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Sample records for age human occupations

  1. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowler, James M; Johnston, Harvey; Olley, Jon M; Prescott, John R; Roberts, Richard G; Shawcross, Wilfred; Spooner, Nigel A

    2003-02-20

    Australia's oldest human remains, found at Lake Mungo, include the world's oldest ritual ochre burial (Mungo III) and the first recorded cremation (Mungo I). Until now, the importance of these finds has been constrained by limited chronologies and palaeoenvironmental information. Mungo III, the source of the world's oldest human mitochondrial DNA, has been variously estimated at 30 thousand years (kyr) old, 42-45 kyr old and 62 +/- 6 kyr old, while radiocarbon estimates placed the Mungo I cremation near 20-26 kyr ago. Here we report a new series of 25 optical ages showing that both burials occurred at 40 +/- 2 kyr ago and that humans were present at Lake Mungo by 50-46 kyr ago, synchronously with, or soon after, initial occupation of northern and western Australia. Stratigraphic evidence indicates fluctuations between lake-full and drier conditions from 50 to 40 kyr ago, simultaneously with increased dust deposition, human arrival and continent-wide extinction of the megafauna. This was followed by sustained aridity between 40 and 30 kyr ago. This new chronology corrects previous estimates for human burials at this important site and provides a new picture of Homo sapiens adapting to deteriorating climate in the world's driest inhabited continent.

  2. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, James M.; Johnston, Harvey; Olley, Jon M.; Prescott, John R.; Roberts, Richard G.; Shawcross, Wilfred; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2003-02-01

    Australia's oldest human remains, found at Lake Mungo, include the world's oldest ritual ochre burial (Mungo III) and the first recorded cremation (Mungo I). Until now, the importance of these finds has been constrained by limited chronologies and palaeoenvironmental information. Mungo III, the source of the world's oldest human mitochondrial DNA, has been variously estimated at 30 thousand years (kyr) old, 42-45kyr old and 62 +/- 6kyr old, while radiocarbon estimates placed the Mungo I cremation near 20-26kyr ago. Here we report a new series of 25 optical ages showing that both burials occurred at 40 +/- 2kyr ago and that humans were present at Lake Mungo by 50-46kyr ago, synchronously with, or soon after, initial occupation of northern and western Australia. Stratigraphic evidence indicates fluctuations between lake-full and drier conditions from 50 to 40kyr ago, simultaneously with increased dust deposition, human arrival and continent-wide extinction of the megafauna. This was followed by sustained aridity between 40 and 30kyr ago. This new chronology corrects previous estimates for human burials at this important site and provides a new picture of Homo sapiens adapting to deteriorating climate in the world's driest inhabited continent.

  3. Contributions of occupational hazards and human factors in occupational injuries and their associations with job, age and type of injuries in railway workers.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nearkasen; Gauchard, Gerome C; Dehaene, Dominique; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Touron, Christian; Perrin, Philippe P; Mur, Jean-Marie

    2007-05-01

    To assess the contributions of environmental hazards, technical dysfunctions, lack of work organization, know-how and job knowledge, and other human factors in occupational injuries and their relationships with job, age and type of accidents in railway workers. The sample included 1,604 male workers, having had at least one occupational injury with sick leave during a 2-year period in voluntary French railway services. A standardized questionnaire was filled in by the person-in-charge of prevention, with the injured worker. Data analysis was performed via the chi(2) independence test and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with Mantel-Haenszel test. The environmental hazards were implicated in 24.7%, technical dysfunctions in 16.0%, lack of work organization in 13.7%, lack of know-how in 17.6%, lack of job knowledge in 5.2%, and the other human factors in 31.9% of occupational injuries. The injuries caused by lack of know-how or job knowledge were more represented in workers aged less than 30 (ORs adjusted for job 1.45, 95% CI 1.02-2.06 and 2.06, 1.22-3.49, respectively), those by environmental hazards in energy and electrical traction maintenance operators and train drivers (ORs adjusted for age 2.04, 1.16-3.58 and 1.80, 1.01-3.20, respectively), and those by lack of work organization in mechanical maintenance operators and in energy and electrical traction maintenance operators (ORs adjusted for age 2.24, 1.13-4.45 and 1.83, 1.30-2.57, respectively). The causes considered were strongly related with the type of injuries. This study found that environmental hazards, technical dysfunctions, lack of work organization, lack of knowledge and other human factors had important contributions in injuries, and they were related to job, age and type of injuries. These findings are useful for prevention. Training is necessary for young workers. The occupational physician could help the workers to be more aware of the risks.

  4. Human occupancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1994-10-01

    In the area of security and surveillance technologies, the problem of the arrival in Canada of illegal and undesirable ship and truck cargo loads is steadily increasing. As the volumes of cargo arrivals increase so do the Immigration and Customs problems related to the determination of the validity of those cargo contents. Of special concern to Immigration Control Authorities around the world is the emerging and increasing trend of illegal smuggling of human beings hidden inside of shipping containers. Beginning in 1992, Immigration Control Authorities in Canada observed an escalation of alien people smuggling through the use of cargo shipping containers arriving in the Port of Montreal. This paper will present to the audience the recently completed Immigration Canada Human Occupancy Detection project by explaining the design, development and testing of human occupancy detectors. The devices are designed to electronically detect the presence of persons hiding inside of shipping containers, without the requirement of opening the container doors. The human occupancy detection concepts are based upon the presence of carbon dioxide or other human waste characteristics commonly found inside of shipping containers.

  5. Multiproxy record of late Quaternary climate change and Middle Stone Age human occupation at Wonderkrater, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backwell, Lucinda R.; McCarthy, Terence S.; Wadley, Lyn; Henderson, Zoë; Steininger, Christine M.; Bonita deKlerk; Barré, Magali; Lamothe, Michel; Chase, Brian M.; Woodborne, Stephan; Susino, George J.; Bamford, Marion K.; Sievers, Christine; Brink, James S.; Rossouw, Lloyd; Pollarolo, Luca; Trower, Gary; Scott, Louis; d'Errico, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Here we provide a multiproxy record of climate change and human occupation at Wonderkrater, a spring and peat mound site situated in the interior of southern Africa. Recently extracted sediment cores yielded a number of Middle Stone Age (MSA) artefacts, prompting exploratory excavation of the sediments to understand better the geomorphology of the site, age of the sediments, cultural lithic sequence, vegetation and faunal remains, and to try to establish whether human use of the site was to some extent climatically driven. Excavations yielded late Pleistocene mammal fauna and flora, and three small MSA lithic assemblages with age estimates of 30 ka, >45 ka and 138.01 ± 7.7 ka. The upper layers comprise peat that preserves macrobotanical and faunal remains, implying local fen conditions in Acacia savanna woodland at 12 ka. Below the upper peat layers, a 1 m-thick layer of white sand yielded two MSA lithic assemblages in association with faunal remains dated to between 30.8 ± 0.7 ka and >45 ka. Clay underlying the sand has an OSL age of 63.1 ± 5.8 ka, and sandy peat below it has an Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) age of 70 ± 10 ka. Faunal remains in the lower sand levels, and dental stable carbon isotope analysis of herbivores, indicate a substantial grassland component in the landscape during late MIS 3 (>45 ka). Charcoal, phytolith and pollen data show a change from moderately warm and dry grassy savanna woodland in the lower sand levels, to cooler and wetter grassland with woody shrubs in the uppermost levels by 30 ka. The conditions that resulted in the deposition of the sand also attracted people to the site, but whether it served as an oasis in an arid landscape, or was occupied during wet phases, is unclear. The composition of the lithic assemblages, which include many tools suitable for cutting, suggest that the peat mound may have been used as a place to harvest reeds, process plant materials and butcher animals that were either deliberately or

  6. Occupational asthma: coming of age

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Some major occupational causes of reflex bronchoconstriction include exposure to cold air, subtoxic concentrations of sulfur dioxide, fluorocarbons, and various inert dusts. Toxic gases, such as sulfur dioxide, the halogens, ammonia, acid fumes, and solvent odors cause inflammatory bronchoconstriction. Occupational substances that mimic the dose-dependent effects of pharmacologic agonists include histamine releasing agents in the bracts of cotton dust, organic acids in wood dusts, diisocyanates, and anticholinesterase chemicals. The greatest number of occupational agents causing asthma have known or suspected allergenic properties. In this group the most significant sensitizing agents are proteins derived from various animal sources. The incidence of asthma induced by small-molecular-weight inorganic chemicals is also expanding. Representative examples of this group include antibiotics, sulfonechloramide, diisocyanates, platinum salts, and a number of reactive anhydride compounds. Occupational asthma is becoming a major occupational health problem. Reversal of this trend is possible and can be implemented by special attention to several recommendations. Better record-keeping should be encouraged by labor, management, and government agencies. More research support should be allotted for development of valid susceptibility profiles and objective diagnostic techniques that might be useful for prescreening purposes and early diagnosis. When warranted by specific oocupational conditions, serial physiologic and immunologic monitoring should be done and encouraged by both management and labor. (JMT)

  7. Last glacial-interglacial environments in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA and implications for Younger Dryas-age human occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Meltzer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The last glacial-interglacial transition (LGIT; 19-9 ka) was characterized by rapid climate changes and significant ecosystem reorganizations worldwide. In western Colorado, one of the coldest locations in the continental US today, mountain environments during the late-glacial period are poorly known. Yet, archaeological evidence from the Mountaineer site (2625 m elev.) indicates that Folsom-age Paleoindians were over-wintering in the Gunnison Basin during the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 12.9-11.7 ka). To determine the vegetation and fire history during the LGIT, and possible explanations for occupation during a period thought to be harsher than today, a 17-ka-old sediment core from Lily Pond (3208 m elev.) was analyzed for pollen and charcoal and compared with other high-resolution records from the southern Rocky Mountains. Widespread tundra and Picea parkland and low fire activity in the cold wet late-glacial period transitioned to open subalpine forest and increased fire activity in the Bølling-Allerød period as conditions became warmer and drier. During the YDC, greater winter snowpack than today and prolonged wet springs likely expanded subalpine forest to lower elevations than today, providing construction material and fuel for the early inhabitants. In the early to middle Holocene, arid conditions resulted in xerophytic vegetation and frequent fire.

  8. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  9. Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold; And Others

    Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

  10. Age and occupational well-being.

    PubMed

    Warr, P

    1992-03-01

    Two questions are examined through an investigation of 1,686 people employed in a wide range of jobs. First, is there a U-shaped relationship between age and occupational well-being, such that medium-aged workers report lower well-being than do both younger and older people? That pattern is found, in relationship to both job anxiety-contentment and job depression-enthusiasm. Second, can the observed associations between age and well-being be accounted for by 13 potentially explanatory factors, covering job position, job characteristics, work values, demographic factors, and family life cycle? After introducing these variables into stepwise regression equations, age remains significantly predictive of job well-being. Possible additional explanations of this positive association include other characteristics, an increasingly retrospective focus, and nonoccupational experiences.

  11. Integration of Occupational and Humanities Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doggrell, Joan; And Others

    At Clark County Community College, efforts to integrate occupational and humanities curricula have focused on introducing humanities materials directly into selected vocational courses, which are required for program majors. In fall 1982, philosophy was introduced to students in a "Fundamentals of Nursing" course through a module…

  12. Human rights in occupational therapy education: A step towards a more occupationally just global society.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Emma; Aplin, Tammy; Rodger, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    Education on human rights will place occupational therapists in a strong position to address societal inequities that limit occupational engagement for many client groups. The imminent changes to the Minimum Standard for the Education of Occupational Therapists engender efforts towards social change and will require university-level human rights education. This education might enhance the profession's influence on disadvantaging social structures in order to effect social change. To contribute to the evidence base for social change education in occupational therapy, this research aims to understand the knowledge, skills, confidence and learning experiences of occupational therapy students who completed a human rights course. Final year occupational therapy students responded to questionnaires which included listing human rights, a human rights scale measuring knowledge and confidence for working towards human rights, and open questions. Numbers of rights listed, knowledge scores and confidence scores were calculated. Responses to the open questions were thematically analysed. After completing a human rights course, students had good knowledge and moderate confidence to work with human rights. Three themes were identified including 'learning about human rights', 'learning about structural, societal and global perspectives on occupational engagement' and 'learning how occupational therapists can work with groups, communities and populations: becoming articulate and empowered'. Human rights education fosters the development of occupational therapists who are skilled, knowledgeable, confident and empowered to address occupational injustices, according to these research findings. To develop a more occupationally just global society, education that considers iniquitous social structures and human rights is necessary. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. Belonging, occupation, and human well-being: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2014-02-01

    Researchers identify the importance of belonging to human well-being and provide evidence-based support for occupation as a medium for expressing and achieving a sense of belonging and connectedness. The purpose of this article is to highlight the imperative for occupational therapy theory and practice to address occupations concerned with belonging needs. Dominant occupational therapy models emphasise doing self-care, productive, and leisure occupations, thereby ignoring occupations undertaken to contribute to the well-being of others, occupations that foster connections to nature and ancestors, collaborative occupations, and those valued for their social context and potential to strengthen social roles. Belonging, connectedness, and interdependence are positively correlated with human well-being, are prioritized by the majority of the world's people, and inform the meanings attributed to and derived from the occupations of culturally diverse people. If occupational therapy is to address meaningful occupations, attention should be paid to occupations concerned with belonging, connecting, and contributing to others.

