with the health care system. Thus, future studies should consider the household for interventions targeting primary and secondary prevention of T2D. PMID:25837257

  17. Kerosene lighting contributes to household air pollution in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muyanja, D; Allen, J G; Vallarino, J; Valeri, L; Kakuhikire, B; Bangsberg, D R; Christiani, D C; Tsai, A C; Lai, P S

    2017-03-07

    The literature on the contribution of kerosene lighting to indoor air particulate concentrations is sparse. In rural Uganda, kitchens are almost universally located outside the main home, and kerosene is often used for lighting. In this study, we obtained longitudinal measures of particulate matter 2.5 microns or smaller in size (PM2.5 ) from living rooms and kitchens of 88 households in rural Uganda. Linear mixed effects models with a random intercept for household were used to test the hypotheses that primary reported lighting source and kitchen location (indoor vs. outdoor) is associated with PM2.5 levels. During initial testing, households reported using the following sources of lighting: open wick kerosene (19.3%), hurricane kerosene (45.5%), battery powered (33.0%), and solar (1.1%) lamps. During follow-up testing these proportions changed to 29.5%, 35.2%, 18.2%, and 9.1%, respectively. Average ambient, living room, and kitchen PM2.5 levels were 20.2, 35.2, and 270.0 μg/m(3) . Living rooms using open wick kerosene lamps had the highest PM2.5 levels (55.3 μg/m(3) ) compared to those using solar lighting (19.4 μg/m(3) ; open wick vs. solar, p = 0.01). 27.6% of homes using open wick kerosene lamps met World Health Organization indoor air quality standards compared to 75.0% in homes using solar lighting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual forms of malnutrition in the same households in Malaysia--a case study among Malay rural households.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Sharif, Zalilah Mohd

    2003-01-01

    This report is a part of a multi-centre study in Asia on the problem of dual forms of malnutrition in the same households. In Malaysia, the prevalence of underweight and stunting persist among young children from poor rural areas. Overweight in adults, especially women from poor rural areas has been reported in recent years. Thus, this study was undertaken in order to assess the presence of the dual burden of underweight child-overweight mother pairs in a poor rural community. Out of 140 Malay households identified to have at least one child aged 1-6 years and mother aged above 20 years, 52.1% of the mothers were overweight, 15.7% of the children were underweight, 27.1% stunted and 5% wasted. Socio-economic background and food intake frequency data were collected from 54 underweight child/overweight mother pairs (UW/OW) and 41 normal weight child/normal weight mother pairs (NW/NW). Compared with the overweight mothers, a higher percentage of the normal weight mothers had received secondary education, were employed and with a higher household monthly income, although these differences were not significant. Patterns of food intake of the mothers and children appeared to have more similarities than differences between the UW/OW and NW/NW groups. Quantitative dietary intakes for 2 days using 24-hr recall and physical activity energy expenditure over the same period were assessed in a sub-group of UW/OW and NW/NW mothers and children. The NW/NW children showed significantly higher intake of total calories, fat and riboflavin than the UW/OW counterparts. Mean energy and nutrient intake of mothers from both groups were not significantly different, although the NW/NW mothers showed higher intake adequacy for total calories and most nutrients. While most of the mothers from both groups reported having no chronic illnesses, about half of the children in both groups had infections, especially gastrointestinal infections, over a 2-week period. Energy expenditure from physical

  19. Class Size and Sorting in Market Equilibrium: Theory and Evidence. NBER Working Paper No. 13303

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquiola, Miguel; Verhoogen, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how schools choose class size and how households sort in response to those choices. Focusing on the highly liberalized Chilean education market, we develop a model in which schools are heterogeneous in an underlying productivity parameter, class size is a component of school quality, households are heterogeneous in income and…

  20. An age-size reaction norm yields insight into environmental interactions affecting life-history traits: a factorial study of larval development in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Conan; Rotiberg, Bernard D

