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Sample records for age human occupations

  1. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, James M.; Johnston, Harvey; Olley, Jon M.; Prescott, John R.; Roberts, Richard G.; Shawcross, Wilfred; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2003-02-01

    Australia's oldest human remains, found at Lake Mungo, include the world's oldest ritual ochre burial (Mungo III) and the first recorded cremation (Mungo I). Until now, the importance of these finds has been constrained by limited chronologies and palaeoenvironmental information. Mungo III, the source of the world's oldest human mitochondrial DNA, has been variously estimated at 30 thousand years (kyr) old, 42-45kyr old and 62 +/- 6kyr old, while radiocarbon estimates placed the Mungo I cremation near 20-26kyr ago. Here we report a new series of 25 optical ages showing that both burials occurred at 40 +/- 2kyr ago and that humans were present at Lake Mungo by 50-46kyr ago, synchronously with, or soon after, initial occupation of northern and western Australia. Stratigraphic evidence indicates fluctuations between lake-full and drier conditions from 50 to 40kyr ago, simultaneously with increased dust deposition, human arrival and continent-wide extinction of the megafauna. This was followed by sustained aridity between 40 and 30kyr ago. This new chronology corrects previous estimates for human burials at this important site and provides a new picture of Homo sapiens adapting to deteriorating climate in the world's driest inhabited continent.

  2. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowler, James M; Johnston, Harvey; Olley, Jon M; Prescott, John R; Roberts, Richard G; Shawcross, Wilfred; Spooner, Nigel A

    2003-02-20

    Australia's oldest human remains, found at Lake Mungo, include the world's oldest ritual ochre burial (Mungo III) and the first recorded cremation (Mungo I). Until now, the importance of these finds has been constrained by limited chronologies and palaeoenvironmental information. Mungo III, the source of the world's oldest human mitochondrial DNA, has been variously estimated at 30 thousand years (kyr) old, 42-45 kyr old and 62 +/- 6 kyr old, while radiocarbon estimates placed the Mungo I cremation near 20-26 kyr ago. Here we report a new series of 25 optical ages showing that both burials occurred at 40 +/- 2 kyr ago and that humans were present at Lake Mungo by 50-46 kyr ago, synchronously with, or soon after, initial occupation of northern and western Australia. Stratigraphic evidence indicates fluctuations between lake-full and drier conditions from 50 to 40 kyr ago, simultaneously with increased dust deposition, human arrival and continent-wide extinction of the megafauna. This was followed by sustained aridity between 40 and 30 kyr ago. This new chronology corrects previous estimates for human burials at this important site and provides a new picture of Homo sapiens adapting to deteriorating climate in the world's driest inhabited continent.

  3. Human occupancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1994-10-01

    In the area of security and surveillance technologies, the problem of the arrival in Canada of illegal and undesirable ship and truck cargo loads is steadily increasing. As the volumes of cargo arrivals increase so do the Immigration and Customs problems related to the determination of the validity of those cargo contents. Of special concern to Immigration Control Authorities around the world is the emerging and increasing trend of illegal smuggling of human beings hidden inside of shipping containers. Beginning in 1992, Immigration Control Authorities in Canada observed an escalation of alien people smuggling through the use of cargo shipping containers arriving in the Port of Montreal. This paper will present to the audience the recently completed Immigration Canada Human Occupancy Detection project by explaining the design, development and testing of human occupancy detectors. The devices are designed to electronically detect the presence of persons hiding inside of shipping containers, without the requirement of opening the container doors. The human occupancy detection concepts are based upon the presence of carbon dioxide or other human waste characteristics commonly found inside of shipping containers.

  4. Multiproxy record of late Quaternary climate change and Middle Stone Age human occupation at Wonderkrater, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backwell, Lucinda R.; McCarthy, Terence S.; Wadley, Lyn; Henderson, Zoë; Steininger, Christine M.; Bonita deKlerk; Barré, Magali; Lamothe, Michel; Chase, Brian M.; Woodborne, Stephan; Susino, George J.; Bamford, Marion K.; Sievers, Christine; Brink, James S.; Rossouw, Lloyd; Pollarolo, Luca; Trower, Gary; Scott, Louis; d'Errico, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Here we provide a multiproxy record of climate change and human occupation at Wonderkrater, a spring and peat mound site situated in the interior of southern Africa. Recently extracted sediment cores yielded a number of Middle Stone Age (MSA) artefacts, prompting exploratory excavation of the sediments to understand better the geomorphology of the site, age of the sediments, cultural lithic sequence, vegetation and faunal remains, and to try to establish whether human use of the site was to some extent climatically driven. Excavations yielded late Pleistocene mammal fauna and flora, and three small MSA lithic assemblages with age estimates of 30 ka, >45 ka and 138.01 ± 7.7 ka. The upper layers comprise peat that preserves macrobotanical and faunal remains, implying local fen conditions in Acacia savanna woodland at 12 ka. Below the upper peat layers, a 1 m-thick layer of white sand yielded two MSA lithic assemblages in association with faunal remains dated to between 30.8 ± 0.7 ka and >45 ka. Clay underlying the sand has an OSL age of 63.1 ± 5.8 ka, and sandy peat below it has an Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) age of 70 ± 10 ka. Faunal remains in the lower sand levels, and dental stable carbon isotope analysis of herbivores, indicate a substantial grassland component in the landscape during late MIS 3 (>45 ka). Charcoal, phytolith and pollen data show a change from moderately warm and dry grassy savanna woodland in the lower sand levels, to cooler and wetter grassland with woody shrubs in the uppermost levels by 30 ka. The conditions that resulted in the deposition of the sand also attracted people to the site, but whether it served as an oasis in an arid landscape, or was occupied during wet phases, is unclear. The composition of the lithic assemblages, which include many tools suitable for cutting, suggest that the peat mound may have been used as a place to harvest reeds, process plant materials and butcher animals that were either deliberately or

  5. Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold; And Others

    Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

  6. Last glacial-interglacial environments in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA and implications for Younger Dryas-age human occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Meltzer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The last glacial-interglacial transition (LGIT; 19-9 ka) was characterized by rapid climate changes and significant ecosystem reorganizations worldwide. In western Colorado, one of the coldest locations in the continental US today, mountain environments during the late-glacial period are poorly known. Yet, archaeological evidence from the Mountaineer site (2625 m elev.) indicates that Folsom-age Paleoindians were over-wintering in the Gunnison Basin during the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 12.9-11.7 ka). To determine the vegetation and fire history during the LGIT, and possible explanations for occupation during a period thought to be harsher than today, a 17-ka-old sediment core from Lily Pond (3208 m elev.) was analyzed for pollen and charcoal and compared with other high-resolution records from the southern Rocky Mountains. Widespread tundra and Picea parkland and low fire activity in the cold wet late-glacial period transitioned to open subalpine forest and increased fire activity in the Bølling-Allerød period as conditions became warmer and drier. During the YDC, greater winter snowpack than today and prolonged wet springs likely expanded subalpine forest to lower elevations than today, providing construction material and fuel for the early inhabitants. In the early to middle Holocene, arid conditions resulted in xerophytic vegetation and frequent fire.

  7. Age and occupational well-being.

    PubMed

    Warr, P

    1992-03-01

    Two questions are examined through an investigation of 1,686 people employed in a wide range of jobs. First, is there a U-shaped relationship between age and occupational well-being, such that medium-aged workers report lower well-being than do both younger and older people? That pattern is found, in relationship to both job anxiety-contentment and job depression-enthusiasm. Second, can the observed associations between age and well-being be accounted for by 13 potentially explanatory factors, covering job position, job characteristics, work values, demographic factors, and family life cycle? After introducing these variables into stepwise regression equations, age remains significantly predictive of job well-being. Possible additional explanations of this positive association include other characteristics, an increasingly retrospective focus, and nonoccupational experiences.

  8. Integration of Occupational and Humanities Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doggrell, Joan; And Others

    At Clark County Community College, efforts to integrate occupational and humanities curricula have focused on introducing humanities materials directly into selected vocational courses, which are required for program majors. In fall 1982, philosophy was introduced to students in a "Fundamentals of Nursing" course through a module…

  9. Empirical Evidence on Occupation and Industry Specific Human Capital

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents instrumental variables estimates of the effects of firm tenure, occupation specific work experience, industry specific work experience, and general work experience on wages using data from the 1979 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The estimates indicate that both occupation and industry specific human capital are key determinants of wages, and the importance of various types of human capital varies widely across one-digit occupations. Human capital is primarily occupation specific in occupations such as craftsmen, where workers realize a 14% increase in wages after five years of occupation specific experience but do not realize wage gains from industry specific experience. In contrast, human capital is primarily industry specific in other occupations such as managerial employment where workers realize a 23% wage increase after five years of industry specific work experience. In other occupations, such as professional employment, both occupation and industry specific human capital are key determinants of wages. PMID:20526448

  10. Differentiation of Occupational Perceptions Among Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Hypothesizes that occupational perceptions are more specific for older age groups than for younger age groups. Hypothesis was tested by using latent root analysis and minimum residual factor analysis to analyze intercorrelations among six Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales for five large and diverse samples. Both analyses supported the…

  11. A Critical Analysis of the Model of Human Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haglund, Lena; Kjellberg, Anette

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the applicability of the Model of Human Occupation in Swedish occupational therapy concludes that the environment is a central factor in understanding occupational behavior, but the model does not accurately or adequately depict the relationship between individuals and the environment. Volition is also an important factor in…

  12. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  13. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights.

  14. Sleep and Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-04-05

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need?

  15. Occupational health nursing practice through the Human Caring lens.

    PubMed

    Noel, Dianne L

    2010-01-01

    Many health care and academic centers have adopted Watson's Theory of Human Caring as their guiding principle; the theory is also used in other disciplines, such as library science. Human caring theory offers occupational health nurses as structure that not only defines a focus for practice, but also provides a basis for moral and philosophical practice analyses. In particular, nurses may find this theory useful in confirming the definition of "caring" and reconsidering what nursing is all about. More importantly, consideration and application of this theory may lead to research on its applicability to the field of occupational health nursing. This article presents the science and philosophy of human caring, specifically Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how the theory could be used to evaluate occupational health nursing practice. To demonstrate its possible relevance as an occupational health nursing framework, an analysis of and comparison to existing occupational health nursing guidelines are detailed and discussed.

  16. Human Services. Georgia Core Standards for Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.

    This document lists core standards and occupational knowledge and skills that have been identified and validated by industry as necessary to all Georgia students in secondary-level human services occupations programs. First, foundation skills are grouped as follows: basic skills (reading, writing, arithmetic/mathematics, listening, speaking);…

  17. Work Characteristics and Occupational Well-Being: The Role of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Schmitt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person-environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, we review research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational well-being. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators can be linear or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research. PMID:27713711

  18. [The relationships among occupational and organizational commitment, human relations in the workplace, and well-being in nurses].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tadayuki

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship among human relations in the workplace, job involvement, affective commitment and continuance commitment with occupational and organizational commitment, and well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 855 female nurses who worked in four public hospitals (mean age = 32.6 years). The results of factor analysis showed that each component of the vocational constructs was distinguishable from the others. Path analysis showed that human relations in the workplace directly influenced job involvement and affective commitment both to the occupation and to the organization. Job involvement in turn directly influenced affective commitment and continuance commitment to the occupation. Job involvement also influenced affective commitment to the organization directly, and indirectly through affective commitment to the occupation. Finally, it was found that human relations in the workplace and affective commitment to the occupation positively influenced well-being; continuance commitment to the occupation was a negative influence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Role of Occupational Therapy in Combating Human Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kathleen W; Hatkevich, Beth Ann

    Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored. The profession of occupational therapy has the capacity of having a profound role in both providing client-centered care services to victims and survivors of human trafficking and partaking in preventive advocacy efforts to combat human trafficking. Further advocacy efforts are required to promote the profession of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking.

  20. Occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and premature skin ageing.

    PubMed

    Lastowiecka-Moras, Elżbieta; Bugajska, Joanna; Młynarczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The skin is the part of the human body most vulnerable to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The spectrum of the negative effects of UV radiation on the skin ranges from acute erythema to carcinogenesis. Between these extreme conditions, there are other common skin lesions, e.g., photoageing. The aim of this study was to assess the skin for signs of photoageing in a group of 52 men occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation. There were 2 types of examinations: an examination of skin condition (moisture, elasticity, sebum, porosity, smoothness, discolourations and wrinkles) with a device for diagnosing the skin, and a dermatological examination. The results of both examinations revealed a higher percentage of skin characteristics typical for photoageing in outdoor workers compared to the general population.

  1. Health and Human Services. Occupational Analyses. Worker Task Lists and Supplementary Information for Selected Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains worker task lists and supplementary information for eight occupations in the health and human services cluster: (1) criminal justice; (2) protective services; (3) dental assistant; (4) dental hygienist; (5) diagnostic medical sonographer; (6) medical office assistant; (7) fire medic; and (8) parks and recreation manager.…

  2. Strengthening Humanities in the Occupational Curriculums at Chemeketa Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonecker, William G.

    Chemeketa Community College's (CCC's) efforts to place a greater emphasis on the humanities within occupational curricula are described in this report. It first relates the background of the rift between humanities and technical faculty at the college, which developed after the introduction of a separate transfer curriculum in 1970 and which…

  3. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  4. The age of the Lower Paleolithic occupation at Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Richter, Daniel; Krbetschek, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) data are presented for eight samples of heated flint collected at the archaeological site of Schöningen 13/I-1 (Cycle I), for which a Holsteinian age is suggested by palynology of stratigraphically similar positions within a cyclic sedimentological model for the Quaternary sequence of Schöningen. Although the fire responsible for the zeroing of the TL-signal cannot be unequivocally attributed to human activities, any time difference between a natural fire and the human occupation is negligible for a site of this antiquity. The weighted mean age of 321 ± 16 ka places the last heating of the flints nominally in the age range of Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 10 to 8. By inference this data would suggest an attribution of the Holsteinian to MIS 9 and may also serve as a maximum age estimate for the spear site of Schöningen 13/II-4 (Cycle II). Considering the chronometric data available and following an alternative sedimentological model the age of these two sites at Schöningen can be considered as belonging to the same climatic cycle. This suggests an attribution to MIS 9, and by inference provides an age estimate of 337-300 ka for the oldest spears in human history.

  5. Engagement in patterns of daily occupations and perceived health among women of working age.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Carita; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Sonn, Ulla

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine how subjective experiences of engagement in patterns of daily occupations (gainful employment, domestic work, enjoyable and recreational occupations) were associated with perceived health among women of working age. The sample (n=488) was drawn from a longitudinal cohort study of women of working age in Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants were women 38 (n=202) and 50 (n=286) years of age. They completed a questionnaire including questions about occupational experiences in relation to their patterns of daily occupations, perceived health, and socioeconomic factors. The results of the present study showed that a combination of different experience dimensions of patterns of daily occupations was associated with perceived health among women of working age, even when adjusted for socioeconomic factors and age. The results provided occupational pattern-related health indicators, i.e. manageability, personally meaningful occupations, and occupational balance. To combine these health indicators can be a way for occupational therapists to enable women to develop strategies to promote health and to prevent stress and sick leave.

  6. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  7. An improved human display model for occupant crash simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willmert, K. D.; Potter, T. E.

    1975-01-01

    An improved three-dimensional display model of a human being which can be used to display the results of three-dimensional simulation programs that predict the positions of an occupant during impact of a vehicle was presented. The model allows the user to view the occupant from any orientation in any position during the crash. The display model assumes the usual break up of the body into rigid segments which is normal for occupant crash simulation programs, but the shape of the segments in the display model are not necessarily the same as those used in the crash simulation. The display model is proportioned so as to produce a realistic drawing of the human body in any position. Joints connecting the segments are also drawn to improve realism.

  8. Who Tweets? Deriving the Demographic Characteristics of Age, Occupation and Social Class from Twitter User Meta-Data

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect “signatures” of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed. PMID:25729900

  9. Who tweets? Deriving the demographic characteristics of age, occupation and social class from twitter user meta-data.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed.

  10. Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hospodsky, Denina; Qian, Jing; Nazaroff, William W.; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Bibby, Kyle; Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid; Peccia, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study presents evidence for elevated concentrations of indoor airborne bacteria due to human occupancy, and investigates the sources of these bacteria. Samples were collected in a university classroom while occupied and when vacant. The total particle mass concentration, bacterial genome concentration, and bacterial phylogenetic populations were characterized in indoor, outdoor, and ventilation duct supply air, as well as in the dust of ventilation system filters and in floor dust. Occupancy increased the total aerosol mass and bacterial genome concentration in indoor air PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions, with an increase of nearly two orders of magnitude in airborne bacterial genome concentration in PM10. On a per mass basis, floor dust was enriched in bacterial genomes compared to airborne particles. Quantitative comparisons between bacterial populations in indoor air and potential sources suggest that resuspended floor dust is an important contributor to bacterial aerosol populations during occupancy. Experiments that controlled for resuspension from the floor implies that direct human shedding may also significantly impact the concentration of indoor airborne particles. The high content of bacteria specific to the skin, nostrils, and hair of humans found in indoor air and in floor dust indicates that floors are an important reservoir of human-associated bacteria, and that the direct particle shedding of desquamated skin cells and their subsequent resuspension strongly influenced the airborne bacteria population structure in this human-occupied environment. Inhalation exposure to microbes shed by other current or previous human occupants may occur in communal indoor environments. PMID:22529946

  11. Human occupancy as a source of indoor airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hospodsky, Denina; Qian, Jing; Nazaroff, William W; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Bibby, Kyle; Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid; Peccia, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study presents evidence for elevated concentrations of indoor airborne bacteria due to human occupancy, and investigates the sources of these bacteria. Samples were collected in a university classroom while occupied and when vacant. The total particle mass concentration, bacterial genome concentration, and bacterial phylogenetic populations were characterized in indoor, outdoor, and ventilation duct supply air, as well as in the dust of ventilation system filters and in floor dust. Occupancy increased the total aerosol mass and bacterial genome concentration in indoor air PM(10) and PM(2.5) size fractions, with an increase of nearly two orders of magnitude in airborne bacterial genome concentration in PM(10). On a per mass basis, floor dust was enriched in bacterial genomes compared to airborne particles. Quantitative comparisons between bacterial populations in indoor air and potential sources suggest that resuspended floor dust is an important contributor to bacterial aerosol populations during occupancy. Experiments that controlled for resuspension from the floor implies that direct human shedding may also significantly impact the concentration of indoor airborne particles. The high content of bacteria specific to the skin, nostrils, and hair of humans found in indoor air and in floor dust indicates that floors are an important reservoir of human-associated bacteria, and that the direct particle shedding of desquamated skin cells and their subsequent resuspension strongly influenced the airborne bacteria population structure in this human-occupied environment. Inhalation exposure to microbes shed by other current or previous human occupants may occur in communal indoor environments.

  12. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  13. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  14. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  15. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  16. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  17. Educational Mismatches and Earnings: Extensions of Occupational Mobility Theory and Evidence of Human Capital Depreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Using a human capital theory framework, this study examines the impact of educational mismatches on earnings and occupational mobility. Occupational mobility theory suggests that overeducated workers observe greater upward occupational mobility and undereducated workers observe lower upward occupational mobility. By extension, this leads to…

  18. Update on productive aging research in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2012.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a review of articles on productive aging published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) during 2012 in light of the Centennial Vision charge of supporting practice through evidence. Seventeen AJOT articles published in 2012 specifically addressed productive aging. Of 6 Level I studies, 4 were systematic reviews that identified effective occupational therapy interventions for community-dwelling older adults; 1 randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of writing life reviews for residents of senior residences, and 1 meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of fall-related efficacy and engagement in activity or occupation. Two Level II studies and 2 Level III studies produced support for the effectiveness of individual and group-based occupational therapy interventions. Of 7 descriptive studies addressing a variety of areas, 4 addressed the reliability and validity of assessments. In 2012, AJOT published more and higher quality studies addressing a variety of issues related to productive aging.

  19. Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The authors adapted the concept of future time perspective (FTP) to the work context and examined its relationships with age and work characteristics (job complexity and control). Structural equation modeling of data from 176 employees of various occupations showed that age is negatively related to 2 distinct dimensions of occupational FTP: remaining time and remaining opportunities. Work characteristics (job complexity and control) were positively related to remaining opportunities and moderated the relationship between age and remaining opportunities, such that the relationship became weaker with increasing levels of job complexity and control.

  20. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  1. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  2. Climate, human occupation and travertine deposits in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Louis; Pozzi, Jean-Pierre; Falguères, Christophe; Mahieux, Geoffroy; Beauchamp, Jacques; Ouammou, Abderrahmane; Haddad, Mustapha; Bejjit, Lahcen

    2015-04-01

    Specific calcitic geological formations produced by water (speleothems and travertines) constitute an attractive environment for Humans through recent Quaternary period. The potential contribution of calcite analysis is exceptional because beyond the fact that it is close system for U-series dating, it also registers oxygen stable isotope (delta 18O) variations which reveal temperature fluctuations and carbon stable isotopes (12C and 13C) which reveal, different types of vegetation (herbaceous or arboreal) that successively appeared through icehouse and greenhouse periods. Hydrothermal travertine delta 13 C values are displaced to more positive value than the average of meteogene (fluvial) travertines. Growth stages of calcite can be dated using several radiochronological methods, extended from present time until 500 ka with U-series dating method, and using paleomagnetic studies for older Pleistocene period. Geochemical and paleomagnetic data allow constraining human development within the Quaternary chronostratigraphic scale which is compared to the marine isotopic scale as a reference. Meteogene travertines are less suitable for geochemical isotopic studies and radiochonology than hydrothermal travertine due to their numerous impurities. Here we present the first results obtained by the studies of Moroccan hydrothermal and fluvial travertine in 24 archeological sites distributed on the Moroccan territory. Two main information about growth periods are obtained: (1) travertine precipitation is effective from 1.1 millions years to Holocene, (2) growth periods are observed during both glacial and interglacial stages of the global climatic frame.The travertine prehistoric human occupation is discontinuous during the older periods but becomes more continuous since MIS 9 (350 ka). In the SE Morocco, in the Tafilalet area, flint fragments and Levallois nuclei were found upon travertine. They are probably relevant to Mousterian culture (from 200 to 35 ka.). Human

  3. Occupational status differences in attributions of uniquely human emotions.

    PubMed

    Iatridis, Tilemachos

    2013-09-01

    Infrahumanization theory has claimed that groups tend to infrahumanize, and thus denigrate, each other irrespective of group status. However, research on infrahumanization has mainly addressed status in the context of national, ethnic, and regional divisions. The present studies tested the effect of group status in infrahumanization by employing occupational groups of varied status, both in abstract (blue-collar vs. white-collar workers) and specific terms (lawyers vs. shopkeepers, and high school teachers vs. university faculty members and primary school teachers). The results showed that only relatively higher status groups always attributed uniquely human emotions more to their in-group than to lower status out-groups. In contrast, lower status groups showed no bias in attributions of uniquely human emotions, or were biased in favour of the higher status out-group. The discussion of these results points to the role of consensus in the distribution of social value amongst groups of asymmetric status.

  4. Younger age at onset of sporadic Parkinson's disease among subjects occupationally exposed to metals and pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Farb, David H.; Ozer, Josef; Feldman, Robert G.; Durso, Raymon

    2014-01-01

    An earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported to be associated with occupational exposures to manganese and hydrocarbon solvents suggesting that exposure to neurotoxic chemicals may hasten the progression of idiopathic PD. In this study the role of occupational exposure to metals and pesticides in the progression of idiopathic PD was assessed by looking at age at disease onset. The effects of heritable genetic risk factors, which may also influence age at onset, was minimized by including only sporadic cases of PD with no family history of the disease (n=58). Independent samples Student t-test revealed that subjects with occupational exposure to metals and/or pesticides (n=36) were significantly (p=0.013) younger than unexposed controls (n=22). These subjects were then divided into three groups [high (n=18), low (n=18), and unexposed (n=22)] to ascertain if duration of exposure further influenced age at onset of PD. One-way ANOVA revealed that subjects in the high exposure group were significantly (p=0.0121) younger (mean age: 50.33 years) than unexposed subjects (mean age: 60.45 years). Subjects were also stratified by exposure type (metals vs. pesticides). These results suggest that chronic exposure to metals and pesticides is associated with a younger age at onset of PD among patients with no family history of the disease and that duration of exposure is a factor in the magnitude of this effect. PMID:26109889

  5. Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Reserve in a Middle-Aged Cohort at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Elizabeth A.; Schultz, Stephanie A.; Almeida, Rodrigo P.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, Maritza N.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2015-01-01

    Higher occupational attainment has previously been associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology when individuals are matched for cognitive function, indicating occupation could provide cognitive reserve. We examined whether occupational complexity (OCC) associates with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy given comparable cognitive function in middle-aged adults at risk for AD. Participants (n = 323) underwent structural MRI, cognitive evaluation, and work history assessment. Three complexity ratings (work with data, people, and things) were obtained, averaged across up to 3 reported jobs, weighted by years per job, and summed to create a composite OCC rating. Greater OCC was associated with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy when matched for cognitive function; results remained substantively unchanged after adjusting for several demographic, AD risk, vascular, mental health, and socioeconomic characteristics. These findings suggest that, in people at risk for AD, OCC may confer resilience to the adverse effects of neuropathology on cognition. PMID:26156334

  6. The Green Sahara: Climate Change, Hydrologic History and Human Occupation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Farr, Tom G.; Feynmann, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Paillou, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can provide insight into interactions of climate change and human activities in sensitive areas such as the Sahara, to the benefit of both disciplines. Such analyses can help set bounds on climate change projections, perhaps identify elements of tipping points, and provide constraints on models. The opportunity exists to more precisely constrain the relationship of natural solar and climate interactions, improving understanding of present and future anthropogenic forcing. We are beginning to explore the relationship of human occupation of the Sahara and long-term solar irradiance variations synergetic with changes in atmospheric-ocean circulation patterns. Archaeological and climate records for the last 12 K years are gaining adequate precision to make such comparisons possible. We employ a range of climate records taken over the globe (e.g. Antarctica, Greenland, Cariaco Basin, West African Ocean cores, records from caves) to identify the timing and spatial patterns affecting Saharan climate to compare with archaeological records. We see correlation in changing ocean temperature patterns approx. contemporaneous with drying of the Sahara approx. 6K years BP. The role of radar images and other remote sensing in this work includes providing a geographically comprehensive geomorphic overview of this key area. Such coverage is becoming available from the Japanese PALSAR radar system, which can guide field work to collect archaeological and climatic data to further constrain the climate change chronology and link to models. Our initial remote sensing efforts concentrate on the Gilf Kebir area of Egypt.

  7. Lung, gastric and colorectal cancer mortality by occupation and industry among working-aged men in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R.

    2017-01-01

    We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25–64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8–11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. The highest mortality rates for lung and colorectal cancer by occupation were “administrative and managerial” (by occupation) and “mining” (by industry). For gastric cancer, the highest mortality rate was “agriculture” (by occupation) and “mining” (by industry). By occupation; Japanese men in service occupations, those in administrative and managerial positions, those in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and those in professional and engineering categories had higher relative mortality risks for lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. By industry; mining, electricity and gas, fisheries, and agriculture and forestry had the higher mortality risks for those cancers. Unemployed men had higher mortality rates than men in any occupation and industry for all three cancers. Overall, this study suggests that for Japanese men, occupations and industries may be a key social determinant of health. PMID:28230191

  8. Lung, gastric and colorectal cancer mortality by occupation and industry among working-aged men in Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R

    2017-02-23

    We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25-64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8-11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. The highest mortality rates for lung and colorectal cancer by occupation were "administrative and managerial" (by occupation) and "mining" (by industry). For gastric cancer, the highest mortality rate was "agriculture" (by occupation) and "mining" (by industry). By occupation; Japanese men in service occupations, those in administrative and managerial positions, those in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and those in professional and engineering categories had higher relative mortality risks for lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. By industry; mining, electricity and gas, fisheries, and agriculture and forestry had the higher mortality risks for those cancers. Unemployed men had higher mortality rates than men in any occupation and industry for all three cancers. Overall, this study suggests that for Japanese men, occupations and industries may be a key social determinant of health.

  9. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  10. Short human occupations in the Middle Palaeolithic level I of the Abric Romani rock-shelter (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Vallverdú, J; Allué, E; Bischoff, J L; Cáceres, I; Carbonell, E; Cebrià, A; García-Antón, D; Huguet, R; Ibáñez, N; Martínez, K; Pastó, I; Rosell, J; Saladié, P; Vaquero, M

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary study on the size of the occupied surfaces, provisioning strategies and behaviour planning at the Romani rock-shelter, using the Middle Palaeolithic record of the level i. This level is dated around 46.000 BP through U/Th ages. A behavioural interpretation is proposed, which emphasises the activities and the systemic value of the archaeological artefacts and structures. Occupation patterns are identified on the basis of the accumulations formed by human activities. These archaeological accumulations, consisting of artefacts and hearths, are easily defined visually as spatial units. The relationships between these accumulations, established by means of refitted remains, indicate that differences can be established between: 1) small and medium-sized occupation surfaces; 2) restricted and diversified provisioning strategies. This variability suggests that different modes of occupation are represented in the same archaeological level. The human activities reveal the generalization of fire technology. In almost all sizes of the occupation surfaces, the exploitation of vegetal resources near the Abric Romani marks the threshold of the restricted provisioning strategy. Limited use and fragmented knapping activities are recorded in the lithic assemblage. Faunal remains show differential transport. The exploitation of lithic, faunal and vegetal resources characterizes the diversified provisioning strategy. The small occupation surfaces and restricted provisioning strategies suggest short settlements in the Abric Romani. This shorter occupation model complements the longer diversified provisioning strategy recorded in both small and medium-sized occupied surfaces. The selection of precise elements for transport and the possible deferred consumption in the diversified provision strategy suggest an individual supply. In this respect, Neanderthal occupations in the Romani rock-shelter show a direct relation to: 1) hunting strategic

  11. Occupational Outlook in the 15th Century: Sanchez de Arevalo's Mirror of Human Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassus, Henri; Zytowski, Donald G.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a book published in 1468, Rodrigo Sanchez de Arevalo's "Mirror of Human Life," the earliest known comprehensive compilation of occupational descriptions. Describes the similarity of Sanchez's ideas about occupational choice and contemporary career counseling theory: informed choice; person-environment congruence; and the components of…

  12. Early human occupation of Western Europe: Paleomagnetic dates for two paleolithic sites in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Oms, O.; Parés, J. M.; Martínez-Navarro, B.; Agustí, J.; Toro, I.; Martínez-Fernández, G.; Turq, A.

    2000-01-01

    The lacustrine deposits infilling the intramontane Guadix-Baza Basin, in the Betic Range of Southern Spain, have yielded abundant well-preserved lithic artifacts. In addition, the lake beds contain a wide range of micromammals including Mimomys savini and Allophaiomys burgondiae and large mammals such as Mammuthus and Hippopotamus together with the African saber-toothed felid Megantereon. The association of the lithic artifacts along with the fossil assemblages, themselves of prime significance in the Eurasian mammal biochronology, is providing new insight into the controversy of the human settlement in Southern Europe. Despite the importance of the artifacts and fossil assemblage, estimates of the geological age of the site are still in conflict. Some attempts at dating the sediments have included biochronology, uranium series, amino acid racemization, and stratigraphic correlation with other well-dated sections in the basin, but so far have failed to yield unambiguous ages. Here we present paleomagnetic age dating at the relevant localities and thus provide useful age constraints for this critical paleoanthropological and mammal site. Our data provide firm evidence for human occupation in Southern Europe in the Lower Pleistocene, around 1 mega-annum ago. The current view of when and how hominids first dispersed into Europe needs to be reevaluated. PMID:10973485

  13. Muscarinic receptor occupancy by biperiden in living human brain.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Y; Suhara, T; Suzuki, K; Okubo, Y; Yoshikawa, K; Uchida, S; Sassa, T; Okauchi, T; Sasaki, Y; Matsushita, M

    1999-01-01

    Anticholinergic drug is often used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms. We measured muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) occupancy by the oral administration of biperiden in eight healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate (NMPB). After the baseline scan each subject underwent one or two post-dose PET scans. mAchR occupancy was 10-45% in the frontal cortex three hours after the oral administration of 4 mg of biperiden. The occupancy correlated with the plasma concentration of biperiden in a curvilinear manner.

  14. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research.

  15. The Role of Occupational Complexity in Trajectories of Cognitive Aging Before and After Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; Andel, Ross; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between complexity of the main lifetime occupation and changes in cognitive ability in later life. Data on complexity of work with data, people, and things and on four cognitive factors (verbal, spatial, memory, and speed) were available from 462 individuals in the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Mean age at the first measurement wave was 64.3 (s.d. = 7.2) and 65% of the sample had at least 3 waves of data. Occupational complexity with people and data were both correlated with cognitive performance. Individuals with more complex work demonstrated higher mean performance on the verbal, spatial, and speed factors. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that, after correcting for education, only complexity with people was associated with differences in cognitive performance and rate of cognitive change. Continued engagement as a result of occupational complexity with people helped to facilitate verbal function before retirement, while a previous high level of complexity of work with people was associated with faster decline after retirement on the spatial factor. PMID:19739912

  16. Human Occupation Successively Accumulates Microorganisms and Changes Their Diversity in a Planetary Out-Post Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, T. M.; Blachowicz, A. B.; Probst, A. P.; Vaishampayan, P. V.; Checinska, A. C.; Swarmer, T. S.; De Leon, P. D. L.; Venkateswaran, K. V.

    2015-10-01

    The microbial contamination of a simulated inflatable lunar/mars habitat during a 30-day occupation period by three student astronauts was monitored. Results provide evidence for a strong relationship of human presence and microbial succession.

  17. Last glacial megafaunal death assemblage and early human occupation at Lake Menindee, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupper, Matthew L.; Duncan, Jacqui

    2006-09-01

    The Tedford subfossil locality at Lake Menindee preserves a diverse assemblage of marsupials, monotremes and placental rodents. Of the 38 mammal taxa recorded at the site, almost a third are of extinct megafauna. Some of the bones are articulated or semi-articulated and include almost complete skeletons, indicating that aeolian sediments rapidly buried the animals following death. New optical ages show the site dates to the early part of the last glacial (55,700 ± 1300 yr weighted mean age). This is close to the 51,200-39,800 yr Australia-wide extinction age for megafauna suggested by Roberts et al. [2001, Science 292:1888-1892], but like all previous researchers, we cannot conclusively determine whether humans were implicated in the deaths of the animals. Although an intrusive hearth at the site dating to 45,100 ± 1400 yr ago is the oldest evidence of human occupation of the Darling River, no artifacts were identified in situ within the sub-fossil-bearing unit. Non-anthropogenic causes, such as natural senescence or ecosystem stress due to climatic aridity, probably explain the mortality of the faunal assemblage at Lake Menindee.

  18. Eudaimonic well-being: its importance and relevance to occupational therapy for humanity.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Claire; Taylor, Jackie

    2011-09-01

    Contemporary critique of the philosophy and theory of occupational therapy has asserted that the mainstream of the profession holds a westernized view of the world and that occupational therapy has been shackled to notions of health/illness and the medical establishment for too long, hampering movement into social and political spheres. Strategies and developments have been proposed to combat these biases, which have included increased cultural relativism and a re-focus on the subjective experience of occupation. The value placed on "being" in occupational therapy philosophy is described alongside the related terms of occupational integrity and spirituality. Drawing on theory and research from psychology, this paper proposes the construct of eudaimonic well-being as both relevant and valuable to occupational therapy in re-conceptualizing the profession, countering some of the central tensions in the identity of the profession and re-asserting that well-being through occupation is for all and for humanity. Finally, the paper proposes that well-being, in a eudaimonic sense, should be advertised and evidenced as a routine outcome of occupational therapy and consolidated into occupational therapy models as a relevant and meaningful concept.

  19. Ageing of the human hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Swaab, D F

    1995-01-01

    The various hypothalamic nuclei show very different patterns of change in ageing. These patterns are a basis for changes in biological rhythms, hormones, autonomous functions or behavior. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) coordinates circadian and circannual rhythms. A marked seasonal and circadian variation in the vasopressin (AVP) cell number of the SCN was observed in relation to the variation in photoperiod. During normal ageing, the circadian variation and number of AVP-expressing neurons in the SCN decreases. The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN), intermediate nucleus or INAH-1 is localized between the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In adult men the SDN is twice as large as in adult women. In girls, the SDN shows a first period of decreasing cell numbers during prepubertal development, leading to sexual dimorphism. During ageing a decrease in cell number is found in both sexes. The cells of the supraoptic nucleus and PVN produce AVP or oxytocin and coexpress tyrosine hydroxylase. These nuclei are examples of neuron populations that seem to stay perfectly intact in ageing. Parvicellular corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-containing neurons are found throughout the PVN. CRH neurons in the PVN are activated in the course of ageing, as indicated by their increase in number and AVP coexpression. Part of the infundibular (or arcuate) nucleus, the subventricular nucleus, contains hypertrophic neurons in postmenopausal women. The hypertrophied neurons contain neurokinin-B (NKB), substance P and estrogen receptors and probably act on LHRH neurons as interneurons. The NKB neurons may also be involved in the initiation of menopausal flushes. The nucleus tuberalis lateralis might be involved in feeding behavior and metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes.

  1. Disaster recovery: lessons learned from an occupational health and human resources perspective.

    PubMed

    Perce, Karen H

    2007-06-01

    Hurricane Katrina was unprecedented in its impact on individuals, businesses, community infrastructure, and national disaster support systems. The business recovery experience highlighted the key roles of human resources professionals and the occupational health nurse in assisting employees and the business to recover. Business leaders may not realize the importance of the occupational health nurse's knowledge and skills in preparing and testing the business continuity plan, and the nurse's role in the disaster recovery effort. This is a critical opportunity for the nurse to contribute. Learning from previous disaster recovery efforts is an important step in increasing the occupational health nurse's effectiveness in a business disaster recovery effort.

  2. The Impact of Aging on Human Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Barbara A.

    1985-01-01

    Lay persons and professionals need to be educated on the effects of aging on human sexuality. Effective communication techniques and accurate sexuality information can lead to prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction. (Author/DF)

  3. Human hair lead copper levels in three occupationally unexposed population groups in Calcutta

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, J.; Chaudhuri, A.B.D.

    1996-10-01

    The element lead (Pb) has been very widely studied in man due to its widespread occurrence and toxic effects. There is no known nutritional value of Pb and it is stored in the bone by replacing calcium. In the cellular level, Pb alters cell membrane structure and membrane on function. It is a potent inhibitor of the Na{sup +} K{sup +} ATPase. Pb also interferes with the activity of the enzymes delta-aminoevulinic acid synthetase, delta-aminolevulinic dehydrase and intra-mitochondrial ferrochelatase. In the pre-natal level, Pb-exposure may lead to an increased risk of prematurity and reduction of gestational age in humans. Pb-exposure causes adverse neuro-psychological effects among young children and numerous endrocrinal disturbances among adults. It has shown that Human Scalp Hair (HSH) Pb concentration can be used very successfully to document population exposure to this toxic element. Copper is known to be biologically essential, but Cu poisoning is rare in humans. This study attempts to document exposure and to determine `base-line` values for HSH Pb and CU among three occupationally unexposed population groups in Calcutta. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions for the Occupational Specialist. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Juanita B.; Boland, Jeanne M.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist interact effectively with a variety of students, teachers, co-workers and employees. Other modules in this set of three are Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational…

  5. College Students' Perceptions of Job Demands, Recommended Retirement Ages, and Age of Optimal Performance in Selected Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Staats, Sara; Hiles, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted. In study one 100 participants rated 60 occupations on the amount of cognitive/intellectual, physical, sensory-perceptual, and perceptual-motor demands they perceived as required for successful performance in that particular occupation. Results of a cluster analysis determined four clusters of occupations on the basis of…

  6. Three case studies of community occupational therapy for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Misko, Alexis N; Nelson, David L; Duggan, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate the complexities and opportunities in providing community-based occupational therapy services to persons with HIV. An infectious disease physician recommended three clients for therapy sessions in both the home and community. The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) in conjunction with the Conceptual Framework for Therapeutic Occupation (CFTO) was used to guide the therapeutic process. Assessments measured challenges to clients and client progress in the following areas: leisure, mobility, organization, problem solving, community involvement, transitioning to independent living, fatigue, childcare/play, and home management. This paper describes the three cases with findings suggesting that community-based occupational therapy has potential to address important issues such as habits, roles, and volition in the HIV/AIDS population.

  7. The environmental contexts of early human occupation of Georgia (Transcaucasia).

    PubMed

    Gabunia, L; Vekua, A; Lordkipanidze, D

    2000-06-01

    The hominid mandible and a third metatarsal found in Dmanisi (Republic of Georgia) are accompanied by a rich faunal assemblage and a core-chopper stone tool industry. The mandible represents a somewhat isolated morphological type of Homo erectus that appears, given the combination of its primitive and advanced traits and specific dental morphology, to be a forerunner of both late H. erectus and early archaic H. sapiens. The faunal assemblage mostly consists of Villafranchian mammals, with the majority of the species assigned to an early phase of the Upper Villafranchian (Late Villanian and Early Biharian). Faunal and paleobotanical evidence as well as the depositional nature of the site indicate that hominid occupation took place in a mosaic environment of open steppe and gallery forests. Both the concentration of resources and the warm climatic conditions in the Dmanisi region at the beginning of the early Pleistocene were favorable for hominid occupation. It is possible that hominids reached the Caucasus through the Levantine corridor, and that the environment of this region allowed them to establish a stronghold and later colonize adjacent areas.

  8. Achieving Ecological Validity of Occupation-Based Interventions for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Bernal, Guillermo; Mountain, Gail A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To develop a culturally sensitive occupation-based health promotion intervention for older Hispanic adults who live alone. Methods We used a mixed method design for the content validation of the intervention and the Ecological Validity Model (EVM) to culturally center the intervention. In the quantitative phase, aging experts as well as community members from two activity centers for the elderly in Puerto Rico completed a content validity ratio exercise. In the qualitative phase, we conducted three focus groups with these participants. Data analysis included content validity ratio and a directed content analysis. Results This resulted in a working version of the intervention protocol addressing the eight dimensions of the EVM. Conclusions The EVM can be used to culturally center preventive interventions to other ethnic minority groups to augment the external validity and cultural competence of interventions. Future research must test the feasibility of this new intervention. PMID:25632170

  9. Permanent human occupation of the central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M C; Aldenderfer, M S; Wang, Z; Hoffmann, D L; Dahl, J A; Degering, D; Haas, W R; Schlütz, F

    2017-01-06

    Current models of the peopling of the higher-elevation zones of the Tibetan Plateau postulate that permanent occupation could only have been facilitated by an agricultural lifeway at ~3.6 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present. Here we report a reanalysis of the chronology of the Chusang site, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at an elevation of ~4270 meters above sea level. The minimum age of the site is fixed at ~7.4 thousand years (thorium-230/uranium dating), with a maximum age between ~8.20 and 12.67 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present (carbon-14 assays). Travel cost modeling and archaeological data suggest that the site was part of an annual, permanent, preagricultural occupation of the central plateau. These findings challenge current models of the occupation of the Tibetan Plateau.

  10. [Physiological features of skin ageing in human].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, I V; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K

    2013-01-01

    The issue deals with the actual problem of gerontology, notably physiological features of human skin ageing. In the present review the authors have considered the kinds of ageing, central factors, affected on the ageing process (ultraviolet radiation and oxidation stress), as well as the research guidelines of the ageing changes in the skin structure and fuctions: study of mechanical properties, microcirculation, pH and skin thickness. The special attention has been payed to the methods of assessment of skin blood flow, and to results of investigations of age features of peripheral microhemodynamics. The laser Doppler flowmetry technique - one of the modern, noninvasive and extensively used methods for the assessmant of skin blood flow microcirculation system has been expanded in the review. The main results of the study of the ageing changes of skin blood perfusion using this method has been also presented.

  11. [Age and aging as incomplete architecture of human ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1999-12-01

    The focus is on the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development across the life span. The starting point is the frame provided by past evolutionary forces. A first conclusion is that for modern times and the relative brevity of the time windows involved in modernity, further change in human functioning is primarily dependent on the evolution of new cultural forms of knowledge rather than evolution-based changes in the human genome. A second conclusion concerns the general architecture of the life course. Three governing lifespan developmental principles coexist. First, because long-term evolutionary selection evince a negative age correlation, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity and negative effects associated with some principles of learning (e.g., negative transfer), the efficiency of culture is reduced as lifespan development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Three examples are given to illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture outlined. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes and their age-related dynamics: Selection, optimization, and compensation. The second example is theory and research on lifespan intelligence that distinguishes between the biology-based mechanics and culture-based pragmatics of intelligence and specifies distinct age gradients for the two categories of intellectual functioning. The third example considers the goal of evolving a positive biological and cultural scenario for the last phase of life (fourth age). Because of the general lifespan architecture outlined, this objective becomes

  12. Aging of the human ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Perheentupa, Antti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2009-02-05

    Aging is associated with structural and functional alterations in all organs of the human body. The aging of gonads represents in this respect a special case, because these organs are not functional for the whole lifespan of an individual and their normal function is not indispensable for functions of the rest of the body. Ovarian function lasts for the reproductive life of a woman, i.e., from menarche until menopause. The testicular endocrine function, in contrast, begins already in utero, is interrupted between neonatal life and puberty, and continues thereafter along with spermatogenesis, with only slight decline, until old age. The aging processes of the ovary and testis are therefore very different. We describe in this review the structural and functional alterations in the human ovary and testis upon aging. Special emphasis will be given to clinically significant alterations, which in women concern the causes and consequences of the individual variability of fertility during the latter part of the reproductive age. The clinically important aspect of testicular aging entails the decline of androgen production in aging men.

  13. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  14. The impact of aging on human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rienzo, B A

    1985-02-01

    Review of gerontological and medical literature reveals the need for education for lay persons and professionals about the effects of the aging process on human sexuality. Primary prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction could be abated by including accurate information about sexuality and aging and effective communication techniques in sexuality education programs, including those with young adults. In addition, professional preparation of health educators must include the skills and knowledge needed in this area.

  15. Occupational Therapy Practitioners' Perceptions of Important Competencies for Handwriting Evaluation and Intervention in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Peter; Woodall, William; Weber, Mark; Bailey, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the practitioner competencies that occupational therapists perceive as important for handwriting evaluation and intervention in school-aged children. A secondary purpose was to compare the practitioner perceptions of those in school-based practice with those from other primary practice…

  16. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  17. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  18. Accelerated aging syndromes, are they relevant to normal human aging?