  14. Empirical Evidence on Occupation and Industry Specific Human Capital

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents instrumental variables estimates of the effects of firm tenure, occupation specific work experience, industry specific work experience, and general work experience on wages using data from the 1979 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The estimates indicate that both occupation and industry specific human capital are key determinants of wages, and the importance of various types of human capital varies widely across one-digit occupations. Human capital is primarily occupation specific in occupations such as craftsmen, where workers realize a 14% increase in wages after five years of occupation specific experience but do not realize wage gains from industry specific experience. In contrast, human capital is primarily industry specific in other occupations such as managerial employment where workers realize a 23% wage increase after five years of industry specific work experience. In other occupations, such as professional employment, both occupation and industry specific human capital are key determinants of wages. PMID:20526448

  15. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Pool, Lindsay R; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S; Bültmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F

    2016-04-12

    To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline. Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) was linked with standardized data on worker attributes and job characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). Ratings of cognitive processes required in 10 work-related tasks were used to create a summary measure of occupational cognitive requirements (possible range 0-7). Multivariable-adjusted linear mixed models were used to estimate the association of occupational cognitive requirements score (OCRS) with cognitive function and rate of cognitive decline. Higher OCRS corresponded to significantly better late-life cognitive performance at baseline in 1993 (p < 0.001) and to slower decline in global cognitive function over time (p = 0.004). Within a genotyped subsample (n = 4,104), the associations of OCRS with rate of cognitive decline did not differ significantly by APOE ε4 carriership (p = 0.11). Findings suggest that occupational cognitive requirements are associated with better cognition and a slower rate of cognitive decline in older age. Adulthood cognitive activity may contribute to cognitive reserve in late life. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Differentiation of Occupational Perceptions Among Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Hypothesizes that occupational perceptions are more specific for older age groups than for younger age groups. Hypothesis was tested by using latent root analysis and minimum residual factor analysis to analyze intercorrelations among six Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales for five large and diverse samples. Both analyses supported the…

  17. Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

  18. Biodemography of human ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vaupel, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems to be constant across individuals and over time: it seems that death is being delayed because people are reaching old age in better health. Research by demographers, epidemiologists and other biomedical researchers suggests that further progress is likely to be made in advancing the frontier of survival — and healthy survival — to even greater ages. PMID:20336136

  19. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  20. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights.

  1. Occupational health nursing practice through the Human Caring lens.

    PubMed

    Noel, Dianne L

    2010-01-01

    Many health care and academic centers have adopted Watson's Theory of Human Caring as their guiding principle; the theory is also used in other disciplines, such as library science. Human caring theory offers occupational health nurses as structure that not only defines a focus for practice, but also provides a basis for moral and philosophical practice analyses. In particular, nurses may find this theory useful in confirming the definition of "caring" and reconsidering what nursing is all about. More importantly, consideration and application of this theory may lead to research on its applicability to the field of occupational health nursing. This article presents the science and philosophy of human caring, specifically Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how the theory could be used to evaluate occupational health nursing practice. To demonstrate its possible relevance as an occupational health nursing framework, an analysis of and comparison to existing occupational health nursing guidelines are detailed and discussed.

  2. Sleep and Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-04-05

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need?

  3. Human Services. Georgia Core Standards for Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.

    This document lists core standards and occupational knowledge and skills that have been identified and validated by industry as necessary to all Georgia students in secondary-level human services occupations programs. First, foundation skills are grouped as follows: basic skills (reading, writing, arithmetic/mathematics, listening, speaking);…

  4. Arthritis, Occupational Class, and the Aging US Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; LeBlanc, William G.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Louie, Grant H.; Muennig, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The working poor sometimes delay retirement to survive. However, their higher risk of disease and disability threatens both their financial survival and their ability to work through the retirement years. We used the burden of disease attributable to arthritis by occupational class to illustrate the challenges faced by the older poor. Methods. We merged data from the National Health Interview Survey, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and the National Death Index into a single database. We then calculated and compared age- and occupational class–specific quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) between workers with and without arthritis by using unabridged life tables. Results. White-collar workers have a higher overall health-related quality of life than do other workers, and suffer fewer QALYs lost to arthritis at all ages. For instance, whereas 65-year-old white-collar workers without arthritis look forward to 17 QALYs of future life, blue-collar workers with arthritis experience only 11, and are much less likely to remain in the workforce than are those in service, farming, or white-collar jobs. Conclusions. To meet the needs of the aging workforce, more extensive health and disability insurance will be needed. PMID:21778483

  5. Hazards and health problems in occupations dominated by aged workers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jong-Shik; Han, Boyoung; Kim, Kab Bae; Kim, Yangho

    2017-01-01

    South Korea's population is aging more rapidly than any other country. Aging of the productive population will lead to shortage of labor and the decreasing quality of the labor force in South Korea. South Korea needs health care strategies to support the establishment of work environments that are appropriate for elderly workers who have reduced physical capacity. This paper aims to identify occupations that are dominated by aged workers and assess the exposure to hazards and work-related health problems of aged workers in these occupations. We identified the 20 occupations in South Korea that employ the most aged workers (at least 55 years-old), among all 149 occupations that are defined as minor categories (identified by three digits) by the Korean Standard Classification of Occupations (KSCO). Exposure to hazards and work-related health problems of individuals in these occupations were evaluated by analyzing the results of the fourth Working Conditions Survey of 2014. Among the 20 occupations that employ the most aged workers, 'Elementary Occupations', which the KSCO classifies as major category (9), had the largest proportion of aged workers. After this, there were five occupations of skilled manual workers and six occupations of skilled non-manual workers. Aged workers in elementary and skilled manual occupations reported frequent exposure to job-specific hazards, such as noise, vibrations, high and low temperatures, solvents, and chemicals. Relative to other workers, aged workers in the occupations reported more frequent exposure to ergonomic hazards, such as tiring or painful positions, carrying or moving heavy loads, and repetitive movements, and also reported more work-related musculoskeletal disorders and general fatigue. Injury due to accident was common in machinery-handling occupations. Job-specific hazards should be reduced to prevent occupation-related disorders in elementary and skilled manual occupations that are dominated by aged workers.

  6. Role of Occupational Therapy in Combating Human Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Kathleen W; Hatkevich, Beth Ann

    Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery that includes sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and trafficking of children. It is estimated that 35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. Because of the traumatic experiences that victims of human trafficking encounter, the needs of victims are extensive and require the services of several providers, including health care providers, for victims to transform into survivors and thrivers. Currently, the role of occupational therapy is minimal and unexplored. The profession of occupational therapy has the capacity of having a profound role in both providing client-centered care services to victims and survivors of human trafficking and partaking in preventive advocacy efforts to combat human trafficking. Further advocacy efforts are required to promote the profession of occupational therapy in combating human trafficking.

  7. [The relationships among occupational and organizational commitment, human relations in the workplace, and well-being in nurses].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tadayuki

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship among human relations in the workplace, job involvement, affective commitment and continuance commitment with occupational and organizational commitment, and well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 855 female nurses who worked in four public hospitals (mean age = 32.6 years). The results of factor analysis showed that each component of the vocational constructs was distinguishable from the others. Path analysis showed that human relations in the workplace directly influenced job involvement and affective commitment both to the occupation and to the organization. Job involvement in turn directly influenced affective commitment and continuance commitment to the occupation. Job involvement also influenced affective commitment to the organization directly, and indirectly through affective commitment to the occupation. Finally, it was found that human relations in the workplace and affective commitment to the occupation positively influenced well-being; continuance commitment to the occupation was a negative influence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. Work Characteristics and Occupational Well-Being: The Role of Age.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Schmitt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person-environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, we review research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational well-being. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators can be linear or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research.

  9. Work Characteristics and Occupational Well-Being: The Role of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Schmitt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person-environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, we review research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational well-being. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators can be linear or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research. PMID:27713711

  10. Strengthening Humanities in the Occupational Curriculums at Chemeketa Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonecker, William G.

    Chemeketa Community College's (CCC's) efforts to place a greater emphasis on the humanities within occupational curricula are described in this report. It first relates the background of the rift between humanities and technical faculty at the college, which developed after the introduction of a separate transfer curriculum in 1970 and which…

  11. Health and Human Services. Occupational Analyses. Worker Task Lists and Supplementary Information for Selected Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains worker task lists and supplementary information for eight occupations in the health and human services cluster: (1) criminal justice; (2) protective services; (3) dental assistant; (4) dental hygienist; (5) diagnostic medical sonographer; (6) medical office assistant; (7) fire medic; and (8) parks and recreation manager.…

  12. Occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and premature skin ageing.

    PubMed

    Lastowiecka-Moras, Elżbieta; Bugajska, Joanna; Młynarczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The skin is the part of the human body most vulnerable to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The spectrum of the negative effects of UV radiation on the skin ranges from acute erythema to carcinogenesis. Between these extreme conditions, there are other common skin lesions, e.g., photoageing. The aim of this study was to assess the skin for signs of photoageing in a group of 52 men occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation. There were 2 types of examinations: an examination of skin condition (moisture, elasticity, sebum, porosity, smoothness, discolourations and wrinkles) with a device for diagnosing the skin, and a dermatological examination. The results of both examinations revealed a higher percentage of skin characteristics typical for photoageing in outdoor workers compared to the general population.

  13. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  14. Roles of the human occupant in indoor chemistry.

    PubMed

    Weschler, C J

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decade, influences of the human occupant on indoor chemistry have been investigated in environments ranging from simulated aircraft cabins to actual classrooms. We have learned that ozone reacts rapidly with constituents of skin surface lipids on exposed skin, hair, and clothing, substantially reducing indoor ozone concentrations but increasing airborne levels of mono- and bifunctional compounds that contain carbonyl, carboxyl, or α-hydroxy ketone groups. Moreover, occupants transfer skin oils to and shed skin flakes (desquamation) onto indoor surfaces. Evidence for the presence of skin flakes/oils has been found in airborne particles, settled dust, and wipes of indoor surfaces. These occupant residues are also anticipated to scavenge ozone and produce byproducts. Under typical conditions, occupancy is anticipated to decrease the net level of oxidants in indoor air. When occupants scavenge ozone, the level of SOA derived from ozone/terpene chemistry decreases; the fraction of SVOCs in the gas-phase increases, and the fraction associated with airborne particles decreases. Occupants also remove organic compounds, including certain chemically active species, via bodily intake. Studies reviewed in this paper demonstrate the pronounced influences of humans on chemistry within the spaces they inhabit and the consequences of these influences on their subsequent chemical exposures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An improved human display model for occupant crash simulation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willmert, K. D.; Potter, T. E.

    1975-01-01

    An improved three-dimensional display model of a human being which can be used to display the results of three-dimensional simulation programs that predict the positions of an occupant during impact of a vehicle was presented. The model allows the user to view the occupant from any orientation in any position during the crash. The display model assumes the usual break up of the body into rigid segments which is normal for occupant crash simulation programs, but the shape of the segments in the display model are not necessarily the same as those used in the crash simulation. The display model is proportioned so as to produce a realistic drawing of the human body in any position. Joints connecting the segments are also drawn to improve realism.

  16. The age of the Lower Paleolithic occupation at Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Richter, Daniel; Krbetschek, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) data are presented for eight samples of heated flint collected at the archaeological site of Schöningen 13/I-1 (Cycle I), for which a Holsteinian age is suggested by palynology of stratigraphically similar positions within a cyclic sedimentological model for the Quaternary sequence of Schöningen. Although the fire responsible for the zeroing of the TL-signal cannot be unequivocally attributed to human activities, any time difference between a natural fire and the human occupation is negligible for a site of this antiquity. The weighted mean age of 321 ± 16 ka places the last heating of the flints nominally in the age range of Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 10 to 8. By inference this data would suggest an attribution of the Holsteinian to MIS 9 and may also serve as a maximum age estimate for the spear site of Schöningen 13/II-4 (Cycle II). Considering the chronometric data available and following an alternative sedimentological model the age of these two sites at Schöningen can be considered as belonging to the same climatic cycle. This suggests an attribution to MIS 9, and by inference provides an age estimate of 337-300 ka for the oldest spears in human history.

  17. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  18. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  19. Occupational Age Structures and Access for Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Barry T.; Macpherson, David A.; Hardy, Melissa A.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of multiple data sets (1983-1998) shows that older workers face substantial barriers to entry in occupations with steep ratios of earnings and experience, pension benefits, and computer usage. Older men have limited access to jobs with union coverage. Older women are concentrated in occupations with flextime, part-time work, and day…

  20. Occupational stress in human computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Smith, M J; Conway, F T; Karsh, B T

    1999-04-01

    There have been a variety of research approaches that have examined the stress issues related to human computer interaction including laboratory studies, cross-sectional surveys, longitudinal case studies and intervention studies. A critical review of these studies indicates that there are important physiological, biochemical, somatic and psychological indicators of stress that are related to work activities where human computer interaction occurs. Many of the stressors of human computer interaction at work are similar to those stressors that have historically been observed in other automated jobs. These include high workload, high work pressure, diminished job control, inadequate employee training to use new technology, monotonous tasks, por supervisory relations, and fear for job security. New stressors have emerged that can be tied primarily to human computer interaction. These include technology breakdowns, technology slowdowns, and electronic performance monitoring. The effects of the stress of human computer interaction in the workplace are increased physiological arousal; somatic complaints, especially of the musculoskeletal system; mood disturbances, particularly anxiety, fear and anger; and diminished quality of working life, such as reduced job satisfaction. Interventions to reduce the stress of computer technology have included improved technology implementation approaches and increased employee participation in implementation. Recommendations for ways to reduce the stress of human computer interaction at work are presented. These include proper ergonomic conditions, increased organizational support, improved job content, proper workload to decrease work pressure, and enhanced opportunities for social support. A model approach to the design of human computer interaction at work that focuses on the system "balance" is proposed.