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors frequently act nonindependently to determine growth and development of insects. Because age and size at maturity strongly influence population dynamics, interaction effects among environmental variables complicate the task of predicting dynamics of insect populations under novel conditions. We reared larvae of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) under three factors relevant to changes in climate and land use: food level, water depth, and temperature. Each factor was held at two levels in a fully crossed design, for eight experimental treatments. Larval survival, larval development time, and adult size (wing length) were measured to indicate the importance of interaction effects upon population-level processes. For age and size at emergence, but not survival, significant interaction effects were detected for all three factors, in addition to sex. Some of these interaction effects can be understood as consequences of how the different factors influence energy usage in the context of a nonindependent relationship between age and size. Experimentally assessing interaction effects for all potential future sets of conditions is intractable. However, considering how different factors affect energy usage within the context of an insect's evolved developmental program can provide insight into the causes of complex environmental effects on populations.

  1. The Economic impact of Non-communicable Diseases on households in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and injuries account for an estimated 62% of the total age-standardized burden of forgone Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Public and private financing of clinical services to reduce the NCD burden is a major challenge. Methods We used National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) survey data from 1995-96 and 2004 covering nearly 200 thousand households to assess healthcare utilization patterns and out of pocket health spending by disease category. For this purpose, self-reported diseases and conditions were categorized into NCDs and non-NCDs. Survey data were used to assess how households financed their overall health expenditures and related this pattern to specific health conditions. We measured catastrophic spending on NCD-related hospitalization, defined as occurring when health expenditures exceeded 40% of a household's ability to pay, that is, household consumption spending less combined survival consumption expenditure; and impoverishment when per capita expenditure within the household decreased to below the poverty line once health spending was netted out. Results The share of NCDs in out of pocket health expenses incurred by households increased over time, from 31.6 percent in 1995-96 to 47.3 percent in 2004. In both years, own savings and income were the most important source of financing for many health conditions, typically between 40-60 percent of all spending, whereas 30-35 percent was from borrowing. The odds of catastrophic hospitalization expenditures for cancer was nearly 170% greater and for CVD and injuries 22 percent greater than the odds due to communicable diseases. Impoverishment patterns were similar. Conclusions Out of pocket expenses for treating NCDs rose sharply over the period from 1995-96 to 2004. When NCDs are present, the financial risks to which Indians households are exposed are significant. PMID:22533895

  2. Nutritional assessment of rural villages and estates in Peninsular Malaysia: I Socio-economic profile of households.

    PubMed

    Chee, H; Khor, G; Tee, E S

    1997-03-01

    A nutritional study was carried out on six (five rural and one urban) low income groups in Peninsular Malaysia from 1992-1995. In this paper, the socio-economic data for the five rural groups - padi farmers, rubber smallholders, coconut smallholders, estate workers, and fishermen - are presented. With the exception of the estate workers, the sample was predominantly Malay, with an overall mean household size of 5.30. Household incomes were generally low, and 47% of all households had incomes that were below the poverty line income (PLI) of RM405. Based on this PLI, the prevalence of poverty was above 50% among the padi, rubber, coconut, and fishing households. Nevertheless, the study population appeared to be better off in terms of the other indicators examined. Poultry rearing, for example, was widespread in the padi, rubber, and coconut villages; 65% of all households owned at least one motorised vehicle, 53% owned a refrigerator, and 83% owned a television set. Furthermore, over 80% of all households had access to piped water, 96% had electricity supply, and over 90% had a flush or pour-flush latrine. In comparison to the 1979-1983 poverty villages study (Chong et al., 1984), the households in the current study enjoyed better living conditions. Strict comparisons between the two studies, however, is difficult owing to the different criteria adopted in the selection of the study villages.

  3. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  4. Final Report, The Influence of Organic-Aerosol Emissions and Aging on Regional and Global Aerosol Size Distributions and the CCN Number Budget

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Neil M.

    2015-12-23

    We conducted laboratory experiments and analyzed data on aging of organic aerosol and analysis of field data on volatility and CCN activity. With supplemental ASR funding we participated in the FLAME-IV campaign in Missoula MT in the Fall of 2012, deploying a two-chamber photochemical agi