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Oliver; Stewart, Colin L

    2011-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) and Werner syndromes are diseases that clinically resemble some aspects of accelerated aging. HGPS is caused by mutations in theLMNA gene resulting in post-translational processing defects that trigger Progeria in children. Werner syndrome, arising from mutations in the WRN helicase gene, causes premature aging in young adults. What are the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these disorders and what aspects of the diseases resemble physiological human aging? Much of what we know stems from the study of patient derived fibroblasts with both mutations resulting in increased DNA damage, primarily at telomeres. However, in vivo patients with Werner's develop arteriosclerosis, among other pathologies. In HGPS patients, including iPS derived cells from HGPS patients, as well as some mouse models for Progeria, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) appears to be among the most severely affected tissues. Defective Lamin processing, associated with DNA damage, is present in VSM from old individuals, indicating processing defects may be a factor in normal aging. Whether persistent DNA damage, particularly at telomeres, is the root cause for these pathologies remains to be established, since not all progeroid Lmna mutations result in DNA damage and genome instability.

  19. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies.

  20. Aging-associated changes in human brain.

    PubMed

    Mrak, R E; Griffin, S T; Graham, D I

    1997-12-01

    A wide variety of anatomic and histological alterations are common in brains of aged individuals. However, identification of intrinsic aging changes--as distinct from changes resulting from cumulative environmental insult--is problematic. Some degree of neuronal and volume loss would appear to be inevitable, but recent studies have suggested that the magnitudes of such changes are much less than previously thought, and studies of dendritic complexity in cognitively intact individuals suggest continuing neuronal plasticity into the eighth decade. A number of vascular changes become more frequent with age, many attributable to systemic conditions such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Age-associated vascular changes not clearly linked to such conditions include hyaline arteriosclerotic changes with formation of arterial tortuosities in small intracranial vessels and the radiographic changes in deep cerebral white matter known as "leukoaraiosis." Aging is accompanied by increases in glial cell activation, in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, in irreversible protein glycation, and in damage to DNA, and such changes may underlie in part the age-associated increasing incidence of "degenerative" conditions such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. A small number of histological changes appear to be universal in aged human brains. These include increasing numbers of corpora amylacea within astrocytic processes near blood-brain or cerebrospinal fluid-brain interfaces, accumulation of the "aging" pigment lipofuscin in all brain regions, and appearance of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary tangles (but not necessarily amyloid plaques) in mesial temporal structures.

  1. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Erhart, Wiebke; Brosch, Mario; Ammerpohl, Ole; von Schönfels, Witigo; Ahrens, Markus; Heits, Nils; Bell, Jordana T; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Spector, Tim D; Deloukas, Panos; Siebert, Reiner; Sipos, Bence; Becker, Thomas; Röcken, Christoph; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen

    2014-10-28

    Because of the dearth of biomarkers of aging, it has been difficult to test the hypothesis that obesity increases tissue age. Here we use a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred to as an "epigenetic clock") to study the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and the DNA methylation ages of human blood, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A significant correlation between BMI and epigenetic age acceleration could only be observed for liver (r = 0.42, P = 6.8 × 10(-4) in dataset 1 and r = 0.42, P = 1.2 × 10(-4) in dataset 2). On average, epigenetic age increased by 3.3 y for each 10 BMI units. The detected age acceleration in liver is not associated with the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score or any of its component traits after adjustment for BMI. The 279 genes that are underexpressed in older liver samples are highly enriched (1.2 × 10(-9)) with nuclear mitochondrial genes that play a role in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport. The epigenetic age acceleration, which is not reversible in the short term after rapid weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, may play a role in liver-related comorbidities of obesity, such as insulin resistance and liver cancer.

  2. Assessing biofidelity of the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) against historic human volunteer data.

    PubMed

    Newby, Nate; Somers, Jeffrey T; Caldwell, Erin E; Perry, Chris; Littell, Justin; Gernhardt, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in characterizing the responses of THOR (test device for human occupant restraint) anthropometric test device (ATD) to representative loading acceleration pulses. Test conditions were selected both for their applicability to anticipated NASA landing scenarios, and for comparison to human volunteer data previously collected by the United States Air Force (USAF). THOR impact testing was conducted in the fore-to-aft frontal (-x) and in the upward spinal (-z) directions with peak sled accelerations ranging from 8 to 12 G and rise times of 40, 70, and 100ms. Each test condition was paired with historical human data sets under similar test conditions that were also conducted on the HIA. A correlation score was calculated for each THOR to human comparison using CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) software. A two-parameter beta distribution model fit was obtained for each dependent variable using maximum likelihood estimation. For frontal impacts, the THOR head x-acceleration peak response correlated with the human response at 8 and 10G 100ms, but not 10G 70ms. The phase lagged the human response. Head z-acceleration was not correlated. Chest x-acceleration was in phase, had a higher peak response, and was well correlated with lighter subjects (Cora = 0.8 for 46 kg vs. Cora = 0.4 for 126kg). Head x-displacement had a leading phase. Several subjects responded with the same peak displacement, but the mean of the group was lower. The shoulder x-displacement was in phase but had higher peaks than the human response. For spinal impacts, the THOR head x-acceleration was not well correlated. Head and chest z-acceleration was in phase, but had a higher peak response. Chest z-acceleration was highly correlated with heavier subjects at lower G pulses (Cora = 0.86 for 125kg at 8G). The human response was variable in should z-displacement, but the THOR was in phase and was comparable to the mean peak response. Head x

  3. The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical functional limitations (PFL) have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement) cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%); the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%). Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47 years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women. PMID:22494385

  4. Chamber bioaerosol study: outdoor air and human occupants as sources of indoor airborne microbes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel I; Bhangar, Seema; Pasut, Wilmer; Arens, Edward A; Taylor, John W; Lindow, Steven E; Nazaroff, William W; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Human occupants are an important source of microbes in indoor environments. In this study, we used DNA sequencing of filter samples to assess the fungal and bacterial composition of air in an environmental chamber under different levels of occupancy, activity, and exposed or covered carpeting. In this office-like, mechanically ventilated environment, results showed a strong influence of outdoor-derived particles, with the indoor microbial composition tracking that of outdoor air for the 2-hour sampling periods. The number of occupants and their activity played a significant but smaller role influencing the composition of indoor bioaerosols. Human-associated taxa were observed but were not particularly abundant, except in the case of one fungus that appeared to be transported into the chamber on the clothing of a study participant. Overall, this study revealed a smaller signature of human body-associated taxa than had been expected based on recent studies of indoor microbiomes, suggesting that occupants may not exert a strong influence on bioaerosol microbial composition in a space that, like many offices, is well ventilated with air that is moderately filtered and moderately occupied.

  5. Chamber Bioaerosol Study: Outdoor Air and Human Occupants as Sources of Indoor Airborne Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel I.; Bhangar, Seema; Pasut, Wilmer; Arens, Edward A.; Taylor, John W.; Lindow, Steven E.; Nazaroff, William W.; Bruns, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Human occupants are an important source of microbes in indoor environments. In this study, we used DNA sequencing of filter samples to assess the fungal and bacterial composition of air in an environmental chamber under different levels of occupancy, activity, and exposed or covered carpeting. In this office-like, mechanically ventilated environment, results showed a strong influence of outdoor-derived particles, with the indoor microbial composition tracking that of outdoor air for the 2-hour sampling periods. The number of occupants and their activity played a significant but smaller role influencing the composition of indoor bioaerosols. Human-associated taxa were observed but were not particularly abundant, except in the case of one fungus that appeared to be transported into the chamber on the clothing of a study participant. Overall, this study revealed a smaller signature of human body-associated taxa than had been expected based on recent studies of indoor microbiomes, suggesting that occupants may not exert a strong influence on bioaerosol microbial composition in a space that, like many offices, is well ventilated with air that is moderately filtered and moderately occupied. PMID:26024222

  6. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116.

  7. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  8. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-03-03

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30-59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30-59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan's social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession.

  9. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30–59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30–59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan’s social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession. PMID:26936097

  10. Occupational Mobility in Queensland's Aged Care, Automotive and Civil Construction Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukka, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Current trends in workforce development indicate the movement of workers within and across occupations to be the norm. In 2009, only one in three vocational education and training (VET) graduates in Australia ended up working in an occupation for which they were trained. This implies that VET enhances the employability of its graduates by…

  11. Middle Palaeolithic human occupation of the high altitude region of Hovk-1, Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinhasi, R.; Gasparian, B.; Nahapetyan, S.; Bar-Oz, G.; Weissbrod, L.; Bruch, A. A.; Hovsepyan, R.; Wilkinson, K.

    2011-12-01

    Charting the timing of human occupation in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus during the Last Interglacial/Glacial periods is of particular interest to the understanding of past human adaptive and behavioural plasticity and capacity. In this paper we analyse palaeoenvironmental, faunal, and archaeological data gathered during 2006-2009 excavations of the Palaeolithic cave site of Hovk-1, Armenia, in order to address whether human presence in this cave correlates with episodes of mild climate and certain environmental and ecological conditions that were favourable to huminin occupation in such a region. In the second part of the paper we evaluate the implications of our results in understanding the nature of human presence in other mountainous regions such as the Alps and its potential implications for Palaeolithic research. Our analysis demonstrates that hominins occupied Hovk-1 Cave during milder climatic phases of the Last Interglacial sensu lato (MIS 5d-c) and Last Glacial (late MIS 4/early MIS 3) periods when the area surrounding the cave was an open meadow environment. The stratigraphic Units with noticeable traces of hominin occupation (Units 4, 5 & 8) contrast with others in the lack of cave bear fauna and suggest an inverse correlation between human and cave bear occupational phases in Hovk-1. We speculate that human groups visited this region to hunt specific prey species that prevailed in this habitat (such as the bezoar goat). However, the assemblages of large mammals from Hovk-1 do not provide any clear anthropogenic signal and therefore highlight the difficulty of teasing apart natural and cultural formation processes.

  12. Human serum metabolic profiles are age dependent

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhonghao; Zhai, Guangju; Singmann, Paula; He, Ying; Xu, Tao; Prehn, Cornelia; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Lattka, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Soranzo, Nicole; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Mittelstraß, Kirstin; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Peters, Annette; Suhre, Karsten; Li, Yixue; Adamski, Jerzy; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; Wang-Sattler, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of aging is of utmost importance. This can now be addressed by the novel and powerful approach of metabolomics. However, to date, only a few metabolic studies based on large samples are available. Here, we provide novel and specific information on age-related metabolite concentration changes in human homeostasis. We report results from two population-based studies: the KORA F4 study from Germany as a discovery cohort, with 1038 female and 1124 male participants (32–81 years), and the TwinsUK study as replication, with 724 female participants. Targeted metabolomics of fasting serum samples quantified 131 metabolites by FIA-MS/MS. Among these, 71/34 metabolites were significantly associated with age in women/men (BMI adjusted). We further identified a set of 13 independent metabolites in women (with P values ranging from 4.6 × 10−04 to 7.8 × 10−42, αcorr = 0.004). Eleven of these 13 metabolites were replicated in the TwinsUK study, including seven metabolite concentrations that increased with age (C0, C10:1, C12:1, C18:1, SM C16:1, SM C18:1, and PC aa C28:1), while histidine decreased. These results indicate that metabolic profiles are age dependent and might reflect different aging processes, such as incomplete mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The use of metabolomics will increase our understanding of aging networks and may lead to discoveries that help enhance healthy aging. PMID:22834969

  13. Occupations of SSI recipients who work.

    PubMed

    Hemmeter, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the 2007 American Community Survey to estimate the occupational distribution of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability recipients aged 18-61 who work, and it compares their occupational distribution with that of working nonrecipients with and without disabilities. Based on models of occupational choice for working SSI recipients and nonrecipients, predicted occupational distributions are also estimated to understand what occupations are available to SSI recipients. Unlike the nonrecipient populations that are largely composed of sales- and office-based occupations (25 percent), the most common occupations of SSI recipients who work are in services (34 percent) and production, transportation, and material moving (30 percent), although sales- and office-based occupations are also common for SSI recipients (22 percent). The occupational distribution of working SSI recipients is also more concentrated than that of nonrecipient populations. Dissimilarity indices are used to compare the predicted and actual occupational distributions of the SSI recipient population and nonrecipient populations. More than one-half of the difference between the occupations of working SSI recipients and nonrecipients can be explained by demographic characteristics, human capital, and disability type. Additionally, nonemployed SSI recipients have similar predicted occupational distributions as currently employed SSI recipients. Given the estimated occupational distributions and the average earnings of individuals in the most common occupations of SSI recipients, the results suggest that more targeted vocational training may provide expanded opportunities for employment.

  14. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helle R; Debes, Fróði; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11 years together with 44 newly recruited children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in the children as a whole and with impaired neuropsychological function in girls, while no effect was apparent in boys. In girls, language and motor speed functions were significantly inversely associated with prenatal exposure, and a non-significant tendency toward decreased function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on their children's neurodevelopment, despite the fact that the exposures occurred solely during early pregnancy and under well regulated working conditions, where special measures to protect pregnant women were applied.

  15. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  16. Occupational Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  17. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  18. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. PMID:26565102

  19. The Development of Occupational Sex-Role Stereotypes: The Effects of Gender Stability and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Eileen S.C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    1983-01-01

    Investigated occupational stereotypes of nursery school, kindergarten, third- and sixth-grade children, and the effects of their acquiring the concept of gender stability. Assessed (1) personal aspirations, and (2) ideas about jobs men and women do. (Author/GC)

  20. Bitter Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics. PMID:23133589

  1. Burnout in occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J C; Dodson, S C

    1988-12-01

    Burnout is a job-related condition involving feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981a) is the instrument most widely used to measure job-related stress in human service professions, such as occupational therapy. This study explored the application of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for use with occupational therapists. The subjects were 99 registered occupational therapists residing in the southeastern United States. Mean scores lower than the aggregate occupational norms provided by the test's authors on the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization subscales supported the need to develop specific norms for occupational therapists. Results of this study indicate that use of the aggregate norms would underestimate the level of experienced burnout. Correlational analyses delineated significant relationships between age and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, education and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, years of work as an occupational therapist and Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment, years in the present position and Personal Accomplishment (intensity only), hours of direct patient contact and Emotional Exhaustion (intensity only), and hours of direct patient contact and Depersonalization (frequency only). These correlates of burnout furnish clues for understanding the development of work-related stress in occupational therapists.

  2. Sleep-wake cycle of adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire: influence of age, gender, religion and occupation.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.002), religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.

  3. Human Benzene Metabolism Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Stephen M.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Lan, Qing; Li, Guilan; Vermeulen, Roel; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Zhang, Luoping; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two enzymes, including a hitherto unrecognized high-affinity enzyme that was responsible for an estimated 73 percent of total urinary metabolites [sum of phenol (PH), hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CA), E,E-muconic acid (MA), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA)] in nonsmoking females exposed to benzene at sub-saturating (ppb) air concentrations. Here, we used the same Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic models to individually analyze urinary levels of PH, HQ, CA and MA from 263 nonsmoking Chinese women (179 benzene-exposed workers and 84 control workers) with estimated benzene air concentrations ranging from less than 0.001 ppm to 299 ppm. One model depicted benzene metabolism as a single enzymatic process (1-enzyme model) and the other as two enzymatic processes which competed for access to benzene (2-enzyme model). We evaluated model fits based upon the difference in values of Akaike’s Information Criterion (ΔAIC), and we gauged the weights of evidence favoring the two models based upon the associated Akaike weights and Evidence Ratios. For each metabolite, the 2-enzyme model provided a better fit than the 1-enzyme model with ΔAIC values decreasing in the order 9.511 for MA, 7.379 for PH, 1.417 for CA, and 0.193 for HQ. The corresponding weights of evidence favoring the 2-enzyme model (Evidence Ratios) were: 116.2:1 for MA, 40.0:1 for PH, 2.0:1 for CA and 1.1:1 for HQ. These results indicate that our earlier findings from models of total metabolites were driven largely by MA, representing the ring-opening pathway, and by PH, representing the ring-hydroxylation pathway. The predicted percentage of benzene metabolized by the putative high-affinity enzyme at an air concentration of 0.001 ppm was 88% based upon urinary MA and was 80% based upon urinary PH. As benzene concentrations increased, the respective percentages of benzene metabolized to MA and PH by the high-affinity enzyme decreased successively

  4. Aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vestibular system contributes to sympathetic activation by engagement of the otolith organs. However, there is a significant loss of vestibular function with aging. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if young and older individuals differ in their cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to otolithic stimulation (ie, head-down rotation, HDR). We hypothesized that responses to otolithic stimulation would be attenuated in older adults because of morphological and physiological alterations that occur in the vestibular system with aging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and head rotation were measured during HDR in 11 young (26 +/- 1 years) and 11 older (64 +/- 1 years) subjects in the prone posture. Five older subjects performed head rotation (chin to chest) in the lateral decubitus position, which simulates HDR but does not alter afferent inputs from the vestibular system. MSNA responses to HDR were significantly attenuated in older as compared with young subjects (P<0.01). MSNA increased in the older subjects by only 12 +/- 5% as compared with 85 +/- 16% in the young. Furthermore, HDR elicited significant reductions in mean arterial blood pressure in older (Delta-6 +/- 1 mm Hg; P<0.01) but not young subjects (Delta1 +/- 1 mm Hg). In contrast to HDR, head rotation performed in the lateral decubitus position did not elicit hypotension. MSNA responses to baroreceptor unloading and the cold pressor test were not different between the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans and may contribute to the increased prevalence of orthostatic hypotension with age.

  5. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed human beings of Himachal Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Shalmali; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Chahota, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    The chief objective of respective study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 165 serum samples that were obtained from human beings from various regions of the state were screened through a battery of serological tests which included RBPT, STAT, 2-MET, dot-ELISA and indirect-ELISA. 165 of human sera samples included 42 from veterinarians, 40 shepherds, 35 livestock owners, 20 workers at veterinary hospitals/clinics, 16 abattoir workers and 12 veterinary pharmacists. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings was observed to be 6.66% showing highest in abattoir workers (18.75%) followed by pharmacists (8.33%), veterinarians (7.14%), and livestock owners (5.71%) and shepherds (5.00%). In humans it is prevalent as an occult infection or under diagnosed disease, especially; in case of abattoir workers the highest seropositivity for brucella agglutinins was observed. Indirect-ELISA and Dot-ELISA proved best in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  6. Evidence of repeated wildfires prior to human occupation on San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.; Skipp, Gary L.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how early humans on the California Channel Islands might have changed local fire regimes requires a baseline knowledge of the frequency of natural wildfires on the islands prior to human occupation. A sedimentary sequence that was recently discovered in a small canyon on San Nicolas Island contains evidence of at least 24 burn events that date to between ~37 and 25 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), well before humans entered North America. The evidence includes abundant macroscopic charcoal, blackened sediments, and discrete packages of oxidized, reddish-brown sediments that are similar in appearance to sedimentary features called “fire areas” on Santa Rosa Island and elsewhere. Massive fine-grained sediments that contain the burn evidence are interpreted as sheetwash deposits and are interbedded with coarse-grained, clast-supported alluvial sediments and matrix supported sands, pebbles, and cobbles that represent localized debris flows. These sedimentary sequences suggest that the catchment area above our study site underwent multiple cycles of relative quiescence that were interrupted by fire and followed by slope instability and mass wasting events. Our 14C-based chronology dates these cycles to well before the arrival of humans on the Channel Islands and shows that natural wildfires occurred here, at a minimum, every 300–500 years prior to human occupation.

  7. Aging of oocyte, ovary, and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, Chris; Uda, Manuela; Hamatani, Toshio; Crisponi, Laura; Garcia, Jose-Elias; Ko, Minoru; Pilia, Giuseppe; Sforza, Chiarella; Schlessinger, David; Forabosco, Antonino

    2004-12-01

    We review age-related changes in the ovary and their effect on female fertility, with particular emphasis on follicle formation, follicle dynamics, and oocyte quality. The evidence indicates that the developmental processes leading to follicle formation set the rules determining follicle quiescence and growth. This regulatory system is maintained until menopause and is directly affected in at least some models of premature ovarian failure (POF), most strikingly in the Foxl2 mouse knockout, a model of human POF with monogenic etiology (blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome). Several lines of evidence indicate that if the ovarian germ cell lineage maintains regenerative potential, as recently suggested in the mouse, a role in follicle dynamics for germ stem cells, if any, is likely indirect or secondary. In addition, age-related variations in oocyte quality in animal models suggest that reproductive competence is acquired progressively and might depend on parallel growth and differentiation of follicle cells and stroma. Genomewide analyses of the mouse oocyte transcriptome have begun to be used to systematically investigate the mechanisms of reproductive competence that are altered with aging. Investigative and therapeutic strategies can benefit from considering the role of continuous interactions between follicle cells and oocytes from the beginning of histogenesis to full maturation.

  8. Melatonin and aging: prospects for human treatment.

    PubMed

    Bubenik, G A; Konturek, S J

    2011-02-01

    Human life span, with or without modern medicine is around 85-95 years. All living creatures have their inner clock that measures their daily (circadian) and their seasonal (circannual) time. These time changes are mediated by the alteration of levels of melatonin, an evolutionary ancient hormone, which is produced in many body tissues, including the pineal gland, retina and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Light is blocking the production of melatonin in the pineal gland, darkness is stimulating it. So, the diurnal changes of light intensity of melatonin, provide a "daily clock" and the seasonal changes provide a "seasonal clock". Finally, the reduction of melatonin observed with aging, may indicate the presence of an "age clock". Melatonin is a strong antioxidant (often it is called scavenger of free radicals), which protects the body from the effects of noxious compounds. Therefore it was hypothesized that the reduction of melatonin levels with age contributes to the aging process. So far, the only remedy to extend the life span was a 40% reduction in caloric intake, which prolonged the life in mice, rats, dogs and monkeys by 30-50%. A large group of people imitate these experiments performed on animals, but the results of these experiments will not be known for several decades. How is being hungry prolonging the life span? There is a connection between caloric reduction and melatonin levels in GIT. Several experiments indicate that fasting in animals substantially increased their production of GIT melatonin. Therefore, instead of being permanently hungry, a prolongation of human life could be achieved by a replacement melatonin therapy. A daily intake of melatonin before bed time might achieve the same effect as fasting e.g. an increase of body melatonin levels, which will protect the individual from the ravages of old age. That includes Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. There is a large group of people taking melatonin daily who believe that

  9. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  10. Human disturbance and stage-specific habitat requirements influence snowy plover site occupancy during the breeding season

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Alyson F; Heath, Julie A; Fischer, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Habitat use has important consequences for avian reproductive success and survival. In coastal areas with recreational activity, human disturbance may limit use of otherwise suitable habitat. Snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus have a patchy breeding distribution along the coastal areas on the Florida Panhandle, USA. Our goal was to determine the relative effects of seasonal human disturbance and habitat requirements on snowy plover habitat use. We surveyed 303 sites for snowy plovers, human disturbance, and habitat features between January and July 2009 and 2010. We made multiple visits during three different sampling periods that corresponded to snowy plover breeding: pre-breeding, incubation, and brood-rearing and used multi-season occupancy models to examine whether human disturbance, habitat features, or both influenced site occupancy, colonization (probability of transition from an unoccupied site to an occupied site), and extinction (probability of transition from an occupied site to an unoccupied site). Snowy plover site occupancy and colonization was negatively associated with human disturbance and site extinction was positively associated with human disturbance. Interdune vegetation had a negative effect on occupancy and colonization, indicating that plovers were less likely to use areas with uniform, dense vegetation among dunes. Also, dune shape, beach debris, and access to low-energy foraging areas influenced site occupancy, colonization, and extinction. Plovers used habitat based on beach characteristics that provided stage-specific resource needs; however, human disturbance was the strongest predictor of site occupancy. In addition, vegetation plantings used to enhance dune rehabilitation may negatively impact plover site occupancy. Management actions that decrease human disturbance, such as symbolic fencing and signage, may increase the amount of breeding habitat available to snowy plovers on the Florida Panhandle and in other areas with high human

  11. iPSC technology to study human aging and aging-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Hui; Ding, Zhichao; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2012-12-01

    A global aging population, normally accompanied by a high incidence of aging-associated diseases, has prompted a renewed interest in basic research on human aging. Although encouraging progress has been achieved using animal models, the underlying fundamental mechanisms of aging remain largely unknown. Here, we review the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models of aging and aging-related diseases. These models seek to advance our knowledge of aging molecular mechanisms and help to develop strategies for treating aging-associated human diseases.

  12. Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational Specialist Working with Groups. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, E. Thomas; Chick, Joyce M., Ed.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist better understand how to use basic human relations skills with students and others. Other modules in this set of three are Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions…

  13. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-05-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics.

  14. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-01-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics. PMID:3707871

  15. Human environmental and occupational exposures to boric acid: reconciliation with experimental reproductive toxicity data.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçın

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive toxicity of boric acid and borates is a matter of current regulatory concern. Based on experimental studies in rats, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were found to be 17.5 mg boron (B)/kg body weight (b.w.) for male fertility and 9.6 mg B/kg b.w. for developmental toxicity. Recently, occupational human field studies in highly exposed cohorts were reported from China and Turkey, with both studies showing negative results regarding male reproduction. A comparison of the conditions of these studies with the experimental NOAEL conditions are based on reported B blood levels, which is clearly superior to a scaling according to estimated B exposures. A comparison of estimated daily B exposure levels and measured B blood levels confirms the preference of biomonitoring data for a comparison of human field studies. In general, it appears that high environmental exposures to B are lower than possible high occupational exposures. The comparison reveals no contradiction between human and experimental reproductive toxicity data. It clearly appears that human B exposures, even in the highest exposed cohorts, are too low to reach the blood (and target tissue) concentrations that would be required to exert adverse effects on reproductive functions.

  16. The Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System: Knowledge-Age Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhasin, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of a communication council by the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System (CCCOES) for the purpose of consortial communication. Discusses the need for new approaches to marketing and communication, both at the individual colleges and consortially. Describes projects undertaken by the council,…

  17. Occupational Home Economics Education Series. Care and Independent Living Services for Aging. Competency Based Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Liston, Carol; And Others

    This large training module is intended to help prepare home helpers or others who can provide direct care and can utilize resources to assist older persons. The document presents first a general discussion of the background and rationale behind a series of occupational home economics modules. In addition, the particular module on serving the aging…

  18. The aging human recipient of transfusion products.

    PubMed

    Nydegger, Urs E; Luginbühl, Martin; Risch, Martin

    2015-06-01

    In this review the different mechanisms of aging and frailty such as DNA defects due to impaired DNA repair, inflammatory processes, disturbances of oxidative phosphorylation are discussed together with mechanisms of cell repair. Components of blood plasma, such as the growth-differentiation protein GDF11, were shown to enhance neurogenesis and to improve the vasculature in the animal cortex and to rejuvenate muscle tissue. Advances in laboratory assays allow to identify plasma proteins that may affect tissue regeneration. This new knowledge from animal research might affect transfusion practice in geriatric patients in the future. Provided it can be translated and confirmed in human research, blood products might no longer be considered only as oxygen carriers or drugs to improve hemostasis. In the present time blood transfusion (RBCs, plasma or platelets) should be directed by differentiated guidelines considering not only cut-off values of hemoglobin, platelet count or coagulation but also old age-specific biologic variation, comorbidities and the clinical context e.g. of bleeding.

  19. The role of calcium in human aging.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance.

  20. The Role of Calcium in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  1. Statistical shape analysis of the human spleen geometry for probabilistic occupant models.

    PubMed

    Yates, Keegan M; Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2016-06-14

    Statistical shape models are an effective way to create computational models of human organs that can incorporate inter-subject geometrical variation. The main objective of this study was to create statistical mean and boundary models of the human spleen in an occupant posture. Principal component analysis was applied to fifteen human spleens in order to find the statistical modes of variation, mean shape, and boundary models. A landmark sliding approach was utilized to refine the landmarks to obtain a better shape correspondence and create a better representation of the underlying shape contour. The first mode of variation was found to be the overall volume, and it accounted for 69% of the total variation. The mean model and boundary models could be used to develop probabilistic finite element (FE) models which may identify the risk of spleen injury during vehicle collisions and consequently help to improve automobile safety systems.

  2. Occupational Safety in the Age of the Opioid Crisis: Needle Stick Injury among Baltimore Police.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier A; Beletsky, Leo; Sawyer, Anne; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Han, Jennifer; Robinowitz, Natanya; Sherman, Susan G

    2017-01-19

    At a time of resurgence in injection drug use and injection-attributable infections, needle stick injury (NSI) risk and its correlates among police remain understudied. In the context of occupational safety training, a convenience sample of 771 Baltimore city police officers responded to a self-administered survey. Domains included NSI experience, protective behaviors, and attitudes towards syringe exchange programs. Sixty officers (8%) reported lifetime NSI. Officers identifying as Latino or other race were almost three times more likely (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.96) to have experienced NSI compared to whites, after adjusting for potential confounders. Findings highlight disparate burdens of NSIs among officers of color, elevating risk of hepatitis, HIV, and trauma. Training, equipment, and other measures to improve occupational safety are critical to attracting and safeguarding police, especially minority officers.

  3. Health-seeking behavior and social networks of the aged living in single-room occupancy hotels.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C I; Sokolovsky, J

    1979-06-01

    The elderly who reside in single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels often have been depicted as "isolates," lacking the interest or ability to engage primary or secondary support systems. This characterization has not enhanced understanding of how the SRO aged are able to survive in the community. With the use of network analysis techniques, this study demonstrates the inaccuracy of the assertion that these old persons lack significant social support. The data pointed to differences in network size, complexity, intensity, connectedness, and directionality in relation to varying degrees of physical and psychiatric health.

  4. Environmental Restrictors to Occupational Participation in Old Age: Exploring Differences across Gender in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M.; Mountain, Gail A.; Rosario, Marlene; Colón, Zahira M.; Acevedo, Sujeil; Tirado, Janiliz

    2015-01-01

    Many older adults face challenges that prevent them from accomplishing common daily activities such as moving around, home maintenance, and leisure activities. There is still a need to examine and understand how environmental factors impact daily participation across gender. This study sought to make a qualitative comparison of gender differences regarding environmental barriers to participation in daily occupations from the perspectives of older adults who live alone in Puerto Rico. Twenty-six Hispanic older adults, 70 years or older participated in this study. We used a descriptive qualitative research design in which researchers administered an in-depth interview to each participant. The results elucidated that women were more likely than men to experience restricted participation due to lack of accessibility of the built environment and transportation systems. The findings could help with the development of tailored, occupation-based, preventive interventions that address gender specific environmental barriers and promote greater participation among both women and men. Further research is required to explore whether these environmental barriers to occupational participation remain consistent across living situations, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. PMID:26378554

  5. The anorexia of aging in humans.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Roberts, Susan B

    2006-06-30

    Energy intake is reduced in older individuals, with several lines of evidence suggesting that both physiological impairment of food intake regulation and non-physiological mechanisms are important. Non-physiological causes of the anorexia of aging include social (e.g. poverty, isolation), psychological (e.g. depression, dementia), medical (e.g. edentulism, dysphagia), and pharmacological factors. Physiological factors include changes in taste and smell, diminished sensory-specific satiety, delayed gastric emptying, altered digestion-related hormone secretion and hormonal responsiveness, as well as food intake-related regulatory impairments for which specific mechanisms remain largely unknown. Studies in healthy elderly individuals have shown that men who consume diets over several weeks providing either too few or too many calories relative to dietary energy needs subsequently do not compensate for the resulting energy deficit or surplus when provided an ad libitum diet. Healthy elders have also been shown to be less hungry at meal initiation and to become more rapidly satiated during a standard meal compared to younger adults. Studies in animal models are required to investigate potential mechanisms underlying these observations, while human studies should focus on examining the potential consequences of this phenomenon and practical therapeutic strategies for the maintenance of appropriate energy intake with increasing age. In light of this need, we have recently demonstrated that low reported hunger assessed using a simple questionnaire predicts unintentional weight loss in a sample of healthy older women, and thus may provide a clinically useful tool for identifying older individuals at risk for undesirable weight change and therefore at high priority for intervention.

  6. Evolution of multilevel caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) and its relation to human occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A. I.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Pérez-González, A.; Martín-Merino, M. A.; Pérez-Martínez, R.; Parés, J. M.; Aramburu, A.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Carbonell, E.

    2013-08-01

    The evolution of the Torcas cave system (Sierra de Atapuerca) is analysed in order to shed light on the formation of the Atapuerca archaeological sites and human occupation in the area, critical for identifying the paths of the first human dispersal into Europe. The geomorphological analysis of the endokarst system and the regional base levels has revealed a multilevel cave system, with drainage directions from south to north, where old karst springs fed the Pico River. Using morphological and topographic evidence we have correlated the fluvial terraces situated at relative heights of + 84-80 m and + 78-70 m above the Arlanzón River (main course), with the first and second cave levels, respectively, both of Early Pleistocene age. The fluvial levels T4 (+ 60-67 m) and T5 (+ 50-54 m) are linked with the third level (Early-Middle Pleistocene), which contains fluvial deposits probably related to terrace T6 (+ 44-46 m). Progressive fluvial incision allowed humans to gain access to the cave system through several entrances from ~ 1.22 Myr until the end of the Middle Pleistocene, when these cave entrances became filled, forming the most interesting hominid-bearing deposits in Europe.

  7. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of interstratified Neanderthal and early modern human occupations at the Chatelperronian type-site.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Brad; Mellars, Paul; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk

    2005-11-03

    The question of the coexistence and potential interaction between the last Neanderthal and the earliest intrusive populations of anatomically modern humans in Europe has recently emerged as a topic of lively debate in the archaeological and anthropological literature. Here we report the results of radiocarbon accelerator dating for what has been reported as an interstratified sequence of late Neanderthal and early anatomically modern occupations at the French type-site of the Chatelperronian, the Grotte des Fées de Châtelperron, in east-central France. The radiocarbon measurements seem to provide the earliest secure dates for the presence of Aurignacian technology--and from this, we infer the presence of anatomically modern human populations--in France.

  9. Human Growth Hormone (HGH): Does It Slow Aging?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Healthy aging Human growth hormone is described by some as the key to slowing the aging ... about proven ways to improve your health. Remember, healthy lifestyle choices — such as eating a healthy diet and ...

  10. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n = 81) and female (n = 118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M = 39.4 years, SD = 11.3; Women: M = 42.8 years, SD = 11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p = 0.033) and older men (p = 0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p = 0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p = 0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p = 0.031) and older women (p = 0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications.

  11. Middle palaeolithic and neolithic occupations around Mundafan Palaeolake, Saudi Arabia: implications for climate change and human dispersals.

    PubMed

    Crassard, Rémy; Petraglia, Michael D; Drake, Nick A; Breeze, Paul; Gratuze, Bernard; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Arbach, Mounir; Groucutt, Huw S; Khalidi, Lamya; Michelsen, Nils; Robin, Christian J; Schiettecatte, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is a key region for understanding climate change and human occupation history in a marginal environment. The Mundafan palaeolake is situated in southern Saudi Arabia, in the Rub' al-Khali (the 'Empty Quarter'), the world's largest sand desert. Here we report the first discoveries of Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in association with the palaeolake. We associate the human occupations with new geochronological data, and suggest the archaeological sites date to the wet periods of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and the Early Holocene. The archaeological sites indicate that humans repeatedly penetrated the ameliorated environments of the Rub' al-Khali. The sites probably represent short-term occupations, with the Neolithic sites focused on hunting, as indicated by points and weaponry. Middle Palaeolithic assemblages at Mundafan support a lacustrine adaptive focus in Arabia. Provenancing of obsidian artifacts indicates that Neolithic groups at Mundafan had a wide wandering range, with transport of artifacts from distant sources.

  12. A MADYMO model of near-side human occupants in side impacts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; King, A I; Cavanaugh, J M

    1994-05-01

    The protection of automotive occupants against broadside collisions is of current interest due to the implementation of a new Federal standard on side impact. There is controversy as to the validity of the standard, the best criterion to assess injury to the thorax and the type and manner in which padding should be used. Although it has been shown in a series of 17 cadaveric tests that paper honeycomb can reduce thoracic injuries dramatically, there are still concerns regarding the loss of air space between the door and the occupant due to the presence of the padding and regarding the loss of protection for the thorax when there is no engagement of the shoulder with the intruding side structure of the car. This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional rigid body model to simulate cadaveric experiments carried out at Wayne State University. Model parameters were chosen to yield human-like responses at the level of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis. The model was then used to study the effect of padding on injury parameters related to the nearside occupant when a relatively thick padding is used (up to 100 mm). It was also used to study the increase in force on the thorax when shoulder engagement is lost. Laboratory tests were conducted with full shoulder engagement but in the field most cars have a low beltline (window sill) which effectively eliminates shoulder contact if the arms are outstretched in a normal driving posture. If a sufficiently soft padding was used, the model did not predict an increase in thoracic force level or any of the injury parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  14. Human occupation of Iberia prior to the Jaramillo magnetochron (>1.07 Myr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Joan; Martínez, Kenneth; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-08-01

    The first migration out of Africa undertaken by the genus Homo is documented in Georgia at 1.8 Myr (Dmanisi) and some 0.4 Myr afterwards in the Middle East ('Ubeidiya). However, the debate on when the European continent was populated for the first time remains open. The first human presence in Europe prior to the Jaramillo subchron (1.07-0.99 Myr) is evidenced at Fuente Nueva 3 and Barranco León D (Orce) and at Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca), an occupation that seems to have continued through the Jaramillo at Gran Dolina TD3-4 and TD5 (Atapuerca), at Vallparadís (Barcelona), and up to the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary at Gran Dolina TD6. Even so, those who still defend a ‘short chronology' espouse an intermittent early population limited to the Mediterranean area, delaying the first occupation until after the Jaramillo. These hypotheses fail to explain what factors were behind the absence of population in Europe prior to this period, bearing in mind that there were populations of hominins at the gates of Europe between 1 and 0.5 Myr before the first archaeological record documented in Western Europe. Paleomagnetic analyses of the archaeological sites are rarely able to detect the Jaramillo subchron due to its short duration, while the radiometric dating methods (U-series/ESR) usually applied are limited in the accuracy they can achieve for the chronologies in question. These limitations make it necessary to depend on the biostratigraphy of small and large mammals to ascertain with precision the time of the first colonization of the continent. Accordingly, in the present article we discuss the chronological data from the older Iberian archaeological sites using biostratigraphic data to establish an archaeological sequence that demonstrates the expansion of the first hominin occupation of Southern Europe prior to Jaramillo.

  15. Environmental and human influences on trumpeter swan habitat occupancy in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, J.H.; Lindberg, M.S.; Johnson, D.S.; Schmultz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 70-80% of the entire population of the Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus huccinator) depends for reproduction on wetlands in Alaska. This makes the identification of important habitat features and the effects of human interactions important for the species' long-term management. We analyzed the swan's habitat preferences in five areas throughout the state and found that swan broods occupied some wetland types, especially larger closed-basin wetlands such as lakes and ponds, at rates much higher than they occupied other wetland types, such as shrubby or forested wetlands. We also found a negative effect of transportation infrastructure on occupancy by broods in and around the Minto Flats State Game Refuge, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. This finding is of particular interest because much of the Minto Flats refuge has recently been licensed for oil and gas exploration and parts of the Kenai refuge have been developed in the past. We also investigated the potential effects of the shrinkage of closed-basin ponds on habitat occupancy by nesting Trumpeter Swans. We compared nesting swans' use of ponds with changes in the ponds' size and other characteristics from 1982 to 1996 and found no relationships between occupancy and changes in pond size. However, we believe that the recent and rapid growth of Trumpeter Swan populations in Alaska may become limited by available breeding habitat, and anthropogenic and climate-induced changes to the swan's breeding habitats have the potential to limit future production. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  16. The Association of Levels of and Decline in Grip Strength in Old Age with Trajectories of Life Course Occupational Position

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of the influence of life course occupational position (OP) on health in old age demands analysis of time patterns in both OP and health. We study associations between life course time patterns of OP and decline in grip strength in old age. Methods We analyze 5 waves from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 5108, ages 65–90). We use a pattern-mixture latent growth model to predict the level and decline in grip strength in old age by trajectory of life course OP. We extend and generalize the structured regression approach to establish the explanatory power of different life course models for both the level and decline of grip strength. Results Grip strength declined linearly by 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.74;-0.66) for men and 0.42 kg (95% CI -0.45;-0.39) for women per year. The level of men’s grip strength can best be explained by a critical period during midlife, with those exposed to low OP during this period having 1.67 kg (95% CI -2.33;-1.00) less grip strength. These differences remain constant over age. For women, no association between OP and levels of or decline in grip strength was found. Conclusions Men’s OP in midlife seems to be a critical period for the level of grip strength in old age. Inequalities remain constant over age. The integration of the structured regression approach and latent growth modelling offers new possibilities for life course epidemiology. PMID:27232696

  17. Assessment of occupational fitness in the context of human rights legislation.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1990-06-01

    The potential applications of occupational fitness assessment are briefly reviewed in the general context of recent human rights legislation. Limiting tasks in an industrial process must be examined, and bona fide occupational requirements must be defined in terms of psychomotor ability and physiological capacity. Heavy work may demand a high level of aerobic power, muscular strength, or tolerance of adverse environments. Such criteria can define an action limit, above which the task must be redesigned, or workers must be specially selected and trained. The courts may accept the results of field performance tests more readily than laboratory measurements of aerobic power or muscular strength. However, neither type of test currently has the reliability and validity needed to characterize the individual, or to distinguish a good worker from a poor worker. If the concern is public safety, employment must thus be based upon average data for a given population, while if the concern is employment equity, the only recourse seems a probationary period of employment.

  18. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carducci, Annalaura; Donzelli, Gabriele; Cioni, Lorenzo; Verani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methodology, which has already been applied to drinking water and food safety, may also be applied to risk assessment and management at the workplace. The present study developed a preliminary QMRA model to assess microbial risk that is associated with inhaling bioaerosols that are contaminated with human adenovirus (HAdV). This model has been applied to air contamination data from different occupational settings, including wastewater systems, solid waste landfills, and toilets in healthcare settings and offices, with different exposure times. Virological monitoring showed the presence of HAdVs in all the evaluated settings, thus confirming that HAdV is widespread, but with different average concentrations of the virus. The QMRA results, based on these concentrations, showed that toilets had the highest probability of viral infection, followed by wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste landfills. Our QMRA approach in occupational settings is novel, and certain caveats should be considered. Nonetheless, we believe it is worthy of further discussions and investigations. PMID:27447658

  19. Climate, agriculture, and cycles of human occupation over the last 4000 yr in southern Zacatecas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Michelle; Fisher, Christopher T.; Nelson, Ben A.; Molina Garza, Roberto S.; Collins, Shawn K.; Pearsall, Deborah M.

    2010-07-01

    Scholars attribute the growth and decline of Classic period (AD 200-900) settlements in the semi-arid northern frontier zone of Mesoamerica to rainfall cycles that controlled the extent of arable land. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this claim. We present phytolith, organic carbon, and magnetic susceptibility analyses of a 4000-yr alluvial record of climate and human land use from the Malpaso Valley, the site of one such Classic frontier community. The earliest farming occupation is detected around 500 BC and appears related to a slight increase of aridity, similar to the level of the modern day valley. By AD 500, the valley's Classic period Mesoamerican settlements were founded under these same dry conditions, which continued into the Postclassic period. This indicates that the La Quemada occupation did not develop during a period of increased rainfall, but rather an arid phase. The most dramatic changes detected in the valley resulted from the erosion associated with Spanish Colonial grazing and deforestation that began in the 16th century. The landscape of the modern Malpaso Valley is thus primarily the product of a series of intense and rapid transformations that were concentrated within the last 400 yr.

  20. Ages for hominin occupation in Lushi Basin, middle of South Luo River, central China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huayu; Sun, Xuefeng; Wang, Shejiang; Cosgrove, Richard; Zhang, Hongyan; Yi, Shuangwen; Ma, Xiaolin; Wei, Ming; Yang, Zhenyu

    2011-05-01

    A newly discovered Paleolithic site in loess deposits in the Lushi Basin, South Luo River, central China, is dated using pedostratigraphic analysis, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and magnetostratigraphic analysis. This region is regarded as an important place for hominin occupation and settlement during the early to middle Pleistocene. Results indicate that the archaeological site dates from 600ka to 620ka, reinforcing the view that Homo erectus had occupied a large area of eastern Asia by 620ka. The lithic assemblages of Lushi Basin is a flake and core technology, typical for this time period in north-central China. It may be compared with that at the Zhoukoudian locality 1 in north China and some sites in the Luonan Basin, and provides important data for understanding the behavior and stone tool technology of early Chinese hominins.

  1. Testing the relationship between human occupancy in the landscape and tadpole developmental stress.

    PubMed

    Eterovick, Paula C; Bar, Luís F F; Souza, Jorge B; Castro, José F M; Leite, Felipe S F; Alford, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance.

  2. Testing the Relationship between Human Occupancy in the Landscape and Tadpole Developmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Eterovick, Paula C.; Bar, Luís F. F.; Souza, Jorge B.; Castro, José F. M.; Leite, Felipe S. F.; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

  3. Olfactory phenotypic expression unveils human aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Cellerino, Alessandro; Origlia, Nicola; Barloscio, Davide; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Giulio, Camillo Di; Domenici, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of the natural aging of olfaction and its declinein the absence of any overt disease conditions remains unclear. Here, we investigated this mechanism through measurement of one of the parameters of olfactory function, the absolute threshold, in a healthy population from childhood to old age. The absolute olfactory threshold data were collected from an Italian observational study with 622 participants aged 5-105 years. A subjective testing procedure of constant stimuli was used, which was also compared to the ‘staircase’ method, with the calculation of the reliability. The n-butanol stimulus was used as an ascending series of nine molar concentrations that were monitored using an electronic nose. The data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics because of the multimodal distribution. We show that the age-related variations in the absolute olfactory threshold are not continuous; instead, there are multiple olfactory phenotypes. Three distinct age-related phenotypes were defined, termed as ‘juvenile’, ‘mature’ and ‘elder’. The frequency of these three phenotypes depends on age. Our data suggest that the sense of smell does not decrease linearly with aging. Our findings provide the basis for further understanding of olfactory loss as an anticipatory sign of aging and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:27027240

  4. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  5. Age-Based Methods to Explore Time-Related Variables in Occupational Epidemiology Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Janice P. Watkins, Edward L. Frome, Donna L. Cragle

    2005-08-31

    Although age is recognized as the strongest predictor of mortality in chronic disease epidemiology, a calendar-based approach is often employed when evaluating time-related variables. An age-based analysis file, created by determining the value of each time-dependent variable for each age that a cohort member is followed, provides a clear definition of age at exposure and allows development of diverse analytic models. To demonstrate methods, the relationship between cancer mortality and external radiation was analyzed with Poisson regression for 14,095 Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. Based on previous analysis of this cohort, a model with ten-year lagged cumulative radiation doses partitioned by receipt before (dose-young) or after (dose-old) age 45 was examined. Dose-response estimates were similar to calendar-year-based results with elevated risk for dose-old, but not when film badge readings were weekly before 1957. Complementary results showed increasing risk with older hire ages and earlier birth cohorts, since workers hired after age 45 were born before 1915, and dose-young and dose-old were distributed differently by birth cohorts. Risks were generally higher for smokingrelated than non-smoking-related cancers. It was difficult to single out specific variables associated with elevated cancer mortality because of: (1) birth cohort differences in hire age and mortality experience completeness, and (2) time-period differences in working conditions, dose potential, and exposure assessment. This research demonstrated the utility and versatility of the age-based approach.