  1. Engagement in patterns of daily occupations and perceived health among women of working age.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Carita; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Sonn, Ulla

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine how subjective experiences of engagement in patterns of daily occupations (gainful employment, domestic work, enjoyable and recreational occupations) were associated with perceived health among women of working age. The sample (n=488) was drawn from a longitudinal cohort study of women of working age in Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants were women 38 (n=202) and 50 (n=286) years of age. They completed a questionnaire including questions about occupational experiences in relation to their patterns of daily occupations, perceived health, and socioeconomic factors. The results of the present study showed that a combination of different experience dimensions of patterns of daily occupations was associated with perceived health among women of working age, even when adjusted for socioeconomic factors and age. The results provided occupational pattern-related health indicators, i.e. manageability, personally meaningful occupations, and occupational balance. To combine these health indicators can be a way for occupational therapists to enable women to develop strategies to promote health and to prevent stress and sick leave.

  2. Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hospodsky, Denina; Qian, Jing; Nazaroff, William W.; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Bibby, Kyle; Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid; Peccia, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study presents evidence for elevated concentrations of indoor airborne bacteria due to human occupancy, and investigates the sources of these bacteria. Samples were collected in a university classroom while occupied and when vacant. The total particle mass concentration, bacterial genome concentration, and bacterial phylogenetic populations were characterized in indoor, outdoor, and ventilation duct supply air, as well as in the dust of ventilation system filters and in floor dust. Occupancy increased the total aerosol mass and bacterial genome concentration in indoor air PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions, with an increase of nearly two orders of magnitude in airborne bacterial genome concentration in PM10. On a per mass basis, floor dust was enriched in bacterial genomes compared to airborne particles. Quantitative comparisons between bacterial populations in indoor air and potential sources suggest that resuspended floor dust is an important contributor to bacterial aerosol populations during occupancy. Experiments that controlled for resuspension from the floor implies that direct human shedding may also significantly impact the concentration of indoor airborne particles. The high content of bacteria specific to the skin, nostrils, and hair of humans found in indoor air and in floor dust indicates that floors are an important reservoir of human-associated bacteria, and that the direct particle shedding of desquamated skin cells and their subsequent resuspension strongly influenced the airborne bacteria population structure in this human-occupied environment. Inhalation exposure to microbes shed by other current or previous human occupants may occur in communal indoor environments. PMID:22529946

  3. Human occupancy as a source of indoor airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hospodsky, Denina; Qian, Jing; Nazaroff, William W; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Bibby, Kyle; Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid; Peccia, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. However, the sources and origins of bacteria suspended in indoor air are not well understood. This study presents evidence for elevated concentrations of indoor airborne bacteria due to human occupancy, and investigates the sources of these bacteria. Samples were collected in a university classroom while occupied and when vacant. The total particle mass concentration, bacterial genome concentration, and bacterial phylogenetic populations were characterized in indoor, outdoor, and ventilation duct supply air, as well as in the dust of ventilation system filters and in floor dust. Occupancy increased the total aerosol mass and bacterial genome concentration in indoor air PM(10) and PM(2.5) size fractions, with an increase of nearly two orders of magnitude in airborne bacterial genome concentration in PM(10). On a per mass basis, floor dust was enriched in bacterial genomes compared to airborne particles. Quantitative comparisons between bacterial populations in indoor air and potential sources suggest that resuspended floor dust is an important contributor to bacterial aerosol populations during occupancy. Experiments that controlled for resuspension from the floor implies that direct human shedding may also significantly impact the concentration of indoor airborne particles. The high content of bacteria specific to the skin, nostrils, and hair of humans found in indoor air and in floor dust indicates that floors are an important reservoir of human-associated bacteria, and that the direct particle shedding of desquamated skin cells and their subsequent resuspension strongly influenced the airborne bacteria population structure in this human-occupied environment. Inhalation exposure to microbes shed by other current or previous human occupants may occur in communal indoor environments.

  4. Who Tweets? Deriving the Demographic Characteristics of Age, Occupation and Social Class from Twitter User Meta-Data

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect “signatures” of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed. PMID:25729900

  5. Who tweets? Deriving the demographic characteristics of age, occupation and social class from twitter user meta-data.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed.

  6. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  7. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  8. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving Operations...

  9. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving Operations...

  10. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving Operations...

  11. Educational Mismatches and Earnings: Extensions of Occupational Mobility Theory and Evidence of Human Capital Depreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Using a human capital theory framework, this study examines the impact of educational mismatches on earnings and occupational mobility. Occupational mobility theory suggests that overeducated workers observe greater upward occupational mobility and undereducated workers observe lower upward occupational mobility. By extension, this leads to…

  12. Educational Mismatches and Earnings: Extensions of Occupational Mobility Theory and Evidence of Human Capital Depreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Using a human capital theory framework, this study examines the impact of educational mismatches on earnings and occupational mobility. Occupational mobility theory suggests that overeducated workers observe greater upward occupational mobility and undereducated workers observe lower upward occupational mobility. By extension, this leads to…

  13. [Related to age and length of service, changes in psycho-physiologic occupationally important traits of technologic processes operators].

    PubMed

    Bondarev, I P; Tin'kov, A N; Perepelkin, S V; Podluzhnyĭ, S M; Zubova, L V

    2009-01-01

    Psycho-physiologic occupational fitness of technologic processes operators changes during long-standing work in the occupation. The changes are age-related. Over 50 years of age, attention and mental performance do not satisfy the level required, so occupational fitness should be re-assessed after 50 years of age.

  14. Occupational differences in suicide mortality among Japanese men of working age.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Eguchi, Hisashi; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R

    2016-01-15

    Although suicide rates among Japanese men of working-age have steadily increased over the past two decades, the distribution by occupation and industry is not uniform. Little is known regarding occupation and industry differences in relation to suicide risk. This study examined differences in suicide risk among Japanese men of working age (25-59 years) during 2010. We analysed the Japanese government's 2010 national survey data regarding occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were formulated for each occupation and industry to estimate the relative risk of death by suicide. Potential interactions between age and occupation/industry were also examined. Suicide incidence was highest among workers in the fields of agriculture and mining. When compared with referent groups (sales for occupation and wholesale and retail for industry), the age-adjusted relative risk of suicide was highest for administrative and managerial workers (Incident Relative Risk [IRR]: 3.91, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 3.16-4.85), service industries (IRR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.93-4.51) and agriculture (IRR: 3.53, 95%CI: 2.84-4.38) occupations, and for mining (IRR: 23.9, 95%CI: 19.4-29.4), fisheries (IRR: 6.26, 95%CI: 5.03-7.80), electricity and gas (IRR: 5.86, 95%CI: 4.71-7.30) and agricultural industries (IRR: 4.73, 95%CI: 3.78-5.91). Bias resulting from misclassification of deceased individuals' occupation or industry was a potential limitation of this study. Furthermore, detailed information regarding occupation-related factors, such as employment status, had not been recorded in the initial survey. These findings help elucidate Japanese occupations and industries with a higher suicide risk, most likely due to economic changes or workplace factors relating to stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Doing everyday occupations both conceals and reveals the phenomenon of being aged.

    PubMed

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Kerse, Ngaire; Smythe, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    The phenomenon of ageing is so commonplace that it is ordinarily taken-for-granted, with little call to question its meaning. Of importance to occupational therapists is the recent appeal to understand older adults' ordinary ways of everyday living. The aim of this interpretive phenomenological study was to understand the meaning of 'being aged' through the everyday experiences of those who are long-lived. The writings of two philosophers, Hans-Georg Gadamer and Martin Heidegger, guided the study's design and research methods. Being aged in the context of everyday living was the phenomenon of interest. Individual interviews were conducted with 15 community-dwelling New Zealand elders: four Maori aged 71-93 years and 11 non-Maori aged 80-97 years. Stories of going about daily occupations and particular moments in the day were elicited during conversational-style interviews. Hermeneutic methods and phenomenological reflection were used to analyse the data. Two overarching notions were illuminated. The ordinary ways of 'being in the every day', such as having a routine and a familiar purposefulness, conceal being aged. In contrast, 'experiencing the unaccustomed', such as suddenly noticing an unaccustomed weakness or oldness, in the midst of doing deeply familiar occupations is an announcing of being aged. CONCLUSIONS and As such, engaging in everyday, familiar occupations holds the potential to both conceal and reveal the phenomenon of being aged. These results point to the importance of illuminating the lived experience of occupational engagement as a fruitful way of informing occupation-focussed practice. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  16. Quality of occupational history assessments in working age adults with newly diagnosed asthma.

    PubMed

    Shofer, Scott; Haus, Brian M; Kuschner, Ware G

    2006-08-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of new-onset asthma in adults is attributable to occupational exposure. The occupational history is the most important instrument in the diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA). To assess the quality of occupational histories obtained by health-care providers and to measure the prevalence of clinician-diagnosed OA in a population at elevated risk for OA. An academic US Department of Veteran Affairs medical center. One hundred ninety-seven adults (age range, 18 to 55 years) with newly diagnosed asthma who had completed pulmonary function testing (PFT) and a structured respiratory health questionnaire. We conducted a structured retrospective comparison of occupational respiratory health history documented by clinicians with data documented by patients on a structured questionnaire. We analyzed PFT results to assess physiologic impairment. We also conducted a structured examination of the actions taken by health-care providers based on their occupational history assessments. Patient self-reports of respiratory exposures and symptoms were common. A job title was documented by one or more clinicians in 75% of patient medical records. Additional occupational history data were charted much less frequently. A diagnosis of OA was made in only 2% of patients. Clinical action to address OA was documented for only one patient. Clinicians who manage adults with newly diagnosed asthma take incomplete occupational histories. We detected discordance between the occupational exposure histories documented by patients and those charted by clinicians. OA may go unrecognized and possibly undermanaged by clinicians.

  17. Update on productive aging research in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2012.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a review of articles on productive aging published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) during 2012 in light of the Centennial Vision charge of supporting practice through evidence. Seventeen AJOT articles published in 2012 specifically addressed productive aging. Of 6 Level I studies, 4 were systematic reviews that identified effective occupational therapy interventions for community-dwelling older adults; 1 randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of writing life reviews for residents of senior residences, and 1 meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of fall-related efficacy and engagement in activity or occupation. Two Level II studies and 2 Level III studies produced support for the effectiveness of individual and group-based occupational therapy interventions. Of 7 descriptive studies addressing a variety of areas, 4 addressed the reliability and validity of assessments. In 2012, AJOT published more and higher quality studies addressing a variety of issues related to productive aging.

  18. Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley; Smith, Mike; Roberts, Richard G; Hayes, Elspeth; Lowe, Kelsey; Carah, Xavier; Florin, S Anna; McNeil, Jessica; Cox, Delyth; Arnold, Lee J; Hua, Quan; Huntley, Jillian; Brand, Helen E A; Manne, Tiina; Fairbairn, Andrew; Shulmeister, James; Lyle, Lindsey; Salinas, Makiah; Page, Mara; Connell, Kate; Park, Gayoung; Norman, Kasih; Murphy, Tessa; Pardoe, Colin

    2017-07-19

    The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia's megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans.

  19. The effects of occupational class transitions on hypertension: racial disparities among working-age men.

    PubMed Central

    Waitzman, N J; Smith, K R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was undertaken to examine how the interaction between occupational class transitions and race affects the incidence of hypertension. METHODS. A cohort of 1982 men (183 Black), ages 25 to 55, received a baseline medical exam between 1971 and 1975 and a follow-up between 1982 and 1984. Logistic regressions were estimated for hypertension at follow-up controlling for hypertension at baseline, other risk factors associated with blood pressure, and interaction terms identifying specific occupational class transitions among Blacks and Whites. The occupational class matrix was based largely on scores of US Census Bureau occupations from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. RESULTS. Relative to Whites who remained in professional and technical jobs between baseline and follow-up, Blacks and Whites who remained in lower occupational classes or made specific transitions--notably into the lowest class--had significantly higher incidence rates of hypertension. These differences were greater among Blacks, who are also more concentrated in and less likely to move upward from the lower end of the occupational class matrix. CONCLUSIONS. Widening racial disparities in high blood pressure over the period of study may be partly attributable to characteristics associated with occupational class position and dynamics. PMID:8203691

  20. Reconstructing the Initial Human Occupation of the Northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, David; Brantingham, Jeffrey; Sun, Yongjuan; Rhode, David; Mingjie, Yi; Perreault, Charles

    2017-04-01

    We identified and dated 20 archaeological sites, many containing multiple occupations, above 3000 m on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during a decade-long Sino-American Tibet Paleolithic Project. The ages of these sites are controlled by 68 AMS radiocarbon dates, as well as associated luminescence age estimates. Together these sites suggest the initial occupation of the high northern TP occurred in two phases: 1) an early phase dating to 16-8 ka, characterized by short-term hunting camps occupied by small groups of foragers likely originating from lower elevation, but relatively nearby, base camps; and 2) a later phase dating to 8-5 ka, characterized by longer-term residential camps likely occupied by larger family groups also originating from nearby lower elevations. Whether or not these later family groups were full-time foragers or were pastoralists linked to farming communities remains under investigation. This pattern closely matches genetically-based estimates of rapid population increases. Both phases appear related to major climatic episodes: a period of rapid post-glacial warming, spread of higher elevation alpine grassland/meadow environments, and enhanced populations of larger herbivores; and a period of mid-Holocene warming that allowed farming/pastoralism to develop at higher elevations. We identified no sites dating to the LGM or earlier and genetic separation of Tibetan populations likely occurred on the lower elevation plateau margins. By 5 ka essentially modern settlement/subsistence patterns were established.

  1. Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The authors adapted the concept of future time perspective (FTP) to the work context and examined its relationships with age and work characteristics (job complexity and control). Structural equation modeling of data from 176 employees of various occupations showed that age is negatively related to 2 distinct dimensions of occupational FTP: remaining time and remaining opportunities. Work characteristics (job complexity and control) were positively related to remaining opportunities and moderated the relationship between age and remaining opportunities, such that the relationship became weaker with increasing levels of job complexity and control.

  2. The Role of Age and Occupational Future Time Perspective in Workers' Motivation to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochoian, Nané; Raemdonck, Isabel; Frenay, Mariane; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between employees' chronological age and their motivation to learn, by adopting a lifespan perspective. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, we suggest that occupational future time perspective mediates the relationship between age and motivation to learn. In accordance with…

  3. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  4. Climate, human occupation and travertine deposits in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Louis; Pozzi, Jean-Pierre; Falguères, Christophe; Mahieux, Geoffroy; Beauchamp, Jacques; Ouammou, Abderrahmane; Haddad, Mustapha; Bejjit, Lahcen

    2015-04-01

    Specific calcitic geological formations produced by water (speleothems and travertines) constitute an attractive environment for Humans through recent Quaternary period. The potential contribution of calcite analysis is exceptional because beyond the fact that it is close system for U-series dating, it also registers oxygen stable isotope (delta 18O) variations which reveal temperature fluctuations and carbon stable isotopes (12C and 13C) which reveal, different types of vegetation (herbaceous or arboreal) that successively appeared through icehouse and greenhouse periods. Hydrothermal travertine delta 13 C values are displaced to more positive value than the average of meteogene (fluvial) travertines. Growth stages of calcite can be dated using several radiochronological methods, extended from present time until 500 ka with U-series dating method, and using paleomagnetic studies for older Pleistocene period. Geochemical and paleomagnetic data allow constraining human development within the Quaternary chronostratigraphic scale which is compared to the marine isotopic scale as a reference. Meteogene travertines are less suitable for geochemical isotopic studies and radiochonology than hydrothermal travertine due to their numerous impurities. Here we present the first results obtained by the studies of Moroccan hydrothermal and fluvial travertine in 24 archeological sites distributed on the Moroccan territory. Two main information about growth periods are obtained: (1) travertine precipitation is effective from 1.1 millions years to Holocene, (2) growth periods are observed during both glacial and interglacial stages of the global climatic frame.The travertine prehistoric human occupation is discontinuous during the older periods but becomes more continuous since MIS 9 (350 ka). In the SE Morocco, in the Tafilalet area, flint fragments and Levallois nuclei were found upon travertine. They are probably relevant to Mousterian culture (from 200 to 35 ka.). Human

  5. Occupational status differences in attributions of uniquely human emotions.

    PubMed

    Iatridis, Tilemachos

    2013-09-01

    Infrahumanization theory has claimed that groups tend to infrahumanize, and thus denigrate, each other irrespective of group status. However, research on infrahumanization has mainly addressed status in the context of national, ethnic, and regional divisions. The present studies tested the effect of group status in infrahumanization by employing occupational groups of varied status, both in abstract (blue-collar vs. white-collar workers) and specific terms (lawyers vs. shopkeepers, and high school teachers vs. university faculty members and primary school teachers). The results showed that only relatively higher status groups always attributed uniquely human emotions more to their in-group than to lower status out-groups. In contrast, lower status groups showed no bias in attributions of uniquely human emotions, or were biased in favour of the higher status out-group. The discussion of these results points to the role of consensus in the distribution of social value amongst groups of asymmetric status.

  6. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  7. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  8. Experiences of participation in everyday occupations among persons aging with a tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Ulrica; Lilja, Margareta; Gray, David; Isaksson, Gunilla

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to gain understanding of participation in everyday occupations through life stories of persons aging with a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A narrative method was used for data collection and a paradigmatic analysis was used to analyze data. The analysis resulted in three themes that illustrate how the participants acted to participate in everyday occupations, how that changed over time, and some concerns about their future. The first theme illustrates how participants following SCI acted to become agents of their lives and participate in everyday occupations. The second theme illustrates how participants had to prioritize participation in meaningful occupations due to personal and environmental factors. The third theme shows how they had to try new strategies to continue participation in occupations, due to secondary health complications related to aging. This study captures how persons aging with tetraplegia acted to participate in everyday occupations from soon after the injury until several decades later. In addition, their ability to act and participate changed over time. Our findings provide knowledge that can guide clinicians in their work within this complex area of rehabilitation. Besides, it can also guide the work with policy recommendations for healthcare and social service systems. Aging with a SCI is a complex daily struggle in order to be able to continue acting and participating in everyday occupations, and thereby this gives implications for a lifelong support. This study provides knowledge that can guide clinicians in their work within this complex area of rehabilitation. Knowledge from this study can guide the work with policy recommendations for healthcare and social service systems.

  9. Occupational class and working beyond the retirement age: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Ervasti, Jenni; Head, Jenny; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine occupational class differences in working more than six months beyond the mandatory retirement age and factors that may contribute to these differences. Methods The study comprised a prospective cohort study of a total of 5331 Finnish municipal employees (73% women) who were not on work disability pension and reached the age eligible for old-age pension in 2005-2011. Occupational class included four categories: managers and professionals, lower grade non-manual, skilled manual, and elementary occupations. Survey responses while at work were linked to national health and pension registers. Results A total of 921 participants (17.3%) worked beyond the pensionable age. Compared with elementary workers, skilled manual workers had a similar probability [gender-adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.72-1.23] while lower grade non-manual workers had a 2.03-fold (95% CI 1.59-2.58), and managers and professionals had a 1.79-fold (95% CI 1.41-2.27) probability of working beyond the pensionable age. Adjustment for physical workload (32.0% in lower non-manual, 36.7% in managers and professionals), work time control (20.4% and 11.4%) and perceived work ability (16.5% and 29.1%) contributed to the largest attenuation for these associations. Analyses using a counterfactual approach suggested greater mediated effects for physical workload and work time control than those observed in traditional mediation analyses. Conclusions Employees with higher occupational classes are two times more likely to continue working beyond the retirement age compared to those with lower occupational classes. A large proportion of these differences were explained by having physically light job, better work time control, and better self-rated work ability among employees with high occupational class.

  10. Palaeoclimate and human occupation in southeastern arid Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Philip J.; Sullivan, Marjorie E.; Hiscock, Peter

    2017-05-01

    This review focuses on the relationships between palaeoenvironmental change and prehistoric occupation in the driest part of the Australian arid zone. Palaeoclimatic evidence from the last ∼60 ka identified fluctuating periods of wet and dry conditions during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. For most of this period conditions were arid, including during the Holocene, and maximum aridity occurred at the LGM which peaked at ∼21 ka. Maximum wetness occurred before ∼45 ka, at ∼33-31 ka and episodically during the deglaciation between ∼18 and 11 ka. The pre-LGM archaeological record is extremely sparse but records from the LGM through to the mid Holocene show people occupied the dunefields and stony plains during prolonged wet periods in the deglaciation and largely abandoned them during drier phases, retreating to better-watered refuges. Human occupation in dunefields from the LGM through to the mid Holocene can be used as a proxy for past climates. From the late Holocene changes in settlement patterns were made possible by the social, economic and technological adaptations which allowed people to occupy what became an increasingly harsh environment. These reconstructions were facilitated by discoveries in the Roxby dunefield of buried stratified layers of stone artefacts in dune sands, dated by single-grain luminescence analyses. These discoveries indicate the possibility that hitherto unreported cultural sequences, potentially dating back to >50 ka, may be present in many Australian dunefields.

  11. Time pressure and coworker support mediate the curvilinear relationship between age and occupational well-being.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Bordia, Prashant

    2014-10-01

    As the proportion of older employees in the workforce is growing, researchers have become increasingly interested in the association between age and occupational well-being. The curvilinear nature of relationships between age and job satisfaction and between age and emotional exhaustion is well-established in the literature, with employees in their late 20s to early 40s generally reporting lower levels of occupational well-being than younger and older employees. However, the mechanisms underlying these curvilinear relationships are so far not well understood due to a lack of studies testing mediation effects. Based on an integration of role theory and research from the adult development and career literatures, this study examined time pressure, work-home conflict, and coworker support as mediators of the relationships between age and job satisfaction and between age and emotional exhaustion. Data came from 771 employees between 17 and 74 years of age in the construction industry. Results showed that employees in their late 20s to early 40s had lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion than younger and older employees. Time pressure and coworker support fully mediated both the U-shaped relationship between age and job satisfaction and the inversely U-shaped relationship between age and emotional exhaustion. These findings suggest that organizational interventions may help increase the relatively low levels of occupational well-being in certain age groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Age and Disability Employment Discrimination: Occupational Rehabilitation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bjelland, Melissa J.; von Schrader, Sarah; Houtenville, Andrew J.; Ruiz-Quintanilla, Antonio; Webber, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As concerns grow that a thinning labor force due to retirement will lead to worker shortages, it becomes critical to support positive employment outcomes of groups who have been underutilized, specifically older workers and workers with disabilities. Better understanding perceived age and disability discrimination and their intersection can help rehabilitation specialists and employers address challenges expected as a result of the evolving workforce. Methods Using U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Integrated Mission System data, we investigate the nature of employment discrimination charges that cite the Americans with Disabilities Act or Age Discrimination in Employment Act individually or jointly. We focus on trends in joint filings over time and across categories of age, types of disabilities, and alleged discriminatory behavior. Results We find that employment discrimination claims that originate from older or disabled workers are concentrated within a subset of issues that include reasonable accommodation, retaliation, and termination. Age-related disabilities are more frequently referenced in joint cases than in the overall pool of ADA filings, while the psychiatric disorders are less often referenced in joint cases. When examining charges made by those protected under both the ADA and ADEA, results from a logit model indicate that in comparison to charges filed under the ADA alone, jointly-filed ADA/ADEA charges are more likely to be filed by older individuals, by those who perceive discrimination in hiring and termination, and to originate from within the smallest firms. Conclusion In light of these findings, rehabilitation and workplace practices to maximize the hiring and retention of older workers and those with disabilities are discussed. PMID:19680793

  13. Age and disability employment discrimination: occupational rehabilitation implications.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Melissa J; Bruyère, Susanne M; von Schrader, Sarah; Houtenville, Andrew J; Ruiz-Quintanilla, Antonio; Webber, Douglas A

    2010-12-01

    As concerns grow that a thinning labor force due to retirement will lead to worker shortages, it becomes critical to support positive employment outcomes of groups who have been underutilized, specifically older workers and workers with disabilities. Better understanding perceived age and disability discrimination and their intersection can help rehabilitation specialists and employers address challenges expected as a result of the evolving workforce. Using U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Integrated Mission System data, we investigate the nature of employment discrimination charges that cite the Americans with Disabilities Act or Age Discrimination in Employment Act individually or jointly. We focus on trends in joint filings over time and across categories of age, types of disabilities, and alleged discriminatory behavior. We find that employment discrimination claims that originate from older or disabled workers are concentrated within a subset of issues that include reasonable accommodation, retaliation, and termination. Age-related disabilities are more frequently referenced in joint cases than in the overall pool of ADA filings, while the psychiatric disorders are less often referenced in joint cases. When examining charges made by those protected under both the ADA and ADEA, results from a logit model indicate that in comparison to charges filed under the ADA alone, jointly-filed ADA/ADEA charges are more likely to be filed by older individuals, by those who perceive discrimination in hiring and termination, and to originate from within the smallest firms. In light of these findings, rehabilitation and workplace practices to maximize the hiring and retention of older workers and those with disabilities are discussed.

  14. Younger age at onset of sporadic Parkinson's disease among subjects occupationally exposed to metals and pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Farb, David H.; Ozer, Josef; Feldman, Robert G.; Durso, Raymon

    2014-01-01

    An earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported to be associated with occupational exposures to manganese and hydrocarbon solvents suggesting that exposure to neurotoxic chemicals may hasten the progression of idiopathic PD. In this study the role of occupational exposure to metals and pesticides in the progression of idiopathic PD was assessed by looking at age at disease onset. The effects of heritable genetic risk factors, which may also influence age at onset, was minimized by including only sporadic cases of PD with no family history of the disease (n=58). Independent samples Student t-test revealed that subjects with occupational exposure to metals and/or pesticides (n=36) were significantly (p=0.013) younger than unexposed controls (n=22). These subjects were then divided into three groups [high (n=18), low (n=18), and unexposed (n=22)] to ascertain if duration of exposure further influenced age at onset of PD. One-way ANOVA revealed that subjects in the high exposure group were significantly (p=0.0121) younger (mean age: 50.33 years) than unexposed subjects (mean age: 60.45 years). Subjects were also stratified by exposure type (metals vs. pesticides). These results suggest that chronic exposure to metals and pesticides is associated with a younger age at onset of PD among patients with no family history of the disease and that duration of exposure is a factor in the magnitude of this effect. PMID:26109889

  15. The Green Sahara: Climate Change, Hydrologic History and Human Occupation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Farr, Tom G.; Feynmann, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Paillou, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can provide insight into interactions of climate change and human activities in sensitive areas such as the Sahara, to the benefit of both disciplines. Such analyses can help set bounds on climate change projections, perhaps identify elements of tipping points, and provide constraints on models. The opportunity exists to more precisely constrain the relationship of natural solar and climate interactions, improving understanding of present and future anthropogenic forcing. We are beginning to explore the relationship of human occupation of the Sahara and long-term solar irradiance variations synergetic with changes in atmospheric-ocean circulation patterns. Archaeological and climate records for the last 12 K years are gaining adequate precision to make such comparisons possible. We employ a range of climate records taken over the globe (e.g. Antarctica, Greenland, Cariaco Basin, West African Ocean cores, records from caves) to identify the timing and spatial patterns affecting Saharan climate to compare with archaeological records. We see correlation in changing ocean temperature patterns approx. contemporaneous with drying of the Sahara approx. 6K years BP. The role of radar images and other remote sensing in this work includes providing a geographically comprehensive geomorphic overview of this key area. Such coverage is becoming available from the Japanese PALSAR radar system, which can guide field work to collect archaeological and climatic data to further constrain the climate change chronology and link to models. Our initial remote sensing efforts concentrate on the Gilf Kebir area of Egypt.