  6. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently <1.0 and was negatively influenced by distance to roads and elevation gradient, averaging 0.08-0.56 across primary periods (distinct agricultural seasons within each year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for

  7. Extensive occupational finger use delays age effects in tactile perception-an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Winneke, Axel H; Godde, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Tactile expertise, resulting from extensive use of hands, has previously been shown to improve tactile perception in blind people and musicians and to be associated with changes in the central processing of tactile information. This study investigated whether expertise, due to precise and deliberate use of the fingers at work, relates to improved tactile perception and whether this expertise interacts with age. A tactile pattern and a frequency discrimination task were conducted while ERPs were measured in experts and nonexperts of two age groups within middle adulthood. Independently of age, accuracy was better in experts than in nonexperts in both tasks. Somatosensory N70 amplitudes were larger with increasing age and for experts than for nonexperts. P100 amplitudes were smaller in experts than in nonexperts in the frequency discrimination task. In the pattern discrimination task, P300 difference wave amplitude was reduced in experts and late middle-aged adults. In the frequency discrimination task, P300 was more equally distributed in late middle-aged adults. We conclude that extensive, dexterous manual work leads to acquisition of tactile expertise and that this expertise might delay, but not counteract, age effects on tactile perception. Comparable neurophysiological changes induced by age and expertise presumably have different underlying mechanisms. Enlarged somatosensory N70 amplitudes might result from reduced inhibition in older adults but from enhanced, specific excitability of the somatosensory cortex in experts. Regarding P300, smaller amplitudes might indicate fewer available resources in older adults and, by contrast, a reduced need to engage as much cognitive effort to the task in experts.

  8. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J; Aagaard, Per; Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Conboy, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans. Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response to muscle attrition, due to diminished activation of Notch compounded by elevated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/phospho Smad3 (pSmad3). Furthermore, this work reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) signalling declines in human muscle with age, and is important for activating Notch in human muscle stem cells. This molecular understanding, combined with data that human satellite cells remain intrinsically young, introduced novel therapeutic targets. Indeed, activation of MAPK/Notch restored ‘youthful’ myogenic responses to satellite cells from 70-year-old humans, rendering them similar to cells from 20-year-old humans. These findings strongly suggest that aging of human muscle maintenance and repair can be reversed by ‘youthful’ calibration of specific molecular pathways. PMID:20049743

  9. Age as a bona fide occupational qualification for firefighting. A review on the importance of measuring aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, M S; Landy, F; Saupe, K

    1992-01-01

    Recent federal and judicial initiatives have led to controversy over the justification of mandatory retirement policies applied to public safety occupations. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has been mandated to study this issue, and a critical element of that study will be to determine the types of tests to be employed as substitutes for a mandatory retirement age. In this review, a rationale is presented for the measurement of aerobic power (VO2max) as a predictor of the physical performance capability of firefighters. We conclude that task simulations rarely replicate the environmental conditions present at structural fires that stress the cardiorespiratory capability of firefighters. VO2max is an important predictor of performance effectiveness of firefighters to be used in conjunction with task-specific testing.

  10. Myths of Human Sexuality in the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    Human sexuality is discussed in terms of misconceptions about its function and the changing sexual needs of older adults. A review of history indicates that human sexuality has traditionally been connected with ideas of purity and strict importance of procreation. Judaeo-Christian ethics and the doctrine of Saint Augustine illustrate these…

  11. Innovative Program for Achieving the Goals of Education in Human Relations and Occupational Competencies (Grades 7-12). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviess County School District, Owensboro, KY.

    During the 1974-75 school year, the Owensboro-Daviess County middle and high schools engaged in developing an exemplary program in human relationships and occupational competencies. The purpose of the program was to provide classroom instruction and exploration-placement activities that would enable the student to gain knowledge about himself in…

  12. [50 years anniversary of Research Institute for Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Shaiakhmetov, S F; Gus'kova, T M

    2010-01-01

    The article covers main steps of establishment and development of Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc over 50 years of activities, major results of research, contribution of the Institute personnel into development of hygienic science and practical medicine in Siberia.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis. PMID:25906193

  14. First dated human occupation of Italy at ~ 0.85 Ma during the late Early Pleistocene climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Scardia, Giancarlo; Kent, Dennis V.; Morsiani, Enrico; Tremolada, Fabrizio; Cremaschi, Mauro; Peretto, Carlo

    2011-07-01

    A candidate for the oldest human occupation site in Italy is Monte Poggiolo where the lithic tool-bearing levels are currently dated to ~ 1 Ma based on electron spin resonance (ESR). The low analytical precision of ± 30% at 2σ makes it unclear whether the date actually conflicts with a recent reassessment of age constraints on key hominin sites from Italy, France, and Spain pointing to a uniformly young timing for the earliest habitation of southern Europe during the late Early Pleistocene climate transition within reverse magnetic polarity subchron C1r.1r (0.988-0.781 Ma). Our new magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic results show a sequence of stable normal and reverse polarities in a regional lithostratigraphic context that indicate the Monte Poggiolo tool-bearing site post-dates the Jaramillo normal polarity subchron, most probably occurring at ~ 0.85 Ma immediately after the pronounced cooling that culminated with marine isotope stage 22 when the associated regression may have opened new migration routes through the Po Valley for large mammals and hominins.

  15. Intergenerational Service Learning: To Promote Active Aging, and Occupational Therapy Gerontology Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Beverly P.; Wong, Stephanie Dapice; Dechello, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Americans are living longer, and the meaning of age has changed, particularly for Boomers and seniors. These demographic changes have economic and social ramifications with implications for health care, including rehabilitation services, and health science education. Service learning is an experiential learning pedagogy that integrates traditional…

  16. Aging of the Human Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging affects every sensory system in the body, including the vestibular system. Although its impact is often difficult to quantify, the deleterious impact of aging on the vestibular system is serious both medically and economically. The deterioration of the vestibular sensory end organs has been known since the 1970s; however, the measurable impact from these anatomical changes remains elusive. Tests of vestibular function either fall short in their ability to quantify such anatomical deterioration, or they are insensitive to the associated physiologic decline and/or central compensatory mechanisms that accompany the vestibular aging process. When compared with healthy younger individuals, a paucity of subtle differences in test results has been reported in the healthy older population, and those differences are often observed only in response to nontraditional and/or more robust stimuli. In addition, the reported differences are often clinically insignificant insomuch that the recorded physiologic responses from the elderly often fall within the wide normative response ranges identified for normal healthy adults. The damaging economic impact of such vestibular sensory decline manifests itself in an exponential increase in geriatric dizziness and a subsequent higher prevalence of injurious falls. An estimated $10 to $20 billion dollar annual cost has been reported to be associated with falls-related injuries and is the sixth leading cause of death in the elderly population, with a 20% mortality rate. With an estimated 115% increase in the geriatric population over 65 years of age by the year 2050, the number of balanced-disordered patients with a declining vestibular system is certain to reach near epidemic proportions. An understanding of the effects of age on the vestibular system is imperative if clinicians are to better manage elderly patients with balance disorders, dizziness, and vestibular disease. PMID:27516717

  17. Human Values in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses technology and its effects on society and humans, particularly library and information technology. Highlights include the evolving history of technology; and values related to technology in libraries, including democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, literacy and learning, rationalism, and equity of access. (LRW)

  18. Occupational Choice: A Conditional Logit Model with Special Reference to Wage Subsidies and Occupational Choice. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    A model of occupational choice based on the theory of human capital is developed and estimated by conditional logit analysis. The empirical results estimated the probability of individuals with certain characteristics (such as race, sex, age, and education) entering each of 11 occupational groups. The results indicate that individuals tend to…

  19. T CELL REPLICATIVE SENESCENCE IN HUMAN AGING

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jennifer P.; Effros, Rita B.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of the immune system appears to be an intractable consequence of aging, leading to increased susceptibility to infections, reduced effectiveness of vaccination and higher incidences of many diseases including osteoporosis and cancer in the elderly. These outcomes can be attributed, at least in part, to a phenomenon known as T cell replicative senescence, a terminal state characterized by dysregulated immune function, loss of the CD28 costimulatory molecule, shortened telomeres and elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Senescent CD8 T cells, which accumulate in the elderly, have been shown to frequently bear antigen specificity against cytomegalovirus (CMV), suggesting that this common and persistent infection may drive immune senescence and result in functional and phenotypic changes to the T cell repertoire. Senescent T cells have also been identified in patients with certain cancers, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections, such as HIV. This review discusses the in vivo and in vitro evidence for the contribution of CD8 T cell replicative senescence to a plethora of age-related pathologies and a few possible therapeutic avenues to delay or prevent this differentiative end-state in T cells. The age-associated remodeling of the immune system, through accumulation of senescent T cells has far-reaching consequences on the individual and society alike, for the current healthcare system needs to meet the urgent demands of the increasing proportions of the elderly in the US and abroad. PMID:23061726

  20. Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Walter, R C; Buffler, R T; Bruggemann, J H; Guillaume, M M; Berhe, S M; Negassi, B; Libsekal, Y; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; von Cosel, R; Néraudeau, D; Gagnon, M

    2000-05-04

    The geographical origin of modern humans is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. The 'multiregional evolution' hypothesis argues that modern humans evolved semi-independently in Europe, Asia and Africa between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago, whereas the 'out of Africa' hypothesis contends that modern humans evolved in Africa between 200 and 100 kyr ago, migrating to Eurasia at some later time. Direct palaeontological, archaeological and biological evidence is necessary to resolve this debate. Here we report the discovery of early Middle Stone Age artefacts in an emerged reef terrace on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, which we date to the last interglacial (about 125 kyr ago) using U-Th mass spectrometry techniques on fossil corals. The geological setting of these artefacts shows that early humans occupied coastal areas and exploited near-shore marine food resources in East Africa by this time. Together with similar, tentatively dated discoveries from South Africa this is the earliest well-dated evidence for human adaptation to a coastal marine environment, heralding an expansion in the range and complexity of human behaviour from one end of Africa to the other. This new, wide-spread adaptive strategy may, in part, signal the onset of modern human behaviour, which supports an African origin for modern humans by 125 kyr ago.

  1. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes.

  2. Age effects on B cells and humoral immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Landin, Ana Marie; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2010-01-01

    Both humoral and cellular immune responses are impaired in aged individuals, leading to decreased vaccine responses. Although T cell defects occur, defects in B cells play a significant role in age-related humoral immune changes. The ability to undergo class switch recombination (CSR), the enzyme for CSR, AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) and the transcription factor E47 are all decreased in aged stimulated B cells. We here present an overview of age-related changes in human B cell markers and functions, and also discuss some controversies in the field of B cell aging. PMID:20728581

  3. An Empirical Investigation of Occupational Choice and Human Capital Accumulation at Mid-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xue, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Individual variation in labor supply can arise from more than just a choice among discrete occupation groups, especially given the joint process of wage determination and time allocation. Other factors can include differential preferences for earnings, the time length of work and other related occupational attributes. Using data from the Wisconsin…

  4. Computer-aided human factors analysis of the industrial vehicle driver cabin to improve occupational health.

    PubMed

    Koushik Balaji, K; Alphin, M S

    2016-09-01

    Industrial vehicle operator's solace and safety have gained significant consideration because of the increment in occupational health issues and accidents. The purpose of this work was to amend the design of the excavator driver cabin through human factor analysis. Thirty operators of excavators who were serving as subjects, were interviewed and identified that their wrist, upper arm and trunk were at a higher risk level while operating. Photograph of the operators was taken and the work environment was simulated. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) and REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) scoring was made on different simulated work posture of operators using CATIA V5 and UEAT1.8 softwares. Based on overall RULA and REBA scoring, it was found nearly 46% of the operators were operating at a high hazard level and needed investigation immediately, whereas 35% of operators were at a medium risk level and only 19% of operators were operating safely. The individual RULA and REBA scoring proved prevalence of discomfort in wrist, upper arm and trunk while operating. Identifying the optimized conditions to hold the control levers will help to reduce the operator strain. From the design optimization in excavators, the optimal conditions to hold the control lever is found to be 40cm for popliteal height, 60.51 cm for distance from elbow to ground and 15.07º for reach angle from the seat reference point.

  5. Tissue specific CTCF occupancy and boundary function at the human growth hormone locus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E; Liebhaber, Stephen A

    2014-04-01

    The robust and tissue-specific activation of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene cluster in the pituitary and placenta constitutes an informative model for analysis of gene regulation. The five-gene hGH cluster is regulated by two partially overlapping sets of DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs) that constitute the pituitary (HSI, II, III and V) and placental (HSIII, IV, and V) locus control regions (LCRs). The single placenta-specific LCR component, HSIV, is located at -30 kb to the cluster. Here we generate a series of hGH/BAC transgenes specifically modified to identify structural features of the hGH locus required for its appropriate placental expression. We find that placental specificity is dependent on the overall multigene configuration of the cluster whereas the distance between the cluster and its LCR impacts the level of placental expression. We further observe that a major function of the placental hGH LCR is to insulate the transgene locus from site-of-integration effects. This insulation activity is linked to placenta-specific occupancy of the chromatin architectural protein, CTCF, at HSIV. These data reveal a remarkable combination of structural configurations and regulatory determinants that must work in concert to insure robust and tightly controlled expression from a complex multigene locus.

  6. Were Upper Pleistocene human/non-human predator occupations at the Témara caves (El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra, Morocco) influenced by climate change?

    PubMed

    Campmas, Emilie; Michel, Patrick; Costamagno, Sandrine; Amani, Fethi; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Nespoulet, Roland; El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil

    2015-01-01

    The influence of climate change on human settlements in coastal areas is a central question for archaeologists. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on the Témara region in Morocco. The study area was selected for two main reasons. First, it contains numerous caves with Upper Pleistocene deposits, which have yielded remains of anatomically modern humans in association with Aterian and Iberomaurusian artifacts. Second, these caves are currently located on the shore, thus this region is particularly sensitive to major climate change and sea level fluctuations. Diachronic taphonomic study of faunal remains from two sites in the region, El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, shows alternating human/non-human predator occupations. The lower layers of El Mnasra Cave dating to Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 5 have yielded diverse ungulate remains with significant anthropogenic impact marks, together with numerous mollusk shells, Nassarius shell beads, hearths, lithics, some bone tools and used pigments. Faunal remains from the upper layers dating to OIS 4, 3 and 2 of El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, largely dominated by gazelles, provide evidence of carnivore activities, such as tooth marks, numerous semi-digested bones and coprolites alongside some anthropogenic signatures (cut marks and burnt bones). Non-human predators appear to be the main agents responsible for faunal modifications and accumulations. The 'non-intensive' nature of human occupation is confirmed by analyses of the lithic industry at El Harhoura 2. The 'intensive' human occupations date to OIS 5 and could have taken place during wet periods in connection with high sea levels, which allowed the exploitation of shellfish in this area. 'Non-intensive' human occupations generally correspond to arid periods and lower sea levels, during which the Témara area was further inland and may have been less attractive to humans.

  7. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  8. Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Aging Human Retina.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Katie L; DeAngelis, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, have complex etiologies with environmental, genetic, and epigenetic contributions to disease pathology. Much effort has gone into elucidating both the genetic and the environmental risk factors for these retinal diseases. However, little is known about how these genetic and environmental risk factors bring about molecular changes that lead to pathology. Epigenetic mechanisms have received extensive attention of late for their promise of bridging the gap between environmental exposures and disease development via their influence on gene expression. Recent studies have identified epigenetic changes that associate with the incidence and/or progression of each of these retinal diseases. Therefore, these epigenetic modifications may be involved in the underlying pathological mechanisms leading to blindness. Further genome-wide epigenetic studies that incorporate well-characterized tissue samples, consider challenges similar to those relevant to gene expression studies, and combine the genome-wide epigenetic data with genome-wide genetic and expression data to identify additional potentially causative agents of disease are needed. Such studies will allow researchers to create much-needed therapeutics to prevent and/or intervene in disease progression. Improved therapeutics will greatly enhance the quality of life and reduce the burden of disease management for millions of patients living with these potentially blinding conditions.

  9. Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Aging Human Retina

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Katie L.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, have complex etiologies with environmental, genetic, and epigenetic contributions to disease pathology. Much effort has gone into elucidating both the genetic and the environmental risk factors for these retinal diseases. However, little is known about how these genetic and environmental risk factors bring about molecular changes that lead to pathology. Epigenetic mechanisms have received extensive attention of late for their promise of bridging the gap between environmental exposures and disease development via their influence on gene expression. Recent studies have identified epigenetic changes that associate with the incidence and/or progression of each of these retinal diseases. Therefore, these epigenetic modifications may be involved in the underlying pathological mechanisms leading to blindness. Further genome-wide epigenetic studies that incorporate well-characterized tissue samples, consider challenges similar to those relevant to gene expression studies, and combine the genome-wide epigenetic data with genome-wide genetic and expression data to identify additional potentially causative agents of disease are needed. Such studies will allow researchers to create much-needed therapeutics to prevent and/or intervene in disease progression. Improved therapeutics will greatly enhance the quality of life and reduce the burden of disease management for millions of patients living with these potentially blinding conditions. PMID:26966390

  10. Epigenetic Age Acceleration Assessed With Human White-Matter Images.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Karen; Carless, Melanie A; Kulkarni, Hemant; Curran, Joanne E; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Mathias, Samuel; Göring, Harald Hh; Yao, Nailin; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2017-04-06

    The accurate estimation of age using methylation data has proved a useful and heritable biomarker, with acceleration in epigenetic age predicting a number of age-related phenotypes. Measures of white matter integrity in the brain are also heritable and highly sensitive to both normal and pathological aging processes across adulthood. We consider the phenotypic and genetic interrelationships between epigenetic age acceleration and white matter integrity in humans. Our goal was to investigate processes that underlie inter-individual variability in age-related changes in the brain. Using blood taken from a Mexican-American extended pedigree sample (n=628; age=23.28-93.11 years), epigenetic age was estimated using the method developed by S. Horvath (2013). For n=376 individuals, DTI scans were also available. The interrelationship between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter integrity were investigated with variance decomposition methods. To test for neuroanatomical specificity, 16 specific tracts were additionally considered. We observed negative phenotypic correlations between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter tract integrity (ρpheno=-0.119, p=0.028), with evidence of shared genetic (ρgene=-0.463, p=0.013) but not environmental influences. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlations with age acceleration were also seen for a number of specific white matter tracts, along with additional negative phenotypic correlations between granulocyte abundance and white matter integrity. These findings that increased acceleration in epigenetic age in peripheral blood correlates with reduced white matter integrity in the brain, and shares common genetic influences. provide a window into the neurobiology of aging processes within the brain and a potential biomarker of normal and pathological brain aging.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTEpigenetic measures can be used to predict age with a high degree of accuracy and so capture acceleration in biological age

  11. The many faces of human ageing: toward a psychological culture of old age.

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1991-11-01

    In an effort to distil major findings about the nature of human ageing, seven propositions are presented as a guiding frame of reference. This propositional framework is then used to specify some conditions for a positive culture of old age and to advance one possible model of good psychological ageing. This model focuses on the dynamic interplay between three processes: selection, optimization, and compensation. The model is universal in its basic features, but at the same time emphasizes individual variations in phenotypic manifestation.

  12. Mid- to Late Holocene shoreline reconstruction and human occupation in Ancient Eretria (South Central Euboea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, Matthieu; Psomiadis, David; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Çelka, Sylvie Müller; Fachard, Sylvian; Theurillat, Thierry; Verdan, Samuel; Knodell, Alex R.; Theodoropoulou, Tatiana; Bicket, Andrew; Bonneau, Amandine; Delanghe-Sabatier, Doriane

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have aimed to reconstruct landscape change in the area of Eretria (South Central Euboea, Greece) during the last 6000 years. The aim of this paper is to partially fill in this gap by examining the interaction between Mid- to Late Holocene shoreline evolution and human occupation, which is documented in the area from the Late Neolithic to the Late Roman period (with discontinuities). Evidence of shoreline displacements is derived from the study of five boreholes (maximum depth of 5.25 m below the surface) drilled in the lowlands of Eretria. Based on sedimentological analyses and micro/macrofaunal identifications, different facies have been identified in the cores and which reveal typical features of deltaic progradation with marine, lagoonal, fluvio-deltaic and fluvial environments. In addition, a chronostratigraphy has been obtained based on 20 AMS 14C radiocarbon dates performed on samples of plant remains and marine/lagoonal shells found in situ. The main sequences of landscape reconstruction in the plain of Eretria can be summarized as follows: a marine environment predominated from ca. 4000 to 3200 cal. BC and a gradual transition to shallow marine conditions is observed ca. 3200-3000 cal. BC due to the general context of deltaic progradation west of the ancient city. Subsequently, from ca. 3000 to 2000 cal. BC, a lagoon occupied the area in the vicinity of the Temple of Apollo and the settlement's development was restricted to several fluvio-deltaic levees, thus severely limiting human activities in the plain. From ca. 2000 to 800 cal. BC, a phase of shallow marine presence prevailed and constrained settlement on higher ground, forcing abandonment of the major part of the plain. Finally, since the eighth century BC, the sea has regressed southward and created the modern landscape.

  13. Glycosaminoglycans in the Human Cornea: Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Elena; Pacella, Fernanda; De Paolis, Giulio; Parisella, Francesca Romana; Turchetti, Paolo; Anello, Giulia; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate possible age-related changes in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the human cornea. The substances today called GAGs were previously referred to as mucopolysaccharides. METHODS Samples of human cornea were taken from 12 younger (age 21 ± 1.2) and 12 older (age 72 ± 1.6) male subjects. Samples were weighed, homogenized, and used for biochemical and molecular analyses. All the quantitative results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS The human cornea appears to undergo age-related changes, as evidenced by our biochemical and molecular results. The total GAG and hyaluronic acid counts were significantly higher in the younger subjects than in the older subjects. The sulfated heavy GAGs, such as chondroitin, dermatan, keratan, and heparan sulfate, were lower in the younger subjects than in the older subjects. DISCUSSION GAGs of the human cornea undergo numerous age-related changes. Their quantity is significantly altered in the elderly in comparison with younger subjects. GAGs play an important role in age-related diseases of the human cornea. PMID:25674020

  14. Age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization in human sclera.

    PubMed

    Klumb, Karolin; Matzenauer, Christian; Reckert, Alexandra; Lehmann, Klaus; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation based on racemization of aspartic acid residues (AAR) in permanent proteins has been established in forensic medicine for years. While dentine is the tissue of choice for this molecular method of age estimation, teeth are not always available which leads to the need to identify other suitable tissues. We examined the suitability of total tissue samples of human sclera for the estimation of age at death. Sixty-five samples of scleral tissue were analyzed. The samples were hydrolyzed and after derivatization, the extent of aspartic acid racemization was determined by gas chromatography. The degree of AAR increased with age. In samples from younger individuals, the correlation of age and D-aspartic acid content was closer than in samples from older individuals. The age-dependent racemization in total tissue samples proves that permanent or at least long-living proteins are present in scleral tissue. The correlation of AAR in human sclera and age at death is close enough to serve as basis for age estimation. However, the precision of age estimation by this method is lower than that of age estimation based on the analysis of dentine which is due to molecular inhomogeneities of total tissue samples of sclera. Nevertheless, the approach may serve as a valuable alternative or addition in exceptional cases.

  15. Disaster management and the critical thinking skills of local emergency managers: correlations with age, gender, education, and years in occupation.

    PubMed

    Peerbolte, Stacy L; Collins, Matthew Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Emergency managers must be able to think critically in order to identify and anticipate situations, solve problems, make judgements and decisions effectively and efficiently, and assume and manage risk. Heretofore, a critical thinking skills assessment of local emergency managers had yet to be conducted that tested for correlations among age, gender, education, and years in occupation. An exploratory descriptive research design, using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Short Form (WGCTA-S), was employed to determine the extent to which a sample of 54 local emergency managers demonstrated the critical thinking skills associated with the ability to assume and manage risk as compared to the critical thinking scores of a group of 4,790 peer-level managers drawn from an archival WGCTA-S database. This exploratory design suggests that the local emergency managers, surveyed in this study, had lower WGCTA-S critical thinking scores than their equivalents in the archival database with the exception of those in the high education and high experience group.

  16. Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic Occupations around Mundafan Palaeolake, Saudi Arabia: Implications for Climate Change and Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Crassard, Rémy; Petraglia, Michael D.; Drake, Nick A.; Breeze, Paul; Gratuze, Bernard; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Arbach, Mounir; Groucutt, Huw S.; Khalidi, Lamya; Michelsen, Nils; Robin, Christian J.; Schiettecatte, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is a key region for understanding climate change and human occupation history in a marginal environment. The Mundafan palaeolake is situated in southern Saudi Arabia, in the Rub’ al-Khali (the ‘Empty Quarter’), the world’s largest sand desert. Here we report the first discoveries of Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in association with the palaeolake. We associate the human occupations with new geochronological data, and suggest the archaeological sites date to the wet periods of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and the Early Holocene. The archaeological sites indicate that humans repeatedly penetrated the ameliorated environments of the Rub’ al-Khali. The sites probably represent short-term occupations, with the Neolithic sites focused on hunting, as indicated by points and weaponry. Middle Palaeolithic assemblages at Mundafan support a lacustrine adaptive focus in Arabia. Provenancing of obsidian artifacts indicates that Neolithic groups at Mundafan had a wide wandering range, with transport of artifacts from distant sources. PMID:23894519

  17. Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Ian; Brown, Francis H; Fleagle, John G

    2005-02-17

    In 1967 the Kibish Formation in southern Ethiopia yielded hominid cranial remains identified as early anatomically modern humans, assigned to Homo sapiens. However, the provenance and age of the fossils have been much debated. Here we confirm that the Omo I and Omo II hominid fossils are from similar stratigraphic levels in Member I of the Kibish Formation, despite the view that Omo I is more modern in appearance than Omo II. 40Ar/39Ar ages on feldspar crystals from pumice clasts within a tuff in Member I below the hominid levels place an older limit of 198 +/- 14 kyr (weighted mean age 196 +/- 2 kyr) on the hominids. A younger age limit of 104 +/- 7 kyr is provided by feldspars from pumice clasts in a Member III tuff. Geological evidence indicates rapid deposition of each member of the Kibish Formation. Isotopic ages on the Kibish Formation correspond to ages of Mediterranean sapropels, which reflect increased flow of the Nile River, and necessarily increased flow of the Omo River. Thus the 40Ar/39Ar age measurements, together with the sapropel correlations, indicate that the hominid fossils have an age close to the older limit. Our preferred estimate of the age of the Kibish hominids is 195 +/- 5 kyr, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described.

  18. Evidence for the hallmarks of human aging in replicatively aging yeast

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Georges E.; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, efforts have been made to characterize the hallmarks that accompany and contribute to the phenomenon of aging, as most relevant for humans 1. Remarkably, studying the finite lifespan of the single cell eukaryote budding yeast (recently reviewed in 2 and 3) has been paramount for our understanding of aging. Here, we compile observations from literature over the past decades of research on replicatively aging yeast to highlight how the hallmarks of aging in humans are present in yeast. We find strong evidence for the majority of these, and summarize how yeast aging is especially characterized by the hallmarks of genomic instability, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:28357364

  19. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Knibbe-Hollinger, Jaclyn S.; Fields, Natasha R.; Chaudoin, Tammy R; Epstein, Adrian A.; Makarov, Edward; Akhter, Sidra P.; Gorantla, Santhi; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Poluektova, Larisa Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization. PMID:26353862

  20. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Knibbe-Hollinger, Jaclyn S; Fields, Natasha R; Chaudoin, Tammy R; Epstein, Adrian A; Makarov, Edward; Akhter, Sidra P; Gorantla, Santhi; Bonasera, Stephen J; Gendelman, Howard E; Poluektova, Larisa Y

    2015-09-09

    Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization.

  1. Increased mobilization of aged carbon to rivers by human disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, David E.; Wilson, Henry F.; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2015-02-01

    Approximately 8% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to come from land-use change, but this estimate excludes fluxes of terrestrial carbon to aquatic ecosystems from human disturbance. Carbon fluxes from land to rivers have probably increased by 0.1 to 0.2 petagrams of carbon per year as a result of disturbances such as deforestation, agricultural intensification and the injection of human wastewater. Most dissolved organic carbon in rivers originates from young organic carbon from soils and vegetation, but aged carbon removed from the modern carbon cycle is also exported in many systems. Here we analyse a global data set of radiocarbon ages of riverine dissolved organic carbon and spatial data on land cover, population and environmental variables. We find that the age of dissolved organic carbon in rivers increases with population density and the proportion of human-dominated landscapes within a watershed, and decreases with annual precipitation. We reason that disturbance reintroduces aged soil organic matter into the modern carbon cycle, although fossil carbon in fertilizer or petroleum products may also be a source of aged carbon in disturbed watersheds. The total export from the terrestrial environment to freshwater systems remains unknown; nevertheless, our results suggest that 3-9% of dissolved organic carbon in rivers is aged carbon mobilized by human disturbance.

  2. Characterizing cognitive aging in humans with links to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439

  3. Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85–1.78 Ma

    PubMed Central

    Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

    2011-01-01

    The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85–1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record. PMID:21646521

  4. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  5. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  6. Abundance-occupancy dynamics in a human dominated environment: linking interspecific and intraspecific trends in British farmland and woodland birds.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Noble, David; Freckleton, Robert P

    2007-01-01

    1. Range size, population size and body size, the key macroecological variables, vary temporally both within and across species in response to anthropogenic and natural environmental change. However, resulting temporal trends in the relationships between these variables (i.e. macroecological patterns) have received little attention. 2. Positive relationships between the local abundance and regional occupancy of species (abundance-occupancy relationships) are among the most pervasive of all macroecological patterns. In the absence of formal predictions of how abundance-occupancy relationships may vary temporally, we outline several scenarios of how changes in abundance within species might affect interspecific patterns. 3. We use data on the distribution and abundance of 73 farmland and 55 woodland bird species in Britain over a 32-year period encompassing substantial habitat modification to assess the likelihood of these scenarios. 4. In both farmland and woodland habitats, the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship changed markedly over the period 1968-99, with a significant decline in the strength of the relationship. 5. Consideration of intraspecific dynamics shows that this has been due to a decoupling of abundance and occupancy particularly in rare and declining species. Insights into the intraspecific processes responsible for the interspecific trend are obtained by analysis of temporal trends in the distribution of individuals between sites, which show patterns consistent with habitat quality declines. 6. This study shows that a profitable approach to ascertaining the nature of human impacts is to link intra- and interspecific processes. In the case of British farmland and woodland birds, changes to the environment lead to species-specific responses in large-scale distributions. These species-specific changes are the driver of the observed changes in the form and strength of the interspecific relationship.

  7. Occupational Clusters. Occupational Investigation Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This occupational investigation guide contains learning activities for instruction in fifteen occupational clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business and office, (3) communications and media, (4) construction, (5) consumer and homemaking, (6) environment, (7) fine arts and humanities, (8) health, (9) hospitality and recreation,…

  8. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain.

  9. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the maintenance or repair of the establishment, machines, or equipment. (e) Occupations that involve... window washing that involves working from window sills, and all work requiring the use of...

  10. Role of Age-Associated Alterations of the Dermal Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment in Human Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Taihao; Fisher, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Human skin is largely composed of a collagen-rich connective tissue, which provides structural and functional support. The collagen-rich connective tissue is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. During aging, dermal collagen fibrils undergo progressive loss and fragmentation, leading to thin and structurally weakened skin. Age-related alterations of collagen fibrils impairs skin structure and function and creates a tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin diseases, such as delayed wound healing and skin cancer development. This review describes cellular mechanisms that give rise to self-perpetuating, collagen fibril fragmentation that creates an age-associated dermal microenvironment (AADM), which contributes to decline of human skin function. PMID:25660807

  11. Central D2 receptor occupancy and effects of zuclopenthixol acetate in humans.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, S; Farde, L; Bartfai, A; Halldin, C

    1995-11-01

    Repeated positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of D2 receptor occupancy, plasma concentrations of zuclopenthixol and reaction time were performed in three healthy subjects after injection of 12.5 mg zuclopenthixol acetate (ZPTA) in an open study design. Five control subjects were examined for reaction time only. D2 receptor occupancy was 51%, 71% and 75% after 7 h and 75%, 83% and 87% after 31 h in the three subjects. The subjects reported sedation, but reaction time was not prolonged. After the low dose of 12.5 mg ZPTA, D2 receptor occupancy exceeded the 70% assumed to be required to induce antipsychotic effect. Extrapolation of data to a clinical dose interval indicates that 50-150 mg ZPTA should induce very high D2 receptor occupancy lasting several days after injection. Such high doses may be required to induce sedation and to avoid frequent intramuscular injections in acutely psychotic patients. However, the simultaneously induced very high D2 receptor occupancy calls for careful assessment of acute extrapyramidal symptoms.

  12. Lipofuscin Granules in the Epileptic Human Temporal Neocortex with Age.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Suélen; Nakayama, Ana Beatriz S; Brusco, Janaina; Rossi, Marcos A; Carlotti, Carlos G; Moreira, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    Lipofuscin granules (LGs), the "age pigments", are autofluorescent cell products from lysosomes that diverge in number and size among brain regions. Human temporal cortex from 20- to 55-year-old epileptic subjects were studied with the fat soluble dye Sudan Black, under confocal and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural analysis showed that with age LGs increase in area, but not in number. Proportionally to the LGs area, the electron lucid portion increases and the electron dense reduces over time. The robust increase in lipid components is possibly due to modifications in the neuronal metabolism with age in physiological and pathological conditions.

  13. Relationship between Human Aging Muscle and Oxidative System Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Doria, Enrico; Buonocore, Daniela; Focarelli, Angela; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is a complex process that in muscle is usually associated with a decrease in mass, strength, and velocity of contraction. One of the most striking effects of ageing on muscle is known as sarcopenia. This inevitable biological process is characterized by a general decline in the physiological and biochemical functions of the major systems. At the cellular level, aging is caused by a progressive decline in mitochondrial function that results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the addition of a single electron to the oxygen molecule. The aging process is characterized by an imbalance between an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in the organism and the antioxidant defences as a whole. The goal of this review is to examine the results of existing studies on oxidative stress in aging human skeletal muscles, taking into account different physiological factors (sex, fibre composition, muscle type, and function). PMID:22685621

  14. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  15. Records of human occupation from Pleistocene river terrace and aeolian sediments in the Arneiro depression (Lower Tejo River, central eastern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Pedro P.; Almeida, Nelson A. C.; Aubry, Thierry; Martins, António A.; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Sohbati, Reza; Raposo, Luis; Rocha, Leonor

    2012-09-01

    In the uppermost reach of the Lower Tejo River (eastern central Portugal), where the river crosses two quartzite ridges that separate the Ródão (upstream) and Arneiro (downstream) depressions, Palaeolithic artefacts have been recovered from three lower river terrace levels and a cover unit of aeolian sands. This paper presents data on the discovery of archaeological artefacts from the terrace levels and the aeolian sands that can be linked to Middle and Upper Palaeolithic industries from new field sites at Tapada do Montinho and Castelejo. The archaeological data when placed in a geomorphological, sedimentary and chronological framework, contribute new information on the understanding of human occupation in western Iberia during cold-climate episodes of the last 62 to 12 ka; and especially during the cooler and driest conditions that occurred between 32 and 12 ka, when the climate favoured aeolian sediment transport. In the Lower Tejo River, the integration of absolute age datasets with archaeological, geomorphological and sedimentary data indicate that in westernmost Iberia the first appearance of artefacts in river terrace sediments suggests that the earliest marker for human occupation dates from the lower Acheulian (Lower Palaeolithic), probably corresponding to an age of ~ 340 ka. Data also suggest, for the first time, that Acheulian lithic industries were replaced by Middle Palaeolithic ones (namely the Levallois stone knapping technique) by ~ 160 ka (~ MIS6). Middle Palaeolithic industries were later replaced by Upper Palaeolithic industries at 32 ka. The post 32 ka period, dominated by aeolian sediment transport, is related to the onset of cold-dry climate conditions which resulted in low river flow discharges, floodplain exposure and reworking by NW winds. This cold-dry period is coeval with the disappearance of Megafauna and associated Neanderthal communities, and the replacement of the Middle Palaeolithic industries by Upper Palaeolithic ones in this

  16. Aging in mouse and human systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd

    2006-05-01

    This article discusses the significance of mouse models as a basis for elucidating the aging process in humans. We identify certain parallels between mouse and human systems and review the theoretical and empirical support for the claim that the large divergence in the rate of aging between the two species resides in differences in the stability of their metabolic networks. We will show that these differences in metabolic stability have their origin in the different ecological constraints the species experience during their evolutionary history. We exploit these ideas to compare the effect of caloric restriction on murine and human systems. The studies predict that the large increases in mean life span and maximum life-span potential observed in laboratory rodents subject to caloric restriction will not obtain in human populations. We predict that, in view of the different metabolic stability of the two systems, caloric restriction will have no effect on the maximum life-span potential of humans, and a relatively minor effect on the mean life span of nonobese populations. This article thus points to certain intrinsic limitations in the use of mouse models in elucidating the aging process in humans. We furthermore contend the view that these limitations can be mitigated by considering the metabolic stability of the two species.

  17. The Human Right to Leisure in Old Age: Reinforcement of the Rights of an Aging Population.

    PubMed

    Karev, Iris; Doron, Israel Issi

    2016-11-23

    The right to leisure is recognized as a human right under the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The actual meaning and material content of this human right is subject to debate. The aim of this study is to examine the extent and the context to which this human right is specifically recognized with regard to older persons. Methodologically, this study textually analyzed 17 different international older persons' human rights documents. The findings reveal that in the majority of these documents there is no reference to the right to leisure. In the remaining documents, the right to leisure is mostly referred to indirectly or in a narrow legal construction. These findings support the notion that despite the growing body of knowledge regarding the importance of meaningful leisure in old age-and its empowering and anti-ageist nature-this knowledge has not transformed into a legal human rights discourse.

  18. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics in a new hospital building.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Gilbert, Jack A; Stephens, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogate measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO2 concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ∼8×106 data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for

  20. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics in a new hospital building

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Stephens, Brent

    2015-03-02

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogate measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO₂ concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ~8×10⁶ data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics in a new hospital building

    DOE PAGES

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; ...

    2015-03-02

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogatemore » measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO₂ concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ~8×10⁶ data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Indoor Environmental Conditions, Human Occupancy, and Operational Characteristics in a New Hospital Building

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Stephens, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogate measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO2 concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ∼8×106 data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for

  3. Magnesium and fluoride distribution in human cementum with age.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, S; Nakagaki, H; Takami, Y; Eba, H; Kirkham, J; Robinson, C

    2000-12-01

    Sixty-two human teeth, obtained from subjects aged 11 to 80 years, were used to determine the magnesium and fluoride concentration and distribution with age in human cementum. Transverse sections were prepared from the root region of teeth. Samples, each 30 microm thick, were abraded in sequence from the cementum surface and the cemento-dentine junction by an abrasive micro-sampling technique. Magnesium concentrations were lower in the cementum surface, and increased towards the cemento-dentine junction (CDJ), while fluoride concentrations were higher in cementum surfaces and tended to decrease towards CDJ. Fluoride distribution patterns were similar to that reported earlier while average fluoride concentration increased with age, however, either no change or decreasing tendencies were observed with magnesium.

  4. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  5. The Laboratory Rat: Relating Its Age With Human's

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    By late 18th or early 19th century, albino rats became the most commonly used experimental animals in numerous biomedical researches, as they have been recognized as the preeminent model mammalian system. But, the precise correlation between age of laboratory rats and human is still a subject of debate. A number of studies have tried to detect these correlations in various ways, But, have not successfully provided any proper association. Thus, the current review attempts to compare rat and human age at different phases of their life. The overall findings indicate that rats grow rapidly during their childhood and become sexually mature at about the sixth week, but attain social maturity 5-6 months later. In adulthood, every day of the animal is approximately equivalent to 34.8 human days (i.e., one rat month is comparable to three human years). Numerous researchers performed experimental investigations in albino rats and estimated, in general, while considering their entire life span, that a human month resembles every-day life of a laboratory rat. These differences signify the variations in their anatomy, physiology and developmental processes, which must be taken into consideration while analyzing the results or selecting the dose of any research in rats when age is a crucial factor. PMID:23930179

  6. Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Valter D; Antebi, Adam; Bartke, Andrzej; Barzilai, Nir; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Caruso, Calogero; Curiel, Tyler J; de Cabo, Rafael; Franceschi, Claudio; Gems, David; Ingram, Donald K; Johnson, Thomas E; Kennedy, Brian K; Kenyon, Cynthia; Klein, Samuel; Kopchick, John J; Lepperdinger, Guenter; Madeo, Frank; Mirisola, Mario G; Mitchell, James R; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rudolph, Karl L; Sedivy, John M; Shadel, Gerald S; Sinclair, David A; Spindler, Stephen R; Suh, Yousin; Vijg, Jan; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The workshop entitled ‘Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?’ was held in Erice, Italy, on October 8–13, 2013, to bring together leading experts in the biology and genetics of aging and obtain a consensus related to the discovery and development of safe interventions to slow aging and increase healthy lifespan in humans. There was consensus that there is sufficient evidence that aging interventions will delay and prevent disease onset for many chronic conditions of adult and old age. Essential pathways have been identified, and behavioral, dietary, and pharmacologic approaches have emerged. Although many gene targets and drugs were discussed and there was not complete consensus about all interventions, the participants selected a subset of the most promising strategies that could be tested in humans for their effects on healthspan. These were: (i) dietary interventions mimicking chronic dietary restriction (periodic fasting mimicking diets, protein restriction, etc.); (ii) drugs that inhibit the growth hormone/IGF-I axis; (iii) drugs that inhibit the mTOR–S6K pathway; or (iv) drugs that activate AMPK or specific sirtuins. These choices were based in part on consistent evidence for the pro-longevity effects and ability of these interventions to prevent or delay multiple age-related diseases and improve healthspan in simple model organisms and rodents and their potential to be safe and effective in extending human healthspan. The authors of this manuscript were speakers and discussants invited to the workshop. The following summary highlights the major points addressed and the conclusions of the meeting. PMID:25902704

  7. Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Antebi, Adam; Bartke, Andrzej; Barzilai, Nir; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Caruso, Calogero; Curiel, Tyler J; de Cabo, Rafael; Franceschi, Claudio; Gems, David; Ingram, Donald K; Johnson, Thomas E; Kennedy, Brian K; Kenyon, Cynthia; Klein, Samuel; Kopchick, John J; Lepperdinger, Guenter; Madeo, Frank; Mirisola, Mario G; Mitchell, James R; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rudolph, Karl L; Sedivy, John M; Shadel, Gerald S; Sinclair, David A; Spindler, Stephen R; Suh, Yousin; Vijg, Jan; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-08-01

    The workshop entitled 'Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?' was held in Erice, Italy, on October 8-13, 2013, to bring together leading experts in the biology and genetics of aging and obtain a consensus related to the discovery and development of safe interventions to slow aging and increase healthy lifespan in humans. There was consensus that there is sufficient evidence that aging interventions will delay and prevent disease onset for many chronic conditions of adult and old age. Essential pathways have been identified, and behavioral, dietary, and pharmacologic approaches have emerged. Although many gene targets and drugs were discussed and there was not complete consensus about all interventions, the participants selected a subset of the most promising strategies that could be tested in humans for their effects on healthspan. These were: (i) dietary interventions mimicking chronic dietary restriction (periodic fasting mimicking diets, protein restriction, etc.); (ii) drugs that inhibit the growth hormone/IGF-I axis; (iii) drugs that inhibit the mTOR-S6K pathway; or (iv) drugs that activate AMPK or specific sirtuins. These choices were based in part on consistent evidence for the pro-longevity effects and ability of these interventions to prevent or delay multiple age-related diseases and improve healthspan in simple model organisms and rodents and their potential to be safe and effective in extending human healthspan. The authors of this manuscript were speakers and discussants invited to the workshop. The following summary highlights the major points addressed and the conclusions of the meeting.

  8. Livestock-associated methicillin and multidrug resistant S. aureus in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Yanping; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Weidong; Yu, Haifeng; Zhou, Junli; Chen, Sidong; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association of livestock-associated S. aureus with occupational pig contact and pet contact. In this cross-sectional study, 1,422 participants (including 244 pig workers, 200 pet-owning workers and 978 control workers) responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes, and multilocus sequence type. Compared with controls, the pig workers demonstrated a greater prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.38; 95% CI: 2.07–5.53] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (PR = 7.42; 95% CI: 3.71–14.83), but the prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA was similar in pet-owning workers and controls. There was a positive relation of frequency of pig contact with prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA carriage. Only pig workers carried MDRSA CC9 (16 isolates) and MRSA CC9 (16 isolates), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant and absent of IEC genes. These findings suggest that livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA(CC9, IEC-negative, tetracycline-resistant) in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact, and support growing concern about antibiotics use in pig farms and raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus. PMID:26755419

  9. Livestock-associated methicillin and multidrug resistant S. aureus in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Yanping; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Weidong; Yu, Haifeng; Zhou, Junli; Chen, Sidong; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2016-01-12

    This study aimed to explore the association of livestock-associated S. aureus with occupational pig contact and pet contact. In this cross-sectional study, 1,422 participants (including 244 pig workers, 200 pet-owning workers and 978 control workers) responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes, and multilocus sequence type. Compared with controls, the pig workers demonstrated a greater prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.38; 95% CI: 2.07-5.53] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (PR = 7.42; 95% CI: 3.71-14.83), but the prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA was similar in pet-owning workers and controls. There was a positive relation of frequency of pig contact with prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA carriage. Only pig workers carried MDRSA CC9 (16 isolates) and MRSA CC9 (16 isolates), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant and absent of IEC genes. These findings suggest that livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA(CC9, IEC-negative, tetracycline-resistant) in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact, and support growing concern about antibiotics use in pig farms and raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus.

  10. Influence of Connectivity, Wild Prey and Disturbance on Occupancy of Tigers in the Human-Dominated Western Terai Arc Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Harihar, Abishek; Pandav, Bivash

    2012-01-01

    Occupying only 7% of their historical range and confined to forested habitats interspersed in a matrix of human dominated landscapes, tigers (Panthera tigris) typify the problems faced by most large carnivores worldwide. With heads of governments of tiger range countries pledging to reverse the extinction process and setting a goal of doubling wild tiger numbers by 2022, achieving this target would require identifying existing breeding cores, potential breeding habitats and opportunities for dispersal. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) represents one region which has recently witnessed recovery of tiger populations following conservation efforts. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit tiger occupancy model with survey data from 2009–10 based on a priori knowledge of tiger biology and specific issues plaguing the western TAL (6,979 km2), which occurs in two disjunct units (Tiger Habitat Blocks; THBs). Although the overall occupancy of tigers was 0.588 (SE 0.071), our results clearly indicate that loss in functionality of a regional corridor has resulted in tigers now occupying 17.58% of the available habitat in THB I in comparison to 88.5% in THB II. The current patterns of occupancy were best explained by models incorporating the interactive effect of habitat blocks (AIC w = 0.883) on wild prey availability (AIC w = 0.742) and anthropogenic disturbances (AIC w = 0.143). Our analysis has helped identify areas of high tiger occupancy both within and outside existing protected areas, which highlights the need for a unified control of the landscape under a single conservation unit with the primary focus of managing tigers and associated wildlife. Finally, in the light of global conservation targets and recent legislations in India, our study assumes significance as we identify opportunities to secure (e.g. THB II) and increase (e.g. THB I) tiger populations in the landscape. PMID:22792220

  11. Influence of connectivity, wild prey and disturbance on occupancy of tigers in the human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape.