  16. The Green Sahara: Climate Change, Hydrologic History and Human Occupation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Farr, Tom G.; Feynmann, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Paillou, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can provide insight into interactions of climate change and human activities in sensitive areas such as the Sahara, to the benefit of both disciplines. Such analyses can help set bounds on climate change projections, perhaps identify elements of tipping points, and provide constraints on models. The opportunity exists to more precisely constrain the relationship of natural solar and climate interactions, improving understanding of present and future anthropogenic forcing. We are beginning to explore the relationship of human occupation of the Sahara and long-term solar irradiance variations synergetic with changes in atmospheric-ocean circulation patterns. Archaeological and climate records for the last 12 K years are gaining adequate precision to make such comparisons possible. We employ a range of climate records taken over the globe (e.g. Antarctica, Greenland, Cariaco Basin, West African Ocean cores, records from caves) to identify the timing and spatial patterns affecting Saharan climate to compare with archaeological records. We see correlation in changing ocean temperature patterns approx. contemporaneous with drying of the Sahara approx. 6K years BP. The role of radar images and other remote sensing in this work includes providing a geographically comprehensive geomorphic overview of this key area. Such coverage is becoming available from the Japanese PALSAR radar system, which can guide field work to collect archaeological and climatic data to further constrain the climate change chronology and link to models. Our initial remote sensing efforts concentrate on the Gilf Kebir area of Egypt.

  17. What needs to be done? Occupational therapy responsibilities and challenges regarding human rights.

    PubMed

    Galheigo, Sandra Maria

    2011-04-01

    Addressing human rights issues brings forth ethical and political responsibilities for occupational therapists and requires new epistemological and educational approaches. The way occupational therapists have faced these challenges has depended upon historical, cultural and social contexts. By means of literature review and historical analysis, this paper reflects on how occupational therapists have dealt with human matters issues and on the contemporary changes within the profession. The paper portrays how Latin American occupational therapists have engaged in social transformation by choosing not to transform ethical and political problems into technical matters. Taking into account experiences and views from South Africa, Brazil and Chile, the paper outlines the importance of developing political literacy and interdisciplinary professional/postprofessional education to prepare the new generation of occupational therapists to engage in social transformation. Addressing issues of invisibility and lack of access to human rights, the paper reflects on the need of developing conceptual tools and strategies for change, and discusses the transformations being produced in contemporary occupational therapy. Occupational therapists and scientists need to be attentive to human rights issues. They also need to answer the call for interconnectedness in the present-day complex societies, and engage in networking and a cross-bordering dialogue. Nevertheless, although necessary and welcome, international cooperation requires a permanent exercise of cultural sensitivity, political awareness and self-awareness. © 2011 The Author. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  18. Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Reserve in a Middle-Aged Cohort at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Elizabeth A.; Schultz, Stephanie A.; Almeida, Rodrigo P.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, Maritza N.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2015-01-01

    Higher occupational attainment has previously been associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology when individuals are matched for cognitive function, indicating occupation could provide cognitive reserve. We examined whether occupational complexity (OCC) associates with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy given comparable cognitive function in middle-aged adults at risk for AD. Participants (n = 323) underwent structural MRI, cognitive evaluation, and work history assessment. Three complexity ratings (work with data, people, and things) were obtained, averaged across up to 3 reported jobs, weighted by years per job, and summed to create a composite OCC rating. Greater OCC was associated with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy when matched for cognitive function; results remained substantively unchanged after adjusting for several demographic, AD risk, vascular, mental health, and socioeconomic characteristics. These findings suggest that, in people at risk for AD, OCC may confer resilience to the adverse effects of neuropathology on cognition. PMID:26156334

  19. Association of Occupational & Prediabetes Statuses with Obesity in middle aged Women.

    PubMed

    Pranita, A; Balsubramaniyan, B; Phadke, A V; Tambe, D B; Apte, G M; Kharche, J S; Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A R

    2013-07-01

    The association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity is very close. The prediabetes status i.e Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) reflects an intermediate condition between normality and diabetes. The socioeconomic position (SEP) is one of the non traditional determinants of type 2 DM. The occupational status, which is a good indicator of the socioeconomic status, also indicates the level and the type of stress that they are exposed to, as well as the individual lifestyle choices. The present work was planned to study the relationship of the prediabetic status with obesity and the occupational status by estimating the Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) levels. To study the association of the occupational status with the fasting blood glucose levels and obesity in middle aged women. The Fasting Blood Glucose levels and the BMI were estimated in 300 asymptomatic middle aged women who had no family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (D.M.), who had been divided into the Control (I), the Pre - obese (IIa) and the Obese groups (IIb). The occupational status was broadly divided into the categories of housewives and service women. The results was analysed statistically by using the correlation coefficient and the 'z' test. The mean FBG levels in the pre - obese and the obese groups were higher than those in the control group. We found significant differences in the FBG levels in the normal weight, the pre - obese as well as in the obese groups among the service women, but no significant correlation was found in the pre - obese and the obese groups. Among the housewives, we found significant differences in the FBG levels of the normal weight and the obese groups, but not in the pre - obese group. Also, no significant correlation was found in the pre - obese and obese groups among the service women. The BMI may be good risk predictor for Type 2 D.M. irrespective of the occupational status, especially in middle aged women.

  20. Occupational Outlook in the 15th Century: Sanchez de Arevalo's Mirror of Human Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassus, Henri; Zytowski, Donald G.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a book published in 1468, Rodrigo Sanchez de Arevalo's "Mirror of Human Life," the earliest known comprehensive compilation of occupational descriptions. Describes the similarity of Sanchez's ideas about occupational choice and contemporary career counseling theory: informed choice; person-environment congruence; and the components of…

  1. Developing New Models for Paraprofessionals in Human Service Occupations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Seymour; And Others

    The project's purpose of eliminating major obstacles blocking career advancement of human service paraprofessionals was achieved through a developed model allowing new options for upgrading workers in three occupations: Addiction services, child development, and occupational therapy. The policies and practices of educational institutions,…

  2. Short human occupations in the Middle Palaeolithic level I of the Abric Romani rock-shelter (Capellades, Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Vallverdú, J; Allué, E; Bischoff, J L; Cáceres, I; Carbonell, E; Cebrià, A; García-Antón, D; Huguet, R; Ibáñez, N; Martínez, K; Pastó, I; Rosell, J; Saladié, P; Vaquero, M

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary study on the size of the occupied surfaces, provisioning strategies and behaviour planning at the Romani rock-shelter, using the Middle Palaeolithic record of the level i. This level is dated around 46.000 BP through U/Th ages. A behavioural interpretation is proposed, which emphasises the activities and the systemic value of the archaeological artefacts and structures. Occupation patterns are identified on the basis of the accumulations formed by human activities. These archaeological accumulations, consisting of artefacts and hearths, are easily defined visually as spatial units. The relationships between these accumulations, established by means of refitted remains, indicate that differences can be established between: 1) small and medium-sized occupation surfaces; 2) restricted and diversified provisioning strategies. This variability suggests that different modes of occupation are represented in the same archaeological level. The human activities reveal the generalization of fire technology. In almost all sizes of the occupation surfaces, the exploitation of vegetal resources near the Abric Romani marks the threshold of the restricted provisioning strategy. Limited use and fragmented knapping activities are recorded in the lithic assemblage. Faunal remains show differential transport. The exploitation of lithic, faunal and vegetal resources characterizes the diversified provisioning strategy. The small occupation surfaces and restricted provisioning strategies suggest short settlements in the Abric Romani. This shorter occupation model complements the longer diversified provisioning strategy recorded in both small and medium-sized occupied surfaces. The selection of precise elements for transport and the possible deferred consumption in the diversified provision strategy suggest an individual supply. In this respect, Neanderthal occupations in the Romani rock-shelter show a direct relation to: 1) hunting strategic

  3. Muscarinic receptor occupancy by biperiden in living human brain.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Y; Suhara, T; Suzuki, K; Okubo, Y; Yoshikawa, K; Uchida, S; Sassa, T; Okauchi, T; Sasaki, Y; Matsushita, M

    1999-01-01

    Anticholinergic drug is often used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms. We measured muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) occupancy by the oral administration of biperiden in eight healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate (NMPB). After the baseline scan each subject underwent one or two post-dose PET scans. mAchR occupancy was 10-45% in the frontal cortex three hours after the oral administration of 4 mg of biperiden. The occupancy correlated with the plasma concentration of biperiden in a curvilinear manner.

  4. Lung, gastric and colorectal cancer mortality by occupation and industry among working-aged men in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R.

    2017-01-01

    We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25–64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8–11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. The highest mortality rates for lung and colorectal cancer by occupation were “administrative and managerial” (by occupation) and “mining” (by industry). For gastric cancer, the highest mortality rate was “agriculture” (by occupation) and “mining” (by industry). By occupation; Japanese men in service occupations, those in administrative and managerial positions, those in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and those in professional and engineering categories had higher relative mortality risks for lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. By industry; mining, electricity and gas, fisheries, and agriculture and forestry had the higher mortality risks for those cancers. Unemployed men had higher mortality rates than men in any occupation and industry for all three cancers. Overall, this study suggests that for Japanese men, occupations and industries may be a key social determinant of health. PMID:28230191

  5. Lung, gastric and colorectal cancer mortality by occupation and industry among working-aged men in Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R

    2017-02-23

    We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25-64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8-11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. The highest mortality rates for lung and colorectal cancer by occupation were "administrative and managerial" (by occupation) and "mining" (by industry). For gastric cancer, the highest mortality rate was "agriculture" (by occupation) and "mining" (by industry). By occupation; Japanese men in service occupations, those in administrative and managerial positions, those in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and those in professional and engineering categories had higher relative mortality risks for lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. By industry; mining, electricity and gas, fisheries, and agriculture and forestry had the higher mortality risks for those cancers. Unemployed men had higher mortality rates than men in any occupation and industry for all three cancers. Overall, this study suggests that for Japanese men, occupations and industries may be a key social determinant of health.

  6. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  7. Age, human performance, and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Groeller, Herbert; McGinn, Ryan; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-06-01

    The proportion of older workers has increased substantially in recent years, with over 25% of the Canadian labour force aged ≥55 years. Along with chronological age comes age-related declines in functional capacity associated with impairments to the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems. As a result, older workers are reported to exhibit reductions in work output and in the ability to perform and/or sustain the required effort when performing work tasks. However, research has presented some conflicting views on the consequences of aging in the workforce, as physically demanding occupations can be associated with improved or maintained physical function. Furthermore, the current methods for evaluating physical function in older workers often lack specificity and relevance to the actual work tasks, leading to an underestimation of physical capacity in the older worker. Nevertheless, industry often lacks the appropriate information and/or tools to accommodate the aging workforce, particularly in the context of physical employment standards. Ultimately, if appropriate workplace strategies and work performance standards are adopted to optimize the strengths and protect against the vulnerability of the aging workers, they can perform as effectively as their younger counterparts. Our aim in this review is to evaluate the impact of different individual (including physiological decline, chronic disease, lifestyle, and physical activity) and occupational (including shift work, sleep deprivation, and cold/heat exposure) factors on the physical decline of older workers, and therefore the risk of work-related injuries or illness.

  8. Early human occupation of Western Europe: Paleomagnetic dates for two paleolithic sites in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Oms, O.; Parés, J. M.; Martínez-Navarro, B.; Agustí, J.; Toro, I.; Martínez-Fernández, G.; Turq, A.

    2000-01-01

    The lacustrine deposits infilling the intramontane Guadix-Baza Basin, in the Betic Range of Southern Spain, have yielded abundant well-preserved lithic artifacts. In addition, the lake beds contain a wide range of micromammals including Mimomys savini and Allophaiomys burgondiae and large mammals such as Mammuthus and Hippopotamus together with the African saber-toothed felid Megantereon. The association of the lithic artifacts along with the fossil assemblages, themselves of prime significance in the Eurasian mammal biochronology, is providing new insight into the controversy of the human settlement in Southern Europe. Despite the importance of the artifacts and fossil assemblage, estimates of the geological age of the site are still in conflict. Some attempts at dating the sediments have included biochronology, uranium series, amino acid racemization, and stratigraphic correlation with other well-dated sections in the basin, but so far have failed to yield unambiguous ages. Here we present paleomagnetic age dating at the relevant localities and thus provide useful age constraints for this critical paleoanthropological and mammal site. Our data provide firm evidence for human occupation in Southern Europe in the Lower Pleistocene, around 1 mega-annum ago. The current view of when and how hominids first dispersed into Europe needs to be reevaluated. PMID:10973485

  9. Human Occupation Successively Accumulates Microorganisms and Changes Their Diversity in a Planetary Out-Post Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, T. M.; Blachowicz, A. B.; Probst, A. P.; Vaishampayan, P. V.; Checinska, A. C.; Swarmer, T. S.; De Leon, P. D. L.; Venkateswaran, K. V.

    2015-10-01

    The microbial contamination of a simulated inflatable lunar/mars habitat during a 30-day occupation period by three student astronauts was monitored. Results provide evidence for a strong relationship of human presence and microbial succession.