    PubMed

    Harihar, Abishek; Pandav, Bivash

    2012-01-01

    Occupying only 7% of their historical range and confined to forested habitats interspersed in a matrix of human dominated landscapes, tigers (Panthera tigris) typify the problems faced by most large carnivores worldwide. With heads of governments of tiger range countries pledging to reverse the extinction process and setting a goal of doubling wild tiger numbers by 2022, achieving this target would require identifying existing breeding cores, potential breeding habitats and opportunities for dispersal. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) represents one region which has recently witnessed recovery of tiger populations following conservation efforts. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit tiger occupancy model with survey data from 2009-10 based on a priori knowledge of tiger biology and specific issues plaguing the western TAL (6,979 km(2)), which occurs in two disjunct units (Tiger Habitat Blocks; THBs). Although the overall occupancy of tigers was 0.588 (SE 0.071), our results clearly indicate that loss in functionality of a regional corridor has resulted in tigers now occupying 17.58% of the available habitat in THB I in comparison to 88.5% in THB II. The current patterns of occupancy were best explained by models incorporating the interactive effect of habitat blocks (AIC w = 0.883) on wild prey availability (AIC w = 0.742) and anthropogenic disturbances (AIC w = 0.143). Our analysis has helped identify areas of high tiger occupancy both within and outside existing protected areas, which highlights the need for a unified control of the landscape under a single conservation unit with the primary focus of managing tigers and associated wildlife. Finally, in the light of global conservation targets and recent legislations in India, our study assumes significance as we identify opportunities to secure (e.g. THB II) and increase (e.g. THB I) tiger populations in the landscape.

  12. Occupational Class Inequalities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Middle-Aged Men in 14 European Populations during the Early 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C.; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000–2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30–59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations. PMID:25268702

  13. Ultrastructural changes in the melanocytes of aging human choroid.

    PubMed

    Nag, Tapas Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial cells as well as choroidal melanocytes (CM) possess melanin granules. The former show clear, age-related changes (formation of lipofuscin granules with a concomitant decrease in melanin content); however, data on changes in the CM with aging are fairly limited. We examined CM in human macular and mid-peripheral areas by light- and transmission electron microscopy in 50-94 year-old donor eyes (N=12). Unlike in the choroid of lower ages, the melanocytes from aging choroid (>75 years) showed partial fusion of about 8-15 melanosomes, forming rosettes-like structures. Besides, there was evidence of emptiness in cytoplasm caused by the loss of melanosomes in aged CM, as was confirmed by quantification in macular part of choroid. In advanced aged eyes (85-94-year-old), the CM possessed many lipid droplets as well as irregular lipofuscin granules, the latter had a tendency to fuse with melanosomes, as happens in aged retinal pigment epithelium. Macrophages in their cytoplasm contained abundant irregular as well as clumped melanosomes of variable size, suggesting that damaged granules/melanocytes are cleared by these phagocytes. These obvious changes in the CM are likely to make the choroid prone to damage by visible light.

  14. Telocytes and putative stem cells in ageing human heart.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Laurentiu M; Curici, Antoanela; Wang, Enshi; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Tradition considers that mammalian heart consists of about 70% non-myocytes (interstitial cells) and 30% cardiomyocytes (CMs). Anyway, the presence of telocytes (TCs) has been overlooked, since they were described in 2010 (visit www.telocytes.com). Also, the number of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has not accurately estimated in humans during ageing. We used electron microscopy to identify and estimate the number of cells in human atrial myocardium (appendages). Three age-related groups were studied: newborns (17 days-1 year), children (6-17 years) and adults (34-60 years). Morphometry was performed on low-magnification electron microscope images using computer-assisted technology. We found that interstitial area gradually increases with age from 31.3 ± 4.9% in newborns to 41 ± 5.2% in adults. Also, the number of blood capillaries (per mm(2) ) increased with several hundreds in children and adults versus newborns. CMs are the most numerous cells, representing 76% in newborns, 88% in children and 86% in adults. Images of CMs mitoses were seen in the 17-day newborns. Interestingly, no lipofuscin granules were found in CMs of human newborns and children. The percentage of cells that occupy interstitium were (depending on age): endothelial cells 52-62%; vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes 22-28%, Schwann cells with nerve endings 6-7%, fibroblasts 3-10%, macrophages 1-8%, TCs about 1% and stem cells less than 1%. We cannot confirm the popular belief that cardiac fibroblasts are the most prevalent cell type in the heart and account for about 20% of myocardial volume. Numerically, TCs represent a small fraction of human cardiac interstitial cells, but because of their extensive telopodes, they achieve a 3D network that, for instance, supports CSCs. The myocardial (very) low capability to regenerate may be explained by the number of CSCs, which decreases fivefold by age (from 0.5% to 0.1% in newborns versus adults).

  15. Strategies and Challenges in Clinical Trials Targeting Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John C.; Milman, Sofiya; Hashmi, Shahrukh K.; Austad, Steve N.; Kirkland, James L.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that target fundamental aging processes have the potential to transform human health and health care. A variety of candidate drugs have emerged from basic and translational research that may target aging processes. Some of these drugs are already in clinical use for other purposes, such as metformin and rapamycin. However, designing clinical trials to test interventions that target the aging process poses a unique set of challenges. This paper summarizes the outcomes of an international meeting co-ordinated by the NIH-funded Geroscience Network to further the goal of developing a translational pipeline to move candidate compounds through clinical trials and ultimately into use. We review the evidence that some drugs already in clinical use may target fundamental aging processes. We discuss the design principles of clinical trials to test such interventions in humans, including study populations, interventions, and outcomes. As examples, we offer several scenarios for potential clinical trials centered on the concepts of health span (delayed multimorbidity and functional decline) and resilience (response to or recovery from an acute health stress). Finally, we describe how this discussion helped inform the design of the proposed Targeting Aging with Metformin study. PMID:27535968

  16. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during orthostatic challenge in aging humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    Aging attenuates the increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and elicits hypotension during otolith organ engagement in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine the neural and cardiovascular responses to otolithic engagement during orthostatic stress in older adults. We hypothesized that age-related impairments in the vestibulosympathetic reflex would persist during orthostatic challenge in older subjects and might compromise arterial blood pressure regulation. MSNA, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate responses to head-down rotation (HDR) performed with and without lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in prone subjects were measured. Ten young (27 +/- 1 yr) and 11 older subjects (64 +/- 1 yr) were studied prospectively. HDR performed alone elicited an attenuated increase in MSNA in older subjects (Delta106 +/- 28 vs. Delta20 +/- 7% for young and older subjects). HDR performed during simultaneous orthostatic stress increased total MSNA further in young (Delta53 +/- 15%; P < 0.05) but not older subjects (Delta-5 +/- 4%). Older subjects demonstrated consistent significant hypotension during HDR performed both alone (Delta-6 +/- 2 mmHg) and during LBNP (Delta-7 +/- 2 mmHg). These data provide experimental support for the concept that age-related impairments in the vestibulosympathetic reflex persist during orthostatic challenge in older adults. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the concept that age-related alterations in vestibular function might contribute to altered orthostatic blood pressure regulation with age in humans.

  17. Thinking Differently About Aging: Changing Attitudes Through the Humanities.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Leni

    2015-08-01

    Ageism has many cumulative negative health effects, so reducing ageism in college-age youths can have a significant, long-term impact on public health. Reduced ageism decreases the prevalence and severity of many negative health events, such as myocardial infarctions, and can add an average of 7.5 years to the life span. One of the few proven methods for reducing ageist ideation is through participation in a video screening and a pair of follow-up conversations. This intervention is similar to the regular activities of many faculty members in the humanities. Gerontologists' expertise with quantitative studies, qualitative studies, and data analysis is needed to determine what factors can improve the efficacy of the intervention and to demonstrate the long-term health impact of specific interventions. Humanities research also will benefit from expanded understandings of aging and old age. Organizations such as the Gerontological Society of America, the European Network in Aging Studies, and the North American Network in Aging Studies can facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration.

  18. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in recent years in reducing human exposures to lead, the potential for high intake of this contaminant still exists in millions of homes and in many occupational settings. Moreover, there is growing evidence that levels of lead intake considered inconsequential just a few years ago can result in subtle, adverse health effects, particularly in children. Consequently, there have been increased efforts by health protection agencies to develop credible, versatile methods for relating levels of lead in environmental media to levels in blood and tissues of exposed humans of all ages. In a parallel effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age-specific biokinetic models for calculating radiation doses from environmentally important radionuclides, including radioisotopes of lead. This paper describes a new age-specific biokinetic model for lead originally developed for the ICRP but expanded to include additional features that are useful for consideration of lead as a chemical toxin. The model is developed within a generic, physiologically motivated framework designed to address a class of calciumlike elements. This framework provides a useful setting in which to synthesize experimental, occupational, and environmental data on lead and exploit common physiological properties of lead and the alkaline earth elements. The modular design is intended to allow researchers to modify specific parameter values or model components to address special problems in lead toxicology or to incorporate new information. Transport of lead between compartments is assumed to follow linear, first-order kinetics provided the concentration in red blood cells remains below a nonlinear threshold level, but a nonlinear relation between plasma lead and red blood cell lead is modeled for concentrations above that level. The model is shown to be consistent

  19. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... working with laboratory animals or with powdered natural rubber latex gloves have developed occupational asthma. Occupational asthma ... spray painting, insulation installation and in manufacturing plastics, rubber and foam. These chemicals can cause occupational asthma ...

  20. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  1. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context.

  2. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  3. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  4. The Influence of Selected Family Factors on the Educational and Occupational Aspiration Levels of High School-Aged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemens, Leonard B.

    The first in a series of 4 studies based on data collected from 1,844 high school students in Canada, this study examined eleventh and twelfth grade students from 2 rural Manitoba sample areas and from 2 large suburban high schools in metropolitan Winnipeg. This study focused on the educational and occupational aspiration levels and 10 selected…

  5. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... occupations requiring the performance of any duties in work rooms or work places where goods are manufactured... repairing hoisting apparatus. (d) Work performed in or about boiler or engine rooms or in connection with... window washing that involves working from window sills, and all work requiring the use of...

  6. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... occupations requiring the performance of any duties in work rooms or work places where goods are manufactured... repairing hoisting apparatus. (d) Work performed in or about boiler or engine rooms or in connection with... window washing that involves working from window sills, and all work requiring the use of...

  7. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  8. Impact of Aging on Dendritic Cell Functions in humans

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anshu; Gupta, Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    Aging is a paradox of reduced immunity and chronic inflammation. Dendritic cells are central orchestrators of the immune response with a key role in the generation of immunity and maintenance of tolerance. The functions of DCs are compromised with age. There is no major effect on the numbers and phenotype of DC subsets in aged subjects; nevertheless, their capacity to phagocytose antigens and migrate is impaired with age. There is aberrant cytokine secretion by various DC subsets with CDCs secreting increased basal level of pro-inflammatory cytokines but the response on stimulation to foreign antigens is decreased. In contrast, the response to self antigens is increased suggesting erosion of peripheral self tolerance. PDC subset also secretes reduced IFN-alpha in response to viruses. The capacity of DCs to prime T cell responses is also affected. Aging thus has a profound affect on DC functions. Present review summarizes the effect of advancing age on DC functions in humans in the context of both immunity and tolerance. PMID:20619360

  9. Human premature aging, DNA repair and RecQ helicases.

    PubMed

    Brosh, Robert M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2007-01-01

    Genomic instability leads to mutations, cellular dysfunction and aberrant phenotypes at the tissue and organism levels. A number of mechanisms have evolved to cope with endogenous or exogenous stress to prevent chromosomal instability and maintain cellular homeostasis. DNA helicases play important roles in the DNA damage response. The RecQ family of DNA helicases is of particular interest since several human RecQ helicases are defective in diseases associated with premature aging and cancer. In this review, we will provide an update on our understanding of the specific roles of human RecQ helicases in the maintenance of genomic stability through their catalytic activities and protein interactions in various pathways of cellular nucleic acid metabolism with an emphasis on DNA replication and repair. We will also discuss the clinical features of the premature aging disorders associated with RecQ helicase deficiencies and how they relate to the molecular defects.

  10. Occupant kinematics and estimated effectiveness of side airbags in pole side impacts using a human FE model with internal organs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigeki; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Yuichi

    2008-11-01

    When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models. Finite element simulations were conducted assuming a case where a passenger vehicle collides against a pole at 29km/h. Occupant kinematics, force-deformation responses and pressure levels were compared between cases with and without side airbag deployment. The results indicated that strain to the ribs and pressure to the organs was smaller with side airbag deployment. The side airbag widened the contact area at the torso, helping to distribute the force to the shoulder, arm and chest. Such distributed force helped generate relatively smaller deformation in the ribs. Furthermore, the side airbag deployment helped restrict the spine displacement. The smaller displacement contributed to lowering the magnitude of contact force between the torso and the door. The study also examined the correlations between the pressure levels in the internal organs, rib deflection, and V*C of chest. The study found that the V*C(t) peak appeared to be synchronized with the organ pressure peak, suggesting that the pressure level of the internal organs could be one possible

  11. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  12. Investigations Into Age-related Changes in the Human Mandible().

    PubMed

    Parr, Nicolette M; Passalacqua, Nicholas V; Skorpinski, Katie

    2017-03-02

    While changes in mandibular shape over time are not widely recognized by skeletal biologists, mandibular remodeling and associated changes in gross morphology may result from a number of causes related to mechanical stress such as antemortem tooth loss, changes in bite force, or alterations of masticatory performance. This study investigated the relationship between age-related changes and antemortem tooth loss in adult humans via dry bone measurements. This study examined 10 standard mandibular measurements as well as individual antemortem tooth loss scores using the Eichner Index from a total of 319 female and male individuals with ages ranging from 16 to 99 years. Results indicate that few mandibular measurements exhibited age-related changes, and most were affected by antemortem tooth loss.

  13. Relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and methylphenidate induced high in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S. |

    1996-05-01

    The inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by cocaine has been shown to be indispensable for its reinforcing properties. The development of drugs that inibit the DAT has become a major target to prevent cocaine`s effects. However prevention of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by DAT inhibitors has never been demonstrated. This study evaluates the ability to block methylphenidate (MP), a DAT inhibitor drug with similar reinforcing properties to cocaine, induced {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by prior DAT inhibition. It uses PET and [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate to measure the relationship between DAT occupancy prior to administration of MP and the intensity of the subjective perception of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} in 8 controls. MP (0.375 mg/kg iv) which was administered as a single injection and also as two sequential doses given 60 minutes apart significantly reduced the ratio of the distribution volume for [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate in striatum to that in cerebellum from a baseline of 2.83 {plus_minus} 0.2 to 1.29 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes and to 1.37 {plus_minus} 0.2 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and to 1.14 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes after the second of two sequential MP doses. This corresponds to a DAT occupancy by MP of 84% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 minutes and of 77% {plus_minus} 6 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and of 93% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 after the second of two sequential MP doses. The subjective perception of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} experienced after the second injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection, in spite of the very different starting DAT occupancies (0 and 77%, respectively). DAT occupancy was not correlated with the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}; and one subject with 100% DAT occupancy did not perceive the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

  14. Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography.

    PubMed

    Yatsunenko, Tanya; Rey, Federico E; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Contreras, Monica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Baldassano, Robert N; Anokhin, Andrey P; Heath, Andrew C; Warner, Barbara; Reeder, Jens; Kuczynski, Justin; Caporaso, J Gregory; Lozupone, Catherine A; Lauber, Christian; Clemente, Jose Carlos; Knights, Dan; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2012-05-09

    Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, here we characterize bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy children and adults from the Amazonas of Venezuela, rural Malawi and US metropolitan areas and included mono- and dizygotic twins. Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism. Pronounced differences in bacterial assemblages and functional gene repertoires were noted between US residents and those in the other two countries. These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood. Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

  15. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  16. Occupations, U. S. A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    The booklet divides job titles, selected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, into 15 career clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, business and office education, communication and media, construction, consumer and home economics, fine arts and humanities, health occupations, hospitality and recreation, manufacturing, marine science,…

  17. Dimethylphosphoryl-inhibited human cholinesterases: inhibition, reactivation, and aging kinetics.

    PubMed

    Worek, F; Diepold, C; Eyer, P

    1999-02-01

    Human poisoning by organophosphates bearing two methoxy groups, e.g. by malathion, paraoxon-methyl, dimethoate and oxydemeton-methyl, is generally considered to be rather resistant to oxime therapy. Since the oxime effectiveness is influenced not only by its reactivating potential but also by inhibition, aging and spontaneous reactivation kinetics, experiments were performed with human acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) to determine the respective kinetic constants. The efficacy of obidoxime in reactivating dimethylphosphoryl-AChE was 40, 9 and 3 times higher than of HI 6, pralidoxime and HLö 7, respectively. Aging (t1/2 3.7 h) and spontaneous reactivation (t1/2 0.7 h) occurred concomitantly, with the portion of the aged enzyme being dependent on the presence of excess inhibitor. Calculation of steady-state AChE activity in the presence of inhibitor and oxime revealed that obidoxime was superior to pralidoxime. In addition, organophosphate concentrations up to 10(-6) M (paraoxon-methyl) and 10(-4) M (oxydemeton-methyl) could be counteracted at clinically relevant oxime concentrations (10 microM). These data indicate that oximes may effectively reactivate human dimethylphosphoryl-AChE. Failure of oximes may be attributed to megadose intoxications and to prolonged time intervals between poison uptake and oxime administration. The potency of the oximes to reactivate dimethylphosphoryl-BChE was much lower and the spontaneous reactivation slower (t1/2 9 h), while aging proceeded at a comparable rate. Thus, BChE activity determination for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring may give no reliable information on AChE status.

  18. Environmental and occupational pesticide exposure and human sperm parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-05-10

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January 2007 and August 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  19. Predicting Human Age with Bloodstains by sjTREC Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-sheng; Lu, Hui-ling; Sun, Hong-yu

    2012-01-01

    The age-related decline of signal joint T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs) in human peripheral blood has been demonstrated in our previous study and other reports. Until now, only a few studies on sjTREC detection in bloodstain samples were reported, which were based on a small sample of subjects of a limited age range, although bloodstains are much more frequently encountered in forensic practice. In this present study, we adopted the sensitive Taqman real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to perform sjTREC quantification in bloodstains from individuals ranging from 0–86 years old (n = 264). The results revealed that sjTREC contents in human bloodstains were declined in an age-dependent manner (r = −0.8712). The formula of age estimation was Age  = −7.1815Y−42.458±9.42 (Y dCtTBP-sjTREC; 9.42 standard error). Furthermore, we tested for the influence of short- or long- storage time by analyzing fresh and stored bloodstains from the same individuals. Remarkably, no statistically significant difference in sjTREC contents was found between the fresh and old DNA samples over a 4-week of storage time. However, significant loss (0.16–1.93 dCt) in sjTREC contents was detected after 1.5 years of storage in 31 samples. Moreover, preliminary sjTREC quantification from up to 20-year-old bloodstains showed that though the sjTREC contents were detectable in all samples and highly correlated with donor age, a time-dependent decrease in the correlation coefficient r was found, suggesting the predicting accuracy of this described assay would be deteriorated in aged samples. Our findings show that sjTREC quantification might be also suitable for age prediction in bloodstains, and future researches into the time-dependent or other potential impacts on sjTREC quantification might allow further improvement of the predicting accuracy. PMID:22879970

  20. Aging and the reduction in fracture toughness of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Nazari, A; Bajaj, D; Zhang, D; Romberg, E; Arola, D

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human coronal dentin was performed on tissue obtained from patients between ages 18 and 83. Stable crack extension was achieved over clinically relevant lengths (0< or = a < or =1mm) under Mode I quasi-static loading and perpendicular to the nominal tubule direction. Results distinguished that human dentin exhibits an increase in crack growth resistance with extension (i.e. rising R-curve) and that there is a significant reduction in both the initiation (K(o)) and plateau (K(p)) components of toughness with patient age. In the young dentin (18< or =age< or =35) there was a 25% increase in the crack growth resistance from the onset of extension (K(o)=1.34 MPa m(0.5)) to the maximum or "plateau" toughness (K(p)=1.65 MPa m(0.5)). In comparison, the crack growth resistance of the old dentin (55< or =age) increased with extension by less than 10% from K(o)=1.08 MPa m(0.5) to K(p)=1.17 MPa m(0.5). In young dentin toughening was achieved by a combination of inelastic deformation of the mineralized collagen matrix and microcracking of the peritubular cuffs. These mechanisms facilitated further toughening via the development of unbroken ligaments of tissue and posterior crack-bridging. Microstructural changes with aging decreased the capacity for near-tip inelastic deformation and microcracking of the tubules, which in turn suppressed the formation of unbroken ligaments and the degree of extrinsic toughening.

  1. Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the northern Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Pinhasi, Ron; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Golovanova, Liubov V.; Doronichev, Vladimir B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in direct radiocarbon dating of Neanderthal and anatomically modern human (AMH) fossils and the development of archaeostratigraphic chronologies now allow refined regional models for Neanderthal–AMH coexistence. In addition, they allow us to explore the issue of late Neanderthal survival in regions of Western Eurasia located within early routes of AMH expansion such as the Caucasus. Here we report the direct radiocarbon (14C) dating of a late Neanderthal specimen from a Late Middle Paleolithic (LMP) layer in Mezmaiskaya Cave, northern Caucasus. Additionally, we provide a more accurate chronology for the timing of Neanderthal extinction in the region through a robust series of 16 ultrafiltered bone collagen radiocarbon dates from LMP layers and using Bayesian modeling to produce a boundary probability distribution function corresponding to the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya. The direct date of the fossil (39,700 ± 1,100 14C BP) is in good agreement with the probability distribution function, indicating at a high level of probability that Neanderthals did not survive at Mezmaiskaya Cave after 39 ka cal BP ("calendrical" age in kiloannum before present, based on IntCal09 calibration curve). This challenges previous claims for late Neanderthal survival in the northern Caucasus. We see striking and largely synchronous chronometric similarities between the Bayesian age modeling for the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya and chronometric data from Ortvale Klde for the end of the LMP in the southern Caucasus. Our results confirm the lack of reliably dated Neanderthal fossils younger than ∼40 ka cal BP in any other region of Western Eurasia, including the Caucasus. PMID:21555570

  2. A comparative study of human levels of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene after occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Skender, L.J.; Karacic, V.; Prpic-Majic, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The rate of trichloroethylene (TRI) and perchloroethylene (PER) absorption was investigated in workers who were (1) occupationally exposed to TRI in four dry-cleaning shops (Group 1, n = 10) and (2) occupationally exposed to PER in one dry-cleaning shop (Group 2, n = 18). Concentrations of TRI and PER in blood were analyzed, and concentrations of trichloroethanol (TCE) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in blood and urine were analyzed. Results varied widely: PER was found in the blood of workers in group 1, but TRI was not detected in blood from any worker in group 2; most blood samples from group 2 workers did not contain a detectable quantity of TCE, and urine TCE concentrations in this group were very low. During the work week, a significant difference was found in group 1 for TRI in blood and TCE in blood and urine. In group 2, however, the only significant difference during the work week was for PER in blood. Therefore, the most reliable biological indicators for TRI and PER exposure are TCE in blood and PER in blood, respectively.

  3. Prediction of alpha1-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate from plasma concentrations of silodosin, tamsulosin and terazosin to treat urinary obstruction in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shizuo; Kato, Yasuhiro; Okura, Takashi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Kazuki

    2007-07-01

    Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are clinically useful for the improvement of urinary obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and their therapeutic effects are mediated through the blockade of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The present study was undertaken to predict the magnitude and duration of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate after oral alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. Prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding parameters of silodosin were estimated by measuring specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat prostate after oral administration of this drug. The plasma concentration of silodosin after oral administration in rats and healthy volunteers was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin in the human prostate and plasma concentrations of tamsulosin and terazosin were obtained from the literature. Using the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor binding parameters of silodosin in rat prostate, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate was estimated to be around 60-70% at 1-6 h after oral administration of silodosin at doses of 3.0, 8.1, and 16.1 micromol. Thereafter, the receptor occupancy was periodically decreased, to 24% (8.1 micromol) and 54% (16.1 micromol) 24 h later. A similar magnitude and time course of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by silodosin in the human prostate were estimated using alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) in the human prostate. Despite about two orders of differences in the plasma unbound concentrations after clinically effective oral dosages of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, there was a comparable magnitude of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by these drugs. In conclusion, the prediction of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may provide the rationale for the optimum dosage regimen of these drugs in the

  4. Sympathetic regulation during thermal stress in human aging and disease

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Jody L.; Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2015-01-01

    Humans control their core temperature within a narrow range via precise adjustments of the autonomic nervous system. In response to changing core and/or skin temperature, several critical thermoregulatory reflex effector responses are initiated and include shivering, sweating, and changes in cutaneous blood flow. Cutaneous vasomotor adjustments, mediated by modulations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), aid in the maintenance of thermal homeostasis during cold and heat stress since (1) they serve as the first line of defense of body temperature and are initiated before other thermoregulatory effectors, and (2) they are on the efferent arm of non-thermoregulatory reflex systems, aiding in the maintenance of blood pressure and organ perfusion. This review article highlights the sympathetic responses of humans to thermal stress, with a specific focus on primary aging as well as impairments that occur in both heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Age- and pathology-related changes in efferent muscle and skin SNA during cold and heat stress, measured directly in humans using microneurography, are discussed. PMID:26627337

  5. Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara S.; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.; Bronikowski, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Women rarely give birth after ∼45 y of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles, menopause, at ∼50 y of age after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Furthermore, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out a unique detailed comparative study of reproductive senescence in seven species of nonhuman primates in natural populations, using long-term, individual-based data, and compared them to a population of humans experiencing natural fertility and mortality. In four of seven primate species we found that reproductive senescence occurred before death only in a small minority of individuals. In three primate species we found evidence of reproductive senescence that accelerated throughout adulthood; however, its initial rate was much lower than mortality, so that relatively few individuals experienced reproductive senescence before death. In contrast, the human population showed the predicted and well-known pattern in which reproductive senescence occurred before death for many women and its rate accelerated throughout adulthood. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that reproductive senescence in midlife, although apparent in natural-fertility, natural-mortality populations of humans, is generally absent in other primates living in such populations. PMID:23898189

  6. Impact Of Human Aging And Modern Lifestyle On Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Valle Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela; Closs, Vera Elizabeth; Junges, Vilma Maria; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin

    2017-01-13

    Human evolution and lifestyle changes caused by the agricultural and industrial revolutions have led to great advances in medicine and increased life expectancy, whilst also profoundly altering the ecological relationships and disease patterns of populations. Studies involving populations that still enjoy a rural way of life and with traits similar to the Paleolithic period reveal them to present a more robust, resistant and diverse gut microbiota, in comparison to highly industrialized civilizations. The human diet has expanded and broadened to include the consumption of high-calorie foods, particularly from animal sources such as game, meat and eggs. For some time, the authors have been alert to the fact that a modern lifestyle leads to reduced intake of beneficial bacteria, suggesting that nonpathogenic bacteria are being eradicated. Furthermore, therapeutic procedures, including the use of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to lead to recovery of this microbiota, which is altered due to both the ageing process and lifestyle related aspects. Accordingly, this article aims to review the impact of human aging and modern lifestyle on gut microbiota, within an evolutionary, ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic context.

  7. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  8. Cytotoxicity and inflammation in human alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to occupational levels of gold and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachand, George D.; Allen, Amy; Bachand, Marlene; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Seagrave, Jean Clare; Brozik, Susan M.

    2012-10-01

    While inhalation represents one of the most likely routes of exposure, the toxicity and response of nanoparticles at concentrations expected from such an exposure are not well understood. Here we characterized the in vitro response of human A549 adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to gold (AuNP) and silver (AgNP) nanoparticles at levels approximating an occupational exposure. Changes in neither oxidative stress nor cytotoxicity were significantly affected by exposure to AgNPs and AuNPs, regardless of NP type (Ag vs. Au), concentration, surface ligand (citrate or tannic acid), or size. An inflammatory response was, however, observed in response to 20 nm AgNPs and 20 nm AuNPs, where significant differences in the release of interleukin (IL)-8 but not IL-6 were observed. Additional data demonstrated that increased IL-8 secretion was strongly dependent on both nanoparticle size and concentration. Overall these data suggest that, while not acutely toxic, occupational exposure to AuNPs and AgNPs may trigger a significant inflammatory response in alveolar epithelium. Moreover, the differential responses in IL-8 and IL-6 secretion suggest that NPs may induce a response pathway that is distinct from those commonly elicited by allergens and pathogens.

  9. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans (Review).

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases.

  10. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases. PMID:27748877

  11. Prevalence of airflow obstruction among ever-employed US adults aged 18–79 years by longest held occupation group: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Halldin, Cara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction among ever-employed US adults. Methods Data from the 2007 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for adults 18–79 years with valid spirometry and longest held occupation were analysed. The age-standardised prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction was estimated overall and by smoking status. Results Age-standardised prevalence of airflow obstruction was 13.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 15.0%) and was highest in participants aged 60–79 years (17.4%, 95% CI 15.2% to 19.6%), males (14.8%, 95% CI 12.0% to 17.6%), non-Hispanic whites (15.4%, 95% CI 13.8% to 16.7%) and ever smokers (19.1%, 95% CI 16.6% to 21.5%). Age-standardised prevalence of airflow obstruction was >20% for installation, maintenance and repair occupations (p=22.1%, 95% CI 16.5% to 27.8%), and for construction and extraction occupations (20.7%, 95% CI 13.5% to 27.9%). Conclusions Prevalence of airflow obstruction varied by demographic characteristics and occupational factors with a higher prevalence among ever smokers for most demographic characteristics and occupational factors. Study findings emphasise the importance of monitoring the lung function of workers in occupations with a high prevalence of airflow obstruction. PMID:27152013

  12. Elastic hysteresis in human eyes is age dependent value.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kotaro; Saito, Kei; Kameda, Toshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-06-19

    Background:  The elastic hysteresis phenomenon is observed when cyclic loading is applied to a viscoelastic system. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate elastic hysteresis in living human eyes against an external force. Design:  Prospective case series. Participants:  Twenty-four eyes of 24 normal human subjects (mean age: 41.5 ± 10.6 years) were recruited. Methods:  A non-contact tonometry process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal thickness at 4 mm from the center, corneal curvature, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was also measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometer (DCT). Main Outcome Measures:  Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was calculated and graphed. Results:  The mean CCT was 552.5 ± 36.1 µm, corneal curvature was 7.84 ± 0.26 mm, and ACD was 2.83 ± 0.29 mm. The mean GAT-IOP was 14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg and DCT-IOP was 16.3 ± 3.5 mmHg. The mean energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was 3.90 × 10(-6) ± 2.49 × 10(-6) Nm. Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis correlated significantly with age (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.596, p = 0.0016). There were no significant correlations between energy loss due to elastic hysteresis and other measurements. Conclusion:  Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis in the eyes of subjects was found to positively correlate with age, independent of anterior eye structure or IOP. Therefore, it is believed that the viscosity of the eye increases with age. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. AGING AND THE REDUCTION IN FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF HUMAN DENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, A.; Bajaj, D.; Zhang, D.; Romberg, E.; Arola, D.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human coronal dentin was performed on tissue obtained from patients between ages 18 and 83. Stable crack extension was achieved over clinically relevant lengths (0 ≤ a ≤1 mm) under Mode I quasi-static loading and perpendicular to the nominal tubule direction. Results distinguished that human dentin exhibits an increase in crack growth resistance with extension (i.e. rising R-curve) and that there is a significant reduction in both the initiation (Ko) and plateau (Kp) components of toughness with patient age. In the young dentin (18≤age≤35) there was a 25 % increase in the crack growth resistance from the onset of extension (Ko =1.34 MPa·m0.5) to the maximum or “plateau” toughness (Kp = 1.65 MPa·m0.5). In comparison, the crack growth resistance of the old dentin (55≤age) increased with extension by less than 10 % from Ko = 1.08 MPa·m0.5 to Kp = 1.17 MPa·m0.5. In young dentin toughening was achieved by a combination of inelastic deformation of the mineralized collagen matrix and microcracking of the peritubular cuffs. These mechanisms facilitated further toughening via the development of unbroken ligaments of tissue and posterior crack-bridging. Microstructural changes with aging decreased the capacity for near-tip inelastic deformation and microcracking of the tubules, which in turn suppressed the formation of unbroken ligaments and the degree of extrinsic toughening. PMID:19627862

  14. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  15. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ajay D.; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Kalorey, Dewanand R.; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Naik, Rajesh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods In this study, serum samples (n=282) from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) (n=243), and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39) were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusion Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame. PMID:24762925

  16. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  17. Retaining an aging nurse workforce: perceptions of human resource practices.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Mary Val; McIntosh, Barbara; Rambur, Betty; Naud, Shelly

    2009-01-01

    The expected retirement of the largest cohort of nurses will push the RN workforce below projected need by 2020. The challenges of managing a nursing workforce with the majority of nurses over 45 years of age are now necessitating attention to polices for recruitment and retention of older nurses, particularly in rural areas. This convenience sample study employed a mailed survey to investigate perceptions of nurses in 12 institutions (four hospitals, seven home health agencies, and one nursing home serving a small rural state). The goal was to explore rural RNs' perceptions of intent to stay in their current position, with their organization, and employment as a nurse; organizational and unit-level culture regarding older nurses in the workplace; importance of specific human resource practices/policies to their own intention to stay; and extent to which these human resource practices/policies are currently done. The results indicate that although there are similarities across age cohorts, important differences exist that can be addressed to create career-span sensitive policies and practices. This study provides an indicator of progress or lack of progress in addressing older nurse recruitment and retention, and also offers guidance for differentiating policies and practices for younger and older nurses.

  18. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states.

  19. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groucutt, Huw S.; White, Tom S.; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Parton, Ash; Crassard, Rémy; Shipton, Ceri; Jennings, Richard P.; Parker, Adrian G.; Breeze, Paul S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    The Empty Quarter (or Rub' al Khali) of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest continuous sandy desert in the world. It has been known for several decades that Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, representing phases of wetter climate, are preserved there. These sequences have yielded palaeontological evidence in the form of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils and have been dated using various radiometric techniques. However, evidence for human presence during these wetter phases has until now been ephemeral. Here, we report on the first stratified and dated archaeology from the Empty Quarter, recovered from the site of Mundafan Al-Buhayrah (MDF-61). Human occupation at the site, represented by stone tools, has been dated to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 using multiple luminescence dating techniques (multigrain and single grain OSL, TT-OSL). The sequence consists primarily of lacustrine and palustrine sediments, from which evidence for changing local environmental conditions has been obtained through analysis of fossil assemblages (phytoliths and non-marine molluscs and ostracods). The discovery of securely-dated archaeological material at ∼100 to 80 ka in the Empty Quarter has important implications for hypotheses concerning the timing and routes of dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa, which have been much debated. Consequently, the data presented here fill a crucial gap in palaeoenvironmental and archaeological understanding of the southern Arabian interior. Fossils of H. sapiens in the Levant, also dated to MIS 5, together with Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites in Arabia and India are thought to represent the earliest dispersal of our species out of Africa. We suggest that the widespread occurrence of similar lithic technologies across southern Asia, coupled with a growing body of evidence for environmental amelioration across the Saharo-Arabian belt, indicates that occupation of the Levant by H. sapiens during MIS 5

  20. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the

  1. Twins for epigenetic studies of human aging and development.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    Most of the complex traits including aging phenotypes are caused by the interaction between genome and environmental conditions and the interface of epigenetics may be a central mechanism. Although modern technologies allow us high-throughput profiling of epigenetic patterns already at genome level, our understanding of genetic and environmental influences on the epigenetic processes remains limited. Twins are of special interest for genetic studies due to their genetic similarity and rearing-environment sharing. The classical twin design has made a great contribution in dissecting the genetic and environmental contributions to human diseases and complex traits. In the era of functional genomics, the valuable sample of twins is helping to bridge the gap between gene activity and the environments through epigenetic mechanisms unlimited by DNA sequence variations. We propose to extend the classical twin design to study the aging-related molecular epigenetic phenotypes and link them with environmental exposures especially early life events. Different study designs and application issues will be highlighted and novel approaches introduced with aim at making uses of twins in assessing the environmental impact on epigenetic changes during development and in the aging process.

  2. Maladaptive bias for extrahippocampal navigation strategies in aging humans.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan M; de Condappa, Olivier; Harris, Mathew A; Wolbers, Thomas

    2013-04-03

    Efficient spatial navigation requires not only accurate spatial knowledge but also the selection of appropriate strategies. Using a novel paradigm that allowed us to distinguish between beacon, associative cue, and place strategies, we investigated the effects of cognitive aging on the selection and adoption of navigation strategies in humans. Participants were required to rejoin a previously learned route encountered from an unfamiliar direction. Successful performance required the use of an allocentric place strategy, which was increasingly observed in young participants over six experimental sessions. In contrast, older participants, who were able to recall the route when approaching intersections from the same direction as during encoding, failed to use the correct place strategy when approaching intersections from novel directions. Instead, they continuously used a beacon strategy and showed no evidence of changing their behavior across the six sessions. Given that this bias was already apparent in the first experimental session, the inability to adopt the correct place strategy is not related to an inability to switch from a firmly established response strategy to an allocentric place strategy. Rather, and in line with previous research, age-related deficits in allocentric processing result in shifts in preferred navigation strategies and an overall bias for response strategies. The specific preference for a beacon strategy is discussed in the context of a possible dissociation between beacon-based and associative-cue-based response learning in the striatum, with the latter being more sensitive to age-related changes.

  3. Mitochondrial-Nuclear Epistasis: Implications for Human Aging and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Tranah, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that mitochondria are involved in the aging process. Mitochondrial function requires the coordinated expression of hundreds of nuclear genes and a few dozen mitochondrial genes, many of which have been associated with either extended or shortened life span. Impaired mitochondrial function resulting from mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation is likely to contribute to an imbalance in cellular energy homeostasis, increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, and an increased rate of cellular senescence and aging. The complex genetic architecture of mitochondria suggests that there may be an equally complex set of gene interactions (epistases) involving genetic variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Results from Drosophila suggest that the effects of mtDNA haplotypes on longevity vary among different nuclear allelic backgrounds, which could account for the inconsistent associations that have been observed between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and survival in humans. A diversity of pathways may influence the way mitochondria and nuclear – mitochondrial interactions modulate longevity, including: oxidative phosphorylation; mitochondrial uncoupling; antioxidant defenses; mitochondrial fission and fusion; and sirtuin regulation of mitochondrial genes. We hypothesize that aging and longevity, as complex traits having a significant genetic component, are likely to be controlled by nuclear gene variants interacting with both inherited and somatic mtDNA variability. PMID:20601194

  4. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics.

  5. Values and Work Environment: Mapping 32 Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafo, Ariel; Sagiv, Lilach

    2004-01-01

    The study addresses the relationship between values and occupations. Israeli workers (N = 652; mean age = 47; 43% male) in 32 occupations reported their values using the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess, Harris, & Owens, 2001), and value scores were aggregated within occupations. Occupations were classified…

  6. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  7. Aging and fracture of human cortical bone and tooth dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Kurt J.; Ager, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-06-01

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms, which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms, which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms, which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force (e.g., the stress intensity) as a function of crack extension (“R-curve approach”). Here this methodology is used to study the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  8. Metabolomics of human brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Naudí, Alba; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-07-01

    Neurons in the mature human central nervous system (CNS) perform a wide range of motor, sensory, regulatory, behavioral, and cognitive functions. Such diverse functional output requires a great diversity of CNS neuronal and non-neuronal populations. Metabolomics encompasses the study of the complete set of metabolites/low-molecular-weight intermediates (metabolome), which are context-dependent and vary according to the physiology, developmental state, or pathologic state of the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. Therefore, the use of metabolomics can help to unravel the diversity-and to disclose the specificity-of metabolic traits and their alterations in the brain and in fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the current applications of metabolomics in studies of CNS aging and certain age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurometabolomics will increase knowledge of the physiologic and pathologic functions of neural cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a metabolic context.

  9. Occupational competence strategies in old age: a mixed-methods comparison between Hispanic women with different levels of daily participation.

    PubMed

    Orellano, Elsa M; Mountain, Gail; Varas, Nelson; Labault, Nirzka

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study, we explored the difference in the use of occupational competence strategies for daily participation between more active and less active older Hispanic women. Twenty-nine women who were 70 and older and lived alone participated in this study. We used a mixed-methods design by which the principal investigator administered a tool to measure participation restrictions during the quantitative phase and conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample in the qualitative phase. More active women predominantly used transportation resources, emotional social support, and spirituality to support participation in life activities. Less active women used more practical social support, assistive technology, and environmental modifications. Personal facilitators seemed to directly modify these strategies. These results suggest that older women with different activity levels use distinct internal and external resources to maintain or enhance daily participation. Future studies should explore whether these resources remain consistent across gender, living status, and ethnicity.

  10. Remuneration of Graduates, as at 1 July 1994. Human Resources, Financial, and Economic Occupations = Vergoeding van Gegradueerdes, soos op 1 Julie 1994. Menslike Hulpbronne, Finansiele en Ekonomiese Beroepe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Johan

    This report, in both English and Afrikaans, is based on data gathered during a September 1994 mail survey of 215,284 South African graduates that elicited a total response rate of 18.3%. It details the remuneration of graduates (as of July 1, 1994) in a wide range of human resources, accounting and financial, economic, and sales occupations in the…

  11. Patch-occupancy models indicate human activity as major determinant of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis seasonal distribution in an industrial corridor in Gabon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buij, R.; McShea, W.J.; Campbell, P.; Lee, M.E.; Dallmeier, F.; Guimondou, S.; Mackaga, L.; Guisseougou, N.; Mboumba, S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Alonso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of human activity and ecological features in influencing African forest elephant ranging behaviour was investigated in the Rabi-Ndogo corridor of the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in southwest Gabon. Locations in a wide geographical area with a range of environmental variables were selected for patch-occupancy surveys using elephant dung to assess seasonal presence and absence of elephants. Patch-occupancy procedures allowed for covariate modelling evaluating hypotheses for both occupancy in relation to human activity and ecological features, and detection probability in relation to vegetation density. The best fitting models for old and fresh dung data sets indicate that (1) detection probability for elephant dung is negatively related to the relative density of the vegetation, and (2) human activity, such as presence and infrastructure, are more closely associated with elephant distribution patterns than are ecological features, such as the presence of wetlands and preferred fresh fruit. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of elephants to human disturbance, in this case infrastructure development associated with gas and oil production. Patch-occupancy methodology offers a viable alternative to current transect protocols for monitoring programs with multiple covariates.

  12. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  13. Employment Discrimination--Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967--Bona Fide Occupational Qualification--Hodgson v. Greyhound Lines, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Susan Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Examines the circuit court's decision in favor of Greyhound in a suit alleging that the company's refusal to accept applications for bus driver from persons under 35 violated the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). Submits that the decision frustrates congressional intent by permitting arbitrary and unreasonable age discrimination. (JT)

  14. Synergistic roles of climate warming and human occupation in Patagonian megafaunal extinctions during the Last Deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Turney, Chris; Barnett, Ross; Martin, Fabiana; Bray, Sarah C; Vilstrup, Julia T; Orlando, Ludovic; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Loponte, Daniel; Medina, Matías; De Nigris, Mariana; Civalero, Teresa; Fernández, Pablo Marcelo; Gasco, Alejandra; Duran, Victor; Seymour, Kevin L; Otaola, Clara; Gil, Adolfo; Paunero, Rafael; Prevosti, Francisco J; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Wheeler, Jane C; Borrero, Luis; Austin, Jeremy J; Cooper, Alan

    2016-06-01

    The causes of Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions (60,000 to 11,650 years ago, hereafter 60 to 11.65 ka) remain contentious, with major phases coinciding with both human arrival and climate change around the world. The Americas provide a unique opportunity to disentangle these factors as human colonization took place over a narrow time frame (~15 to 14.6 ka) but during contrasting temperature trends across each continent. Unfortunately, limited data sets in South America have so far precluded detailed comparison. We analyze genetic and radiocarbon data from 89 and 71 Patagonian megafaunal bones, respectively, more than doubling the high-quality Pleistocene megafaunal radiocarbon data sets from the region. We identify a narrow megafaunal extinction phase 12,280 ± 110 years ago, some 1 to 3 thousand years after initial human presence in the area. Although humans arrived immediately prior to a cold phase, the Antarctic Cold Reversal stadial, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until the stadial finished and the subsequent warming phase commenced some 1 to 3 thousand years later. The increased resolution provided by the Patagonian material reveals that the sequence of climate and extinction events in North and South America were temporally inverted, but in both cases, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until human presence and climate warming coincided. Overall, metapopulation processes involving subpopulation connectivity on a continental scale appear to have been critical for megafaunal species survival of both climate change and human impacts.