  10. An Application of John Holland's Vocational Theory to an Empirical Study of Occupational Mobility of Men Age 45-59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, George E.

    This study was designed to investigate the occupational movement and reasons for movement of men aged 45 to 59 between their first and current jobs, and more precisely to examine: (1) change and stability of various occupational personality types, (2) the effect of selected variables on change and stability of personality types, and (3) the…

  11. Role of the CYP1A2 Gene Polymorphism on Early Ageing from Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eshkoor, SA; Ismail, P; Rahman, SA; Moin, S; Adon, MY

    2013-01-01

    The ageing process is influenced by many internal and external factors. The toxic substances in the environment can cause genomic damages to cells, which increase the risk of early ageing. Furthermore, the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene polymorphism is a susceptibility factor and may enhance the risk of DNA damage in cells. The current study was carried out to show whether occupational exposure could cause genotoxicity in cells carrying the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism, thus enhancing the likelihood of early ageing. This study was conducted on mechanical workshop workers and a control group by collecting buccal cells from their mouths. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to identify the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism in the cells. In addition, three extra methods including micronuclei (MN) test, comet assay and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to determine the effects of gene polymorphisms on DNA damage and ageing from occupational exposure. The results showed that DNA damage in the cells carrying the mutated genotype was higher than the wild genotype. In addition, the difference in MN frequency (p = 0.001) and relative telomere length (p = 0.002) between workers and controls was significant (p <0.05) in the mutated genotype. The findings indicated a possible protective effect of gene polymorphism against early ageing, which was characterized by lack of a significant influence of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism on genetic material in the subjects (p >0.05). It was concluded that the CYP1A2 gene could be a contributing factor to prevent early ageing from occupational exposure. PMID:24778563

  12. Eudaimonic well-being: its importance and relevance to occupational therapy for humanity.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Claire; Taylor, Jackie

    2011-09-01

    Contemporary critique of the philosophy and theory of occupational therapy has asserted that the mainstream of the profession holds a westernized view of the world and that occupational therapy has been shackled to notions of health/illness and the medical establishment for too long, hampering movement into social and political spheres. Strategies and developments have been proposed to combat these biases, which have included increased cultural relativism and a re-focus on the subjective experience of occupation. The value placed on "being" in occupational therapy philosophy is described alongside the related terms of occupational integrity and spirituality. Drawing on theory and research from psychology, this paper proposes the construct of eudaimonic well-being as both relevant and valuable to occupational therapy in re-conceptualizing the profession, countering some of the central tensions in the identity of the profession and re-asserting that well-being through occupation is for all and for humanity. Finally, the paper proposes that well-being, in a eudaimonic sense, should be advertised and evidenced as a routine outcome of occupational therapy and consolidated into occupational therapy models as a relevant and meaningful concept.

  13. Using recruitment source timing and diagnosticity to enhance applicants' occupation-specific human capital.

    PubMed

    Campion, Michael C; Ployhart, Robert E; Campion, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-14296-001). In the article, the following headings were inadvertently set at the wrong level: Method, Participants and Procedure, Measures, Occupation specific human capital, Symbolic jobs, Relevant majors, Occupation-specific capital hotspots, Source timing, Source diagnosticity, Results, and Discussion. All versions of this article have been corrected.] This study proposes that reaching applicants through more diagnostic recruitment sources earlier in their educational development (e.g., in high school) can lead them to invest more in their occupation-specific human capital (OSHC), thereby making them higher quality candidates. Using a sample of 78,157 applicants applying for jobs within a desirable professional occupation in the public sector, results indicate that applicants who report hearing about the occupation earlier, and applicants who report hearing about the occupation through more diagnostic sources, have higher levels of OSHC upon application. Additionally, source timing and diagnosticity affect the likelihood of candidates applying for jobs symbolic of the occupation, selecting relevant majors, and attending educational institutions with top programs related to the occupation. These findings suggest a firm's recruiting efforts may influence applicants' OSHC investment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Role of Occupational Complexity in Trajectories of Cognitive Aging Before and After Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; Andel, Ross; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between complexity of the main lifetime occupation and changes in cognitive ability in later life. Data on complexity of work with data, people, and things and on four cognitive factors (verbal, spatial, memory, and speed) were available from 462 individuals in the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Mean age at the first measurement wave was 64.3 (s.d. = 7.2) and 65% of the sample had at least 3 waves of data. Occupational complexity with people and data were both correlated with cognitive performance. Individuals with more complex work demonstrated higher mean performance on the verbal, spatial, and speed factors. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that, after correcting for education, only complexity with people was associated with differences in cognitive performance and rate of cognitive change. Continued engagement as a result of occupational complexity with people helped to facilitate verbal function before retirement, while a previous high level of complexity of work with people was associated with faster decline after retirement on the spatial factor. PMID:19739912

  15. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research.

  16. Last glacial megafaunal death assemblage and early human occupation at Lake Menindee, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupper, Matthew L.; Duncan, Jacqui

    2006-09-01

    The Tedford subfossil locality at Lake Menindee preserves a diverse assemblage of marsupials, monotremes and placental rodents. Of the 38 mammal taxa recorded at the site, almost a third are of extinct megafauna. Some of the bones are articulated or semi-articulated and include almost complete skeletons, indicating that aeolian sediments rapidly buried the animals following death. New optical ages show the site dates to the early part of the last glacial (55,700 ± 1300 yr weighted mean age). This is close to the 51,200-39,800 yr Australia-wide extinction age for megafauna suggested by Roberts et al. [2001, Science 292:1888-1892], but like all previous researchers, we cannot conclusively determine whether humans were implicated in the deaths of the animals. Although an intrusive hearth at the site dating to 45,100 ± 1400 yr ago is the oldest evidence of human occupation of the Darling River, no artifacts were identified in situ within the sub-fossil-bearing unit. Non-anthropogenic causes, such as natural senescence or ecosystem stress due to climatic aridity, probably explain the mortality of the faunal assemblage at Lake Menindee.

  17. Spinal injury in car crashes: crash factors and the effects of occupant age.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Clarke, Elizabeth C; Brown, Julie

    2011-08-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of serious spinal injury in most developed nations. However, since these injuries are rare, systematic analyses of the crash factors that are predictive of spinal injury have rarely been performed. This study aimed to use a population-reference crash sample to identify crash factors associated with moderate to severe spinal injury, and how these vary with occupant age. The US National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS) data for 1993-2007 were analysed using logistic regression to identify crash factors associated with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)2+ spinal injury among restrained vehicle passengers. Risk of moderate or severe spinal injury (AIS2+) was associated with higher severity crashes (OR=3.5 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.6)), intrusion into an occupant's seating position (OR=2.7 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.7)), striking a fixed object rather than another car (OR=1.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.1)), and use of a shoulder-only belt (OR=2.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.8)). Older occupants (65 years or older) were at higher risk of spinal injury than younger adults in frontal, side and rollover crashes. Children under 16 were at a lower risk of spinal injury than adults in all crash types except frontal crashes. While the risk of serious spinal injury in motor vehicle crashes is low, these injuries are more common in crashes of higher severity or into fixed objects, and in the presence of intrusion. There are elevated risks of spinal injury for older occupants compared with younger adults, which may reflect changes in biomechanical tolerances with age. Children appear to be at lower risk of serious spinal injury than adults except in frontal crashes.

  18. Application of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for occupational therapy research.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Theoretical models provide a framework for describing practice and integrating evidence into systematic research. There are few models that relate specifically to the provision of assistive technology in occupational therapy practice. The Human Activity Assistive Technology model is an enduring example that has continued to develop by integrating a social model of disability, concepts from occupational therapy theory and principles of assistive technology adoption and abandonment. This study first describes the core concepts of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model and reviews its development over three successive published versions. A review of the research literature reflects application of the model to clinical practice, study design, outcome measure selection and interpretation of results, particularly among occupational therapists. An evaluative framework is used to critique the adequacy of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for practice and research, exploring attributes of clarity, simplicity, generality, accessibility and importance. Finally, recommendations are proposed for continued development of the model and research applications. Most of the existing research literature employs the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for background and study design; there is emerging evidence to support the core concepts as predictive factors. Although the concepts are generally simple, clear and applicable to occupational therapy practice and research, evolving terminology and outcomes become more complex with the conflation of integrated theories. The development of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model offers enhanced access and application for occupational therapists, but poses challenges to clarity among concepts. Suggestions are made for further development and applications of the model. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. The meaning of occupational health among human resources professionals--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Blizzard, Kim

    2006-06-01

    The study findings provide clear rationale for employing occupational health nurses as specialists in understanding occupational health, particularly in the areas of information seeking (e.g., identifying health resources and best practices) and illness or disability management (e.g., managing complex cases and addressing psychosocial factors). Occupational health nurses can assist human resources professionals to direct their energies to administrative and cultural features within their organizations that impact the health of employees and that clearly fall within their realm of expertise (e.g., working to create a workplace climate of genuine concern for employees). Occupational health nurses can provide aggregate information on the health of the work force to strategically encourage, direct, and harness employer investments in workplace health. Finding ways to translate and communicate workplace health information so it is accessible and useable by employers to direct decision making is a key role for occupational health nurses.

  20. Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Reserve in a Middle-Aged Cohort at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Boots, Elizabeth A; Schultz, Stephanie A; Almeida, Rodrigo P; Oh, Jennifer M; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-11-01

    Higher occupational attainment has previously been associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology when individuals are matched for cognitive function, indicating occupation could provide cognitive reserve. We examined whether occupational complexity (OCC) associates with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy given comparable cognitive function in middle-aged adults at risk for AD. Participants (n = 323) underwent structural MRI, cognitive evaluation, and work history assessment. Three complexity ratings (work with data, people, and things) were obtained, averaged across up to 3 reported jobs, weighted by years per job, and summed to create a composite OCC rating. Greater OCC was associated with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy when matched for cognitive function; results remained substantively unchanged after adjusting for several demographic, AD risk, vascular, mental health, and socioeconomic characteristics. These findings suggest that, in people at risk for AD, OCC may confer resilience to the adverse effects of neuropathology on cognition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Enthesopathy formation in the humerus: Data from known age-at-death and known occupation skeletal collections.

    PubMed

    Alves Cardoso, F; Henderson, C Y

    2010-04-01

    Enthesopathies, in the guise of musculoskeletal skeletal stress markers (MSM), have been widely used to reconstruct activity levels in human skeletal populations. In general, studies have focused on their presence in the upper limb, which is used in the majority of daily activities. The aim of this study was to use some of the attachment sites on the humerus to explore the relationship between enthesopathy formation, activity, and the ageing process. The skeletal sample used in this study comprised male adult skeletons with known age-at-death and known occupations from the late-19th and early-20th century cemeteries in Portugal. The enthesopathies were recorded as either present or absent. Statistical analysis using Fishers exact tests and logistic regression was undertaken to determine whether associations could be found between specific activities or socioeconomic status (manual or nonmanual workers), and age and enthesopathy presence. Left and right sides were analyzed separately. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine the relationship between activity and enthesopathy, and they demonstrated no association between activity and enthesopathies (P > 0.01). The results of the logistic regression established that age was the single most significant factor in enthesopathy formation (P > 0.05). This study found that, in these samples, age-at-death, and therefore age-related degeneration rather than degeneration caused by activities, was the primary cause of enthesopathy formation. Considering the difficulties of reliably ageing adult human skeletal remains, this is a major issue for studies of activity using enthesopathies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes.

  3. Melatonin and human skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Kleszczynski, Konrad; Fischer, Tobias W.

    2012-01-01

    Like the whole organism, skin follows the process of aging during life-time. Additional to internal factors, several environmental factors, such as solar radiation, considerably contribute to this process. While fundamental mechanisms regarding skin aging are known, new aspects of anti-aging agents such as melatonin are introduced. Melatonin is a hormone produced in the glandula pinealis that follows a circadian light-dependent rhythm of secretion. It has been experimentally implicated in skin functions such as hair cycling and fur pigmentation, and melatonin receptors are expressed in many skin cell types including normal and malignant keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. It possesses a wide range of endocrine properties as well as strong antioxidative activity. Regarding UV-induced solar damage, melatonin distinctly counteracts massive generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial and DNA damage. Thus, there is considerable evidence for melatonin to be an effective anti-skin aging compound, and its various properties in this context are described in this review. PMID:23467217

  4. Ageing of the human hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Swaab, D F

    1995-01-01

    The various hypothalamic nuclei show very different patterns of change in ageing. These patterns are a basis for changes in biological rhythms, hormones, autonomous functions or behavior. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) coordinates circadian and circannual rhythms. A marked seasonal and circadian variation in the vasopressin (AVP) cell number of the SCN was observed in relation to the variation in photoperiod. During normal ageing, the circadian variation and number of AVP-expressing neurons in the SCN decreases. The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN), intermediate nucleus or INAH-1 is localized between the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In adult men the SDN is twice as large as in adult women. In girls, the SDN shows a first period of decreasing cell numbers during prepubertal development, leading to sexual dimorphism. During ageing a decrease in cell number is found in both sexes. The cells of the supraoptic nucleus and PVN produce AVP or oxytocin and coexpress tyrosine hydroxylase. These nuclei are examples of neuron populations that seem to stay perfectly intact in ageing. Parvicellular corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-containing neurons are found throughout the PVN. CRH neurons in the PVN are activated in the course of ageing, as indicated by their increase in number and AVP coexpression. Part of the infundibular (or arcuate) nucleus, the subventricular nucleus, contains hypertrophic neurons in postmenopausal women. The hypertrophied neurons contain neurokinin-B (NKB), substance P and estrogen receptors and probably act on LHRH neurons as interneurons. The NKB neurons may also be involved in the initiation of menopausal flushes. The nucleus tuberalis lateralis might be involved in feeding behavior and metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Disaster recovery: lessons learned from an occupational health and human resources perspective.