  15. Synergistic roles of climate warming and human occupation in Patagonian megafaunal extinctions during the Last Deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Jessica L.; Turney, Chris; Barnett, Ross; Martin, Fabiana; Bray, Sarah C.; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Orlando, Ludovic; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Loponte, Daniel; Medina, Matías; De Nigris, Mariana; Civalero, Teresa; Fernández, Pablo Marcelo; Gasco, Alejandra; Duran, Victor; Seymour, Kevin L.; Otaola, Clara; Gil, Adolfo; Paunero, Rafael; Prevosti, Francisco J.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Wheeler, Jane C.; Borrero, Luis; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The causes of Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions (60,000 to 11,650 years ago, hereafter 60 to 11.65 ka) remain contentious, with major phases coinciding with both human arrival and climate change around the world. The Americas provide a unique opportunity to disentangle these factors as human colonization took place over a narrow time frame (~15 to 14.6 ka) but during contrasting temperature trends across each continent. Unfortunately, limited data sets in South America have so far precluded detailed comparison. We analyze genetic and radiocarbon data from 89 and 71 Patagonian megafaunal bones, respectively, more than doubling the high-quality Pleistocene megafaunal radiocarbon data sets from the region. We identify a narrow megafaunal extinction phase 12,280 ± 110 years ago, some 1 to 3 thousand years after initial human presence in the area. Although humans arrived immediately prior to a cold phase, the Antarctic Cold Reversal stadial, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until the stadial finished and the subsequent warming phase commenced some 1 to 3 thousand years later. The increased resolution provided by the Patagonian material reveals that the sequence of climate and extinction events in North and South America were temporally inverted, but in both cases, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until human presence and climate warming coincided. Overall, metapopulation processes involving subpopulation connectivity on a continental scale appear to have been critical for megafaunal species survival of both climate change and human impacts. PMID:27386563

  16. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  17. A PET study comparing receptor occupancy by five selective cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonists in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Stephan; Karlsson, Cecilia; Jucaite, Aurelija; Varnäs, Katarina; Hamrén, Ulrika Wählby; Johnström, Peter; Gulyás, Balázs; Donohue, Sean R; Pike, Victor W; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    There is a medical need for safe and efficacious anti-obesity drugs with acceptable side effect profiles. To mitigate the challenge posed by translating target interaction across species and balancing beneficial vs. adverse effects, a positron emission tomography (PET) approach could help guide clinical dose optimization. Thus, as part of a compound differentiation effort, three novel selective CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists, developed by AstraZeneca (AZ) for the treatment of obesity, were compared with two clinically tested reference compounds, rimonabant and taranabant, with regard to receptor occupancy relative to dose and exposure. A total of 42 PET measurements were performed in 6 non-human primates using the novel CB1R antagonist radioligand [11C]SD5024. The AZ CB1R antagonists bound in a saturable manner to brain CB1R with in vivo affinities similar to that of rimonabant and taranabant, compounds with proven weight loss efficacy in clinical trials. Interestingly, it was found that exposures corresponding to those needed for optimal clinical efficacy of rimonabant and taranabant resulted in a CB1R occupancy typically around ~20–30%, thus much lower than what would be expected for classical G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists in other therapeutic contexts. These findings are also discussed in relation to emerging literature on the potential usefulness of ‘neutral’ vs. ‘classical’ CB1R (inverse agonist) antagonists. The study additionally highlighted the usefulness of the radioligand [11C]SD5024 as a specific tracer for CB1R in the primate brain, though an arterial input function would ideally be required in future studies to further assure accurate quantitative analysis of specific binding. PMID:25791528

  18. A PET study comparing receptor occupancy by five selective cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonists in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Stephan; Karlsson, Cecilia; Jucaite, Aurelija; Varnäs, Katarina; Wählby Hamrén, Ulrika; Johnström, Peter; Gulyás, Balázs; Donohue, Sean R; Pike, Victor W; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2016-02-01

    There is a medical need for safe and efficacious anti-obesity drugs with acceptable side effect profiles. To mitigate the challenge posed by translating target interaction across species and balancing beneficial vs. adverse effects, a positron emission tomography (PET) approach could help guide clinical dose optimization. Thus, as part of a compound differentiation effort, three novel selective CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists, developed by AstraZeneca (AZ) for the treatment of obesity, were compared with two clinically tested reference compounds, rimonabant and taranabant, with regard to receptor occupancy relative to dose and exposure. A total of 42 PET measurements were performed in 6 non-human primates using the novel CB1R antagonist radioligand [(11)C]SD5024. The AZ CB1R antagonists bound in a saturable manner to brain CB1R with in vivo affinities similar to that of rimonabant and taranabant, compounds with proven weight loss efficacy in clinical trials. Interestingly, it was found that exposures corresponding to those needed for optimal clinical efficacy of rimonabant and taranabant resulted in a CB1R occupancy typically around ∼20-30%, thus much lower than what would be expected for classical G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists in other therapeutic contexts. These findings are also discussed in relation to emerging literature on the potential usefulness of 'neutral' vs. 'classical' CB1R (inverse agonist) antagonists. The study additionally highlighted the usefulness of the radioligand [(11)C]SD5024 as a specific tracer for CB1R in the primate brain, though an arterial input function would ideally be required in future studies to further assure accurate quantitative analysis of specific binding.

  19. Mobile Gis: a Tool for Informal Settlement Occupancy Audit to Improve Integrated Human Settlement Implementation in Ekurhuleni, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokoena, B. T.; Musakwa, W.

    2016-06-01

    Upgrading and relocating people in informal settlements requires consistent commitment, good strategies and systems so as to improve the lives of those who live in them. In South Africa, in order to allocate subsidised housing to beneficiaries of an informal settlement, beneficiary administration needs to be completed to determine the number of people who qualify for a subsidised house. Conventional methods of occupancy audits are often unreliable, cumbersome and non-spatial. Accordingly, this study proposes the use of mobile GIS to conduct these audits to provide up-to-date, accurate, comprehensive and real-time data so as to facilitate the development of integrated human settlements. An occupancy audit was subsequently completed for one of the communities in the Ekurhuleni municipality, Gauteng province, using web-based mobile GIS as a solution to providing smart information through evidence based decision making. Fieldworkers accessed the off-line capturing module on a mobile device recording GPS coordinates, socio-economic information and photographs. The results of this audit indicated that only 56.86% of the households residing within the community could potentially benefit from receiving a subsidised house. Integrated residential development, which includes fully and partially subsidised housing, serviced stands and some fully bonded housing opportunities, would then be key to adequately providing access to suitable housing options within a project in a post-colonial South Africa, creating new post-1994 neighbourhoods, in line with policy. The use of mobile GIS therefore needs to be extended to other informal settlement upgrading projects in South Africa.

  20. Age-Dependent Changes in Pb Concentration in Human Teeth.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2016-09-01

    The result of exposure to Pb is its accumulation in mineralized tissues. In human body, they constitute a reservoir of approx. 90 % of the Pb reserve. The conducted research aimed at determining the accumulation of Pb in calcified tissues of permanent teeth. The concentration of Pb in 390 samples of teeth taken from a selected group of Polish people was determined using the AAS method. Average concentration of Pb in teeth amounted to 14.3 ± 8.18 μg/g, range of changes: 2.21-54.8 μgPb/g. Accumulation of Pb in human body was determined based on changes in Pb concentration in teeth of subjects aged 13-84 years. It was found that in calcified tissues of teeth, the increase in concentration of Pb that occurs with age is a statistically significant process (p = 0.02, the ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test). It was determined that the annual increase in concentration of Pb in tissues of teeth is approx. 0.1 μg/g. Moreover, a different course of changes in Pb concentration in tissues of teeth in people born in different years was observed. The level of Pb concentration in teeth of the oldest subjects (>60 years) decreased for those born in the 1930s compared to those in the 1950s. Teeth from younger persons (<60 years) were characterized by an increasing level of Pb concentration. The analysis of changes of Pb indicates that for low exposure, a relatively greater accumulation of Pb concentration in calcified tissues of teeth can occur.

  1. Morphological age-dependent development of the human carotid bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Seong, Jaehoon; Lieber, Baruch B; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2005-03-01

    The unique morphology of the adult human carotid bifurcation and its sinus has been investigated extensively, but its long-term, age-dependent development has not. It is important fundamentally and clinically to understand the hemodynamics and developmental forces that play a role in remodeling of the carotid bifurcation and maturation of the sinus in association with brain maturation. This understanding can lead to better prognostication and therapy of carotid disease. We analyzed the change of sinus morphology and the angle of the carotid bifurcation in four postnatal developmental stages (Group I: 0-2 years, Group II: 3-9 years, Group III: 10-19 years, and Group IV: 20-36 years, respectively) using multiprojection digital subtraction angiograms and image post-processing techniques. The most significant findings are the substantial growth of the internal carotid artery (ICA) with age and the development of a carotid sinus at the root of the ICA during late adolescence. The bifurcation angle remains virtually unchanged from infancy to adulthood. However, the angle split between the ICA and external carotid artery (ECA) relative to the common carotid artery (CCA) undergoes significant changes. Initially, the ICA appears to emanate as a side branch. Later in life, to reduce hydraulic resistance in response to increased flow demand by the brain, the bifurcation is remodeled to a construct in which both daughter vessels are a skewed continuation of the parent artery. This study provides a new analysis method to examine the development of the human carotid bifurcation over the developmental years, despite the small and sparse database. A larger database will enable in the future a more extensive analysis such as gender or racial differences.

  2. Short human occupations in the Middle Palaeolithic level i of the Abric Romani rock-shelter (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallerdu, J.; Allue, E.; Bischoff, J.L.; Caceres, I.; Carbonell, E.; Cebria, A.; Garcia-Anton, D.; Huguet, R.; Ibanez, N.; Martinez, K.; Pasto, I.; Rosell, J.; Saladie, P.; Vaquero, Manola

    2005-01-01

    The small occupation surfaces and restricted provisioning strategies suggest short settlements in the Abric Romani. This shorter occupation model complements the longer diversified provisioning strategy recorded in both small and medium-sized occupied surfaces. The selection of precise elements for transport and the possible deferred consumption in the diversified provision strategy suggest an individual supply. In this respect, Neanderthal occupations in the Romani rock-shelter show a direct relation to: 1) hunting strategic resources; 2) high, linear mobility.

  3. The Inflammatory Transcription Factors NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3 Drive Age-Associated Transcriptional Changes in the Human Kidney.

    PubMed

    O'Brown, Zach K; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Higgins, John P; Kim, Stuart K

    2015-12-01

    Human kidney function declines with age, accompanied by stereotyped changes in gene expression and histopathology, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are largely unknown. To identify potential regulators of kidney aging, we compared age-associated transcriptional changes in the human kidney with genome-wide maps of transcription factor occupancy from ChIP-seq datasets in human cells. The strongest candidates were the inflammation-associated transcription factors NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3, the activities of which increase with age in epithelial compartments of the renal cortex. Stimulation of renal tubular epithelial cells with the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (a STAT3 activator), IFNγ (a STAT1 activator), or TNFα (an NFκB activator) recapitulated age-associated gene expression changes. We show that common DNA variants in RELA and NFKB1, the two genes encoding subunits of the NFκB transcription factor, associate with kidney function and chronic kidney disease in gene association studies, providing the first evidence that genetic variation in NFκB contributes to renal aging phenotypes. Our results suggest that NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3 underlie transcriptional changes and chronic inflammation in the aging human kidney.

  4. DNA-damage response associated with occupational exposure, age and chronic inflammation in workers in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Savina, Natalya V; Smal, Marharyta P; Kuzhir, Tatyana D; Ershova-Pavlova, Alla A; Goncharova, Roza I

    2012-10-09

    The evaluation of genome integrity in populations occupationally exposed to combine industrial factors is of medical importance. In the present study, the DNA-damage response was estimated by means of the alkaline comet assay in a sizeable cohort of volunteers recruited among workers in the automotive industry. For this purpose, freshly collected lymphocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide (100μM, 1min, 4°C) in vitro, and the levels of basal and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, and the kinetics and efficiency of DNA repair were measured during a 180-min interval after exposure. The parameters studied in the total cohort of workers were in a range of values prescribed for healthy adult residents of Belarus. Based on the 95th percentiles, individuals possessing enhanced cellular sensitivity to DNA damage were present in different groups, but the frequency was significantly higher among elderly persons and among individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The results indicate that the inter-individual variations in DNA-damage response should be taken into account to estimate adequately the environmental genotoxic effects and to identify individuals with an enhanced DNA-damage response due to the influence of some external factors or intrinsic properties of the organism. Underling mechanisms need to be further explored.

  5. Impact of non-occupational exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on menstruation characteristics of reproductive-age females.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Wang, Shu-Li; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Koh, Teck-Wai; Chen, Fu-An; Chang-Chien, Gou-Ping; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2010-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have documented effects on thyroid functions and rodent behavior in vivo. Epidemiological studies, however, have revealed only limited information about associations between PBDE exposure and menstruation characteristics. Our goal was to examine whether high breast milk PBDE levels in reproductive-age females lead to interference with menstruation characteristics. We analyzed 15 PBDE congeners in 46 breast milk samples. Fifteen PBDE congeners (BDE-15, 28, 47, 49, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 196, 197, 203, 207, 208, and 209) were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The mean sum of PBDEs (SigmaPBDEs) in breast milk was 3.42 ng/g lipid. Women's age at menarche was not correlated with breast milk PBDE levels. Increased BDE-208 and 209 levels were significantly associated with the prolonged length of average and the longest menstrual cycle independent of age, pre-pregnant BMI, and parity. Higher concentrations of SigmaPBDEs and the higher brominated PBDEs from BDE-183 to 209, except 197, were significantly linked to women whose menstruation periods were still coming irregularly at the sampling time. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of BDE-153, 183, 207, 208, and SigmaPBDEs were significantly higher in women with length of average menstrual cycle >32 days, compared to the control. Women whose menstruation periods still came irregularly when they were 18 years old had higher age-adjusted ORs of BDE-207, 208, 209, and SigmaPBDEs than those whose periods came regularly at the same age. Although SigmaPBDEs and certain higher brominated PBDEs appear to have potential to prolong length of average menstrual cycle and delay the age when menstruation periods begin coming regularly, these findings are not conclusive because our sample size is small and more scientific evidence is needed.

  6. Passive biaxial mechanical response of aged human iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Bauer, Christian A J; Mörth, Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2003-06-01

    Inflation and extension tests of arteries are essential for the understanding of arterial wall mechanics. Data for such tests of human arteries are rare. At autopsy we harvested 10 non-diseased external iliac arteries of aged subjects (52-87 yrs). Structural homogeneity was ensured by means of ultrasound imaging, and anamneses of patients were recorded. We measured the axial in situ stretches, load-free geometries and opening angles. Passive biaxial mechanical responses of preconditioned cylindrical specimens were studied in 37 degrees C calcium-free Tyrode solution under quasistatic loading conditions. Specimens were subjected to pressure cycles varying from 0 to 33.3 kPa (250 mmHg) at nine fixed axial loads, varying from 0 to 9.90N. For the description of the load-deformation behavior we employed five "two-dimensional" orthotropic strain-energy functions frequently used in arterial wall mechanics. The associated constitutive models were compared in regard to their ability of representing the experimental data. Histology showed that the arteries were of the muscular type. In contrast to animal arteries they exhibited intimal layers of considerable thickness. The average ratio of wall thickness to outer diameter was 7.7, which is much less than observed for common animal arteries. We found a clear correlation between age and the axial in situ stretch lambda is (r = -0.72, P = 0.03), and between age and distensibility of specimens, i.e. aged specimens are less distensible. Axial in situ stretches were clearly smaller (1.07 +/- 0.09, mean +/- SD) than in animal arteries. For one specimen lambda is was even smaller than 1.0, i.e. the vessel elongated axially upon excision. The nonlinear and anisotropic load-deformation behavior showed small hystereses. For the majority of specimens we observed axial stretches smaller than 1.3 and circumferential stretches smaller than 1.1 for the investigated loading range. Data from in situ inflation tests showed a significant

  7. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  8. Occupational asphalt is not associated with head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fogleman, E. V.; Eliot, M.; Michaud, D. S.; Nelson, H. H.; McClean, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies that evaluate the relationship between occupational asphalt exposure and head and neck cancer have had a limited ability to control for known risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Aims To better elucidate this relationship by including known risk factors in a large case–control study of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from the greater Boston area. Methods We analysed the relationship between occupational asphalt exposure and HNSCC among men in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Analyses were conducted using unconditional multivariable logistic regression, performed with adjustments for age, race, education, smoking, alcohol consumption and HPV serology. Results There were 753 cases and 913 controls. No associations between HNSCC and occupational asphalt exposure (neither among ever-exposed nor by occupational duration) were observed for exposures in any occupation or those restricted to the construction industry. We also observed no associations in subgroup analyses of never-smokers and ever-smokers. Adjusting for known risk factors further reduced the estimated effect of asphalt exposure on HNSCC risk. Conclusions We found no evidence for an association between occupational asphalt exposure and HNSCC. The null findings from this well-controlled analysis could suggest that the risk estimates stemming from occupational cohort studies may be overestimated due to uncontrolled confounding and enhance the literature available for weighing cancer risk from occupational exposure to bitumen. PMID:26272381

  9. Detection of occupational and environmental exposures by bacterial mutagenesis assays of human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Everson, R B

    1986-08-01

    Assays of human body fluids provide a means to document human exposure to mutagens in the environment. In contrast to measurements of ambient levels, these assays demonstrate absorption of mutagens and provide estimates of minimal systemic doses. For most studies reviewed here, specimens of urine were concentrated by adsorption to columns of XAD-2 resin or by liquid partition extraction prior to the mutagenesis assays. The resulting extracts most commonly were analyzed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella/mammalian microsomal plate assay. Less frequently used assays included bacterial fluctuation tests instead of the plate assay and assays for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured mammalian cells. In addition to reviewing literature reports where body fluids were tested, the advantages, disadvantages, and potential role of this approach will be briefly discussed and compared with other approaches to the identification of mutagenic hazards in the workplace.

  10. Detection of occupational and environmental exposures by bacterial mutagenesis assays of human body fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Everson, R.B.

    1986-08-01

    Assays of human body fluids provide a means to document human exposure to mutagens in the environment. In contrast to measurements of ambient levels, these assays demonstrate absorption of mutagens and provide estimates of minimal systemic doses. For most studies reviewed here, specimens of urine were concentrated by adsorption to columns of XAD-2 resin or by liquid partition extraction prior to the mutagenesis assays. The resulting extracts most commonly were analyzed for mutagenicity using the Salmonella/mammalian microsomal plate assay. Less frequently used assays included bacterial fluctuation tests instead of the plate assay and assays for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured mammalian cells. In addition to reviewing literature reports where body fluids were tested, the advantages, disadvantages, and potential role of this approach will be briefly discussed and compared with other approaches to the identification of mutagenic hazards in the workplace.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Human Occupation of Space: Radiation, Risk, and Refuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Discrimination of Heavy Charged Particles in a Mixed Irradiation Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Methods 2) MARIE: Current Status and Results from 20 Months of Observations at Mars 3) Mars Surface Analog Project: Preparing for Astronauts First Hours on Mars 4) The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration 5) Space Debris in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit: Debris Environmental Asssessment and its Implications on Cost and Benefit Analysis.

  12. Mid-recent human occupation and resource exploitation in the bismarck archipelago.

    PubMed

    White, J P; Downie, J E; Ambrose, W R

    1978-02-24

    Human settlement of the Bismarck Archipelago occurred by 6000 to 7500 years ago. Early inhabitants of New Ireland drew on widely dispersed stone sources, including obsidian from Talasea (New Britain), whereas those after about 3000 years ago used either stone from more local sources or obsidian from Lou Island (Admiralty Islands group) or Talasea. The dates and resource changes support a gradualist model of Melanesian settlement.

  13. High Resolution, Multi-Proxy Records of Holocene Biomass Burning, Environmental Change, and Human Occupation in the Southern Maya Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Wahl, D.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between the prehistoric Maya and their environment continues to be a primary research focus, particularly with respect to discerning the role of humans versus climate in driving environmental change. Fire was fundamental to prehistoric Maya architectural and agricultural land use practices. Burning was used to open forest for cultivation as well as for the construction of site centers and settlements. The production of lime plaster, and important building material, was dependent on significant amounts of green wood for kiln fuel. Large populations employing land use strategies dependent on burning would have put tremendous demands on forest resources. Despite the significance of fire in Maya pre-history, there has been no focused effort to produce records of biomass burning and its impacts. Here we present preliminary high-resolution fossil charcoal data that span the Holocene from a network of lacustrine and paludal sites across Peten, Guatemala. Charcoal influx data from the early to mid Holocene, prior to the arrival of sedentary agriculturalists, provides a baseline to infer natural fire regimes under specific climatic conditions, increasing our understanding of tropical fire ecology. Charcoal deposition that co-varies with evidence of agriculture and human activity can be attributed to anthropogenic burning. Results are synthesized with existing data (pollen, δ18O and δ13C, magnetic susceptibility, and physical properties) in an effort to understand the processes driving the location, timing, and extent of fires across the region. Placed in the context of changes in vegetation, sedimentation regime, and hydrology, these data provide new insight into topical fire ecology before the period of human occupation, as well as the dynamic relationship between the prehistoric Maya and their environment.

  14. Genomic analysis of human lung fibroblasts exposed to vanadium pentoxide to identify candidate genes for occupational bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jennifer L; Antao-Menezes, Aurita; Turpin, Elizabeth A; Wallace, Duncan G; Mangum, James B; Pluta, Linda J; Thomas, Russell S; Bonner, James C

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a cause of occupational bronchitis. We evaluated gene expression profiles in cultured human lung fibroblasts exposed to V2O5 in vitro in order to identify candidate genes that could play a role in inflammation, fibrosis, and repair during the pathogenesis of V2O5-induced bronchitis. Methods Normal human lung fibroblasts were exposed to V2O5 in a time course experiment. Gene expression was measured at various time points over a 24 hr period using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 Array. Selected genes that were significantly changed in the microarray experiment were validated by RT-PCR. Results V2O5 altered more than 1,400 genes, of which ~300 were induced while >1,100 genes were suppressed. Gene ontology categories (GO) categories unique to induced genes included inflammatory response and immune response, while GO catogories unique to suppressed genes included ubiquitin cycle and cell cycle. A dozen genes were validated by RT-PCR, including growth factors (HBEGF, VEGF, CTGF), chemokines (IL8, CXCL9, CXCL10), oxidative stress response genes (SOD2, PIPOX, OXR1), and DNA-binding proteins (GAS1, STAT1). Conclusion Our study identified a variety of genes that could play pivotal roles in inflammation, fibrosis and repair during V2O5-induced bronchitis. The induction of genes that mediate inflammation and immune responses, as well as suppression of genes involved in growth arrest appear to be important to the lung fibrotic reaction to V2O5. PMID:17459161

  15. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Cardiovascular Aging in Non-human Primates and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cruzen, Christina; Colman, Ricki J.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Approximately one in three Americans has some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for one of every 2.8 deaths in the United States in 2004. Two of the major risk factors for CVD are advancing age and obesity. An intervention able to positively impact both aging and obesity, such as caloric restriction (CR), may prove extremely useful in the fight against CVD. CR is the only environmental or lifestyle intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase maximum life span and to retard aging in laboratory rodents. In this article, we review evidence that CR in nonhuman primates and humans has a positive effect on risk factors for CVD. PMID:19944270

  16. Attenuated noradrenergic sensitivity during local cooling in aged human skin

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caitlin S; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W. Larry

    2005-01-01

    Reflex-mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) is impaired in older humans; however, it is unclear whether this blunted VC also occurs during local cooling, which mediates VC through different mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that the sensitization of cutaneous vessels to noradrenaline (NA) during direct skin cooling seen in young skin is blunted in aged skin. In 11 young (18–30 years) and 11 older (62–76 years) men and women, skin blood flow was monitored at two forearm sites with laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry while local skin temperature was cooled and clamped at 24°C. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; LD flux/mean arterial pressure) was expressed as percentage change from baseline (%ΔCVCbase). At one site, five doses of NA (10−10–10−2m) were sequentially infused via intradermal microdialysis during cooling while the other 24°C site served as control (Ringer solution + cooling). At control sites, VC due to cooling alone was similar in young versus older (−54 ± 5 versus −56 ± 3%ΔCVCbase, P= 0.46). In young, NA infusions induced additional dose-dependent VC (10−8, 10−6, 10−4 and 10−2m: −70 ± 2, −72 ± 3, −78 ± 3 and −79 ± 4%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). In older subjects, further VC did not occur until the highest infused dose of NA (10−2m: −70 ± 5%ΔCVCbase; P < 0.05 versus control). When cutaneous arterioles are sensitized to NA by direct cooling, young skin exhibits the capacity to further constrict to NA in a dose-dependent manner. However, older skin does not display enhanced VC capacity until treated with saturating doses of NA, possibly due to age-associated decrements in Ca2+ availability or α2C-adrenoceptor function. PMID:15705648

  17. Human occupations and environmental changes in the Nile valley during the Holocene: The case of Kerma in Upper Nubia (northern Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honegger, Matthieu; Williams, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Our article presents a detailed Holocene archaeological sequence from the Nile Valley at Kerma in Upper Nubia, northern Sudan. This sequence retraces the evolution of human populations thanks to the study of several sites, supported by 90 14C dates. Reconstruction of the environmental changes was supported by a study of dated stratigraphic sections located near the archaeological sites studied, and illustrates the effects on human occupation of changes in river flow and floods, which are in turn forced by climatic changes. The results shed new light on the evolutionary dynamics of the Holocene populations in Nile Valley, little known due to the numerous hiatuses in occupation. When compared with the situation in the Sahara and the rest of the Nile Valley, they confirm that the initial occupation took place ca. 10.5 kyr BP after the start of the African Humid Period, followed by a migration towards the banks of the Nile commencing 7.3 kyr BP. They also confirm the appearance of the Neolithic by ca. 8.0 kyr BP. The Kerma stratigraphic sequences show two prosperous periods (10-8 and 7-6 kyr BP) and two hiatuses in the occupation of the sites (7.5-7.1 and 6.0-5.4 kyr BP), resulting from increased aridity.

  18. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  19. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 B.P.

    PubMed

    Chen, F H; Dong, G H; Zhang, D J; Liu, X Y; Jia, X; An, C B; Ma, M M; Xie, Y W; Barton, L; Ren, X Y; Zhao, Z J; Wu, X H; Jones, M K

    2015-01-16

    Our understanding of when and how humans adapted to living on the Tibetan Plateau at altitudes above 2000 to 3000 meters has been constrained by a paucity of archaeological data. Here we report data sets from the northeastern Tibetan Plateau indicating that the first villages were established only by 5200 calendar years before the present (cal yr B.P.). Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that a novel agropastoral economy facilitated year-round living at higher altitudes since 3600 cal yr B.P. This successful subsistence strategy facilitated the adaptation of farmers-herders to the challenges of global temperature decline during the late Holocene.

  20. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: Human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Franck, Christopher T; Loftus, Stephen C

    2012-07-01

    A total of 34 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed, 17 low (2.5g, Δv=4.8kph) and 17 medium (5.0g, Δv=9.7kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight, a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD, and three male PMHS. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A total of four tests were performed at each severity with the ATD and one trial was performed at each severity with each PMHS. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1mm) (1kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. The forward excursions of the select anatomical regions generally increased with increasing severity. The forward excursions of relaxed human volunteers were significantly larger than those of the ATD for nearly every region at both severities. The forward excursions of the upper body regions of the braced volunteers were generally significantly smaller than those of the ATD at both severities. Forward excursions of the relaxed human volunteers and PMHSs were fairly similar except the head CG response at both severities and the right knee and C7 at the medium severity. The forward excursions of the upper body of the PMHS were generally significantly larger than those of the braced volunteers at both severities. Forward excursions of the PMHSs exceeded those of the ATD for all regions at both severities with significant differences within the upper body regions. Overall human volunteers, ATD, and PMHSs do not have identical biomechanical responses in low-speed frontal sled tests but all contribute valuable data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions.

  1. Paired vehicle occupant analysis indicates age and crash severity moderate likelihood of higher severity injury in second row seated adults in frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, T; Gawarecki, L; Tavakoli, M

    2016-04-01

    The majority of advances in occupant protection systems for motor vehicle occupants have focused on occupants seated in the front row of the vehicle. Recent studies suggest that these systems have resulted in lower injury risk for front row occupants as compared to those in the second row. However, these findings are not universal. In addition, some of these findings result from analyses that compare groups of front and second row occupants exposed to dissimilar crash conditions, raising questions regarding whether they might reflect differences in the crash rather than the front and second row restraint systems. The current study examines factors associated with injury risk for pairs of right front seat and second row occupants in frontal crashes in the United States using paired data analysis techniques. These data indicate that the occupant seated in the front row frequently experiences the more severe injury in the pair, however there were no significant differences in the rate of occurrence of these events and events where the more severe injury occurs in the second row occupant of the pair. A logistic regression indicated that the likelihood of the more severe injury occurring in the second row seated occupant of the pair increased as crash severity increased, consistent with data from anatomic test dummy (ATD) tests. It also indicated that the second row occupant was more likely to have the more severe injury in the pair if that occupant was the older occupant of the pair. These findings suggest that occupant protection systems which focus on providing protection specifically for injuries experienced by older occupants in the second row in higher severity crash conditions might provide the greatest benefit.

  2. Increased human occupation and agricultural development accelerates the population contraction of an estuarine delphinid

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wenzhi; Karczmarski, Leszek; Xia, Jia; Zhang, Xiyang; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few thousand years, human development and population expansion in southern China have led to local extirpation and population contraction of many terrestrial animals. At what extent this early human-induced environmental change has also affected coastal marine species remains poorly known. We investigated the demographic history of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD); an obligatory inshore species known for its susceptibility to anthropogenic impacts in one of China’s most developed coastal regions. Although the deltaic evolution of PRD has been influenced by climate since the Holocene, ~74% reduction of the dolphin’s effective population size occurred within the last 2000 years, consistent with ~61% habitat contraction during this period. This considerable and recent population contraction may have been due to land use practices and deforestation in the upper/middle Pearl River region, all leading to increasing sedimentation rate in the estuarine area. As anthropogenic impacts within the drainage of Pearl River affected a vast area, coastal dolphins and large terrestrial mammals in southern China may share a similar demographic history, whilst the demographic and biogeographic history of the PRD humpback dolphins may be symptomatic of similar processes that this species may have undergone elsewhere in the region. PMID:27759106

  3. Occupational trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome with human herpesvirus-6 and cytomegalovirus reactivation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Tohyama, Mikiko; Kamijima, Michihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Yoshida, Takemi; Hashimoto, Koji; Iijima, Masafumi

    2010-08-01

    Patients having a generalised rash with severe liver dysfunction associated with exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) have been reported mainly in Asian countries. However, no case has been reported in Japan since the 1990s. Here, we describe a case of hypersensitivity syndrome (HS) caused by TCE in a 30-year-old Japanese man. The patient developed a rash, fever and liver dysfunction 21 days after he had been exposed to TCE at his workplace. Serum human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA were detected 4 and 7 weeks, respectively, after the onset; the IgG antibody titres to HHV-6 and CMV were significantly elevated 6 and 9 weeks, respectively, after the onset. Patch testing was positive for the metabolites of TCE (i.e. trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid and chloral hydrate) but not for TCE itself; these results suggest that the TCE metabolites induced this disease. Human leucocyte antigen-B*1301, which has been reported to be strongly associated with TCE-induced HS, was identified in this patient. In addition, the clinical findings, laboratory data and period of virus reactivation after onset were quite similar to those of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). We also review TCE-induced HS from the viewpoint of the similarity to DIHS in this article.

  4. Geoarchaeology of Ancient Avlida (Boeotia, Central Greece): a long-term connectivity between human occupation and landscape changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, M.; Colleu, M.; Fachard, S.; Psomiadis, D.; Demory, F.; Delanghe-Sabatier, D.; Triantaphyllou, M.; Pavlopoulos, K.; Bicket, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to study the reationships between the human occupation of Ancient Avlida and the landscape configuration for the last thousands years around the site. The geoarchaeological study presented here focus first on the careful scrutiny of the literary sources from Ancient authors such as Strabo and Pausanias who both mention the presence of archaeological remains. The site has been well known for the presence of the Artemis temple and is considered as the starting point of the Achaean ships during the Trojan war. More recently, archaeological researches have been conducted during the 1950's and the 1960's and excavations have been undertaken. However, the landscape configuration was not investigated during archaeological surveys and this paper aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the ancient bay, gradually silted up along the recent Holocene to create the modern actual lowlands. Two cores, down to a maximum depth of 4.40m and accurately levelled, were studied together for mollusc and microfauna (ostracods and forams) identifications, laser grain size analyses and magnetic susceptibility measurements in order to reveal the facies evolution of the area. In addition, 6 radiocarbon dating (A.M.S. method) helped to obtain a chronostratigraphy sequence. Finally, our results show that the area was an open marine bay from circa 5000 cal. B.C. to the beginning Byzantine period (5th to 6th century A.D.) and during the Trojan war, this site could have hosted eventual military boats in a calm marine environment of deposition.

  5. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Resolve Airway Inflammation, Hyperreactivity, and Histopathology in a Mouse Model of Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Itziar; Moreno, Rafael; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is characterized by allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, leading to progressive airway remodeling and a concomitant decline in lung function. The management of OA remains suboptimal in clinical practice. Thus, establishing effective therapies might overcome the natural history of the disease. We evaluated the ability of human adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs), either unmodified or engineered to secrete the IL-33 decoy receptor sST2, to attenuate the inflammatory and respiratory symptoms in a previously validated mouse model of OA to ammonium persulfate (AP). Twenty-four hours after a dermal AP sensitization and intranasal challenge regimen, the animals received intravenously 1×106 cells (either hASCs or hASCs overexpressing sST2) or saline and were analyzed at 1, 3, and 6 days after treatment. The infused hASCs induced an anti-inflammatory and restorative program upon reaching the AP-injured, asthmatic lungs, leading to early reduction of neutrophilic inflammation and total IgE production, preserved alveolar architecture with nearly absent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, negligible smooth muscle hyperplasia/hypertrophy in the peribronchiolar areas, and baseline airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine. Local sST2 overexpression barely increased the substantial efficacy displayed by unmodified hASCs. Thus, hASCs may represent a viable multiaction therapeutic capable to adequately respond to the AP-injured lung environment by resolving inflammation, tissue remodeling, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness typical of OA. PMID:24798370

  6. Natural and sun-induced aging of human skin.

    PubMed

    Rittié, Laure; Fisher, Gary J

    2015-01-05

    With worldwide expansion of the aging population, research on age-related pathologies is receiving growing interest. In this review, we discuss current knowledge regarding the decline of skin structure and function induced by the passage of time (chronological aging) and chronic exposure to solar UV irradiation (photoaging). Nearly every aspect of skin biology is affected by aging. The self-renewing capability of the epidermis, which provides vital barrier function, is diminished with age. Vital thermoregulation function of eccrine sweat glands is also altered with age. The dermal collagenous extracellular matrix, which comprises the bulk of skin and confers strength and resiliency, undergoes gradual fragmentation, which deleteriously impacts skin mechanical properties and dermal cell functions. Aging also affects wound repair, pigmentation, innervation, immunity, vasculature, and subcutaneous fat homeostasis. Altogether, age-related alterations of skin lead to age-related skin fragility and diseases.

  7. Natural and Sun-Induced Aging of Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rittié, Laure; Fisher, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    With worldwide expansion of the aging population, research on age-related pathologies is receiving growing interest. In this review, we discuss current knowledge regarding the decline of skin structure and function induced by the passage of time (chronological aging) and chronic exposure to solar UV irradiation (photoaging). Nearly every aspect of skin biology is affected by aging. The self-renewing capability of the epidermis, which provides vital barrier function, is diminished with age. Vital thermoregulation function of eccrine sweat glands is also altered with age. The dermal collagenous extracellular matrix, which comprises the bulk of skin and confers strength and resiliency, undergoes gradual fragmentation, which deleteriously impacts skin mechanical properties and dermal cell functions. Aging also affects wound repair, pigmentation, innervation, immunity, vasculature, and subcutaneous fat homeostasis. Altogether, age-related alterations of skin lead to age-related skin fragility and diseases. PMID:25561721

  8. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  9. Interrelationship of age and diet in Romania's oldest human burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsall, Clive; Boroneanţ, Adina; Soficaru, Andrei; McSweeney, Kathleen; Higham, Tom; Miriţoiu, Nicolae; Pickard, Catriona; Cook, Gordon

    2012-04-01

    In 1968, excavations in the Climente II cave in the Iron Gates gorge of the River Danube in southwest Romania unearthed the skeleton of an adult male. The burial was assumed to be of Late Pleistocene age because of the presence of Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP) artefacts in the cave. However, there was no strong supporting stratigraphic evidence, and the body position is reminiscent of Early Neolithic burial practice in the region. Here, we report the results of radiocarbon and stable isotope analyses of the Climente II skeleton, which show that the skeleton dates to the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial ~14,500 cal BP. This is several millennia older than any previously dated human remains from the Iron Gates region and confirms its status as the oldest known burial from Romania. The stable isotope results indicate a diet with an emphasis on aquatic resources, contrary to the commonly held view that the LUP inhabitants of the Iron Gates subsisted mainly by hunting large land mammals.

  10. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ponseti, J.; Granert, O.; van Eimeren, T.; Jansen, O.; Wolff, S.; Beier, K.; Deuschl, G.; Bosinski, H.; Siebner, H.

    2014-01-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  11. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  12. Faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Warren C; Scherbov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people's time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age.

  13. CCN1 contributes to skin connective tissue aging by inducing age-associated secretory phenotype in human skin dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Robichaud, Patrick; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2011-08-01

    Dermal connective tissue collagen is the major structural protein in skin. Fibroblasts within the dermis are largely responsible for collagen production and turnover. We have previously reported that dermal fibroblasts, in aged human skin in vivo, express elevated levels of CCN1, and that CCN1 negatively regulates collagen homeostasis by suppressing collagen synthesis and increasing collagen degradation (Quan et al. Am J Pathol 169:482-90, 2006, J Invest Dermatol 130:1697-706, 2010). In further investigations of CCN1 actions, we find that CCN1 alters collagen homeostasis by promoting expression of specific secreted proteins, which include matrix metalloproteinases and proinflammatory cytokines. We also find that CCN1-induced secretory proteins are elevated in aged human skin in vivo. We propose that CCN1 induces an "Age-Associated Secretory Phenotype", in dermal fibroblasts, which mediates collagen reduction and fragmentation in aged human skin.

  14. Lake dwellers occupation gap in Lake Geneva (France-Switzerland) possibly explained by an earthquake-mass movement-tsunami event during Early Bronze Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Katrina; Marillier, François; Hilbe, Michael; Simpson, Guy; Dupuy, David; Yrro, Ble J. F.; Rachoud-Schneider, Anne-Marie; Corboud, Pierre; Bellwald, Benjamin; Wildi, Walter; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution seismic and sediment core data from the ‘Grand Lac’ basin of Lake Geneva reveal traces of repeated slope instabilities with one main slide-evolved mass-flow (minimum volume 0.13 km3) that originated from the northern lateral slope of the lake near the city of Lausanne. Radiocarbon dating of organic remains sampled from the top of the main deposit gives an age interval of 1865-1608 BC. This date coincides with the age interval for a mass movement event described in the ‘Petit Lac’ basin of Lake Geneva (1872-1622 BC). Because multiple mass movements took place at the same time in different parts of the lake, we consider the most likely trigger mechanism to be a strong earthquake (Mw 6) that occurred in the period between 1872 and 1608 BC. Based on numerical simulations, we show the major deposit near Lausanne would have generated a tsunami with local wave heights of up to 6 m. The combined effects of the earthquake and the following tsunami provide a possible explanation for a gap in lake dwellers occupation along the shores of Lake Geneva revealed by dendrochronological dating of two palafitte archaeological sites.

  15. Calorie restriction: decelerating mTOR-driven aging from cells to organisms (including humans).

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2010-02-15

    Although it has been known since 1917 that calorie restriction (CR) decelerates aging, the topic remains highly controversial. What might be the reason? Here I discuss that the anti-aging effect of CR rules out accumulation of DNA damage and failure of maintenance as a cause of aging. Instead, it suggests that aging is driven in part by the nutrient-sensing TOR (target of rapamycin) network. CR deactivates the TOR pathway, thus slowing aging and delaying diseases of aging. Humans are not an exception and CR must increase both maximal and healthy lifespan in humans to the same degree as it does in other mammals. Unlike mice, however, humans benefit from medical care, which prolongs lifespan despite accelerated aging in non-restricted individuals. Therefore in humans the effect of CR may be somewhat blunted. Still how much does CR extend human lifespan? And could this extension be surpassed by gerosuppressants such as rapamycin?

  16. Nutritional interventions protect against age-related deficits in behavior: from animals to humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks. Similar changes in behavior occur in humans with age, and the development of methods to retard or reverse these age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits could increase healthy aging and decrease health care costs. In the present s...

  17. The Ban Don Mun artifacts: a chronological reappraisal of human occupations in the Lampang province of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Valery; Forestier, Hubert; Rasse, Michel; Auetrakulvit, Prasit; Kim, Jeongmin; Tiamtinkrit, Chaturaporn

    2013-07-01

    Despite recent stone tool evidence demonstrating a much older Early Pleistocene human presence in India, the timing and geography of human demographic expansions in continental Southeast Asia remains ambiguous. The recent discovery of a series of stone artifacts spread over a basalt level at Ban Don Mun in the Lampang province of northern Thailand presents an ideal opportunity for reevaluating lithic assemblages documented during the 1970s and 1980s in the same region. Both the position of these stone tools and new absolute dates indicate a Middle Pleistocene age and call into question the status of these artifacts as the oldest yet found in Southeast Asia. The uncertain geo-chronological context and technological analysis of the chopper industry from previous work in the Lampang area prompted us to undertake new surveys in continental Southeast Asia in order to help clarify the route and timing of Pleistocene human expansions in this part of the world.

  18. Occupational exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields and its effect on human immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Tuschl, H; Neubauer, G; Garn, H; Duftschmid, K; Winker, N; Brusl, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study recorded a considerable excess of recommended exposure limits in the vicinity of shortwave diathermy devices used for medical treatment of patients. Different kinds of field probes were used to measure electric and magnetic field strength and the whole body exposure of medical personnel operating shortwave, decimeter wave and microwave units was calculated. To investigate the influence of chronic exposure on the immune system of operators, blood was sampled from physiotherapists working at the above mentioned devices. Eighteen exposed and thirteen control persons, matched by sex and age, were examined. Total leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were performed and leucocytic subpopulations determined by flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies against surface antigens. In addition, to quantify subpopulations of immunocompetent cells, the activity of lymphocytes was measured. Lymphocytes were stimulated by mitogen phytohemagglutinin and their proliferation measured by a flow cytometric method. No statistically significant differences between the control and exposed persons were found. In both study groups all immune parameters were within normal ranges.

  19. Proteome-wide analysis reveals an age-associated cellular phenotype of in situ aged human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Waldera-Lupa, Daniel M.; Kalfalah, Faiza; Florea, Ana-Maria; Sass, Steffen; Kruse, Fabian; Rieder, Vera; Tigges, Julia; Fritsche, Ellen; Krutmann, Jean; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Meyer, Helmut E.; Boege, Fritz; Theis, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed an ex vivo model of in situ aged human dermal fibroblasts, obtained from 15 adult healthy donors from three different age groups using an unbiased quantitative proteome-wide approach applying label-free mass spectrometry. Thereby, we identified 2409 proteins, including 43 proteins with an age-associated abundance change. Most of the differentially abundant proteins have not been described in the context of fibroblasts’ aging before, but the deduced biological processes confirmed known hallmarks of aging and led to a consistent picture of eight biological categories involved in fibroblast aging, namely proteostasis, cell cycle and proliferation, development and differentiation, cell death, cell organization and cytoskeleton, response to stress, cell communication and signal transduction, as well as RNA metabolism and translation. The exhaustive analysis of protein and mRNA data revealed that 77% of the age-associated proteins were not linked to expression changes of the corresponding transcripts. This is in line with an associated miRNA study and led us to the conclusion that most of the age-associated alterations detected at the proteome level are likely caused post-transcriptionally rather than by differential gene expression. In summary, our findings led to the characterization of novel proteins potentially associated with fibroblast aging and revealed that primary cultures of in situ aged fibroblasts are characterized by moderate age-related proteomic changes comprising the multifactorial process of aging. PMID:25411231

  20. Antigenic changes in human albumin caused by reactivity with the occupational allergen diphenylmethane diisocyanate

    PubMed Central

    Wisnewski, Adam V.; Liu, Jian; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), the chemical commonly used as a cross-linking agent in commercial polyurethane production, is a well-recognized cause of asthma. Reaction products between MDI and “self” proteins are hypothesized to act as antigens capable of inducing airway inflammation and asthma; however, such MDI antigens remain incompletely understood. We used a variety of analytical methods to characterize the range of MDI–albumin reaction products that form under physiological conditions. Sites of MDI conjugation on antigenic MDI–albumin products, as defined by serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) from MDI-exposed workers, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The data identified 14 MDI conjugation sites (12 lysines and 2 asparagines) on human albumin and highlight reaction specificity for the second lysine in dilysine (KK) motifs, and this may be a common characteristic of “immune-sensitizing” chemicals. Several of the MDI conjugation sites are not conserved in albumin from other species, and this may suggest species differences in epitope specificity for self protein (albumin)–isocyanate conjugates. The study also describes new applications of contemporary proteomic methodology for characterizing and standardizing MDI–albumin conjugates destined for use in clinical research. PMID:20123080

  1. Meta-analysis of the effects of microclimate cooling systems on human performance under thermal stressful environments: potential applications to occupational workers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Albert P C; Song, Wenfang; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the appropriate microclimate cooling systems (MCSs) to reduce heat stress and improve human performance of occupational workers and their practicality in the occupational field. Meta-analysis was employed to summarize, analyze, and compare the effects of various MCSs on human performance with corresponding physiological and psychological responses, thereby providing solid suggestions for selecting suitable MCSs for occupational workers. Wearing MCSs significantly attenuated the increases in core temperature (-0.34 °C/h) and sweating rate (-0.30 L/h), and significantly improved human performance (+29.9%, effect size [EFS] = 1.1) compared with no cooling condition (CON). Cold air-cooled garments (ACG-Cs; +106.2%, EFS = 2.32) exhibited greater effects on improving human performance among various microclimate cooling garments (MCGs), followed by liquid cooling garments (LCGs; +68.1%, EFS = 1.86) and hybrid cooling garment combining air and liquid cooling (HBCG-AL; +59.1%, EFS=3.38), natural air-cooled garments (ACG-Ns; +39.9%, EFS = 1.12), and phase change material cooling garments (PCMCGs; +19.5%, EFS = 1.2). Performance improvement was observed to be positively and linearly correlated to the differences of core temperature increase rate (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) and sweating rate (r = 0.80, p < 0.001) between MCSs and CON. Considering their application in industrial settings, ACG-Cs, LCGs, and HBCG-AL are practical for work, in which workers do not move frequently, whereas ACG-Ns and PCMCGs are more applicable for the majority of occupational workers. Further enhancement of the cooling efficiency of these two cooling strategies should be initiated.

  2. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Peters, Marjolein J; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F; Göring, Harald H H; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M; Munson, Peter J; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Smith, Alicia K; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Montgomery, Grant W; Turner, Stephen T; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M; Neely, G Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Johnson, Andrew D

    2015-10-22

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the 'transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts.

  3. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Gibbs, Raphael J.; Hardy, John; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Zonderman, Alan B.; Dillman, Allissa; Traynor, Bryan; Smith, Colin; Longo, Dan L.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Weale, Michael E.; O'Brien, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Walker, Robert; Zielke, Ronald H.; Arepalli, Sampath; Ryten, Mina; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ramos, Yolande F.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, Alicia K.; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P. Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turner, Stephen T.; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J.; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M.; Neely, G. Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L.; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the ‘transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  4. Occupational demand and human rights. Public safety officers and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1991-08-01

    The issue of discrimination in physically demanding employment, such as police, firefighters, prison guards and military personnel, is contentious. In terms of oxygen transport, the 'action limit' (calling for personnel selection or task redesign) is a steady oxygen consumption of 0.7 L/min, while the maximum permissible limit is 2.1 L/min. Note is taken of the commonly expressed belief that public safety duties are physically demanding, calling for personnel with an aerobic power of at least 3 L/min, or 42 to 45 ml/kg/min. The actual demands of such work can be assessed on small samples by physiological measurements (using heart rate or oxygen consumption meters), but the periods sampled may not be typical of a normal day. A Gestalt can also be formed as to the heaviness of a given job, or a detailed task analysis can be performed; most such analyses of public safety work list distance running and other aerobic activities infrequently. An arbitrary requirement of 'above average fitness' is no longer accepted by courts, but a further approach is to examine the characteristics of those currently meeting the demands of public safety jobs satisfactorily. Young men commonly satisfy the 3 L/min standard, but this is not usually the case for women or older men; in the case of female employees, it also seems unreasonable that they should be expected to satisfy the same standards as men, since a lower body mass reduces the energy cost of most of the tasks that they must perform. A second criterion sometimes applied to physically demanding work (a low vulnerability to heart attacks) is examined critically. It is concluded that the chances that a symptom-free public safety officer will develop a heart attack during a critical solo mission are so low that cardiac risk should not be a condition of employment. Arbitrary age- and sex-related employment criteria are plainly discriminatory, since some women and 65-year-old men have higher levels of physical fitness than the

  5. N-Glycoprofiling Analysis for Carbohydrate Composition and Site-Occupancy Determination in a Poly-Glycosylated Protein: Human Thyrotropin of Different Origins

    PubMed Central

    Ribela, Maria Teresa C. P.; Damiani, Renata; Silva, Felipe D.; Lima, Eliana R.; Oliveira, João E.; Peroni, Cibele N.; Torjesen, Peter A.; Soares, Carlos R.; Bartolini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Human thyrotropin (hTSH) is a glycoprotein with three potential glycosylation sites: two in the α-subunit and one in the β-subunit. These sites are not always occupied and occupancy is frequently neglected in glycoprotein characterization, even though it is related to folding, trafficking, initiation of inflammation and host defense, as well as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). For the first time N-glycoprofiling analysis was applied to the site-occupancy determination of two native pituitary hTSH, in comparison with three recombinant preparations of hTSH, a widely used biopharmaceutical. A single methodology provided the: (i) average N-glycan mass; (ii) mass fraction of each monosaccharide and of sulfate; and (iii) percent carbohydrate. The results indicate that the occupancy (65%–87%) and carbohydrate mass (12%–19%) can be up to 34%–57% higher in recombinant hormones. The average glycan mass is 24% lower in pituitary hTSH and contains ~3-fold fewer moles of galactose (p < 0.005) and sialic acid (p < 0.01). One of the two native preparations, which had the smallest glycan mass together with the lowest occupancy and GalNAc, sulfate, Gal and sialic acid contents, also presented the lowest in vivo bioactivity and circulatory half-life. The methodology described, comparing a recombinant biopharmaceutical to its native equivalent, can be applied to any physiologically or clinical relevant glycoprotein. PMID:28165356

  6. N-Glycoprofiling Analysis for Carbohydrate Composition and Site-Occupancy Determination in a Poly-Glycosylated Protein: Human Thyrotropin of Different Origins.

    PubMed

    Ribela, Maria Teresa C P; Damiani, Renata; Silva, Felipe D; Lima, Eliana R; Oliveira, João E; Peroni, Cibele N; Torjesen, Peter A; Soares, Carlos R; Bartolini, Paolo

    2017-02-03

    Human thyrotropin (hTSH) is a glycoprotein with three potential glycosylation sites: two in the α-subunit and one in the β-subunit. These sites are not always occupied and occupancy is frequently neglected in glycoprotein characterization, even though it is related to folding, trafficking, initiation of inflammation and host defense, as well as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). For the first time N-glycoprofiling analysis was applied to the site-occupancy determination of two native pituitary hTSH, in comparison with three recombinant preparations of hTSH, a widely used biopharmaceutical. A single methodology provided the: (i) average N-glycan mass; (ii) mass fraction of each monosaccharide and of sulfate; and (iii) percent carbohydrate. The results indicate that the occupancy (65%-87%) and carbohydrate mass (12%-19%) can be up to 34%-57% higher in recombinant hormones. The average glycan mass is 24% lower in pituitary hTSH and contains ~3-fold fewer moles of galactose (p < 0.005) and sialic acid (p < 0.01). One of the two native preparations, which had the smallest glycan mass together with the lowest occupancy and GalNAc, sulfate, Gal and sialic acid contents, also presented the lowest in vivo bioactivity and circulatory half-life. The methodology described, comparing a recombinant biopharmaceutical to its native equivalent, can be applied to any physiologically or clinical relevant glycoprotein.

  7. PET Imaging of Tau Deposition in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schonhaut, Daniel R.; O’Neil, James P.; Janabi, Mustafa; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Baker, Suzanne L.; Vogel, Jacob W.; Faria, Jamie; Schwimmer, Henry D.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Jagust, William J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also occurs in normal cognitive aging. Using the tau PET agent 18F-AV-1451, we examined retention patterns in cognitively normal older people in relation to young controls and AD patients. Age and β-amyloid (measured using PiB PET) were differentially associated with tau tracer retention in healthy aging. Older age was related to increased tracer retention in regions of the medial temporal lobe, which predicted worse episodic memory performance. PET detection of tau in other isocortical regions required the presence of cortical β-amyloid, and was associated with decline in global cognition. Furthermore, patterns of tracer retention corresponded well with Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau pathology. The present study defined patterns of tau tracer retention in normal aging in relation to age, cognition, and β-amyloid deposition. PMID:26938442

  8. The fractal based analysis of human face and DNA variations during aging.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Akrami, Amin; Hussaini, Jamal; Silva, Osmar N; Wong, Albert; Kulish, Vladimir V

    2017-01-16

    Human DNA is the main unit that shapes human characteristics and features such as behavior. Thus, it is expected that changes in DNA (DNA mutation) influence human characteristics and features. Face is one of the human features which is unique and also dependent on his gen. In this paper, for the first time we analyze the variations of human DNA and face simultaneously. We do this job by analyzing the fractal dimension of DNA walk and face during human aging. The results of this study show the human DNA and face get more complex by aging. These complexities are mapped on fractal exponents of DNA walk and human face. The method discussed in this paper can be further developed in order to investigate the direct influence of DNA mutation on the face variations during aging, and accordingly making a model between human face fractality and the complexity of DNA walk.

  9. Role of Age-Associated Alterations of the Dermal Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment in Human Skin Aging: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; Fisher, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Human skin is largely composed of a collagen-rich connective tissue, which provides structural and functional support. The collagen-rich connective tissue is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. During aging, dermal collagen fibrils undergo progressive loss and fragmentation, leading to thin and structurally weakened skin. Age-related alterations of collagen fibrils impairs skin structure and function and creates a tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin diseases, such as delayed wound healing and skin cancer development. This mini-review describes cellular mechanisms that give rise to self-perpetuating, collagen fibril fragmentation that creates an age-associated dermal microenvironment, which contributes to decline of human skin function.

  10. Occupational risk of bladder cancer among Iranian male workers

    PubMed Central

    Aminian, Omid; Saburi, Amin; Mohseni, Hossein; Akbari, Hamed; Chavoshi, Farzaneh; Akbari, Hesam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 5-10% of human cancers are thought to be caused by occupational exposure to carcinogens. Compare to other cancers, bladder cancer is most strongly linked to occupational exposure to chemical toxins. This study has been performed to understand which occupations and exposures are related to bladder cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study is a case-control study which is conducted on cases with bladder cancer (160 cases) diagnosed in Baharlou hospital in 2007-2009. One hundred sixty cases without any occupational exposure were considered as controls matched for demographic characteristics. Demographic data and characteristics of occupation were compared. Results: Mean age of cases and controls were 63.7 and 64 years, respectively (P = 0.841). History of urinary tract stone had significantly difference in two groups (P = 0.039). Occupations such as bus and truck driving, road and asphalt making, mechanics, working in refinery and Petrochemical, plastic, metal manufactory, welding, and pipeline founded a higher risk for bladder cancer rather than controls. Conclusion: Our findings on Iranian workers are concurrent and compatible with findings of previous reports about occupational and environmental risk factors of bladder cancer. Although our study population was PMID:24833825

  11. Gene expression profiles associated with aging and mortality in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Richard A; O’Brien, Elizabeth; Cawthon, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that gene expression profiles in cultured cell lines from adults, aged 57–97 years, contain information about the biological age and potential longevity of the donors. We studied 104 unrelated grandparents from 31 Utah CEU (Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humain – Utah) families, for whom lymphoblastoid cell lines were established in the 1980s. Combining publicly available gene expression data from these cell lines, and survival data from the Utah Population Database, we tested the relationship between expression of 2151 always-expressed genes, age, and survival of the donors. Approximately 16% of 2151 expression levels were associated with donor age: 10% decreased in expression with age, and 6% increased with age. Cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) and CORO1A exhibited strong associations both with age at draw and survival after draw (multiple comparisons-adjusted Monte Carlo P-value < 0.05). In general, gene expressions that increased with age were associated with increased mortality. Gene expressions that decreased with age were generally associated with reduced mortality. A multivariate estimate of biological age modeled from expression data was dominated by CDC42 expression, and was a significant predictor of survival after blood draw. A multivariate model of survival as a function of gene expression was dominated by CORO1A expression. This model accounted for approximately 23% of the variation in survival among the CEU grandparents. Some expression levels were negligibly associated with age in this cross-sectional dataset, but strongly associated with inter-individual differences in survival. These observations may lead to new insights regarding the genetic contribution to exceptional longevity. PMID:19245677

  12. Gene expression profiles associated with aging and mortality in humans.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Richard A; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Cawthon, Richard M

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that gene expression profiles in cultured cell lines from adults, aged 57-97 years, contain information about the biological age and potential longevity of the donors. We studied 104 unrelated grandparents from 31 Utah CEU (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain - Utah) families, for whom lymphoblastoid cell lines were established in the 1980s. Combining publicly available gene expression data from these cell lines, and survival data from the Utah Population Database, we tested the relationship between expression of 2151 always-expressed genes, age, and survival of the donors. Approximately 16% of 2151 expression levels were associated with donor age: 10% decreased in expression with age, and 6% increased with age. Cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) and CORO1A exhibited strong associations both with age at draw and survival after draw (multiple comparisons-adjusted Monte Carlo P-value < 0.05). In general, gene expressions that increased with age were associated with increased mortality. Gene expressions that decreased with age were generally associated with reduced mortality. A multivariate estimate of biological age modeled from expression data was dominated by CDC42 expression, and was a significant predictor of survival after blood draw. A multivariate model of survival as a function of gene expression was dominated by CORO1A expression. This model accounted for approximately 23% of the variation in survival among the CEU grandparents. Some expression levels were negligibly associated with age in this cross-sectional dataset, but strongly associated with inter-individual differences in survival. These observations may lead to new insights regarding the genetic contribution to exceptional longevity.

  13. Occupational Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications.

  14. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, David T; Henderson, David K; Struble, Kimberly A; Heneine, Walid; Thomas, Vasavi; Cheever, Laura W; Gomaa, Ahmed; Panlilio, Adelisa L

    2013-09-01

    This report updates US Public Health Service recommendations for the management of healthcare personnel (HCP) who experience occupational exposure to blood and/or other body fluids that might contain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the principles of exposure management remain unchanged, recommended HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens and the duration of HIV follow-up testing for exposed personnel have been updated. This report emphasizes the importance of primary prevention strategies, the prompt reporting and management of occupational exposures, adherence to recommended HIV PEP regimens when indicated for an exposure, expert consultation in management of exposures, follow-up of exposed HCP to improve adherence to PEP, and careful monitoring for adverse events related to treatment, as well as for virologic, immunologic, and serologic signs of infection. To ensure timely postexposure management and administration of HIV PEP, clinicians should consider occupational exposures as urgent medical concerns, and institutions should take steps to ensure that staff are aware of both the importance of and the institutional mechanisms available for reporting and seeking care for such exposures. The following is a summary of recommendations: (1) PEP is recommended when occupational exposures to HIV occur; (2) the HIV status of the exposure source patient should be determined, if possible, to guide need for HIV PEP; (3) PEP medication regimens should be started as soon as possible after occupational exposure to HIV, and they should be continued for a 4-week duration; (4) new recommendation-PEP medication regimens should contain 3 (or more) antiretroviral drugs (listed in Appendix A ) for all occupational exposures to HIV; (5) expert consultation is recommended for any occupational exposures to HIV and at a minimum for situations described in Box 1 ; (6) close follow-up for exposed personnel ( Box 2 ) should be provided that includes counseling, baseline and

  15. Human podocyte depletion in association with older age and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Puelles, Victor G; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Taylor, Georgina E; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2016-04-01

    Podocyte depletion plays a major role in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis. Many kidney diseases are more common in older age and often coexist with hypertension. We hypothesized that podocyte depletion develops in association with older age and is exacerbated by hypertension. Kidneys from 19 adult Caucasian American males without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi. Demographic data were obtained from medical and autopsy records. Subjects were categorized by age and hypertension as potential independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion. Design-based stereology was used to estimate individual glomerular volume and total podocyte number per glomerulus, which allowed the calculation of podocyte density (number per volume). Podocyte depletion was defined as a reduction in podocyte number (absolute depletion) or podocyte density (relative depletion). The cortical location of glomeruli (outer or inner cortex) and presence of parietal podocytes were also recorded. Older age was an independent contributor to both absolute and relative podocyte depletion, featuring glomerular hypertrophy, podocyte loss, and thus reduced podocyte density. Hypertension was an independent contributor to relative podocyte depletion by exacerbating glomerular hypertrophy, mostly in glomeruli from the inner cortex. However, hypertension was not associated with podocyte loss. Absolute and relative podocyte depletion were exacerbated by the combination of older age and hypertension. The proportion of glomeruli with parietal podocytes increased with age but not with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that older age and hypertension are independent and additive contributors to podocyte depletion in white American men without kidney disease.

  16. Biodemography of old-age mortality in humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of persons living beyond age 80 underscores the need for accurate measurement of mortality at advanced ages and understanding the old-age mortality trajectories. It is believed that exponential growth of mortality with age (Gompertz law) is followed by a period of deceleration, with slower rates of mortality increase at older ages. This pattern of mortality deceleration is traditionally described by the logistic (Kannisto) model, which is considered as an alternative to the Gompertz model. Mortality deceleration was observed for many invertebrate species, but the evidence for mammals is controversial. We compared the performance (goodness-of-fit) of two competing models-the Gompertz model and the logistic (Kannisto) model using data for three mammalian species: 22 birth cohorts of U.S. men and women, eight cohorts of laboratory mice, and 10 cohorts of laboratory rats. For all three mammalian species, the Gompertz model fits mortality data significantly better than the "mortality deceleration" Kannisto model (according to the Akaike's information criterion as the goodness-of-fit measure). These results suggest that mortality deceleration at advanced ages is not a universal phenomenon, and survival of mammalian species follows the Gompertz law up to very old ages.

  17. Biodemography of Old-Age Mortality in Humans and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of persons living beyond age 80 underscores the need for accurate measurement of mortality at advanced ages and understanding the old-age mortality trajectories. It is believed that exponential growth of mortality with age (Gompertz law) is followed by a period of deceleration, with slower rates of mortality increase at older ages. This pattern of mortality deceleration is traditionally described by the logistic (Kannisto) model, which is considered as an alternative to the Gompertz model. Mortality deceleration was observed for many invertebrate species, but the evidence for mammals is controversial. We compared the performance (goodness-of-fit) of two competing models—the Gompertz model and the logistic (Kannisto) model using data for three mammalian species: 22 birth cohorts of U.S. men and women, eight cohorts of laboratory mice, and 10 cohorts of laboratory rats. For all three mammalian species, the Gompertz model fits mortality data significantly better than the “mortality deceleration” Kannisto model (according to the Akaike’s information criterion as the goodness-of-fit measure). These results suggest that mortality deceleration at advanced ages is not a universal phenomenon, and survival of mammalian species follows the Gompertz law up to very old ages. PMID:24534516

  18. Being human in a global age of technology.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Beverly J B

    2016-01-01

    This philosophical enquiry considers the impact of a global world view and technology on the meaning of being human. The global vision increases our awareness of the common bond between all humans, while technology tends to separate us from an understanding of ourselves as human persons. We review some advances in connecting as community within our world, and many examples of technological changes. This review is not exhaustive. The focus is to understand enough changes to think through the possibility of healthcare professionals becoming cyborgs, human-machine units that are subsequently neither human and nor machine. It is seen that human technology interfaces are a different way of interacting but do not change what it is to be human in our rational capacities of providing meaningful speech and freely chosen actions. In the highly technical environment of the ICU, expert nurses work in harmony with both the technical equipment and the patient. We used Heidegger to consider the nature of equipment, and Descartes to explore unique human capacities. Aristotle, Wallace, Sokolowski, and Clarke provide a summary of humanity as substantial and relational.

  19. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a developmental disorder—typically diagnosed around age 3 years— that affects brain functions, specifically those areas that control social behaviors ...

  20. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  1. Aging and human sexual behavior: biocultural perspectives - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R

    2012-01-01

    In this mini-review, we consider an evolutionary biocultural perspective on human aging and sexuality. An evolutionary approach to senescence highlights the energetic trade-offs between fertility and mortality. By comparing humans to other primates, we situate human senescence as an evolutionary process, with shifts in postreproductive sexual behavior in this light. Age-related declines in sexual behavior are typical for humans but also highly contingent on the sociocultural context within which aging individuals express their sexuality. We briefly review some of the most comprehensive studies of aging and sexual behavior, both from the USA and cross-culturally. We frame these patterns with respect to the long-term relationships within which human sexual behavior typically occurs. Because sexuality is typically expressed within pair-bonds, sexual behavior sometimes declines in both members of a couple with age, but also exhibits sex-specific effects that have their roots in evolved sex differences.

  2. Humanizing Occupational Education: Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuss, Hans J.

    Technicians and scientists seem to have lost their ability to communicate across specializations and with the general public. A study was conducted at McDonnell Douglas Corporation, in Missouri, to assess differences in communicative ability among accountants and computer programmers. The present study sought to determine the effects of a liberal…

  3. Anti-aging effects of vitamin C on human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Ku, Seung-Yup; Huh, Yul; Liu, Hung-Ching; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min; Moon, Shin Yong

    2013-10-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have arisen as a source of cells for biomedical research due to their developmental potential. Stem cells possess the promise of providing clinicians with novel treatments for disease as well as allowing researchers to generate human-specific cellular metabolism models. Aging is a natural process of living organisms, yet aging in human heart cells is difficult to study due to the ethical considerations regarding human experimentation as well as a current lack of alternative experimental models. hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) bear a resemblance to human cardiac cells and thus hPSC-derived CMs are considered to be a viable alternative model to study human heart cell aging. In this study, we used hPSC-derived CMs as an in vitro aging model. We generated cardiomyocytes from hPSCs and demonstrated the process of aging in both human embryonic stem cell (hESC)- and induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived CMs. Aging in hESC-derived CMs correlated with reduced membrane potential in mitochondria, the accumulation of lipofuscin, a slower beating pattern, and the downregulation of human telomerase RNA (hTR) and cell cycle regulating genes. Interestingly, the expression of hTR in hiPSC-derived CMs was not significantly downregulated, unlike in hESC-derived CMs. In order to delay aging, vitamin C was added to the cultured CMs. When cells were treated with 100 μM of vitamin C for 48 h, anti-aging effects, specifically on the expression of telomere-related genes and their functionality in aging cells, were observed. Taken together, these results suggest that hPSC-derived CMs can be used as a unique human cardiomyocyte aging model in vitro and that vitamin C shows anti-aging effects in this model.

  4. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  5. Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, we characterized bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy child...

  6. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha

    2015-01-01

    The occupational asthma is the most common form of lung disease caused by factors that are attributed to a specific working environment in industrialized countries. It causes variable limitation of airflow and/or hyper-responsiveness of the airway due to contact with specific agents present in an atmosphere of work and not to stimuli found out of this place. It is recognized more and more frequently, and many agents are capable of causing occupational asthma by different pathophysiological mechanisms. More than 400 agents causing occupational asthma are known and every year new triggers are detected. Numerous factors contribute to the pathogenesis of occupational asthma induced chemically, including immunological, non-immunological mechanisms of epithelial damage, airway remodeling, oxidative stress, neurogenic inflammation as well as genetic factors. The most important risk factors for occupational asthma include: atopy, smoking and genetic factors. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history, skin tests, immunological tests and functional studies. The fundamental treatment is removing the worker from exposure as soon as possible. The advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of occupational asthma will importantly influence in the prevention and the management of this disease.

  7. [Age-dependent morphology of human pineal gland: supravital study].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S V

    2007-01-01

    On the base of analysis of 5784 events of diagnostic magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of patients in radio diagnosis departments the database is formed. Only events (n=411) without cerebral, oncology, endocrine and other pathology are taken in database. The material was grouped to time and date of the study, sex and age in accordance with generally accepted categorization. Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball. It is defined that the volume of pineal gland increases from birth till 17-21 year age, gradually falls till the second mature age and is getting stable in old age. The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined. "Brain sand" and false cysts in pineal gland can be observed in all age groups. The petrification degree of pineal gland, as of computer tomography, varies from 30 to 277 ed. HV. For the factor of pineal gland volume and factor of cysts frequency in pineal gland a puberty "collapse" is typical, mainly in men.

  8. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2008-08-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44.6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications of elevated body fat.

  9. Network model of human aging: Frailty limits and information measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Spencer G.; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of damage throughout a persons life. Individual health can be assessed by the Frailty Index (FI). The FI is calculated simply as the proportion f of accumulated age-related deficits relative to the total, leading to a theoretical maximum of f ≤1 . Observational studies have generally reported a much more stringent bound, with f ≤fmax<1 . The value of fmax in observational studies appears to be nonuniversal, but fmax≈0.7 is often reported. A previously developed network model of individual aging was unable to recover fmax<1 while retaining the other observed phenomenology of increasing f and mortality rates with age. We have developed a computationally accelerated network model that also allows us to tune the scale-free network exponent α . The network exponent α significantly affects the growth of mortality rates with age. However, we are only able to recover fmax by also introducing a deficit sensitivity parameter 1 -q , which is equivalent to a false-negative rate q . Our value of q =0.3 is comparable to finite sensitivities of age-related deficits with respect to mortality that are often reported in the literature. In light of nonzero q , we use mutual information I to provide a nonparametric measure of the predictive value of the FI with respect to individual mortality. We find that I is only modestly degraded by q <1 , and this degradation is mitigated when increasing number of deficits are included in the FI. We also find that the information spectrum, i.e., the mutual information of individual deficits versus connectivity, has an approximately power-law dependence that depends on the network exponent α . Mutual information I is therefore a useful tool for characterizing the network topology of aging populations.

  10. Extending Beyond Qualitative Interviewing to Illuminate the Tacit Nature of Everyday Occupation: Occupational Mapping and Participatory Occupation Methods.

    PubMed

    Huot, Suzanne; Rudman, Debbie Laliberte

    2015-07-01

    The study of human occupation requires a variety of methods to fully elucidate its complex, multifaceted nature. Although qualitative approaches have commonly been used within occupational therapy and occupational science, we contend that such qualitative research must extend beyond the sole use of interviews. Drawing on qualitative methodological literature, we discuss the limits of interview methods and outline other methods, particularly visual methods, as productive means to enhance qualitative research. We then provide an overview of our critical ethnographic study that used narrative, visual, and observational methods to explore the occupational transitions experienced by immigrants to Canada. We describe our use of occupational mapping and participatory occupation methods and the contributions of these combined methods. We conclude that adopting a variety of methods can enable a deeper understanding of the tacit nature of everyday occupation, and is key to advancing knowledge regarding occupation and to informing occupational therapy practice.

  11. Dietary restriction, mitochondrial function and aging: from yeast to humans

    PubMed Central

    Ruetenik, Andrea; Barrientos, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary restriction (DR) attenuates many detrimental effects of aging and consequently promotes health and increases longevity across organisms. While over the last 15 years extensive research has been devoted towards understanding the biology of aging, the precise mechanistic aspects of DR are yet to be settled. Abundant experimental evidence indicates that the DR effect on stimulating health impinges several metabolic and stress-resistance pathways. Downstream effects of these pathways include a reduction in cellular damage induced by oxidative stress, enhanced efficiency of mitochondrial functions and maintenance of mitochondrial dynamics and quality control, thereby attenuating age-related declines in mitochondrial function. However, the literature also accumulates conflicting evidence regarding how DR ameliorates mitochondrial performance and whether that is enough to slow age-dependent cellular and organismal deterioration. Here, we will summarize the current knowledge about how and to which extent the influence of different DR regimes on mitochondrial biogenesis and function contribute to postpone the detrimental effects of aging on healthspan and lifespan. PMID:25979234

  12. The Membrane Attack Complex in Aging Human Choriocapillaris

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Robert F.; Schoo, Desi P.; Sohn, Elliott H.; Flamme-Wiese, Miles J.; Workamelahu, Grefachew; Johnston, Rebecca M.; Wang, Kai; Tucker, Budd A.; Stone, Edwin M.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease that can result in severe visual impairment. Abnormal regulation of the complement system has been implicated in its pathogenesis, and CFH polymorphisms contribute substantially to risk. How these polymorphisms exert their effects is poorly understood. We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis on young, aged, and AMD choroids to determine the abundance of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and performed immunofluorescence studies on eyes from 117 donors to evaluate the MAC in aging, early AMD, and advanced AMD. Morphometric studies were performed on eyes with high- or low-risk CFH genotypes. ELISA confirmed that MAC increases significantly with aging and with AMD. MAC was localized to Bruch’s membrane and the choriocapillaris and was detectable at low levels as early as 5 years of age. Hard drusen were labeled with anti-MAC antibody, but large or confluent drusen and basal deposits were generally unlabeled. Labeling of retinal pigment epithelium was observed in some cases of advanced AMD, but not in early disease. Eyes homozygous for the high-risk CFH genotype had thinner choroids than low-risk homozygotes (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that increased complement activation in AMD and in high-risk genotypes can lead to loss of endothelial cells in early AMD. Treatments to protect the choriocapillaris in early AMD are needed. PMID:25204844

  13. Sympathetic control of reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in human aging

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2015-01-01

    This Synthesis highlights a series of recent studies that has systematically interrogated age-related deficits in cold-induced skin vasoconstriction. In response to cold stress, a reflex increase in sympathetic nervous system activity mediates reductions in skin blood flow. Reflex vasoconstriction during cold exposure is markedly impaired in aged skin, contributing to the relative inability of healthy older adults to maintain core temperature during mild cold stress in the absence of appropriate behavioral thermoregulation. This compromised reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in healthy aging can occur as a result of functional deficits at multiple points along the efferent sympathetic reflex axis, including blunted sympathetic outflow directed to the skin vasculature, reduced presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis and/or release, and altered end-organ responsiveness at several loci, in addition to potential alterations in afferent thermoreceptor function. Arguments have been made that the relative inability of aged skin to appropriately constrict is due to the aging cutaneous arterioles themselves, whereas other data point to the neural circuitry controlling those vessels. The argument presented herein provides strong evidence for impaired efferent sympathetic control of the peripheral cutaneous vasculature during whole body cold exposure as the primary mechanism responsible for attenuated vasoconstriction. PMID:26272321

  14. Similarity between humans and foams in aging dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Stewart, Peter S.

    2014-03-01

    Foams are cellular networks between two immiscible phases. Foams are initially unstable and finally evolve toward a state of lower energy through sequential coalescences of bubbles. In physics, foams are model systems for materials that minimize surface energy. We study coalescence dynamics of clean foams using numerical simulations with a network model. Initial clean foams consist of equally pressurized bubbles and a low fraction of liquid films without stabilizing agents. Aging of clean foams occurs with time as bubbles rapidly coalesce by film rupture and finally evolve toward a new quasi-equilibrium state. Here we find that foam aging is analogous to biological aging: the death rate of bubbles increases exponentially with time, which is similar to the Gompertz mortality law for biological populations. The coalescence evolution of foams is self-similar regardless of initial conditions. The population change of bubbles is well described by a Boltzmann sigmoidal function, indicating that the foam aging is a phase transition phenomenon. This result suggests that foams can be useful model systems for giving insights into biological aging. Suwon 440-746, South Korea.

  15. Sympathetic control of reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in human aging.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2015-10-01

    This Synthesis highlights a series of recent studies that has systematically interrogated age-related deficits in cold-induced skin vasoconstriction. In response to cold stress, a reflex increase in sympathetic nervous system activity mediates reductions in skin blood flow. Reflex vasoconstriction during cold exposure is markedly impaired in aged skin, contributing to the relative inability of healthy older adults to maintain core temperature during mild cold stress in the absence of appropriate behavioral thermoregulation. This compromised reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in healthy aging can occur as a result of functional deficits at multiple points along the efferent sympathetic reflex axis, including blunted sympathetic outflow directed to the skin vasculature, reduced presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis and/or release, and altered end-organ responsiveness at several loci, in addition to potential alterations in afferent thermoreceptor function. Arguments have been made that the relative inability of aged skin to appropriately constrict is due to the aging cutaneous arterioles themselves, whereas other data point to the neural circuitry controlling those vessels. The argument presented herein provides strong evidence for impaired efferent sympathetic control of the peripheral cutaneous vasculature during whole body cold exposure as the primary mechanism responsible for attenuated vasoconstriction.

  16. The end of occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, J L

    1998-03-01

    In this article, I propose that the unique end, or goal, of occupational therapy is to help persons with performance deficits of any kind make and express meaning through organized human performance, which I call occupation. To support this thesis, I show that, too often, philosophers, psychologists, and others who have studied meaning do not see human performance as a crucial way of making and expressing meaning. This article challenges the assumption that meaning making is only a cognitive process in which language is its primary expression and shows that the nature of humans is to make meaning through occupation. Furthermore, this article reveals why occupational therapy should emphasize human performance and its role in meaning making. Finally, I propose that occupation is properly defined as intentional human performance organized in number and kind to meet the demands of self-maintenance and identity in the family and community. I justify this definition and discuss the likely therapeutic nature of occupation and examples of the end, or goal, of occupational therapy.

  17. Human aging compromises attentional control of auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Passow, Susanne; Westerhausen, René; Wartenburger, Isabell; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-03-01

    Older adults often experience hearing difficulties in multitalker situations. Attentional control of auditory perception is crucial in situations where a plethora of auditory inputs compete for further processing. We combined an intensity-modulated dichotic listening paradigm with attentional manipulations to study adult age differences in the interplay between perceptual saliency and attentional control of auditory processing. When confronted with two competing sources of verbal auditory input, older adults modulated their attention less flexibly and were more driven by perceptual saliency than younger adults. These findings suggest that aging severely impairs the attentional regulation of auditory perception.

  18. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving.

  19. Transition Plan For Moving AFOMS Occupational Analysis Report Contents to AFPC’s Human Resources Research Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-20

    recruiting, selection, training, employment, and promotion ( Christal , 1974). The data are expected to be useful in developing screening criteria...surveys ( Christal , 1974) has remained relatively stable since the program was founded, although many mundane and tedious aspects have been automated and...legacy Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Programs (CODAP), a suite of tools developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory ( Christal , 1974, and

  20. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  1. Aging process of myelinated nerve fibers in the human Lissauer tract.

    PubMed

    Motoura, Hiroyuki; Goto, Noboru; Goto, Jun; Ezure, Hiromitsu; Shibata, Masakazu

    2005-03-01

    We calculated numbers and axonal areas of myelinated nerve fibers in the Lissauer tract of the human lumbar spinal cord (L1) from the viewpoint of the aging process. We examined 20 human spinal cords from 13 males and 7 females, age ranging from 41 to 88 years old. We found that, although the number of nerve fibers showed no significant change in relation to the age of the subject, the axonal area of myelinated nerve fiber in the Lissauer tract did decrease with age.

  2. First rib metamorphosis: its possible utility for human age-at-death estimation.

    PubMed

    Kunos, C A; Simpson, S W; Russell, K F; Hershkovitz, I

    1999-11-01

    Human first ribs demonstrate predictable, sequential changes in shape, size, and texture with increasing age, and thus, can be used as an indicator of age at death. Metamorphosis of the first rib's head, tubercle, and costal face was documented in a cross-sectional sample of preadult and adult first ribs of known age at death from the Hamann-Todd skeletal collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio). Blind tests of the usefulness of the first rib as an age indicator were conducted, including tabulation of intraobserver and interobserver inaccuracies and biases. First rib age estimates show inaccuracies and biases by decade comparable to those generated by other aging techniques. Indeed, the first rib method is useful as an isolated age indicator. When used in conjunction with other age indicators, the first rib improves the quality of summary age assessments.

  3. The evolution of human periodontal tissues with ageing.

    PubMed

    Craca, R; Romagnoli, P; Cambi, S; Orlando, S

    1991-01-01

    In this research, the structural modifications with ageing of clinically healthy periodontal tissues were analyzed by means of polarization microscopy and morphometrical methods for light microscopy. The new findings may be summarized as follows. The periodontal ligament was found to be widened in the cervical and apical regions. The thickening of cementum with ageing was shown to be accompanied by a modification in the shape of Sharpey's fibres, which in the elderlies were wavy instead of straight as in the control. Lamellar bone, forming an osteone, was found to substitute in part for cementum in one tooth. These results are interpreted as indicating that: (1) late active eruption occurs in man, causing the observed modification in the thickness of periodontal ligament and cementum in the apical region and in the direction of Sharpey's fibres within cementum; (2) cementum may undergo renewal during lifetime and in this case bone may be deposited in contact with dentin.

  4. Immunoglobulin patterns in humans over 95 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Radl, J; Sepers, J M; Skvaril, F; Morell, A; Hijmans, W

    1975-01-01

    Immunoglobulin patterns were investigated in seventy-three volunteers older than 95 years. An idiopathic paraproteinaemia was found in 19% of the cases. A restriction of heterogeneity and an imbalance in the kappa/lambda ratio of the immunoglobulins was seen in a number of other sera. Determinations of immunoglobulin levels in sera of individuals without paraproteinaemia showed an increase in IgA and IgG. The quantitations of the IgG subclasses demonstrated that an increase in the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses is responsible for the elevated level of the IgG. The variation in the immunoglobulin levels increased significantly with age of IgM and for the three major IgG subclasses. No abnormalities were found in the urine or in the mixed saliva. These results indicate that selective changes in the extent of the antibody-immunoglobulin repertoire characterize the immunoglobulin pattern of ageing man. PMID:1212818

  5. [Somnology and occupational safety].

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, V B

    2013-01-01

    Somnology has saved up enough great volume of objective knowledge of negative effects of a lack of the sleep, the raised drowsiness and sleep pathologies for health of people and occupational safety to formulate this knowledge in the accessible form for a society and acceptance by the state of acts and the organizational actions preventing these negative effects. The necessity of the salvation of these problems has led to occurrence of a new area of occupational sleep medicine, which problem is the analysis of influence of physiological mechanisms ofa sleep and functioning circadian systems on efficiency of professional activity and health of people. For a designation of the various items causing infringements of professional work use the term fatique. It is believed that fatigue development is connected with three major factors: deficiency of a sleep - defined by duration of previous wakefulness and a sleep, time-of-day and at last, task-related factors. Within the limits of approaches developed the occupational sleep medicine had been formulated the Fatigue Risk Management System. In the Russian literature there is a lack of the information on influence of mechanisms of a sleep on occupational safety, therefore the review will be interesting to a wide range of the experts dealing with the analysis of the human factor, health and an occupational safety

  6. Potential Relationship between Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics in Revealing Livestock-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Chinese Humans without Occupational Livestock Contact

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yanping; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Ling; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong; Ye, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type and IEC genes. Of the 1162 participants, 9.3% carried S. aureus, including MRSA (1.4%) and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA, 2.8%). The predominant multidrug-resistant pattern among MDRSA isolates was non-susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. The most common S. aureus genotypes were ST7, ST6, ST188, and ST59, and the predominant MRSA genotype was ST7. Notably, the livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (IEC-negative CC9, IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC398, and IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC5) were found in people with no occupational livestock contact. These findings reveal a potential relationship between S. aureus CCs and IEC genes and antibiotic resistance patterns in defining livestock-associated S. aureus in humans and support growing concern about the potential livestock-to-human transmission of livestock-associated S. aureus by non-occupational livestock contact. PMID:27729903

  7. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN-α2b) gene in occupationally protracted low dose radiation exposed personnel.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saman; Mahmood, Nasir; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Sheikh, Shaharyar; Ahmad, Nauman

    2015-05-01

    Ionizing radiations impact human tissues by affecting the DNA bases which constitute genes. Human interferon alpha 2b gene synthesizes a protein which is an important anticancerous, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and antiviral protein. This study was aimed to identify interferon alpha-2b mutations as a consequence of the use of occupational chronic low dose radiation by hospital radiation exposed workers. A molecular analysis was done in which DNAs were extracted from blood samples from radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine workers. The gene was amplified through polymerase chain reaction and further genetic data from sequencing results analyzed by bioinformatics tools in order to determine as to how mutations in interferon alpha 2b sequences will lead to changes in human interferon alpha-2b protein. A total of 41% gene mutations was detected among all radiation exposed workers in which higher percentage (5.4%) of base insertion mutations and 14% frameshift mutations were found in radiology workers. The chronic use of low dose of radiations by occupational workers has a significant correlation with mutational effects on interferon alpha 2b gene, further evident by depressed interferon alpha levels in serum. This can lead to depressed immunity in radiation exposed workers. Hematological profiling of this group also showed hyperimmune response in the form of lymphocytosis.

  8. Potential Relationship between Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics in Revealing Livestock-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Chinese Humans without Occupational Livestock Contact.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanping; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Ling; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong; Ye, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type and IEC genes. Of the 1162 participants, 9.3% carried S. aureus, including MRSA (1.4%) and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA, 2.8%). The predominant multidrug-resistant pattern among MDRSA isolates was non-susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. The most common S. aureus genotypes were ST7, ST6, ST188, and ST59, and the predominant MRSA genotype was ST7. Notably, the livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (IEC-negative CC9, IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC398, and IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC5) were found in people with no occupational livestock contact. These findings reveal a potential relationship between S. aureus CCs and IEC genes and antibiotic resistance patterns in defining livestock-associated S. aureus in humans and support growing concern about the potential livestock-to-human transmission of livestock-associated S. aureus by non-occupational livestock contact.

  9. A review of the equine age-related changes in the immune system: comparisons between human and equine aging, with focus on lung-specific immune-aging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S; Baptiste, K E; Fjeldborg, J; Horohov, D W

    2015-03-01

    The equine aging process involves many changes to the immune system that may be related to genetics, the level of nutrition, the environment and/or an underlying subclinical disease. Geriatric horses defined as horses above the age of 20, exhibit a decline in body condition, muscle tone and general well-being. It is not known whether these changes contribute to decreased immune function or are the result of declining immune function. Geriatric years are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced antibody response to vaccination as a result of changes in the immune system. Humans and horses share many of these age-related changes, with only a few differences. Thus, inflamm-aging and immunosenescence are well-described phenomena in both human and equine research, particularly in relation to the peripheral blood and especially the T-cell compartment. However, the lung is faced with unique challenges because of its constant interaction with the external environment and thus may not share similarities to peripheral blood when considering age-related changes in immune function. Indeed, recent studies have shown discrepancies in cytokine mRNA and protein expression between the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage immune cells. These results provide important evidence that age-related immune changes or 'dys-functions' are organ-specific.

  10. Collagen Fragmentation Promotes Oxidative Stress and Elevates Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Fibroblasts in Aged Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Gary J.; Quan, Taihao; Purohit, Trupta; Shao, Yuan; Cho, Moon Kyun; He, Tianyuan; Varani, James; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Aged human skin is fragile because of fragmentation and loss of type I collagen fibrils, which confer strength and resiliency. We report here that dermal fibroblasts express increased levels of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) in aged (>80 years old) compared with young (21 to 30 years old) human skin in vivo. Transcription factor AP-1 and α2β1 integrin, which are key regulators of MMP-1 expression, are also elevated in fibroblasts in aged human skin in vivo. MMP-1 treatment of young skin in organ culture causes fragmentation of collagen fibrils and reduces fibroblast stretch, consistent with reduced mechanical tension, as observed in aged human skin. Limited fragmentation of three-dimensional collagen lattices with exogenous MMP-1 also reduces fibroblast stretch and mechanical tension. Furthermore, fibroblasts cultured in fragmented collagen lattices express elevated levels of MMP-1, AP-1, and α2β1 integrin. Importantly, culture in fragmented collagen raises intracellular oxidant levels and treatment with antioxidant MitoQ10 significantly reduces MMP-1 expression. These data identify positive feedback regulation that couples age-dependent MMP-1-catalyzed collagen fragmentation and oxidative stress. We propose that this self perpetuating cycle promotes human skin aging. These data extend the current understanding of the oxidative theory of aging beyond a cellular-centric view to include extracellular matrix and the critical role that connective tissue microenvironment plays in the biology of aging. PMID:19116368

  11. Predicting human age using regional morphometry and inter-regional morphological similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun-Heng; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study is predicting human age using neuro-metrics derived from structural MRI, as well as investigating the relationships between age and predictive neuro-metrics. To this end, a cohort of healthy subjects were recruited from 1000 Functional Connectomes Project. The ages of the participations were ranging from 7 to 83 (36.17+/-20.46). The structural MRI for each subject was preprocessed using FreeSurfer, resulting in regional cortical thickness, mean curvature, regional volume and regional surface area for 148 anatomical parcellations. The individual age was predicted from the combination of regional and inter-regional neuro-metrics. The prediction accuracy is r = 0.835, p < 0.00001, evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient between predicted ages and actual ages. Moreover, the LASSO linear regression also found certain predictive features, most of which were inter-regional features. The turning-point of the developmental trajectories in human brain was around 40 years old based on regional cortical thickness. In conclusion, structural MRI could be potential biomarkers for the aging in human brain. The human age could be successfully predicted from the combination of regional morphometry and inter-regional morphological similarity. The inter-regional measures could be beneficial to investigating human brain connectome.

  12. Human computers: the first pioneers of the information age.

    PubMed

    Grier, D A

    2001-03-01

    Before computers were machines, they were people. They were men and women, young and old, well educated and common. They were the workers who convinced scientists that large-scale calculation had value. Long before Presper Eckert and John Mauchly built the ENIAC at the Moore School of Electronics, Philadelphia, or Maurice Wilkes designed the EDSAC for Manchester University, human computers had created the discipline of computation. They developed numerical methodologies and proved them on practical problems. These human computers were not savants or calculating geniuses. Some knew little more than basic arithmetic. A few were near equals of the scientists they served and, in a different time or place, might have become practicing scientists had they not been barred from a scientific career by their class, education, gender or ethnicity.

  13. Functional Changes in the Human Auditory Cortex in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Profant, Oliver; Tintěra, Jaroslav; Balogová, Zuzana; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Jilek, Milan; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years) and compared the results with young subjects (age-related changes at the level of the auditory cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC) leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing. PMID:25734519

  14. Functional changes in the human auditory cortex in ageing.

    PubMed

    Profant, Oliver; Tintěra, Jaroslav; Balogová, Zuzana; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Jilek, Milan; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years) and compared the results with young subjects (age-related changes at the level of the auditory cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC) leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing.

  15. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    PubMed

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age.

  16. Genetic evidence for common pathways in human age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Simon C; Dong, Xiao; Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the single largest risk factor for chronic disease. Studies in model organisms have identified conserved pathways that modulate aging rate and the onset and progression of multiple age-related diseases, suggesting that common pathways of aging may influence age-related diseases in humans as well. To determine whether there is genetic evidence supporting the notion of common pathways underlying age-related diseases, we analyzed the genes and pathways found to be associated with five major categories of age-related disease using a total of 410 genomewide association studies (GWAS). While only a small number of genes are shared among all five disease categories, those found in at least three of the five major age-related disease categories are highly enriched for apoliprotein metabolism genes. We found that a more substantial number of gene ontology (GO) terms are shared among the 5 age-related disease categories and shared GO terms include canonical aging pathways identified in model organisms, such as nutrient-sensing signaling, translation, proteostasis, stress responses, and genome maintenance. Taking advantage of the vast amount of genetic data from the GWAS, our findings provide the first direct evidence that conserved pathways of aging simultaneously influence multiple age-related diseases in humans as has been demonstrated in model organisms. PMID:26077337

  17. AGE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS INDUCED BY MMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-Related Gene Expression Changes In Human Skin Fibroblasts Induced By methyl methanesulfonate. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan H. Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Prote...

  18. [Contemporary features of occupational morbidity formation in major machinery enterprise].

    PubMed

    Kondrova, N S

    2010-01-01

    The author studied occupational morbidity among workers exposed to occupational hazards at major machinery enterprise in Bashkortostan Republic since 1997 to 2006, in reference to occupation, sex, age, length of service, type and conditions of work. The article covers hygienic evaluation of work conditions and their influence on occupational morbidity formation.

  19. Aging causes morphological alterations in astrocytes and microglia in human substantia nigra pars compacta.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, H J; Vidyadhara, D J; Mahadevan, Anita; Philip, Mariamma; Parmar, Suresh Kumar; Manohari, S Gowri; Shankar, S K; Raju, Trichur R; Alladi, Phalguni Anand

    2015-12-01

    Age being a risk factor for Parkinson's disease, assessment of age-related changes in the human substantia nigra may elucidate its pathogenesis. Increase in Marinesco bodies, α-synuclein, free radicals and so forth in the aging nigral neurons are clear indicators of neurodegeneration. Here, we report the glial responses in aging human nigra. The glial numbers were determined on Nissl-stained sections. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100β, 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase, and Iba1 was assessed on cryosections of autopsied midbrains by immunohistochemistry and densitometry. The glial counts showed a biphasic increase, of which, the first prominent phase from fetal age to birth could be physiological gliogenesis whereas the second one after middle age may reflect mild age-related gliosis. Astrocytic morphology was altered, but glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased only mildly. Presence of type-4 microglia suggests possibility of neuroinflammation. Mild reduction in 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase-labeled area denotes subtle demyelination. Stable age-related S100β expression indicates absence of calcium overload. Against the expected prominent gliosis, subtle age-related morphological alterations in human nigral glia attribute them a participatory role in aging.

  20. Occupational cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, T.L.; Goldsmith, D.F.

    1986-09-01

    When cancer is possibly related to occupation, the family physician's task is to put the matter in perspective by educating the patient and carefully documenting the appearance of the tumor and the patient's work history. Occasionally, physicians are the first to recognize new associations between chemicals and cancer and can help to bring hazards under control.

  1. Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, William R.