    PubMed

    Perce, Karen H

    2007-06-01

    Hurricane Katrina was unprecedented in its impact on individuals, businesses, community infrastructure, and national disaster support systems. The business recovery experience highlighted the key roles of human resources professionals and the occupational health nurse in assisting employees and the business to recover. Business leaders may not realize the importance of the occupational health nurse's knowledge and skills in preparing and testing the business continuity plan, and the nurse's role in the disaster recovery effort. This is a critical opportunity for the nurse to contribute. Learning from previous disaster recovery efforts is an important step in increasing the occupational health nurse's effectiveness in a business disaster recovery effort.

  6. Occupational mortality of women aged 15-59 years at death in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, K A; Goldblatt, P O

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to analyse occupational mortality differences among women using follow up data from a large nationally representative sample. DESIGN--Occupational information was obtained from the 1971 census records of women in the Longitudinal Study carried out by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and related to their subsequent mortality in the period between the 1971 and 1981 censuses. SETTING--In the Longitudinal Study, census, vital statistics, and other OPCS records are linked for a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. The women studied in this paper were drawn from the 513,071 persons in the 1971 census who were included in the Longitudinal Study and whose entries were traced at the National Health Service Central Register by 1977. PARTICIPANTS--The analysis was based on 77,081 women aged 15-59 years in the Longitudinal Study for whom occupational information was collected in the 1971 census (99% of whom were in paid employment in the week before the census). There were 1553 deaths among these women in the follow up period analysed here. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Numbers of deaths in each occupational group at census were compared to those expected on the basis of age specific death rates among all women in the study. "Professional, technical workers, and artists" had significantly low mortality while "Engineering and allied trades workers nec" had significantly high mortality. Among the latter, cancer mortality of electrical production process workers was extremely high. A number of other cause specific associations (which appear to confirm proportionate Decennial Supplement analyses) were suggested by the data; examples include high levels of mortality from ischaemic heart disease among cooks, lung cancer and respiratory disease among charwomen and cleaners, and accidents, poisonings, and violence among several groups of professional and technical workers. CONCLUSIONS--By using prospective follow up from

  7. Relationship between oxidative and occupational stress and aging in nurses of an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Alberto; López-Fernández, M. Encarnación; Ruíz, Rocío; García Aroca, Concha; Noriega, Federico

    2008-01-01

    Stressful conditions lead to formation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress and aging. The aim of this study was to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in nurses of a hospital intensive care unit according to demographic and occupational parameters, and to analyse the relationship with aging. Thirty-two nurses working in an intensive care unit and 35 aged-matched healthy individuals of both sexes as a control group were surveyed. No significant variations with respect to sex were detected in SOD, CAT, MDA and burnout levels. MDA levels increased with age in both the control group and the nurses, and we observed significant differences in MDA levels between the control group and nurses for all age groups. Significant variations in MDA levels were detected between single (286.12 ± 8.41) and married (318.82 ± 6.02), people, between those who frequently practice some kind of sport (281.41 ± 7.32) and those who never participate in sport (298.24 ± 8.11) ,and between those who frequently eat fruit and greens (289.75 ± 8.41) and those who never eat them (315.12 ± 7.21). Significant differences were detected between smokers and nonsmokers in SOD, CAT and MDA, but not for alcohol, coffee, tea or cola consumption. Higher SOD activity and MDA levels were detected in nurses on evening and night shifts (P < 0.01); these nurses also scored significantly higher on burnout subscales. These results suggest that: (1) occupational stress increases oxidative stress levels as a response to elevated ROS generation; (2) occupational stress increases MDA levels as a response to an elevation in free radical generation and can lead to aging; (3) working evening and night shifts increases oxidative and burnout levels. It is evident that preventive changes in job conditions and lifestyle are necessary to improve the quality of life of nurses who work in intensive

  8. Human hair lead copper levels in three occupationally unexposed population groups in Calcutta

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, J.; Chaudhuri, A.B.D.

    1996-10-01

    The element lead (Pb) has been very widely studied in man due to its widespread occurrence and toxic effects. There is no known nutritional value of Pb and it is stored in the bone by replacing calcium. In the cellular level, Pb alters cell membrane structure and membrane on function. It is a potent inhibitor of the Na{sup +} K{sup +} ATPase. Pb also interferes with the activity of the enzymes delta-aminoevulinic acid synthetase, delta-aminolevulinic dehydrase and intra-mitochondrial ferrochelatase. In the pre-natal level, Pb-exposure may lead to an increased risk of prematurity and reduction of gestational age in humans. Pb-exposure causes adverse neuro-psychological effects among young children and numerous endrocrinal disturbances among adults. It has shown that Human Scalp Hair (HSH) Pb concentration can be used very successfully to document population exposure to this toxic element. Copper is known to be biologically essential, but Cu poisoning is rare in humans. This study attempts to document exposure and to determine `base-line` values for HSH Pb and CU among three occupationally unexposed population groups in Calcutta. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions for the Occupational Specialist. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Juanita B.; Boland, Jeanne M.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist interact effectively with a variety of students, teachers, co-workers and employees. Other modules in this set of three are Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational…

  10. The Impact of Aging on Human Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Barbara A.

    1985-01-01

    Lay persons and professionals need to be educated on the effects of aging on human sexuality. Effective communication techniques and accurate sexuality information can lead to prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction. (Author/DF)

  11. The Impact of Aging on Human Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Barbara A.

    1985-01-01

    Lay persons and professionals need to be educated on the effects of aging on human sexuality. Effective communication techniques and accurate sexuality information can lead to prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction. (Author/DF)

  12. Large-scale identification of sequence variants influencing human transcription factor occupancy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maurano, Matthew T; Haugen, Eric; Sandstrom, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Shafer, Anthony; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2015-12-01

    The function of human regulatory regions depends exquisitely on their local genomic environment and on cellular context, complicating experimental analysis of common disease- and trait-associated variants that localize within regulatory DNA. We use allelically resolved genomic DNase I footprinting data encompassing 166 individuals and 114 cell types to identify >60,000 common variants that directly influence transcription factor occupancy and regulatory DNA accessibility in vivo. The unprecedented scale of these data enables systematic analysis of the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor occupancy in vivo. We leverage this analysis to develop accurate models of variation affecting the recognition sites for diverse transcription factors and apply these models to discriminate nearly 500,000 common regulatory variants likely to affect transcription factor occupancy across the human genome. The approach and results provide a new foundation for the analysis and interpretation of noncoding variation in complete human genomes and for systems-level investigation of disease-associated variants.

  13. Three case studies of community occupational therapy for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Misko, Alexis N; Nelson, David L; Duggan, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate the complexities and opportunities in providing community-based occupational therapy services to persons with HIV. An infectious disease physician recommended three clients for therapy sessions in both the home and community. The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) in conjunction with the Conceptual Framework for Therapeutic Occupation (CFTO) was used to guide the therapeutic process. Assessments measured challenges to clients and client progress in the following areas: leisure, mobility, organization, problem solving, community involvement, transitioning to independent living, fatigue, childcare/play, and home management. This paper describes the three cases with findings suggesting that community-based occupational therapy has potential to address important issues such as habits, roles, and volition in the HIV/AIDS population.

  14. Theory use in practice: a national survey of therapists who use the Model of Human Occupation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Wook; Taylor, Renee; Kielhofner, Gary; Fisher, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This study describes how occupational therapists who reported using the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) actually use the concepts and tools of this model in everyday practice as well as identifies supports and barriers to its use. A systematic random sample of 1,000 occupational therapists was surveyed as to what theories they used in their practice. Those using MOHO (430) were sent a detailed questionnaire; 259 therapists (60.2%) responded to the survey questionnaire. More than 80% of respondents indicated that they used MOHO in their practice at least some of the time. Therapists reported that MOHO supports holistic, occupation-focused, client-centered, and evidence-based practice. They reported finding MOHO concepts useful for treatment planning and intervention. Most saw the major barrier to using MOHO as their own lack of knowledge. Making resources more readily available and accessible to therapists might enhance the extent to which they use conceptual models such as MOHO.

  15. Microbial succession in an inflated lunar/Mars analog habitat during a 30-day human occupation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Teresa; Blachowicz, Adriana; Probst, Alexander J; Vaishampayan, Parag; Checinska, Aleksandra; Swarmer, Tiffany; de Leon, Pablo; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-06-02

    For potential future human missions to the Moon or Mars and sustained presence in the International Space Station, a safe enclosed habitat environment for astronauts is required. Potential microbial contamination of closed habitats presents a risk for crewmembers due to reduced human immune response during long-term confinement. To make future habitat designs safer for crewmembers, lessons learned from characterizing analogous habitats is very critical. One of the key issues is that how human presence influences the accumulation of microorganisms in the closed habitat. Molecular technologies, along with traditional microbiological methods, were utilized to catalog microbial succession during a 30-day human occupation of a simulated inflatable lunar/Mars habitat. Surface samples were collected at different time points to capture the complete spectrum of viable and potential opportunistic pathogenic bacterial population. Traditional cultivation, propidium monoazide (PMA)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were employed to estimate the cultivable, viable, and metabolically active microbial population, respectively. Next-generation sequencing was used to elucidate the microbial dynamics and community profiles at different locations of the habitat during varying time points. Statistical analyses confirm that occupation time has a strong influence on bacterial community profiles. The Day 0 samples (before human occupation) have a very different microbial diversity compared to the later three time points. Members of Proteobacteria (esp. Oxalobacteraceae and Caulobacteraceae) and Firmicutes (esp. Bacillaceae) were most abundant before human occupation (Day 0), while other members of Firmicutes (Clostridiales) and Actinobacteria (esp. Corynebacteriaceae) were abundant during the 30-day occupation. Treatment of samples with PMA (a DNA-intercalating dye for selective detection of viable microbial population) had a

  16. College Students' Perceptions of Job Demands, Recommended Retirement Ages, and Age of Optimal Performance in Selected Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Staats, Sara; Hiles, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted. In study one 100 participants rated 60 occupations on the amount of cognitive/intellectual, physical, sensory-perceptual, and perceptual-motor demands they perceived as required for successful performance in that particular occupation. Results of a cluster analysis determined four clusters of occupations on the basis of…

  17. The environmental contexts of early human occupation of Georgia (Transcaucasia).

    PubMed

    Gabunia, L; Vekua, A; Lordkipanidze, D

    2000-06-01

    The hominid mandible and a third metatarsal found in Dmanisi (Republic of Georgia) are accompanied by a rich faunal assemblage and a core-chopper stone tool industry. The mandible represents a somewhat isolated morphological type of Homo erectus that appears, given the combination of its primitive and advanced traits and specific dental morphology, to be a forerunner of both late H. erectus and early archaic H. sapiens. The faunal assemblage mostly consists of Villafranchian mammals, with the majority of the species assigned to an early phase of the Upper Villafranchian (Late Villanian and Early Biharian). Faunal and paleobotanical evidence as well as the depositional nature of the site indicate that hominid occupation took place in a mosaic environment of open steppe and gallery forests. Both the concentration of resources and the warm climatic conditions in the Dmanisi region at the beginning of the early Pleistocene were favorable for hominid occupation. It is possible that hominids reached the Caucasus through the Levantine corridor, and that the environment of this region allowed them to establish a stronghold and later colonize adjacent areas.

  18. Occupational health and safety management practices and musculoskeletal disorders in aged care.

    PubMed

    Oakman, Jodi; Bartram, Timothy

    2017-05-15

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether occupational health and safety (OHS) management used to manage musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the aged care sector reflects contemporary research evidence of best practice to reduce the incidence of these disorders. Design/methodology/approach In total, 58 interviews were conducted with managers and supervisors in the aged care sector across four organisations in Australia. Policies and procedures relating to MSDs were reviewed for each organisation. Findings Policies and procedures for managing MSDs do not reflect contemporary evidence, which supports a complex aetiology, related to a range of physical and psychosocial workplace factors. Despite strong evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to MSD development, these were not included in the policies and procedures reviewed. Findings from the interviews management practices including leadership and various components of HRM were functioning well but fragmentation was evident due to the challenging nature of the aged care sector. Practical implications To address the significant burden of MSDs in the aged care sector, policies and procedures need to include coverage of psychosocial and physical workplace factors. The development of systematic and integrated OHS management at the workplace level may play an important role in the effective management of MSDs. Originality/value This study offers insights into the previously unexplored area of MSD risk management and the role of management practices such as HRM in the aged care sector.

  19. Exposure to heavy physical occupational activities during working life and bone mineral density at the hip at retirement age.

    PubMed

    Walker-Bone, K; D'Angelo, S; Syddall, H E; Palmer, K T; Cooper, C; Coggon, D; Dennison, E M

    2014-05-01

    People in sedentary occupations are at increased risk of hip fracture. Hip fracture is significantly associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the hip. Physical activity is important in the development and maintenance of BMD, but the effects of occupational physical activity on bone health are unclear. We investigated the influence of lifetime physical activity on BMD at the hip. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study of the associations between total hip BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at retirement age and lifetime exposure to occupational physical workload (standing/walking ≥4 h/day; lifting ≥25 kg; energetic work sufficient to induce sweating and manual work). Complete data on occupational exposures were available for 860 adults (488 men and 372 women) who had worked ≥20 years. Their mean age was 65 years, and many reported heavy physical workplace activities over prolonged durations. There were no statistically significant associations between total hip BMD and any of these measures of lifetime occupational physical activity in men or women. Lifetime cumulative occupational activity was not associated with hip BMD at retirement age. Our findings suggest that, if sedentary work conveys an increased risk of hip fracture, it is unlikely that the mechanism is through reductions in BMD at the hip and may relate to other physical effects, such as falls risk. Further studies will be needed to test this hypothesis.