    Although fiscal support for occupational programs in California Community Colleges is provided primarily by state and local district taxes, about ten percent of the total support is provided through federal sources. Federal regulations under the Vocational Education Act (VEA) require the recipients of federal funds to provide consultative,…

  2. Effects of Age on Na+,K+-ATPase Expression in Human and Rodent Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wyckelsma, Victoria L.; McKenna, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of transmembrane Na+ and K+ concentration gradients and membrane potential is vital for the production of force in skeletal muscle. In aging an inability to maintain ion regulation and membrane potential would have adverse consequences on the capacity for performing repeated muscle contractions, which are critical for everyday activities and functional independence. This short review focusses on the effects of aging on one major and vital component affecting muscle Na+ and K+ concentrations, membrane potential and excitability in skeletal muscle, the Na+,K+-ATPase (Na+,K+-pump, NKA) protein. The review examines the effects of age on NKA in both human and rodent models and highlights a distant lack of research in NKA with aging. In rodents, the muscle NKA measured by [3H]ouabain binding site content, declines with advanced age from peak values in early life. In human skeletal muscle, however, there appears to be no age effect on [3H]ouabain binding site content in physically active older adults between 55 and 76 years compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years of age. Analysis of the NKA isoforms reveal differential changes with age in fiber-types in both rat and humans. The data show considerable disparities, suggesting different regulation of NKA isoforms between rodents and humans. Finally we review the importance of physical activity on NKA content in older humans. Findings suggest that physical activity levels of an individual may have a greater effect on regulating the NKA content in skeletal muscle rather than aging per se, at least up until 80 years of age. PMID:27531982

  3. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue

    2015-12-04

    Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases.

  4. Aging and Replicative Senescence Have Related Effects on Human Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Bork, Simone; Horn, Patrick; Krunic, Damir; Walenda, Thomas; Diehlmann, Anke; Benes, Vladimir; Blake, Jonathon; Huber, Franz-Xaver; Eckstein, Volker; Boukamp, Petra; Ho, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    The regenerative potential diminishes with age and this has been ascribed to functional impairments of adult stem cells. Cells in culture undergo senescence after a certain number of cell divisions whereby the cells enlarge and finally stop proliferation. This observation of replicative senescence has been extrapolated to somatic stem cells in vivo and might reflect the aging process of the whole organism. In this study we have analyzed the effect of aging on gene expression profiles of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). MSC were isolated from bone marrow of donors between 21 and 92 years old. 67 genes were age-induced and 60 were age-repressed. HPC were isolated from cord blood or from mobilized peripheral blood of donors between 27 and 73 years and 432 genes were age-induced and 495 were age-repressed. The overlap of age-associated differential gene expression in HPC and MSC was moderate. However, it was striking that several age-related gene expression changes in both MSC and HPC were also differentially expressed upon replicative senescence of MSC in vitro. Especially genes involved in genomic integrity and regulation of transcription were age-repressed. Although telomerase activity and telomere length varied in HPC particularly from older donors, an age-dependent decline was not significant arguing against telomere exhaustion as being causal for the aging phenotype. These studies have demonstrated that aging causes gene expression changes in human MSC and HPC that vary between the two different cell types. Changes upon aging of MSC and HPC are related to those of replicative senescence of MSC in vitro and this indicates that our stem and progenitor cells undergo a similar process also in vivo. PMID:19513108

  5. Aging and replicative senescence have related effects on human stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Bork, Simone; Horn, Patrick; Krunic, Damir; Walenda, Thomas; Diehlmann, Anke; Benes, Vladimir; Blake, Jonathon; Huber, Franz-Xaver; Eckstein, Volker; Boukamp, Petra; Ho, Anthony D

    2009-06-09

    The regenerative potential diminishes with age and this has been ascribed to functional impairments of adult stem cells. Cells in culture undergo senescence after a certain number of cell divisions whereby the cells enlarge and finally stop proliferation. This observation of replicative senescence has been extrapolated to somatic stem cells in vivo and might reflect the aging process of the whole organism. In this study we have analyzed the effect of aging on gene expression profiles of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). MSC were isolated from bone marrow of donors between 21 and 92 years old. 67 genes were age-induced and 60 were age-repressed. HPC were isolated from cord blood or from mobilized peripheral blood of donors between 27 and 73 years and 432 genes were age-induced and 495 were age-repressed. The overlap of age-associated differential gene expression in HPC and MSC was moderate. However, it was striking that several age-related gene expression changes in both MSC and HPC were also differentially expressed upon replicative senescence of MSC in vitro. Especially genes involved in genomic integrity and regulation of transcription were age-repressed. Although telomerase activity and telomere length varied in HPC particularly from older donors, an age-dependent decline was not significant arguing against telomere exhaustion as being causal for the aging phenotype. These studies have demonstrated that aging causes gene expression changes in human MSC and HPC that vary between the two different cell types. Changes upon aging of MSC and HPC are related to those of replicative senescence of MSC in vitro and this indicates that our stem and progenitor cells undergo a similar process also in vivo.

  6. Palaeopathology of human remains from the Roman Imperial Age.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Catalano, Paola; Caldarini, Carla; Fornaciari, Gino

    2012-01-01

    The increasing attention of archaeological and anthropological research towards palaeopathological studies has allowed to focus the examination of many skeletal samples on this aspect and to evaluate the presence of many diseases afflicting ancient populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from five necropolises found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades, and dating back to the Imperial Age. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumors, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, palaeopathology allowed highlighting the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  7. Immunolocalisation pattern of complex I-V in ageing human retina: Correlation with mitochondrial ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Nag, Tapas Chandra; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2016-11-01

    Earlier studies reported accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations in ageing and age-related macular degeneration. To know about the mitochondrial status with age, we examined immunoreactivity (IR) to markers of mitochondria (anti-mitochondrial antibody and voltage-dependent anion channel-1) and complex I-V (that mediate oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS) in donor human retinas (age: 19-94years; N=26; right eyes). In all samples, at all ages, IR to anti-mitochondrial antibody and voltage-dependent anion channel-1 was prominent in photoreceptor cells. Between second and seventh decade of life, strong IR to complex I-V was present in photoreceptors over macular to peripheral retina. With progressive ageing, the photoreceptors showed a decrease in complex I-IR (subunit NDUFB4) at eighth decade, and a weak or absence of IR in 10 retinas between ninth and tenth decade. Patchy IR to complex III and complex IV was detected at different ages. IR to ND1 (complex I) and complex II and V remained unaltered with ageing. Nitrosative stress (evaluated by IR to a nitro-tyrosine antibody) was found in photoreceptors. Superoxide dismutase-2 was found upregulated in photoreceptors with ageing. Mitochondrial ultrastructure was examined in two young retinas with intact complex IR and six aged retinas whose counterparts showed weak to absence of IR. Observations revealed irregular, photoreceptor inner segment mitochondria in aged maculae and mid-peripheral retina between eighth and ninth decade; many cones possessed autophagosomes with damaged mitochondria, indicating age-related alterations. A trend in age-dependent reduction of complex I-IR was evident in aged photoreceptors, whereas patchy complex IV-IR (subunits I and II) was age-independent, suggesting that the former is prone to damage with ageing perhaps due to oxidative stress. These changes in OXPHOS system may influence the energy budget of human photoreceptors, affecting their viability.

  8. Deep biomarkers of human aging: Application of deep neural networks to biomarker development

    PubMed Central

    Putin, Evgeny; Mamoshina, Polina; Aliper, Alexander; Korzinkin, Mikhail; Moskalev, Alexey; Kolosov, Alexey; Ostrovskiy, Alexander; Cantor, Charles; Vijg, Jan; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    One of the major impediments in human aging research is the absence of a comprehensive and actionable set of biomarkers that may be targeted and measured to track the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. In this study, we designed a modular ensemble of 21 deep neural networks (DNNs) of varying depth, structure and optimization to predict human chronological age using a basic blood test. To train the DNNs, we used over 60,000 samples from common blood biochemistry and cell count tests from routine health exams performed by a single laboratory and linked to chronological age and sex. The best performing DNN in the ensemble demonstrated 81.5 % epsilon-accuracy r = 0.90 with R2 = 0.80 and MAE = 6.07 years in predicting chronological age within a 10 year frame, while the entire ensemble achieved 83.5% epsilon-accuracy r = 0.91 with R2 = 0.82 and MAE = 5.55 years. The ensemble also identified the 5 most important markers for predicting human chronological age: albumin, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea and erythrocytes. To allow for public testing and evaluate real-life performance of the predictor, we developed an online system available at http://www.aging.ai. The ensemble approach may facilitate integration of multi-modal data linked to chronological age and sex that may lead to simple, minimally invasive, and affordable methods of tracking integrated biomarkers of aging in humans and performing cross-species feature importance analysis. PMID:27191382

  9. Deep biomarkers of human aging: Application of deep neural networks to biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Putin, Evgeny; Mamoshina, Polina; Aliper, Alexander; Korzinkin, Mikhail; Moskalev, Alexey; Kolosov, Alexey; Ostrovskiy, Alexander; Cantor, Charles; Vijg, Jan; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-05-01

    One of the major impediments in human aging research is the absence of a comprehensive and actionable set of biomarkers that may be targeted and measured to track the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. In this study, we designed a modular ensemble of 21 deep neural networks (DNNs) of varying depth, structure and optimization to predict human chronological age using a basic blood test. To train the DNNs, we used over 60,000 samples from common blood biochemistry and cell count tests from routine health exams performed by a single laboratory and linked to chronological age and sex. The best performing DNN in the ensemble demonstrated 81.5 % epsilon-accuracy r = 0.90 with R(2) = 0.80 and MAE = 6.07 years in predicting chronological age within a 10 year frame, while the entire ensemble achieved 83.5% epsilon-accuracy r = 0.91 with R(2) = 0.82 and MAE = 5.55 years. The ensemble also identified the 5 most important markers for predicting human chronological age: albumin, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea and erythrocytes. To allow for public testing and evaluate real-life performance of the predictor, we developed an online system available at http://www.aging.ai. The ensemble approach may facilitate integration of multi-modal data linked to chronological age and sex that may lead to simple, minimally invasive, and affordable methods of tracking integrated biomarkers of aging in humans and performing cross-species feature importance analysis.

  10. On the Increasing Fragility of Human Teeth with Age: ADeep-Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Nalla, R.K.; Balooch, G.; Kim, G.; Pugach, M.; Habelitz, S.; Marshall, G.W.; Kinney, J.H.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-07-14

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS) using 244nm excitation was used to investigate the impact of aging on humandentin. The intensity of a spectroscopic feature from the peptide bondsin the collagen increases with tissue age, similar to a finding reportedpreviously for human cortical bone.

  11. Age-Dependent Oxidative DNA Damage Does Not Correlate with Reduced Proliferation of Cardiomyocytes in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghui; Liu, Jinfen; Jiang, Chuan; Zhang, Haibo; Ye, Lincai; Zheng, Jinghao

    2017-01-01

    Background Postnatal human cardiomyocyte proliferation declines rapidly with age, which has been suggested to be correlated with increases in oxidative DNA damage in mice and plays an important role in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation. However, the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and age in humans is unclear. Methods Sixty right ventricular outflow myocardial tissue specimens were obtained from ventricular septal defect infant patients during routine congenital cardiac surgery. These specimens were divided into three groups based on age: group A (age 0–6 months), group B (age, 7–12 months), and group C (>12 months). Each tissue specimen was subjected to DNA extraction, RNA extraction, and immunofluorescence. Results Immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that DNA damage markers—mitochondrial DNA copy number, oxoguanine 8, and phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated—were highest in Group B. However immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR demonstrated that two cell proliferation markers, Ki67 and cyclin D2, were decreased with age. In addition, wheat germ agglutinin-staining indicated that the average size of cardiomyocytes increased with age. Conclusions Oxidative DNA damage of cardiomyocytes was not correlated positively with age in human beings. Oxidative DNA damage is unable to fully explain the reduced proliferation of human cardiomyocytes. PMID:28099512

  12. Ontogeny and aging of the distal skin temperature rhythm in humans.

    PubMed

    Batinga, H; Martinez-Nicolas, A; Zornoza-Moreno, M; Sánchez-Solis, M; Larqué, E; Mondéjar, M T; Moreno-Casbas, M; García, F J; Campos, M; Rol, M A; Madrid, J A

    2015-01-01

    In circadian terms, human ontogeny is characterized by the emergence of a daily pattern, from a previous ultradian pattern, for most variables during the first 6 months of life. Circadian aging in humans is characterized by a phase advance, accompanied by rhythm fragmentation and flattening. Despite an expanding body of literature focused on distal skin temperature, little information is available about the ontogeny and practically nothing about age-related changes in this rhythm. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the degree of maturation and aging of the circadian pattern of distal skin temperature to identify those parameters that are modified throughout life and could be used to differentiate subjects according to their age. For this, distal skin temperature was measured in 197 volunteers (55 % women), including babies aged 15 days (30 subjects), 1 month (28 subjects), 3 months (31 subjects), and 6 months (10 subjects); young adults aged 19 years (37 subjects); middle-aged persons aged 46 years (27 subjects); older people aged 72 (34 subjects). Circadian system maturation was associated with an increase in amplitude and a reduction in skin temperature during sleep. During adulthood, women showed a more robust pattern (lower fragmentation, and higher night-time temperature, amplitude, circadian function index, and first harmonic relative power); however, these differences were lost with aging, a period of life that was consistently associated with a phase advance of the rhythm. In summary, distal skin temperature pattern can be used as a robust variable to discern between different ages throughout the life.

  13. [New investigation of the effect of toner and its by-products on human health and occupational health management of toner].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Kitamura, Hiroko; Kuga, Hiroaki; Ide, Reiko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Higashi, Toshiaki; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    We need a new investigation of the effect of not only toner but also of its by-products on human health, because of the generation of fine particles and the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the process of photocopy. Therefore, we gathered epidemiological and animal data on toner and its by-products, and examined the occupational health management of toner. We examined the effect of carbonblack as the main component of toner, and titanium dioxide and amorphous silica as surface-adhesive nanomaterials, and VOC on human health, and reviewed them. We summarize the results as follows. 1) High sensitive c-reactive protein in serum, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in urine, and heart rate variability (HRV) are useful for biological monitoring of exposure to toner and its by-products. 2) Particle number concentrations have been often measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) compared with other apparatus, although this is not measurement gold standard. Taken together, we have examined whole occupational health management of toner and its by-products.

  14. SEM analysis of red blood cells in aged human bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Hortolà, P

    1992-08-01

    Mammal red blood cells (RBC) in bloodstains have been previously detected by light microscopy on stone tools from as early as 100,000 +/- 25,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the degree of morphological preservation of erythrocytes in bloodstains, an accidental human blood smear on white chert and several experimental bloodstains on hard substrates (the same stone-white chert; another type of stone-graywacke; a non-stone support-stainless steel), were stored in a room, in non-sterile and fluctuating conditions, for lengths of time ranging from 3 to 18 months. Afterwards, the specimens were coated with gold and examined by a Cambridge Stereoscan 120 scanning electron microscope. Results revealed a high preservation of RBC integrity, with the maintenance of several discocytary shapes, a low tendency to echinocytosis and a frequent appearance of a moon-like erythrocytary shape in the thinner areas of the bloodstains.

  15. Added mass in human swimmers: age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Caspersen, Cecilie; Berthelsen, Petter A; Eik, Mari; Pâkozdi, Csaba; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik

    2010-08-26

    In unstationary swimming (changing velocity), some of the water around the swimmer is set in motion. This can be thought of as an added mass (M(a)) of water. The purpose of this study was to find added mass on human swimmers and investigate the effect of shape and body size. Thirty subjects were connected to a 2.8m long bar with handles, attached with springs (stiffness k = 318 N/m) and a force cell. By oscillating this system vertically and registering the period of oscillations it was possible to find the added mass of the swimmer, given the known masses of the bar and swimmer. Relative added mass (M(a)%) for boys, women and men were, respectively, 26.8 +/- 2.9%, 23.6 +/- 1.6% and 26.8 +/- 2.3% of the subjects total mass. This study reported significantly lower added mass (p < 0.001) and relative added mass (p < 0.002) for women compared to men, which indicate that the possible body shape differences between genders may be an important factor for determining added mass. Boys had significantly lower (p < 0.001) added mass than men. When added mass was scaled for body size there were no significant differences (p = 0.996) between boys and men, which indicated that body size is an important factor that influences added mass. The added mass in this study seems to be lower and within a smaller range than previously reported (Klauck, 1999; Eik et al., 2008). It is concluded that the added mass in human swimmers, in extended gliding position, is approximately 1/4 of the subjects' body mass.

  16. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  17. Age and Educational Selectivity among Migration and Human Capital Flows in the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, James A.

    This paper quantifies and analyzes the total flows of human capital moving in and out of the West over time as a result of interregional migration. Particular emphasis is placed on analyzing the "age-education" interaction effect of migration on flows of human capital. Migration was highly selective of the young and/or highly educated…

  18. Human cognition and mobility in aging: a model for berry fruit interventions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in motor function in aging, in both animals and humans, include decrements in balance, strength, and coordination, even in the absence of specific movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. In humans, these alterations can increase fall risk, often leading to injury and premature nursin...

  19. Bacteriology of Human Experimental Gingivitis: Effect of Plaque Age

    PubMed Central

    Syed, S. A.; Loesche, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-five subjects with previously excellent hygiene and healthy gingiva developed heavy plaque accumulations and bleeding or nonbleeding gingivitis about certain papilla after 21 days of no oral hygiene. Gingival marginal plaque about a single papilla was collected at 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks of no oral hygiene in each subject. The plaque was dispersed, serially diluted, and plated on MM10 sucrose agar in an oxygen-free atmosphere. From 50 to 100 colonies from a single high-dilution plate were characterized for each sample. Over 8,500 isolates were partially characterized and placed into one of 29 taxonomic species or groups. The flora was predominantly gram-positive at all time periods. Streptococcal species dominated in the 0- and 1-week-old plaques, i.e. 62 and 43% of the colonyforming units (CFU), but dropped to 26 to 32% of the CFU in the 2- and 3-week-old plaques. Actinomyces species dominated in the older plaques, i.e., 40 to 50% of the CFU. Actinomyces israelii was the most prominent species in the older plaques. Veillonella accounted for 15 to 20% of the CFU at all time periods. Although the other gram-negative species increased with time, collectively they averaged less than 5% of the CFU at week 3. The shift from a Streptococcus-dominated plaque to an Actinomyces-dominated plaque was the most striking microbial change observed as the plaque aged. PMID:711336

  20. Primary age-related tauopathy (PART): a common pathology associated with human aging

    PubMed Central

    Crary, John F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Schneider, Julie A.; Abisambra, Jose F.; Abner, Erin L.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Arnold, Steven E.; Attems, Johannes; Beach, Thomas G.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Gearing, Marla; Grinberg, Lea T.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Knopman, David S.; Kofler, Julia; Kukull, Walter A.; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann; Montine, Thomas J.; Murray, Melissa E.; Neltner, Janna H.; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Seeley, William W.; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Shelanski, Michael L.; Stein, Thor; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar R.; Toledo, Jonathan B.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L.; Yamada, Masahito; Nelson, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We recommend a new term, “primary age-related tauopathy” (PART), to describe a pathology that is commonly observed in the brains of aged individuals. Many autopsy studies have reported brains with neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that are indistinguishable from those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the absence of amyloid (Aβ) plaques. For these “NFT+/Aβ−” brains, for which formal criteria for AD neuropathologic changes are not met, the NFT are mostly restricted to structures in the medial temporal lobe, basal forebrain, brainstem, and olfactory areas (bulb and cortex). Symptoms in persons with PART usually range from normal to amnestic cognitive changes, with only a minority exhibiting profound impairment. Because cognitive impairment is often mild, existing clinicopathologic designations, such as “tangle-only dementia” and “tangle-predominant senile dementia”, are imprecise and not appropriate for most subjects. PART is almost universally detectable at autopsy among elderly individuals, yet this pathological process cannot be specifically identified pre-mortem at the present time. Improved biomarkers and tau imaging may enable diagnosis of PART in clinical settings in the future. Indeed, recent studies have identified a common biomarker profile consisting of temporal lobe atrophy and tauopathy without evidence of Aβ accumulation. For both researchers and clinicians, a revised nomenclature will raise awareness of this extremely common pathologic change while providing a conceptual foundation for future studies. Prior reports that have elucidated features of the pathologic entity we refer to as PART are discussed, and working neuropathological diagnostic criteria are proposed. PMID:25348064

  1. Loss of CD34 expression in aging human choriocapillaris endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Elliott H; Flamme-Wiese, Miles J; Whitmore, S Scott; Wang, Kai; Tucker, Budd A; Mullins, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Structural and gene expression changes in the microvasculature of the human choroid occur during normal aging and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this study, we sought to determine the impact of aging and AMD on expression of the endothelial cell glycoprotein CD34. Sections from 58 human donor eyes were categorized as either young (under age 40), age-matched controls (> age 60 without AMD), or AMD affected (>age 60 with early AMD, geographic atrophy, or choroidal neovascularization). Dual labeling of sections with Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I lectin (UEA-I) and CD34 antibodies was performed, and the percentage of capillaries labeled with UEA-I but negative for anti-CD34 was determined. In addition, published databases of mouse and human retinal pigment epithelium-choroid were evaluated and CD34 expression compared between young and old eyes. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that while CD34 and UEA-I were colocalized in young eyes, there was variable loss of CD34 immunoreactivity in older donor eyes. While differences between normal aging and AMD were not significant, the percentage of CD34 negative capillaries in old eyes, compared to young eyes, was highly significant (p = 3.8×10(-6)). Endothelial cells in neovascular membranes were invariably CD34 positive. Published databases show either a significant decrease in Cd34 (mouse) or a trend toward decreased CD34 (human) in aging. These findings suggest that UEA-I and endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity are more consistent markers of aging endothelial cells in the choroid, and suggest a possible mechanism for the increased inflammatory milieu in the aging choroid.

  2. Loss of CD34 Expression in Aging Human Choriocapillaris Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Elliott H.; Flamme-Wiese, Miles J.; Whitmore, S. Scott; Wang, Kai; Tucker, Budd A.; Mullins, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Structural and gene expression changes in the microvasculature of the human choroid occur during normal aging and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this study, we sought to determine the impact of aging and AMD on expression of the endothelial cell glycoprotein CD34. Sections from 58 human donor eyes were categorized as either young (under age 40), age-matched controls (> age 60 without AMD), or AMD affected (>age 60 with early AMD, geographic atrophy, or choroidal neovascularization). Dual labeling of sections with Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I lectin (UEA-I) and CD34 antibodies was performed, and the percentage of capillaries labeled with UEA-I but negative for anti-CD34 was determined. In addition, published databases of mouse and human retinal pigment epithelium-choroid were evaluated and CD34 expression compared between young and old eyes. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that while CD34 and UEA-I were colocalized in young eyes, there was variable loss of CD34 immunoreactivity in older donor eyes. While differences between normal aging and AMD were not significant, the percentage of CD34 negative capillaries in old eyes, compared to young eyes, was highly significant (p = 3.8×10−6). Endothelial cells in neovascular membranes were invariably CD34 positive. Published databases show either a significant decrease in Cd34 (mouse) or a trend toward decreased CD34 (human) in aging. These findings suggest that UEA-I and endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity are more consistent markers of aging endothelial cells in the choroid, and suggest a possible mechanism for the increased inflammatory milieu in the aging choroid. PMID:24466138

  3. Human Brain Imaging of α7 nAChR with [18F]ASEM: a New PET Radiotracer for Neuropsychiatry and Determination of Drug Occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Dean F.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Pomper, Martin; Holt, Daniel P.; Brasic, James R.; George, Noble; Frolov, Boris; Willis, William; Gao, Yongjun; Valentine, Heather; Nandi, Ayon; Gapasin, Lorena; Dannals, Robert F.; Horti, Andrew G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the α7-nAChR radiotracer, [18F]ASEM, we present the first successful human positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Rodent occupancy with three clinically employed α7-nAChR drugs confirms the specificity of the radiotracer. Procedures Five healthy male subjects were imaged for 90 min following IV [18F]ASEM. Two subjects were scanned for the second time (test/retest; TRV). Mouse biodistribution of [18F]ASEM was carried out in CD1 mice injected with using human equivalent doses of DMXB-A, EVP-6124, and varenicline to block specific binding. Results [18F]ASEM readily entered the brain and peaked at 15 min post-injection with reversible kinetics and a peak %SUV of about 400 %. The regional human brain distribution of [18F]ASEM matched previous in vitro data and baboon PET results. The precuneus, parietal, occipital, cingulate cortexes, putamen, and thalamus showed high values of distribution volume (>20 ml/ml) and binding potentials >1 with TRV averaged 10.8±5.1 %. In mouse distribution studies, there was significant dose-dependent blockade in the mouse brain with DMXB-A as well as the other two α7-nAChR drugs. Conclusions The characteristics of [18F]ASEM are consistent with the ability to quantify α7-nAChR in the human brain. [18F]ASEM is suitable for imaging neuropsychiatric disorders and target engagement (receptor occupancy) of potential α7-nAChR drugs. PMID:25145965

  4. Between destiny and disease: genetics and molecular pathways of human central nervous system aging

    PubMed Central

    Glorioso, Christin; Sibille, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the human brain is associated with “normal” functional, structural, and molecular changes that underlie alterations in cognition, memory, mood and motor function, amongst other processes. Normal aging also imposes a robust constraint on the onset of many neurological diseases, ranging from late onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s diseases (PD), to early onset psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). The molecular mechanisms and genetic underpinnings of age-related changes in the brain are understudied, and, while they share some overlap with peripheral mechanisms of aging, many are unique to the largely non-mitotic brain. Hence, understanding mechanisms of brain aging and identifying associated modulators may have profound consequences for the prevention and treatment of age-related impairments and diseases. Here we review current knowledge on age-related functional and structural changes, their molecular and genetic underpinnings, and discuss how these pathways may contribute to the vulnerability to develop age-related neurological diseases. We highlight recent findings from human postmortem brain microarray studies, which we hypothesize, point to a potential genetically-controlled transcriptional program underlying molecular changes and age-gating of neurological diseases. Finally, we discuss the implications of this model for understanding basic mechanisms of brain aging and for the future investigation of therapeutic approaches. PMID:21130140

  5. General RBP expression in human tissues as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Nishida, Kensei; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2012-09-01

    Gene expression patterns vary dramatically in a tissue-specific and age-dependent manner. RNA-binding proteins that regulate mRNA turnover and/or translation (TTR-RBPs) critically affect the subsets of expressed proteins. Although many proteins implicated in age-related processes are encoded by mRNAs that are targets of TTR-RBPs, very little is known regarding the tissue- and age-dependent expression of TTR-RBPs in humans. Recent analysis of TTR-RBPs expression using human tissue microarray has provided us interesting insight into their possibly physiologic roles as a function of age. This analysis has also revealed striking discrepancies between the levels of TTR-RBPs in senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs), widely used as an in vitro model of aging, and the levels of TTR-RBPs in tissues from individuals of advancing age. In this article, we will review our knowledge of human TTR-RBP expression in different tissues as a function of age.

  6. Estrogen, not intrinsic aging, is the major regulator of delayed human wound healing in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Matthew J; Ashcroft, Gillian S

    2008-01-01

    Background Multiple processes have been implicated in age-related delayed healing, including altered gene expression, intrinsic cellular changes, and changes in extracellular milieu (including hormones). To date, little attempt has been made to assess the relative contribution of each of these processes to a human aging phenomenon. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of estrogen versus aging in age-associated delayed human wound healing. Results Using an Affymetrix microarray-based approach we show that the differences in gene expression between male elderly and young human wounds are almost exclusively estrogen regulated. Expression of 78 probe sets was significantly decreased and 10 probe sets increased in wounds from elderly subjects (with a fold change greater than 7). A total of 83% of down-regulated probe sets and 80% of up-regulated probe sets were estrogen-regulated. Differentially regulated genes were validated at the level of gene and protein expression, with genes identified as estrogen-regulated in human confirmed as estrogen-dependent in young estrogen depleted mice in vivo. Moreover, direct estrogen regulation is demonstrated for three array-identified genes, Sele, Lypd3 and Arg1, in mouse cells in vitro. Conclusion These findings have clear implications for our understanding of age-associated cellular changes in the context of wound healing, the latter acting as a paradigm for other age-related repair and maintenance processes, and suggest estrogen has a more profound influence on aging than previously thought. PMID:18477406

  7. Occupation and adult gliomas.

    PubMed

    Carozza, S E; Wrensch, M; Miike, R; Newman, B; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A; Yost, M; Lee, M

    2000-11-01

    Lifetime job histories from a population-based, case-control study of gliomas diagnosed among adults in the San Francisco Bay area between August 1991 and April 1994 were evaluated to assess occupational risk factors. Occupational data for 476 cases and 462 controls were analyzed, with adjustment for age, gender, education, and race. Imprecise increased risks were observed for physicians and surgeons (odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 17.6), artists (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.5, 6.5), foundry and smelter workers (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 13.1), petroleum and gas workers (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 42.2), and painters (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 4.9). Legal and social service workers, shippers, janitors, motor vehicle operators, and aircraft operators had increased odds ratios only with longer duration of employment. Physicians and surgeons, foundry and smelter workers, petroleum and gas workers, and painters showed increased risk for both astrocytic and nonastrocytic tumors. Artists and firemen had increased risk for astrocytic tumors only, while messengers, textile workers, aircraft operators, and vehicle manufacturing workers showed increased risk only for nonastrocytic tumors. Despite study limitations, including small numbers for many of the occupational groups, a high percentage of proxy respondents among cases, and lack of specific exposure information, associations were observed for several occupations previously reported to be at higher risk for brain tumors generally and gliomas specifically.

  8. Sixty years old is the breakpoint of human frontal cortex aging.

    PubMed

    Cabré, Rosanna; Naudí, Alba; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Mayelin; Ayala, Victòria; Jové, Mariona; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Gil-Villar, Maria Pilar; Rué, Montserrat; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2017-02-01

    Human brain aging is the physiological process which underlies as cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Human neurons are functional throughout a healthy adult lifespan, yet the mechanisms that maintain function and protect against neurodegenerative processes during aging are unknown. Here we show that protein oxidative and glycoxidative damage significantly increases during human brain aging, with a breakpoint at 60 years old. This trajectory is coincident with a decrease in the content of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I-IV. We suggest that the deterioration in oxidative stress homeostasis during aging induces an adaptive response of stress resistance mechanisms based on the sustained expression of REST, and increased or decreased expression of Akt and mTOR, respectively, over the adult lifespan in order to preserve cell neural survival and function.

  9. Dynamics of climate-based malaria transmission model with age-structured human population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addawe, Joel; Pajimola, Aprimelle Kris

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed to study the dynamics of malaria transmission with periodic birth rate of the vector and an age-structure for the human population. The human population is divided into two compartments: pre-school (0-5 years) and the rest of the human population. We showed the existence of a disease-free equilibrium point. Using published epidemiological parameters, we use numerical simulations to show potential effect of climate change in the dynamics of age-structured malaria transmission. Numerical simulations suggest that there exists an asymptotically attractive solution that is positive and periodic.

  10. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  11. 75 FR 56549 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Safety and Occupational Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and... occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the intent of NIOSH to support broad-based research... delivery of occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related injury and...

  12. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus “infusing” age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs. PMID:26697422

  13. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus "infusing" age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs.

  14. Analysis of cancer genomes reveals basic features of human aging and its role in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Podolskiy, Dmitriy I.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations have long been implicated in aging and disease, but their impact on fitness and function is difficult to assess. Here by analysing human cancer genomes we identify mutational patterns associated with aging. Our analyses suggest that age-associated mutation load and burden double approximately every 8 years, similar to the all-cause mortality doubling time. This analysis further reveals variance in the rate of aging among different human tissues, for example, slightly accelerated aging of the reproductive system. Age-adjusted mutation load and burden correlate with the corresponding cancer incidence and precede it on average by 15 years, pointing to pre-clinical cancer development times. Behaviour of mutation load also exhibits gender differences and late-life reversals, explaining some gender-specific and late-life patterns in cancer incidence rates. Overall, this study characterizes some features of human aging and offers a mechanism for age being a risk factor for the onset of cancer. PMID:27515585

  15. Effect of aging on the transverse toughness of human cortical bone: evaluation by R-curves.

    PubMed

    Koester, K J; Barth, H D; Ritchie, R O

    2011-10-01

    The age-related deterioration in the quality (e.g., strength and fracture resistance) and quantity (e.g., bone-mineral density) of human bone, together with increased life expectancy, is responsible for increasing incidence of bone fracture in the elderly. The present study describes ex vivo fracture experiments to quantitatively assess the effect of aging on the fracture toughness properties of human cortical bone specifically in the transverse (breaking) orientation. Because bone exhibits rising crack-growth resistance with crack extension, the aging-related transverse toughness is evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior, measured for bone taken from a wide range of age groups (25-74 years). Using this approach, both the ex vivo crack-initiation and crack-growth toughness are determined and are found to deteriorate with age; however, the effect is far smaller than that reported for the longitudinal toughness of cortical bone. Whereas the longitudinal crack-growth toughness has been reported to be reduced by almost an order of magnitude for human cortical bone over this age range, the corresponding age-related decrease in transverse toughness is merely ~14%. Similar to that reported for X-ray irradiated bone, with aging cracks in the transverse direction are subjected to an increasing incidence of crack deflection, principally along the cement lines, but the deflections are smaller and result in a generally less tortuous crack path.

  16. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  17. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  18. Functional Analyses of Human DNA Repair Proteins Important for Aging and Genomic Stability Using Yeast Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Monika; Brosh, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Model systems have been extremely useful for studying various theories of aging. Studies of yeast have been particularly helpful to explore the molecular mechanisms and pathways that affect aging at the cellular level in the simple eukaryote. Although genetic analysis has been useful to interrogate the aging process, there has been both interest and debate over how functionally conserved the mechanisms of aging are between yeast and higher eukaryotes, especially mammalian cells. One area of interest has been the importance of genomic stability for age-related processes, and the potential conservation of proteins and pathways between yeast and human. Translational genetics have been employed to examine the functional roles of mammalian proteins using yeast as a pliable model system. In the current review recent advancements made in this area are discussed, highlighting work which shows that the cellular functions of human proteins in DNA repair and maintenance of genomic stability can be elucidated by genetic rescue experiments performed in yeast. PMID:22349084

  19. Age-dependent and age-independent human memory persistence is enhanced by delayed posttraining methylphenidate administration

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Iván; Bevilaqua, Lia R.; Rossato, Janine I.; Lima, Ramón H.; Medina, Jorge H.; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-01-01

    Healthy human volunteers 16–82 years of age with at least 10 years of schooling were exposed to two different memory tasks. The first task involved incidental memory. The subjects were asked, as casually as possible: “Did you watch any movie on TV 2 days ago? And 7 days ago? If so, do you remember the title of the movie(s) and the name of the first two actors (actresses)?” Retention scores (maximum = 3: title, actor 1, and actor 2) were equally high (overall mean = 2.6, n = 61) in all age groups (16–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–60, and 61–82 years) for the day 2 scores. Scores for the movie seen 7 days before decreased significantly and progressively in the three older groups in relation to age, which indicates reduced persistence of this type of memory beginning at the age of 41–50 years and becoming more extensive over the years. The other task was a formal memory procedure. Subjects were asked to study a brief text with factual information on the 1954 World Soccer Cup for 10 min. They were then exposed to 10 questions on the text 2 days and, again, 7 days later. Retention scores declined between the two tests, but in this task, the decline of persistence occurred to a similar extent in all age groups, and thus was not dependent on age. Methylphenidate (10 mg p.o.) given 12 hours after acquisition markedly enhanced persistence of the two memory types. This suggests an involvement of dopaminergic processes in persistence in the late posttraining period. PMID:19050076

  20. Age-dependent and age-independent human memory persistence is enhanced by delayed posttraining methylphenidate administration.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Rossato, Janine I; Lima, Ramón H; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-12-09

    Healthy human volunteers 16-82 years of age with at least 10 years of schooling were exposed to two different memory tasks. The first task involved incidental memory. The subjects were asked, as casually as possible: "Did you watch any movie on TV 2 days ago? And 7 days ago? If so, do you remember the title of the movie(s) and the name of the first two actors (actresses)?" Retention scores (maximum = 3: title, actor 1, and actor 2) were equally high (overall mean = 2.6, n = 61) in all age groups (16-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-60, and 61-82 years) for the day 2 scores. Scores for the movie seen 7 days before decreased significantly and progressively in the three older groups in relation to age, which indicates reduced persistence of this type of memory beginning at the age of 41-50 years and becoming more extensive over the years. The other task was a formal memory procedure. Subjects were asked to study a brief text with factual information on the 1954 World Soccer Cup for 10 min. They were then exposed to 10 questions on the text 2 days and, again, 7 days later. Retention scores declined between the two tests, but in this task, the decline of persistence occurred to a similar extent in all age groups, and thus was not dependent on age. Methylphenidate (10 mg p.o.) given 12 hours after acquisition markedly enhanced persistence of the two memory types. This suggests an involvement of dopaminergic processes in persistence in the late posttraining period.

  1. Age and Amyloid Effects on Human CNS Amyloid-Beta Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Bruce W.; Elbert, Donald L.; Mawuenyega, Kwasi G.; Kasten, Tom; Ovod, Vitaliy; Ma, Shengmei; Xiong, Chengjie; Chott, Robert; Yarasheski, Kevin; Sigurdson, Wendy; Zhang, Lily; Goate, Alison; Phil, D.; Benzinger, Tammie; Morris, John C.; Holtzman, David; Bateman, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age is the single greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease with the incidence doubling every 5 years after age 65. However, our understanding of the mechanistic relationship between increasing age and the risk for Alzheimer’s disease is currently limited. We therefore sought to determine the relationship between age, amyloidosis, and amyloid-beta kinetics in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans Methods Amyloid-beta kinetics were analyzed in 112 participants and compared to the ages of participants and the amount of amyloid deposition. Results We found a highly significant correlation between increasing age and slowed amyloid-beta turnover rates (2.5-fold longer half-life over five decades of age). In addition, we found independent effects on amyloid-beta42 kinetics specifically in participants with amyloid deposition. Amyloidosis was associated with a higher (>50%) irreversible loss of soluble amyloid-beta42 and a 10-fold higher amyloid-beta42 reversible exchange rate. Interpretation These findings reveal a mechanistic link between human aging and the risk of amyloidosis which may be due to a dramatic slowing of amyloid-beta turnover, increasing the likelihood of protein misfolding that leads to deposition. Alterations in amyloid-beta kinetics associated with aging and amyloidosis suggest opportunities for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. More generally, this study provides an example of how changes in protein turnover kinetics can be used to detect physiologic and pathophysiologic changes and may be applicable to other proteinopathies. PMID:26040676

  2. Maintenance of age in human neurons generated by microRNA-based neuronal conversion of fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Christine J; Zhang, Bo; Victor, Matheus B; Dahiya, Sonika; Batista, Luis FZ; Horvath, Steve; Yoo, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor in many forms of late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. The ability to recapitulate age-related characteristics of human neurons in culture will offer unprecedented opportunities to study the biological processes underlying neuronal aging. Here, we show that using a recently demonstrated microRNA-based cellular reprogramming approach, human fibroblasts from postnatal to near centenarian donors can be efficiently converted into neurons that maintain multiple age-associated signatures. Application of an epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred to as epigenetic clock) to DNA methylation data revealed that the epigenetic ages of fibroblasts were highly correlated with corresponding age estimates of reprogrammed neurons. Transcriptome and microRNA profiles reveal genes differentially expressed between young and old neurons. Further analyses of oxidative stress, DNA damage and telomere length exhibit the retention of age-associated cellular properties in converted neurons from corresponding fibroblasts. Our results collectively demonstrate the maintenance of age after neuronal conversion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18648.001 PMID:27644593

  3. Aging and DNA damage in humans: a meta-analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Cortinhas, António; Bento, Teresa; Leitão, José Carlos; Collins, Andrew R.; Gaivã, Isabel; Mota, Maria Paula

    2014-01-01

    Age-related DNA damage is regarded as one of the possible explanations of aging. Although a generalized idea about the accumulation of DNA damage with age exists, results found in the literature are inconsistent. To better understand the question of age-related DNA damage in humans and to identify possible moderator variables, a meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic databases and bibliographies for studies published since 2004 were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-related DNA damage were calculated in a random-effects model. A total of 76 correlations from 36 studies with 4676 participants were included. Based on our analysis, a correlation between age and DNA damage was found (r = 0.230, p = 0.000; 95% confidence interval = 0.111 - 0.342). The test for heterogeneity of variance indicates that the study´s results are significantly high (Q (75) = 1754.831, p = 0.000). Moderator variables such as smoking habits, technique used, and the tissue/sample analyzed, are shown to influence age-related DNA damage (p=0.026; p=0.000; p=0.000, respectively). Nevertheless, sex did not show any influence on this relation (p=0.114). In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed an association between age and DNA damage in humans. It was also found that smoking habits, the technique used, and tissue/sample analyzed, are important moderator variables in age-related DNA damage. PMID:25140379

  4. Pharmacological differentiation of opioid receptor antagonists by molecular and functional imaging of target occupancy and food reward-related brain activation in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabiner, E A; Beaver, J; Makwana, A; Searle, G; Long, C; Nathan, P J; Newbould, R D; Howard, J; Miller, S R; Bush, M A; Hill, S; Reiley, R; Passchier, J; Gunn, R N; Matthews, P M; Bullmore, E T

    2011-08-01

    Opioid neurotransmission has a key role in mediating reward-related behaviours. Opioid receptor (OR) antagonists, such as naltrexone (NTX), can attenuate the behaviour-reinforcing effects of primary (food) and secondary rewards. GSK1521498 is a novel OR ligand, which behaves as an inverse agonist at the μ-OR sub-type. In a sample of healthy volunteers, we used [(11)C]-carfentanil positron emission tomography to measure the OR occupancy and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation of brain reward centres by palatable food stimuli before and after single oral doses of GSK1521498 (range, 0.4-100 mg) or NTX (range, 2-50 mg). GSK1521498 had high affinity for human brain ORs (GSK1521498 effective concentration 50 = 7.10 ng ml(-1)) and there was a direct relationship between receptor occupancy (RO) and plasma concentrations of GSK1521498. However, for both NTX and its principal active metabolite in humans, 6-β-NTX, this relationship was indirect. GSK1521498, but not NTX, significantly attenuated the fMRI activation of the amygdala by a palatable food stimulus. We thus have shown how the pharmacological properties of OR antagonists can be characterised directly in humans by a novel integration of molecular and functional neuroimaging techniques. GSK1521498 was differentiated from NTX in terms of its pharmacokinetics, target affinity, plasma concentration-RO relationships and pharmacodynamic effects on food reward processing in the brain. Pharmacological differentiation of these molecules suggests that they may have different therapeutic profiles for treatment of overeating and other disorders of compulsive consumption.

  5. Rejuvenation of Gene Expression Pattern of Aged Human Skin by Broadband Light Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Bitter, Patrick H; Qu, Kun; Lin, Meihong; Rapicavoli, Nicole A; Chang, Howard Y

    2013-01-01

    Studies in model organisms suggest that aged cells can be functionally rejuvenated, but whether this concept applies to human skin is unclear. Here we apply 3′-end sequencing for expression quantification (“3-seq”) to discover the gene expression program associated with human photoaging and intrinsic skin aging (collectively termed “skin aging”), and the impact of broadband light (BBL) treatment. We find that skin aging was associated with a significantly altered expression level of 2,265 coding and noncoding RNAs, of which 1,293 became “rejuvenated” after BBL treatment; i.e., they became more similar to their expression level in youthful skin. Rejuvenated genes (RGs) included several known key regulators of organismal longevity and their proximal long noncoding RNAs. Skin aging is not associated with systematic changes in 3′-end mRNA processing. Hence, BBL treatment can restore gene expression pattern of photoaged and intrinsically aged human skin to resemble young skin. In addition, our data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported set of targets that may lead to new insights into the human skin aging process. PMID:22931923

  6. Polarization sensitive changes in the human macula associated with normal aging and age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanNasdale, Dean Allan, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    The human macula occupies a relatively small, but crucial retinal area, as it is the location responsible for our most acute spatial vision and best color discrimination. Localizing important landmarks in the retina is difficult even in normal eyes where morphological inter-individual variability is high. This becomes even more challenging in the presence of sight-threatening pathology. With respect to the human macula, there remains a significant gap in the understanding of normal structure and function. Even less is known about the pathological mechanisms that occur in sight-threatening diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Because relatively little is known about normal aging changes, it is also difficult to differentiate those changes from changes associated with retinal disease. To better understand normal and pathological changes in the macula, imaging techniques using specific optical signatures are required. Structural features in the macula can be distinguished based on their intrinsic properties using specific light/tissue interactions. Because of the high degree of structural regularity in the macula, polarization sensitive imaging is potentially a useful tool for evaluating the morphology and integrity of the cellular architecture for both normal individuals and those affected by disease. In our investigations, we used polarization sensitive imaging to determining normal landmarks that are important clinically and for research investigations. We found that precision and accuracy in localizing the central macula was greatly improved through the use of polarization sensitive imaging. We also found that specific polarization alterations can be used to demonstrate systematic changes as a function of age, disproportionately affecting the central macular region. When evaluating patients with age-related macular degeneration, we found that precision and accuracy of localizing the central macula was also improved, even when significant pathology

  7. Determination of Human Hepatic CYP2C8 and CYP1A2 Age-Dependent Expression to Support Human Health Risk Assessment for Early Ages.

    PubMed

    Song, Gina; Sun, Xueying; Hines, Ronald N; McCarver, D Gail; Lake, Brian G; Osimitz, Thomas G; Creek, Moire R; Clewell, Harvey J; Yoon, Miyoung

    2017-02-22

    Predicting age-specific metabolism is important for evaluating age-related drug and chemical sensitivity. Multiple cytochrome P450s (CYP) and carboxylesterase (CES) enzymes are responsible for human pyrethroid metabolism. Complete ontogeny data for each enzyme is needed to support in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). This study was designed to determine age-dependent human hepatic CYP2C8 expression, for which only limited ontogeny data are available, and to further define CYP1A2 ontogeny. CYP2C8 and 1A2 protein levels were measured by quantitative Western blotting using liver microsomal samples prepared from 222 subjects with ages ranging from 8 weeks gestation to 18 years after birth. The median CYP2C8 expression was significantly greater among samples from subjects older than 35 postnatal days (n=122) compared to fetal samples and those from very young infants (fetal to 35 days postnatal, n=100) (0.00 vs. 13.38 pmol/mg microsomal protein; p<0.0001). In contrast, the median CYP1A2 expression was significantly greater after 15 months postnatal age (n=55) than in fetal and younger postnatal samples (fetal to 15 months postnatal, n=167) (0.0167 vs. 2.354 pmol/mg microsomal protein; p<0.0001). CYP2C8, but not CYP1A2, protein levels, significantly correlated with those of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 (p<0.001) consistent with CYP2C8 and CYP1A2 ontogeny being probably controlled by different mechanisms. This study provides key data for physiologically based pharmacokinetic model-based prediction of age-dependent pyrethroid metabolism, which will be used for IVIVE to support pyrethroid risk assessment for early life stages.

  8. The effect of moesin overexpression on ageing of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hee; Hong, In Ae; Oh, Sang Ho; Kwon, Yeon Sook; Cho, Soo Hyun; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2009-11-01

    Senescence of microvascular endothelial cells is known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases related to ageing, but the accurate mechanism or related genes are not known. Moesin, a cytoskeletal protein and the most potent candidate as an ageing-related protein, showed obvious changes in expression when compared before and after ageing. In this study, a lentivirus was used to overexpress moesin in endothelial cells. The expression of cell cycle mediators such as p16, cyclin D1 and cdk4, which can be the markers of ageing, was compared by RNA and was shown to be suppressed in moesin overexpressed endothelial cells. In conclusion, it can be said that the expression of moesin delays senescence of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and this fundamental discovery can be used as a basis for understanding the mechanism of ageing and age-related diseases.

  9. Heightened muscle inflammation susceptibility may impair regenerative capacity in aging humans

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Edward K.; Stec, Michael J.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna; Windham, Samuel T.; Cross, James M.; Shelley, David P.; Craig Tuggle, S.; Kosek, David J.; Kim, Jeong-su

    2013-01-01

    The regenerative response of skeletal muscle to mechanically induced damage is impaired with age. Previous work in our laboratory suggests this may result from higher proinflammatory signaling in aging muscle at rest and/or a greater inflammatory response to damage. We, therefore, assessed skeletal muscle proinflammatory signaling at rest and 24 h after unaccustomed, loaded knee extension contractions that induced modest muscle damage (72% increase in serum creatine kinase) in a cohort of 87 adults across three age groups (AGE40, AGE61, and AGE76). Vastus lateralis muscle gene expression and protein cell signaling of the IL-6 and TNF-α pathways were determined by quantitative PCR and immunoblot analysis. For in vitro studies, cell signaling and fusion capacities were compared among primary myoblasts from young (AGE28) and old (AGE64) donors treated with TNF-α. Muscle expression was higher (1.5- to 2.1-fold) in AGE76 and AGE61 relative to AGE40 for several genes involved in IL-6, TNF-α, and TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis signaling. Indexes of activation for the proinflammatory transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and NF-κB were highest in AGE76. Resistance loading reduced gene expression of IL-6 receptor, muscle RING finger 1, and atrogin-1, and increased TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis receptor expression. Donor myoblasts from AGE64 showed impaired differentiation and fusion in standard media and greater NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α treatment (compared with AGE28). We show for the first time that human aging is associated with muscle inflammation susceptibility (i.e., higher basal state of proinflammatory signaling) that is present in both tissue and isolated myogenic cells and likely contributes to the impaired regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in the older population. PMID:23681911

  10. Age-related impairments in discriminating perceptually similar objects parallel those observed in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Turner, Sean M; Santacroce, Lindsay A; Carty, Katelyn N; Shafiq, Leila; Bizon, Jennifer L; Maurer, Andrew P; Burke, Sara N

    2017-03-25

    The ability to accurately remember distinct episodes is supported by high-level sensory discrimination. Performance on mnemonic similarity tasks, which test high-level discrimination, declines with advancing age in humans and these deficits have been linked to altered activity in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus. Lesion studies in animal models, however, point to the perirhinal cortex as a brain region critical for sensory discriminations that serve memory. Reconciliation of the contributions of different regions within the cortical-hippocampal circuit requires the development of a discrimination paradigm comparable to the human mnemonic similarity task that can be used in rodents. In the present experiments, young and aged rats were cross-characterized on a spatial water maze task and two variants of an object discrimination task: one in which rats incrementally learned which object of a pair was rewarded and different pairs varied in their similarity (Experiment 1), and a second in which rats were tested on their ability to discriminate a learned target object from multiple lure objects with an increasing degree of feature overlap (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, aged rats required more training than young to correctly discriminate between similar objects. Comparably, in Experiment 2, aged rats were impaired in discriminating a target object from lures when the pair shared more features. Discrimination deficits across experiments were correlated within individual aged rats, though, for the cohort tested, aged rats were not impaired overall in spatial learning and memory. This could suggest discrimination deficits emerging with age precede declines in spatial or episodic memory, an observation that has been made in humans. Findings of robust impairments in object discrimination abilities in the aged rats parallel results from human studies, supporting use of the developed tasks for mechanistic investigation of cortical-hippocampal circuit dysfunction in aging and

  11. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  12. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  13. Structural evidence that human acetylcholinesterase inhibited by tabun ages through O-dealkylation.

    PubMed

    Carletti, Eugénie; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Dupeux, Florine; Trovaslet, Marie; Masson, Patrick; Nachon, Florian

    2010-05-27

    Tabun is a warfare agent that inhibits human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) by rapid phosphylation of the catalytic serine. A time-dependent reaction occurs on the tabun adduct, leading to an "aged" enzyme, resistant to oxime reactivators. The aging reaction may proceed via either dealkylation or deamidation, depending on the stereochemistry of the phosphoramidyl adduct. We solved the X-ray structure of aged tabun-hAChE complexed with fasciculin II, and we show that aging proceeds through O-dealkylation, in agreement with the aging mechanism that we determined for tabun-inhibited human butyrylcholinesterase and mouse acetylcholinesterase. Noteworthy, aging and binding of fasciculin II lead to an improved thermostability, resulting from additional stabilizing interactions between the two subdomains that face each other across the active site gorge. This first structure of hAChE inhibited by a nerve agent provides structural insight into the inhibition and aging mechanisms and a structural template for the design of molecules capable of reactivating aged hAChE.

  14. The use of genetically engineered model systems for research on human aging.

    PubMed

    Lepperdinger, Guenter; Berger, Peter; Breitenbach, Michael; Frohlich, Kai-Uwe; Grillari, Johannes; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Madeo, Frank; Minois, Nadege; Zwerschke, Werner; Jansen-Durr, Pidder

    2008-05-01

    A major goal in the field of aging research is to identify molecular mechanisms of aging at the cellular level, which are anticipated to form the basis for the development of age-associated dysfunctions and diseases in human beings. Recent progress in research into model organisms of aging has allowed determining precise molecular mechanisms and genetic determinants of the aging process, which appear to be conserved in evolution and some of which apply to human aging as well. The consortium of the authors focuses on aging mechanisms at the cellular level, and exploits the potential of genetic analyses in lower eukaryotic model organisms for a better understanding of regulatory pathways implicated in aging processes. We have established a new database (GiSAO), which provides a unique resource for the analysis of genome-wide expression patterns as being regulated by senescence, apoptosis and oxidative stress in our model systems. This has led to the identification of candidate genes, which are being tested for their impact on lifespan regulation in yeast, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode C. elegans.

  15. The impact of age at death on the lag time of radiocarbon values in human bone.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H; Thomas, Christian; Olson, Jacqueline E

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of modern bomb-pulse radiocarbon in human bone offers data needed to interpret the post-mortem interval in skeletonized human remains recovered from forensic contexts. Radiocarbon analysis of different tissues with distinct rates of remodeling allows proper placement of the values on the modern bomb-curve. However, the lag time between the date of intercept on the curve and the actual death date is largely affected by the age at death. Published data on radiocarbon analysis of individuals of known age at death and death dates indicate that this lag time increases with age until about 60 years. The lag time documented for each decade of life can be used to compensate for this age-related factor and increase the accuracy of interpretation of the death date. While this method could be greatly improved by original research with a larger sample size, this study provides an adequate point from which to launch further investigations into the subject.

  16. Aging Shapes the Population-Mean and -Dispersion of Gene Expression in Human Brains

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Guan, Jinting; Ji, Guoli; Cai, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Human aging is associated with cognitive decline and an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. Our objective for this study was to evaluate potential relationships between age and variation in gene expression across different regions of the brain. We analyzed the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data from 54 to 101 tissue samples across 13 brain regions in post-mortem donors of European descent aged between 20 and 70 years at death. After accounting for the effects of covariates and hidden confounding factors, we identified 1446 protein-coding genes whose expression in one or more brain regions is correlated with chronological age at a false discovery rate of 5%. These genes are involved in various biological processes including apoptosis, mRNA splicing, amino acid biosynthesis, and neurotransmitter transport. The distribution of these genes among brain regions is uneven, suggesting variable regional responses to aging. We also found that the aging response of many genes, e.g., TP37 and C1QA, depends on individuals' genotypic backgrounds. Finally, using dispersion-specific analysis, we identified genes such as IL7R, MS4A4E, and TERF1/TERF2 whose expressions are differentially dispersed by aging, i.e., variances differ between age groups. Our results demonstrate that age-related gene expression is brain region-specific, genotype-dependent, and associated with both mean and dispersion changes. Our findings provide a foundation for more sophisticated gene expression modeling in the studies of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27536236

  17. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes.

  18. 5 CFR 9701.211 - Occupational clusters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9701.211 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Structure § 9701.211 Occupational clusters....

  19. 5 CFR 9701.211 - Occupational clusters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9701.211 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Classification Structure § 9701.211 Occupational clusters....

  20. Age estimation methods using anthropological parameters on human teeth-(A0736).

    PubMed

    Brkic, H; Milicevic, M; Petrovecki, M

    2006-10-16

    The research was conducted on the 160 intact extracted human teeth with one and two roots of the known age and sex. The teeth were disinfected, dried and X-rayed. After that the section of the longitudinal cut through the teeth was performed in order to facilitate monitoring of all tissues and morphological characteristics of the teeth. The age was determined in three ways: Method 1 [G.Bang, E. Ramm, Determination of age in humans from root dentin transparency, Acta Odontol. Scand. 28 (1970) 3-35]--analysis of the translucency of the root dentine, Method 2 [S. Kvaal, T. Solheim, A non-destructive dental method for age estimation, J. Forensic Odonto-stomatol. 12 (1994) 6-11]--analysis of the root and the root canal from the X-ray, Method 3 [G. Johanson, Age determination from human teeth, Odontol. Revy. 22 (1971) 1-126]--analysis of six parameters on each teeth. All data were subject to the correlation and regression analysis which showed the following: all of the three applied methods were in the significant correlation with the real age, and the best of them proved to be Method 3 where the coefficient of correlation was 0.85, p<0.001. The teeth of the maxilla are more convenient for the age determination than the teeth of mandible. They are in the significant strong correlation with the known real age, and in Method 3, the coefficient of correlation is 0.78, p<0.001. Age determination of the teeth with two roots is in significant correlation with the known real age p<0.001 in relation to the determined age on the teeth with one root. The results show that sex too, is in significant correlation with the real age, p<0.001. In practice, the methods used and the results achieved in this research have been enabling the dental age estimation of human remains from mass graves after the 1991 war in Croatia.

  1. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  2. Occupational cancer in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Van Tongeren, Martie; Jimenez, Araceli S; Hutchings, Sally J; MacCalman, Laura; Rushton, Lesley; Cherrie, John W

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the current occupational cancer burden due to past exposures in Britain, estimates of the number of exposed workers at different levels are required, as well as risk estimates of cancer due to the exposures. This paper describes the methods and results for estimating the historical exposures. All occupational carcinogens or exposure circumstances classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as definite or probable human carcinogens and potentially to be found in British workplaces over the past 20–40 years were included in this study. Estimates of the number of people exposed by industrial sector were based predominantly on two sources of data, the CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) database and the UK Labour Force Survey. Where possible, multiple and overlapping exposures were taken into account. Dose–response risk estimates were generally not available in the epidemiological literature for the cancer–exposure pairs in this study, and none of the sources available for obtaining the numbers exposed provided data by different levels of exposure. Industrial sectors were therefore assigned using expert judgement to ‘higher'- and ‘lower'-exposure groups based on the similarity of exposure to the population in the key epidemiological studies from which risk estimates had been selected. Estimates of historical exposure prevalence were obtained for 41 carcinogens or occupational circumstances. These include exposures to chemicals and metals, combustion products, other mixtures or groups of chemicals, mineral and biological dusts, physical agents and work patterns, as well as occupations and industries that have been associated with increased risk of cancer, but for which the causative agents are unknown. There were more than half a million workers exposed to each of six carcinogens (radon, solar radiation, crystalline silica, mineral oils, non-arsenical insecticides and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); other agents to which a large

  3. Environmental change and human occupation in the floodplain area of Balta Ialomiţei. The case study of Bordusani Popinǎ Chalcolithic tell settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haita, Constantin; Nicolae Popovici, Dragomir; Panaiotu, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    The floodplain area of Balta Ialomiței, between Cǎl\\varasi and Giurgeni, delimited by Borcea River and Danube is formed by an anostomosing system, up to 13 km wide and 70 km long; this zone has a particular important evolution in Holocene for the alluvial system and associated environment. The Chalcolithic occupation in southern and eastern Romania is marked by the development of tell type settlements along the Danube and its main tributaries, chronologically attributed to Gumelnița culture, Vth millenium BC, one of the most important civilisation in the Lower Danube zone. In this area, the most representative settlements are: Borduşani Popinǎ, Hârşova tell and Popina Blagodeasca, situated either on erosional remnants from terraces ("popine") or on the edge of the lower terrace. Bordusani Popinǎ is located inside the floodplain zone, on a remnant separated from the lower terrace of Borcea River, in Romanian Plain. On this site, a pluridisciplinary research program allowed the investigation of Chalcolithic occupation in terms of archaeological, geomorphological, archaeozoological, archaeobotanical and petrographical point of view. The Chalcolithic occupation is represented by successive levels of dwellings, destroyed by fire and also unburned; their stratigraphic relationships, together with the presence of passageways and domestic waste areas, revealed an organised internal space. In Balta Ialomiței meadow area, a paleoenvironmental research was iniatiated with a Cobra TT percussion corer in five important locations, on a West-East alignament. The bulk samples were investigated for grainsize, clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility. This study was completed with the micromorphology analysis on undisturbed samples of the sedimentary succession from a tubed core located in the eastern vecinity of the tell. Our results show important environmental changes in the period from Chalcolithic to Iron Age and Middle Ages. The analysed sequence, from the

  4. How individual age-associated changes may influence human morbidity and mortality patterns.

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, S V; Yashin, A I

    2001-09-15

    Patterns of human mortality share common traits in different populations. They include higher mortality in early childhood, lower mortality during the reproductive period, an accelerated increase of mortality near the end of the reproductive period, and deceleration in the mortality increase at oldest old ages. The deceleration of mortality rate is one of the most intriguing recent findings in longevity research. The role of differential selection in this phenomenon has been well studied. Possible contribution of individual aging in the shape of mortality curve is also recognized. However, this contribution has not been studied in details. In this paper, we specify most common patterns of age-associated changes in an individual organism and discuss their possible influence on morbidity and mortality in population. We subdivide individual age-associated changes into three components, having different influence on morbidity and mortality: (1) basal, (2) ontogenetic, and (3) time-dependent. Basal changes are connected with the universal decrease in the rate of living during an individual life. As a result, some phenotypic effects of aging may accumulate in an organism at a slower rate with age. Basal changes are likely to contribute to a plateau of morbidity often observed at old ages, and may partially be responsible for mortality deceleration at oldest old ages. Ontogenetic component is connected with change of the stages of ontogenesis (e.g., the growth, the reproductive period and the climacteric) during an individual life. The ontogenesis-related changes contribute to wave-like patterns of morbidity in population and may partially be responsible for mortality increase at middle ages and its deceleration at old ages. Time-dependent changes are connected with long-time exposure of an organism to different harmful factors. They are most likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality acceleration. We discuss how all three components of individual age

  5. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  6. Sympathetic modulation of sensory nerve activity with age: human and rodent skin models.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Z; LeVasseur, S; Merhi, M; Helme, R D

    1997-11-01

    1. Sensory nerves serve an afferent role and mediate neurogenic components of inflammation and tissue repair via an axon reflex release of sensory peptides at sites of injury. Dysfunction of these nerves with age could contribute to delayed tissue healing. 2. Complementary animal and human skin models were used in the present studies to investigate changes in the modulation of sensory nerve function by sympathetic efferents during ageing. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to monitor neurogenic skin vascular responses. 3. The animal model used skin of the hind footpad of anaesthetized rats combined with electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve, while the human model comprised capsaicin electrophoresis to the volar surface of the forearm. Sympathetic modulation was effected by systemic phentolamine pretreatment in animals and local application in the human model. 4. The results obtained from the human model confirmed the reported decline in sensory nerve function and showed no change in sympathetic modulation with age. The results from the animal model confirm and expand results obtained from the human model. 5. The use of low (5 Hz) and high (15 Hz) frequency electrical stimulation (20 V, 2 ms for 1 min) revealed a preferential response of aged sensory nerves to low-frequency electrical stimulation parameters with differential sympathetic modulation that is dependent on the frequency of stimulation.

  7. Radiodensity and hardness of enamel and dentin of human and bovine teeth, varying bovine teeth age.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, R B; Haiter-Neto, F; Carlo, H L; Soares, C J; Sinhoreti, M A C; Puppin-Rontani, R M; Correr-Sobrinho, L

    2008-11-01

    Studies have evaluated dental hard tissues characteristics from animal species in order to be used as a substitute for human teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiodensity and hardness of human and bovine enamel and dentin, varying bovine teeth age. Five specimens (1mm thick) were obtained from animals aged 20 (B20), 30 (B30), 38 (B38) and 48 (B48)months and from 20 to 30-years-old human third molars (H). The radiographic images were taken with a phosphor plaque digital system (Digora Optime). The radiodensity was obtained and Knoop hardness (KHN) was recorded (100g for 15s--5 indentations per specimen). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA following Tukey's HSD test and Dunnet's two-sided t-test. Radiodensity was similar within enamel groups, but bovine dentin presented higher radiodensity than human one regardless of age groups. Enamel-KHN showed differences between B20-B30 and B38-B48-H, and dentin-KHN was similar within all groups. Enamel was always more radiodense than dentin and also presented higher KHN (p=0.001). The use of bovine enamel or dentin should take into consideration the teeth age, but as a general rule it should be recommended to select older bovine teeth due to better chances to find greater similarity with human teeth.

  8. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  9. Occupational asthma often goes unrecognised.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Paul; Cannon, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Occupational asthma is induced de novo by an airborne agent encountered in the workplace. The risk of occupational asthma is greater in those with a prior atopic history. Work-exacerbated asthma is the provocation of pre-existing, or coincidental, disease by one or more irritant exposures at work. Distinguishing occupational from work-exacerbated asthma can be difficult but it is important since the two have very different clinical, occupational and legal implications. Occupational asthma is underrecognised, the disease often develops in young people who are otherwise fit. They may not recognise their symptoms as anything out of the ordinary, or may confuse them with hay fever or a cold. It is sensible to consider occupational and work-exacerbated asthma in every working adult who has asthma or who presents with suggestive symptoms such as rhinitis. Occupational asthma almost always arises from an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to a respiratory sensitising agent in the workplace. The disease has a short latency with symptoms developing 6 to 36 months after employment in a new job. Rhinitis is common and in those working in an environment with airborne proteins the absence of rhinitis effectively rules out occupational asthma. In occupational asthma, symptoms (including nasal symptoms) improve away from work. Once the disease is established symptoms are provoked by even very small exposures at work and begin to be provoked by a wide variety of irritant exposures both at, and away from, work. It is good practice to enquire into the employment of every working-age adult with asthma, or rhinitis, and particularly in those presenting with new symptoms or symptoms that have become more difficult to manage. Patients should routinely be asked whether their symptoms improve when they are not at work.

  10. Comparison of oxime reactivation and aging of nerve agent-inhibited monkey and human acetylcholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunyuan; Tong, Min; Maxwell, Donald M; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-09-25

    Non-human primates are valuable animal models that are used for the evaluation of nerve agent toxicity as well as antidotes and results from animal experiments are extrapolated to humans. It has been demonstrated that the efficacy of an oxime primarily depends on its ability to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). If the in vitro oxime reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited animal AChE is similar to that of human AChE, it is likely that the results of an in vivo animal study will reliably extrapolate to humans. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the aging and reactivation of human and different monkey (Rhesus, Cynomolgus, and African Green) AChEs inhibited by GF, GD, and VR. The oximes examined include the traditional oxime 2-PAM, two H-oximes HI-6 and HLo-7, and the new candidate oxime MMB4. Results indicate that oxime reactivation of all three monkey AChEs was very similar to human AChE. The maximum difference in the second-order reactivation rate constant between human and three monkey AChEs or between AChEs from different monkey species was 5-fold. Aging rate constants of GF-, GD-, and VR-inhibited monkey AChEs were very similar to human AChE except for GF-inhibited monkey AChEs, which aged 2-3 times faster than the human enzyme. The results of this study suggest that all three monkey species are suitable animal models for nerve agent antidote evaluation since monkey AChEs possess similar biochemical/pharmacological properties to human AChE.

  11. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography assessments of the aging human brain

    SciTech Connect

    de Leon, M.J.; George, A.E.; Ferris, S.H.; Christman, D.R.; Fowler, J.S.; Gentes, C.I.; Brodie, J.; Reisberg, B.; Wolf, A.P.

    1984-02-01

    The relationship between alterations in brain structure and brain function was studied in vivo in both young and elderly human subjects. Computed tomography revealed significant age-related ventricular and cortical sulcal dilatation. The cortical changes were most closely related to age. Positron emission tomography failed to show regional changes in brain glucose metabolic rate. The results suggest that the normal aging brain undergoes structural atrophic changes without incurring regional metabolic changes. Examination of the correlations between the structural and the metabolic measures revealed no significant relationships. These data are discussed with respect to the significant structure-function relationships that have been reported in Alzheimer disease. 27 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.

    1983-03-30

    The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

  13. Age-related changes in human posture control: Motor coordination tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1989-01-01

    Postural responses to support surface displacements were measured in 214 normal human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Motor tests measured leg muscle Electromyography (EMG) latencies, body sway, and the amplitude and timing of changes in center of pressure displacements in response to sudden forward and backward horizontal translations of the support surface upon which the subjects stood. There were small increases in both EMG latencies and the time to reach the peak amplitude of center of pressure responses with increasing age. The amplitude of center of pressure responses showed little change with age if the amplitude measures were normalized by a factor related to subject height. In general, postural responses to sudden translations showed minimal changes with age, and all age related trends which were identified were small relative to the variability within the population.

  14. An analysis of human skeletal remains with cerebral palsy: associated skeletal age delay and dental pathologies.

    PubMed

    Megyesi, Mary S; Tubbs, Ryan M; Sauer, Norman J

    2009-03-01

    In 2002 the authors were asked to examine the skeletal remains of an individual with a known history of severe cerebral palsy (CP) who was 21-23 years old at death. Skeletal age estimates of 11-15 years and dental age estimates of c. 16 years are younger than the known age of the decedent. Skeletal analysis also identified dental pathologies such as chronic tooth grinding and substantial calculus deposits. Scarce literature exists on forensic human remains cases with CP, and this study contrasts the age discrepancy and other features of this case with typical clinical characteristics of CP. A review of the CP literature suggests that delayed skeletal maturation and dental pathologies such as those observed in this case are indicative of complications related to CP. This article may alert future investigators to some of the osteological signs of CP and the probability that age indicators may be misleading.

  15. Forensic age estimation in human skeletal remains: current concepts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal identification has a long tradition in both physical and forensic anthropology. The process generally begins with formulation of a biological profile (osteobiography); specifically, estimation of sex, age, ethnicity and stature. The present paper briefly reviews a selection of the principal methods used for one aspect of the identification process; the estimation of personal age. It is well-documented that variability in the morphological features used to assess age in the human skeleton progressively increases from birth to old age. Thus choice of method is inherently related to whether unidentified remains are those of a juvenile or an adult. This review, therefore, considers methods appropriate for age estimation in both juvenile and adult remains; the former being primarily based on developmental, and the latter degenerative, morphological features. Such a review is timely as new methods are constantly being developed, concurrent with refinements to those already well established in mainstream anthropology.

  16. Regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in ageing humans.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Christopher M; Dinenno, Frank A

    2016-04-15

    The regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery to contracting skeletal muscle is complex and involves the mechanical effects of muscle contraction; local metabolic, red blood cell and endothelium-derived substances; and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). With advancing age in humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is typically reduced during dynamic exercise and this is due to a lower vascular conductance, which could ultimately contribute to age-associated reductions in aerobic exercise capacity, a primary predictor of mortality in both healthy and diseased ageing populations. Recent findings have highlighted the contribution of endothelium-derived substances to blood flow control in contracting muscle of older adults. With advancing age, impaired nitric oxide availability due to scavenging by reactive oxygen species, in conjunction with elevated vasoconstrictor signalling via endothelin-1, reduces the local vasodilatory response to muscle contraction. Additionally, ageing impairs the ability of contracting skeletal muscle to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction (i.e. 'functional sympatholysis'), which is critical for the proper regulation of tissue blood flow distribution and oxygen delivery, and could further reduce skeletal muscle perfusion during high intensity and/or large muscle mass exercise in older adults. We propose that initiation of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization is the underlying signalling event necessary to properly modulate sympathetic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle, and that age-associated impairments in red blood cell adenosine triphosphate release and stimulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may explain impairments in both local vasodilatation and functional sympatholysis with advancing age in humans.

  17. New phytochemicals as potential human anti-aging compounds: Reality, promise, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Rubia C G; Peralta, Rosane M; Haminiuk, Charles W I; Maciel, Giselle Maria; Bracht, Adelar; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-13

    Aging is an inevitable process influenced by genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Indirect evidence shows that several phytochemicals can have anti-aging capabilities, although direct evidence in this field is still limited. This report aims to provide a critical review on aspects related to the use of novel phytochemicals as anti-aging agents, to discuss the obstacles found when performing most anti-aging study protocols in humans, and to analyze future perspectives. In addition to the extensively studied resveratrol, epicatechin, quercetin and curcumin, new phytochemicals have been reported to act as anti-aging agents, such as the amino acid L-theanine isolated from green tea, and the lignans arctigenin and matairesinol isolated from Arctium lappa seeds. Furthermore, this review discusses the application of several new extracts rich in phytochemicals with potential use in anti aging therapies. Finally, this review also discusses the most important biomarkers to test anti-aging interventions, the necessity of conducting epidemiological studies and the need of clinical trials with adequate study protocols for humans.

  18. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Cho, So Ra; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images by the movement of the camera sensor and/or the movement of the face during image acquisition. Therefore, the facial feature in captured images can be transformed according to the amount of motion, which causes performance degradation of age estimation systems. In this paper, the problem caused by motion blurring is addressed and its solution is proposed in order to make age estimation systems robust to the effects of motion blurring. Experiment results show that our method is more efficient for enhancing age estimation performance compared with systems that do not employ our method. PMID:26334282

  19. Urine proteomes of healthy aging humans reveal extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations and immune system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bakun, M; Senatorski, G; Rubel, T; Lukasik, A; Zielenkiewicz, P; Dadlez, M; Paczek, L

    2014-02-01

    Aging is a complex physiological process that poses considerable conundrums to rapidly aging societies. For example, the risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases and/or cancer steadily declines for people after their 60s, and other causes of death predominate for seniors older than 80 years of age. Thus, physiological aging presents numerous unanswered questions, particularly with regard to changing metabolic patterns. Urine proteomics analysis is becoming a non-invasive and reproducible diagnostic method. We investigated the urine proteomes in healthy elderly people to determine which metabolic processes were weakened or strengthened in aging humans. Urine samples from 37 healthy volunteers aged 19-90 years (19 men, 18 women) were analyzed for protein expression by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This generated a list of 19 proteins that were differentially expressed in different age groups (young, intermediate, and old age). In particular, the oldest group showed protein changes reflective of altered extracellular matrix turnover and declining immune function, in which changes corresponded to reported changes in cardiovascular tissue remodeling and immune disorders in the elderly. Thus, urinary proteome changes in the elderly appear to reflect the physiological processes of aging and are particularly clearly represented in the circulatory and immune systems. Detailed identification of "protein trails" creates a more global picture of metabolic changes that occur in the elderly.

  20. Morphometric analysis of arteriolar tortuosity in human cerebral white matter of preterm, young, and aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Thore, Clara R; Anstrom, John A; Moody, Dixon M; Challa, Venkata R; Marion, Miranda C; Brown, William R

    2007-05-01

    Arteriolar tortuousities, consisting of vascular coils, loops, and spirals, appear in white matter in a subset of human cerebral vessels. Computerized morphometry was used to analyze brain sections from a broad age range of subjects to determine whether tortuosity is a phenomenon of aging or is associated with leukoaraiosis (LA) or Alzheimer disease (AD). Autopsy brains were studied from 55 subjects ranging in age from 23 weeks postconception to 102 years. Fourteen aged subjects were diagnosed with LA and 7 with AD. By using computerized morphometry, vascular curl (curvilinear length/straight length) was measured in white matter arterioles in 100-microm-thick, alkaline phosphatase-stained sections. Aging subjects, compared with young subjects, showed significant increases in both the prevalence and severity of tortuosity. Curl scores in aged subjects with LA or AD were not significantly different from aged controls without LA or AD. We conclude that 1) tortuous vessels are extremely rare in preterm babies, children, or young adults; 2) significant tortuosity, as indicated by elevated curl scores, begins in middle age; 3) tortuosity does not appear in a subset of aged individuals regardless of longevity; and 4) tortuosity does not appear in a subset of individuals with either LA or AD.

  1. Occupational health nursing in hungary.

    PubMed

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng

    2014-10-01

    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy.

  2. In vivo quantification of human dermal skin aging using SHG and autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, Stefan; Rahn, Christian-Dennis; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Fischer, Frank

    2012-03-01

    There are visible changes during skin aging. In the extracellular matrix these changes referred to as intrinsic aging (skin areas not exposed to sunlight) and extrinsic aging can be measured using various methods, such as subjective clinical evaluation, histology and molecular analysis. In this study we developed a new parameter for the non-invasive quantitative determination of dermal skin aging utilizing a five-dimensional intravital tomography (5D-IVT). This device, also known as 5D - multi-photon laser scanning microscopy, is a powerful tool to investigate (photo)aging-associated alterations in vivo. Structural alterations in the dermis of extrinsically aged (chronically sun-exposed) and intrinsically aged (sun-protected) human skin were recorded utilizing the collagen-specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal and the elastin-specific autofluorescence (AF) signal. Recording took place in young and elderly volunteers. The resulting images were processed in order to gain the elastin percentage and the collagen percentage per image. Then, the elastin - to - collagen ratio (ELCOR) was calculated. With respect to volar forearm skin, the ELCOR significantly increased with age. In elderly volunteers, the ELCOR value calculated for the chronically sun-exposed temple area was significantly augmented compared with the sun-protected upper arm area. Based on 5D-IVT we introduce the ELCOR as a new means to quantify age-associated alterations in the extracellular matrix of in vivo human skin. This novel parameter is compared to the currently used "SHG to AF aging index" of the dermis (SAAID).

  3. [Dietary habits and the state of the human oral cavity in the prehistoric age].

    PubMed

    Kee, C D

    1990-06-01

    This is an age-by-age summation of literature on over 100 sites (of more than 250 excavated prehistoric ruins on the Korean Peninsula: about 160 places in South Korea--Paleolithic Age 15, Neolithic Age 21, Bronze Age 90 and Iron Age 35--and about 90 places in North Korea) which produced dietary-habit-related devices such as hunting tools, fishing instruments, farming equipments, tools of daily life, and human bones and teeth. 1) Various dietary-habit-related Old Stone-Age tools, instruments and other items were found. Among them were stone axes, stone hand axes, fish spears and hooks made of bone or horn, stone blades, stone scrapers and stone drills believed to have been used in daily life, and charcoal and sites of furnaces used for cooking. Furthermore, it was found that there were severe dental abrasions and dental caries among the inhabitants of the Korean Peninsula in the Old Stone Age. 2) Some evidences were found which lead us to believe that hunting was practiced with stone arrowheads in the New Stone Age. Stone net sinkers, which is the evidence of the use of fish nets, were also found. In addition, farming stone tools and charred cereals, both of which date back to the latter part of this period, were unearthed. Millstones, which began to be used in this age, and livestock bones were found. Where these items were discovered, 23 maxillae and mandibles with teeth and a total of 231 separate teeth of Neolithic period human beings were reported. However, there are no records indicating dental caries, but some records describe severe abrasion.

  4. Erythrocyte membrane transporters during human ageing: modulatory role of tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan; Jha, Rashmi; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Ageing is associated with many physiological and cellular changes, many of which are due to alterations in the plasma membrane. The functions of membrane transporter proteins are crucial for the maintenance of ionic homeostasis between the extra- and intracellular environments. The aim of the present study was to determine the status of erythrocyte membrane transporters, specifically Ca(2+) -ATPases, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPases and the Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE), during ageing in humans. Furthermore, because tea catechins have been reported to possess strong anti-oxidant potential, the study was extended to evaluate the effect of (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on these transporters as a function of human age. The study was performed on 97 normal healthy subjects (62 men, 35 women; 16-80 years old). To investigate the effects of tea catechins, subjects were divided into three groups: young (<40 years old; n = 34); middle-aged (40-60 years old; n = 32); and old (>60 years old; n = 31). Erythrocyte ghosts/cell suspension from each group were incubated with ECG, EGCG, EGC and EC (10 μmol/L) for 30 min at 37°C prior to assay. Ageing significantly increased NHE activity and decreased Ca(2+) -ATPase activity. There were no significant changes in Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity during the ageing process. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGC, ECG and EC effectively mitigated the changes in membrane transporter activity in erythrocytes from all age groups; however, the effect was more pronounced in the old age group. We hypothesize that impairment in -bound transporters may be one of the possible mechanisms underlying the pathological events during ageing. A higher intake of catechin-rich food may provide some protection against age-dependent diseases.

  5. Mechanism of Origin of Conduction Disturbances in Aging Human Atrial Bundles: Experimental and Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Spach, Madison S.; Heidlage, J. Francis; Dolber, Paul C.; Barr, Roger C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aging is associated with a significant increase in atrial tachyarrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation. A macroscopic repolarization gradient created artificially by a stimulus at one site prior to a premature stimulus from a second site is widely considered to be part of the experimental protocol necessary for the initiation of such arrhythmias in the laboratory. How such gradients occur naturally in aging atrial tissue has remained unknown. OBJECTIVE This study was to determine if the pattern of cellular connectivity in aging human atrial bundles produces a mechanism for variable early premature responses. METHODS Extracellular and intracellular potentials were recorded following control and premature stimuli at a single site in aging human atrial bundles. We also measured cellular geometry, the distribution of connexins, and the distribution of collagenous septa. A model of the atrial bundles was constructed based on the morphological results. Action potential propagation and the sodium current were analyzed following premature stimuli in the model. RESULTS Similar extracellular potential waveform responses occurred following early premature stimuli in the aging bundles and in the model. Variable premature conduction patterns were accounted for by the single model of aging atrial structure. A major feature of the model results was that the conduction events and the magnitude of the sodium current at multiple sites were very sensitive to small changes in the location and the timing of premature stimuli. CONCLUSION In aging human atrial bundles stimulated from only a single site, premature stimuli induce variable arrhythmogenic conduction responses. The generation of these responses is greatly enhanced by remodeling of cellular connectivity during aging. The results provide insight into sodium current-structural interactions as a general mechanism of arrhythmogenic atrial responses to premature stimuli. PMID:17275753

  6. Age-dependent changes in task-based modular organization of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Turner, Benjamin O; Lopez, Brian A; Miller, Michael B; Carlson, Jean M

    2017-02-01

    As humans age, cognition and behavior change significantly, along with associated brain function and organization. Aging has been shown to decrease variability in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals, and to affect the modular organization of human brain function. In this work, we use complex network analysis to investigate the dynamic community structure of large-scale brain function, asking how evolving communities interact with known brain systems, and how the dynamics of communities and brain systems are affected by age. We analyze dynamic networks derived from fMRI scans of 104 human subjects performing a word memory task, and determine the time-evolving modular structure of these networks by maximizing the multislice modularity, thereby identifying distinct communities, or sets of brain regions with strong intra-set functional coherence. To understand how community structure changes over time, we examine the number of communities as well as the flexibility, or the likelihood that brain regions will switch between communities. We find a significant positive correlation between age and both these measures: younger subjects tend to have less fragmented and more coherent communities, and their brain regions tend to change communities less often during the memory task. We characterize the relationship of community structure to known brain systems by the recruitment coefficient, or the probability of a brain region being grouped in the same community as other regions in the same system. We find that regions associated with cingulo-opercular, somatosensory, ventral attention, and subcortical circuits have a significantly higher recruitment coefficient in younger subjects. This indicates that the within-system functional coherence of these specific systems during the memory task declines with age. Such a correspondence does not exist for other systems (e.g. visual and default mode), whose recruitment coefficients remain relatively uniform across ages

  7. A reverse genetics cell-based evaluation of genes linked to healthy human tissue age

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Hannah; Atherton, Philip J.; Strömberg, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Timmons, James A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently developed a binary (i.e., young vs. old) classifier using human muscle RNA profiles that accurately distinguished the age of multiple tissue types. Pathway analysis did not reveal regulators of these 150 genes, so we used reverse genetics and pharmacologic methods to explore regulation of gene expression. Using small interfering RNA, well-studied age-related factors (i.e., rapamycin, resveratrol, TNF-α, and staurosporine), quantitative real-time PCR and clustering analysis, we studied gene–gene interactions in human skeletal muscle and renal epithelial cells. Individual knockdown of 10 different age genes yielded a consistent pattern of gene expression in muscle and renal cells, similar to in vivo. Potential epigenetic interactions included HIST1H3E knockdown, leading to decreased PHF19 and PCDH9, and increased ICAM5 in muscle and renal cells, while ICAM5 knockdown reduced HIST1H3E expression. Resveratrol, staurosporine, and TNF-α significantly regulated the in vivo aging genes, while only rapamycin perturbed the healthy-age gene expression signature in a manner consistent with in vivo. In vitro coordination of gene expression for this in vivo tissue age signature indicates a degree of direct coordination, and the observed link with mTOR activity suggests a direct link between a robust biomarker of healthy neuromuscular age and a major axis of life span in model systems.—Crossland, H., Atherton, P. J., Strömberg, A., Gustafsson, T., Timmons, J. A. A reverse genetics cell-based evaluation of genes linked to healthy human tissue age. PMID:27698205

  8. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Who's Who in the Hospital Speech-Language Therapy Managing Home Health Care Physical Therapy Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Word! Occupational Therapist Word! Occupational Therapy Wheelchairs Going to an Occupational ...

  9. Landscapes, depositional environments and human occupation at Middle Paleolithic open-air sites in the southern Levant, with new insights from Nesher Ramla, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidner, Yossi; Frumkin, Amos; Friesem, David; Tsatskin, Alexander; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Middle Paleolithic human occupation in the Levant (250-50 ka ago) has been recorded in roofed (cave and rockshelter) and open-air sites. Research at these different types of sites yielded different perspectives on the Middle Paleolithic human behavior and evolution. Until recently, open-air Middle Paleolithic sites in the Levant were found in three major sedimentary environments: fluvial, lake-margin and spring. Here we describe a unique depositional environment and formation processes at the recently discovered open-air site of Nesher Ramla (Israel) and discuss their contribution to understanding site formation processes in open-air sites in the Levant. The site is 8-m-thick Middle Paleolithic sequence (OSL dated to 170-80 ka) that is located in a karst sinkhole formed by gravitational deformation and sagging into underground voids. The sedimentary sequence was shaped by gravitational collapse, cyclic colluviation of soil and gravel into the depression, waterlogging, in situ pedogenesis and human occupation. Original bedding and combustion features are well-preserved in the Lower archaeological sequence, a rare occurrence in comparison to other open-air archaeological sites. This phenomenon coincides with episodes of fast sedimentation/burial, which also allowed better preservation of microscopic remains such as ash. The Upper archaeological sequence does not exhibit bedding or preservation of ash, despite presence of heat-affected lithic artifacts, which makes it similar to other open-air sites in the Levant. We suggest that rate of burial is the major factor that caused the difference between the Upper and Lower sequences. The differences in the burial rate may be connected to environmental and vegetation changes at the end of MIS 6. We also identified an interplay between sediment in-wash and density of human activity remains, i.e. during episodes of low natural sediment input the density of artifacts is higher relative to episodes with high rate of sediment in

  10. Use of alligator hole abundance and occupancy rate as indicators for restoration of a human-altered wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Ogurcak, Danielle; Rochford, Michael; Jeffery, Brian M.; Brandt, Laura A.; Cherkiss, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Use of indicator species as a measure of ecosystem conditions is an established science application in environmental management. Because of its role in shaping wetland systems, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is one of the ecological indicators for wetland restoration in south Florida, USA. We conducted landscape-level aerial surveys of alligator holes in two different habitats in a wetland where anthropogenic modification of surface hydrology has altered the natural system. Alligator holes were scarcer in an area where modified hydrology caused draining and frequent dry-downs compared to another area that maintains a functional wetland system. Lower abundance of alligator holes indicates lack of alligator activities, lower overall species diversity, and lack of dry-season aquatic refugia for other organisms. The occupancy rate of alligator holes was lower than the current restoration target for the Everglades, and was variable by size class with large size-class alligators predominantly occupying alligator holes. This may indicate unequal size-class distribution, different habitat selection by size classes, or possibly a lack of recruitment. Our study provides pre-restoration baseline information about one indicator species for the Everglades. Success of the restoration can be assessed via effective synthesis of information derived by collective research efforts on the entire suite of selected ecological indicators.

  11. Human aneuploidy: mechanisms and new insights into an age-old problem

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, So I.; Hassold, Terry J.; Hunt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Trisomic and monosomic (aneuploid) embryos account for at least 10% of human pregnancies and, for women nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan, the incidence may exceed 50%. The errors that lead to aneuploidy almost always occur in the oocyte but, despite intensive investigation, the underlying molecular basis has remained elusive. Recent studies of humans and model organisms have shed new light on the complexity of meiotic defects, providing evidence that the age-related increase in errors in the human female is not attributable to a single factor but to an interplay between unique features of oogenesis and a host of endogenous and exogenous factors. PMID:22705668

  12. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Newman Taylor, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Occupational asthma is important both as a potentially curable and preventable cause of asthma and as a model of adult onset asthma. It is induced by sensitization to a specific agent inhaled at work; for many of its causes, including inhaled proteins and the low molecular weight chemicals acid anhydrides and reactive dyes, it is probably IgE dependent. The risk of developing specific IgE and associated asthma is markedly increased in cigarette smokers, probably as a consequence of non-specific damage to the respiratory mucosa. Asthma caused by several agents, which include some of its most frequent causes, isocyanates, colophony and plicatic acid (Western Red Cedar) persists in some 50% of cases for years, and possibly indefinitely, after avoidance of exposure. The development of chronic symptomatic asthma seems particularly to occur in those with longer duration of symptomatic exposure. PMID:3074282

  13. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1995-01-01

    Many toxic compounds found in air emissions may induce bronchoconstriction. In the workplace, workers are exposed to these compounds, often in much higher concentrations. Some of these compounds act as sensitizers. Of these, some compounds induce asthma by producing specific IgE antibodies to the compound or its protein conjugate, while others induce asthma through yet unidentified immunologic mechanisms. Some compounds, when inhaled in high concentrations, act as irritants and produce bronchoconstriction probably by inducing acute airway inflammation. The latter condition is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma. Occupational asthma is an excellent model to study the pathogenesis and the natural history of adult onset asthma because the responsible agent can be identified, complete avoidance is possible, and exposure can be measured or estimated. PMID:8549481

  14. [Occupational fitness of workers in coal mining industry].

    PubMed

    Ismailova, A A; Musina, A A

    2006-01-01

    Specified criteria of occupational fitness are adequate for optimizing material expenses within the system "human-machine" and during occupational training for work in extreme conditions of coal industry.

  15. Stress-Activated Cap’n’collar Transcription Factors in Aging and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Bohmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Cap’n’collar (Cnc) transcription factors are conserved in metazoans and have important developmental and homeostatic functions. The vertebrate Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3, the Caenorhabditis elegans SKN-1, and the Drosophila CncC comprise a subgroup of Cnc factors that mediate adaptive responses to cellular stress. The most studied stress-activated Cnc factor is Nrf2, which orchestrates the transcriptional response of cells to oxidative stressors and electrophilic xenobiotics. In rodent models, signaling by Nrf2 defends against oxidative stress and aging-associated disorders, such as neurodegeneration, respiratory diseases, and cancer. In humans, polymorphisms that decrease Nrf2 abundance have been associated with various pathologies of the skin, respiratory system, and digestive tract. In addition to preventing disease in rodents and humans, Cnc factors have lifespan-extending and anti-aging functions in invertebrates. However, despite the pro-longevity and antioxidant roles of stress-activated Cnc factors, their activity paradoxically declines in aging model organisms and in humans suffering from progressing respiratory disease or neurodegeneration. We review the roles and regulation of stress-activated Cnc factors across species, present all reported instances in which their activity is paradoxically decreased in aging and disease, and discuss the possibility that the pharmacological restoration of Nrf2 signaling may be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. PMID:20215646

  16. Coordinated Expression of Phosphoinositide Metabolic Genes during Development and Aging of Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Stanley I.; Primiani, Christopher T.; Chen, Chuck T.; Ahn, Kwangmi; Ryan, Veronica H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositides, lipid-signaling molecules, participate in diverse brain processes within a wide metabolic cascade. Hypothesis Gene transcriptional networks coordinately regulate the phosphoinositide cascade during human brain Development and Aging. Methods We used the public BrainCloud database for human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to examine age-related expression levels of 49 phosphoinositide metabolic genes during Development (0 to 20+ years) and Aging (21+ years). Results We identified three groups of partially overlapping genes in each of the two intervals, with similar intergroup correlations despite marked phenotypic differences between Aging and Development. In each interval, ITPKB, PLCD1, PIK3R3, ISYNA1, IMPA2, INPPL1, PI4KB, and AKT1 are in Group 1, PIK3CB, PTEN, PIK3CA, and IMPA1 in Group 2, and SACM1L, PI3KR4, INPP5A, SYNJ1, and PLCB1 in Group 3. Ten of the genes change expression nonlinearly during Development, suggesting involvement in rapidly changing neuronal, glial and myelination events. Correlated transcription for some gene pairs likely is facilitated by colocalization on the same chromosome band. Conclusions Stable coordinated gene transcriptional networks regulate brain phosphoinositide metabolic pathways during human Development and Aging. PMID:26168237

  17. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the human microbiota changes with age

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In humans, the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of host health by providing energy, nutrients, and immunological protection. Applying current molecular methods is necessary to surmount the limitations of classical culturing techniques in order to obtain an accurate description of the microbiota composition. Results Here we report on the comparative assessment of human fecal microbiota from three age-groups: infants, adults and the elderly. We demonstrate that the human intestinal microbiota undergoes maturation from birth to adulthood and is further altered with ageing. The counts of major bacterial groups Clostridium leptum, Clostridium coccoides, Bacteroidetes, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). By comparing species diversity profiles, we observed age-