  20. Animal and human models to understand ageing.

    PubMed

    Lees, Hayley; Walters, Hannah; Cox, Lynne S

    2016-11-01

    Human ageing is the gradual decline in organ and tissue function with increasing chronological time, leading eventually to loss of function and death. To study the processes involved over research-relevant timescales requires the use of accessible model systems that share significant similarities with humans. In this review, we assess the usefulness of various models, including unicellular yeasts, invertebrate worms and flies, mice and primates including humans, and highlight the benefits and possible drawbacks of each model system in its ability to illuminate human ageing mechanisms. We describe the strong evolutionary conservation of molecular pathways that govern cell responses to extracellular and intracellular signals and which are strongly implicated in ageing. Such pathways centre around insulin-like growth factor signalling and integration of stress and nutritional signals through mTOR kinase. The process of cellular senescence is evaluated as a possible underlying cause for many of the frailties and diseases of human ageing. Also considered is ageing arising from systemic changes that cannot be modelled in lower organisms and instead require studies either in small mammals or in primates. We also touch briefly on novel therapeutic options arising from a better understanding of the biology of ageing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. The System and Human Resources for Occupational Health in Republic Of Indonesia for Japanese Enterprises to Manage Proper Occupational Health Activities at Overseas Workplaces.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Ko; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Adi, Nuri Purwito; Soemarko, Dewi Sumaryani; Uehara, Masamichi; Nakanishi, Shigemoto; Mori, Koji

    2017-09-13

    To consider the appropriate occupational health system for Japanese enterprises in Indonesia with information on the regulations and development of the specialists. In this study, we used the information-gathering checklist developed by Kajiki et al. Along with literature and internet surveys, we surveyed local corporations owned and operated by Indonesians, central government agencies in charge of medical and health issues, a Japanese independent administrative agency supporting subsidiaries of overseas Japanese enterprises, and an educational institution formulating specialized occupational physician training curricula. In Indonesia, the Ministry of Manpower and the Ministry of Health administer occupational health matters. The act No. 1 on safety serves as the fundamental regulation. We confirmed at least 40 respective regulations in pertinent areas, such as the placement of medical and health professionals, health examinations, occupational disease, and occupational health service agencies. There are some regulations that indicate only an outline of activities but not details. Occupational physicians and safety officers are the two professional roles responsible for occupational health activities. A new medical insurance system was started in 2014, and a workers' compensation system was also established in 2017 in Indonesia according to the National Social Security System Act. Although safety and health laws and regulations exist in Indonesia, their details are unclear and the quality of expert human resources needed varies. To conduct high-quality occupational health activities from the standpoint of Japanese companies' headquarters, the active promotion of employing highly specialized professionals and cooperation with educational institutions is recommended.

  2. [Comparison of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane acid in serum of non-occupational human from Shenyang and Chongqing areas].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi-He; Dong, Guang-Hui; Shu, Wei-Qun; Ding, Mei; Zhai, Cheng; Wang, Lie; Liu, Xiao; Saitou, Norimistu; Sasaki, Kazuaki

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to illustrate the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) levels in serum of non-occupational exposure human from Shenyang and Chongqing areas and to compare the distributing character and region difference of PFOS and PFOA in those two region human. Sera samples of non-occupational human from Shenyang and Chongqing areas were collected, and the concentration of PFOS and PFOA in serum were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Selective Detector (HPLC/MS-MIS). The average Shenyang and Chongqing fluorochemical concentrations, respectively, were as follows: PFOS, 22.40 microg/L vs 7.40 microg/L, PFOA, 4.32 microg/L vs 1.00 microg/L. Statistical analysis indicated that serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in Shenyang human than in Chongqing human. Furthermore, there are sex differences in PFOS and PFOA concentrations in serum at all location. In Shenyang the concentration of PFOS in females were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in males. The correlations of PFOS (r = 0.298) and PFOA (r = 0.271) with age were significant in females from Chongqing area, and especially the correlations were higher in older females (age t 50) than the groups of age < 13 and 13 - 50 years old. This finding suggests that there are predominant regional differences and distributing character for both PFOS and PFOA concentrations in Shenyang and Chongqing areas, and the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in serum were correlated with age and sex.

  3. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  4. Permanent human occupation of the central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M C; Aldenderfer, M S; Wang, Z; Hoffmann, D L; Dahl, J A; Degering, D; Haas, W R; Schlütz, F

    2017-01-06

    Current models of the peopling of the higher-elevation zones of the Tibetan Plateau postulate that permanent occupation could only have been facilitated by an agricultural lifeway at ~3.6 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present. Here we report a reanalysis of the chronology of the Chusang site, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at an elevation of ~4270 meters above sea level. The minimum age of the site is fixed at ~7.4 thousand years (thorium-230/uranium dating), with a maximum age between ~8.20 and 12.67 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present (carbon-14 assays). Travel cost modeling and archaeological data suggest that the site was part of an annual, permanent, preagricultural occupation of the central plateau. These findings challenge current models of the occupation of the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Biomechanics of side impact: injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Stemper, Brian D; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Weigelt, John A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of side impact trauma-related biomedical investigations with specific reference to certain aspects of epidemiology relating to the growing elderly population, improvements in technology such as side airbags geared toward occupant safety, and development of injury criteria. The first part is devoted to the involvement of the elderly by identifying variables contributing to injury including impact severity, human factors, and national and international field data. This is followed by a survey of various experimental models used in the development of injury criteria and tolerance limits. The effects of fragility of the elderly coupled with physiological changes (e.g., visual, musculoskeletal) that may lead to an abnormal seating position (termed out-of-position) especially for the driving population are discussed. Fundamental biomechanical parameters such as thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forces; upper and lower spinal and sacrum accelerations; and upper, middle and lower chest deflections under various initial impacting conditions are evaluated. Secondary variables such as the thoracic trauma index and pelvic acceleration (currently adopted in the United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards), peak chest deflection, and viscous criteria are also included in the survey. The importance of performing research studies with specific focus on out-of-position scenarios of the elderly and using the most commonly available torso side airbag as the initial contacting condition in lateral impacts for occupant injury assessment is emphasized.

  6. Biomechanics of side impact: Injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Gennarelli, Thomas A.; Weigelt, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of side impact trauma-related biomedical investigations with specific reference to certain aspects of epidemiology relating to the growing elderly population, improvements in technology such as side airbags geared toward occupant safety, and development of injury criteria. The first part is devoted to the involvement of the elderly by identifying variables contributing to injury including impact severity, human factors, and national and international field data. This is followed by a survey of various experimental models used in the development of injury criteria and tolerance limits. The effects of fragility of the elderly coupled with physiological changes (e.g., visual, musculoskeletal) that may lead to an abnormal seating position (termed out-of-position) especially for the driving population are discussed. Fundamental biomechanical parameters such as thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forces; upper and lower spinal and sacrum accelerations; and upper, middle and lower chest deflections under various initial impacting conditions are evaluated. Secondary variables such as the thoracic trauma index and pelvic acceleration (currently adopted in the United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards), peak chest deflection, and viscous criteria are also included in the survey. The importance of performing research studies with specific focus on out-of-position scenarios of the elderly and using the most commonly available torso side airbag as the initial contacting condition in lateral impacts for occupant injury assessment is emphasized. PMID:16527285

  7. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and occupations among employed adults aged 18-64years in the United States.

    PubMed

    Han, Beth; Crosby, Alex E; Ortega, LaVonne A G; Parks, Sharyn E; Compton, Wilson M; Gfroerer, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 70% of all US suicides are among working-age adults. This study was to determine whether and how 12-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempt were associated with specific occupations among currently employed adults aged 18-64 in the U.S. Data were from 184,300 currently employed adults who participated in the 2008-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). NSDUH provides nationally representative data on suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. Among currently employed adults aged 18-64 in the U.S., 3.5% had suicidal ideation in the past 12months (3.1% had suicidal ideation only, and 0.4% had suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). Compared with adults in farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (model adjusted prevalence (MAP)=1.6%), adults in the following occupations were 3.0-3.6 times more likely to have suicidal ideation in the past year (model adjusted relative risks (MARRs)=3.0-3.6): lawyers, judges, and legal support workers (MAP=4.8%), social scientists and related workers (MAP=5.4%), and media and communication workers (MAP=5.8%). Among employed adults aged 18-64 in the U.S., the 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation varies by occupations. Adults in occupations that are at elevated risk for suicidal ideation may warrant focused suicide prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and occupations among employed adults aged 18–64 years in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Han, Beth; Crosby, Alex E.; Ortega, LaVonne A.G.; Parks, Sharyn E.; Compton, Wilson M.; Gfroerer, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective Approximately 70% of all US suicides are among working-age adults. This study was to determine whether and how 12-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempt were associated with specific occupations among currently employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S. Methods Data were from 184,300 currently employed adults who participated in the 2008–2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). NSDUH provides nationally representative data on suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. Results Among currently employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S., 3.5% had suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (3.1% had suicidal ideation only, and 0.4% had suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). Compared with adults in farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (model adjusted prevalence (MAP) = 1.6%), adults in the following occupations were 3.0–3.6 times more likely to have suicidal ideation in the past year (model adjusted relative risks (MARRs) = 3.0–3.6): lawyers, judges, and legal support workers (MAP = 4.8%), social scientists and related workers (MAP = 5.4%), and media and communication workers (MAP = 5.8%). Conclusions Among employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S., the 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation varies by occupations. Adults in occupations that are at elevated risk for suicidal ideation may warrant focused suicide prevention. PMID:26995251

  9. The challenges of human population ageing

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid; Krasnik, Allan; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical, social, public health and public policy challenges, whose full implications on a societal level are only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Some of these implications are discussed in this commentary, an outcome of Cultures of Health and Ageing, a conference co-sponsored by the University of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20–21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create ‘age-friendly’ societies and promote ‘ageing-in-community’? what tools will effectively promote social engagement and prevent social detachment among older individuals? is there a risk that further extension of human lifespan would be a greater burden to the individual and to society than is warranted by the potential benefit of longer life? PMID:25452294

  10. Achieving Ecological Validity of Occupation-Based Interventions for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Bernal, Guillermo; Mountain, Gail A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To develop a culturally sensitive occupation-based health promotion intervention for older Hispanic adults who live alone. Methods We used a mixed method design for the content validation of the intervention and the Ecological Validity Model (EVM) to culturally center the intervention. In the quantitative phase, aging experts as well as community members from two activity centers for the elderly in Puerto Rico completed a content validity ratio exercise. In the qualitative phase, we conducted three focus groups with these participants. Data analysis included content validity ratio and a directed content analysis. Results This resulted in a working version of the intervention protocol addressing the eight dimensions of the EVM. Conclusions The EVM can be used to culturally center preventive interventions to other ethnic minority groups to augment the external validity and cultural competence of interventions. Future research must test the feasibility of this new intervention. PMID:25632170

  11. [Occupational satisfaction and quality of life in women aged 45-60 years in the Silesia voivodeship].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Marcinkowska, Urszula; Jośko, Jadwiga

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life is an important issue of public health. It becomes essential in the population of active workers, especially women who besides their occupational activity have to perform other important roles, such as care of their children or older parents. The presented study is an attempt to answer the question on whether occupational activity, especially job satisfaction, provides better quality of live in the population of women aged 45-60 years. The obtained results confirm that a better quality of live, measured by the status of physical and mental health, is characteristic of occupationally active women with a higher level of education, who also experience job satisfaction. Care of children or older parents has no impact on the decline of quality of life. The improvement of qualifications and occupational activity can contribute to a better quality of live in the population of women.

  12. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in aging human sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R. E.; Chae, H. Y.; Parvin, C. A.; Roth, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is an increasingly recognized problem in aging animals and man. The pathologic changes that produce autonomic dysfunction in human aging are largely unknown; however, in experimental animal models specific pathologic changes have been found in selected sympathetic ganglia. To address whether similar neuropathologic changes occur in aging humans, the authors have examined paravertebral and prevertebral sympathetic ganglia from a series of 56 adult autopsied nondiabetic patients. They found significant, specific, age-related neuropathologic lesions in the prevertebral sympathetic superior mesenteric ganglia of autopsied patients. Markedly swollen dystrophic preterminal axons compressed or displaced the perikarya of principal sympathetic neurons. Ultrastructurally, these swollen presynaptic axons contained abundant disoriented neurofilaments surrounded by peripherally marginated dense core vesicles. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that dystrophic axons contained tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY)-like immunoreactivity but not other neuropeptides (VIP, substance P, gastrin-releasing peptide [GRP]/bombesin, met-enkephalin). Similar to the animal models of aging, lesions were much more frequent in the prevertebral superior mesenteric ganglia than in the paravertebral superior cervical ganglia. These studies demonstrate anatomic, peptidergic, and pathologic specificity in the aging human nervous system similar in many respects to that which the authors have described in experimental animal models. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in the sympathetic nervous system may underlie poorly understood alterations in clinical autonomic nervous system function that develop with age. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p1333-a Figure 3 PMID:1694057

  13. Human Connections and Their Roles in the Occupational Well-being of Healthcare Professionals: A Study on Loneliness and Empathy.

    PubMed

    Soler-Gonzalez, Jorge; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Human connections are key to the promotion of health and prevention of illness; moreover, illness can cause deterioration of human connections. Healthcare professional-patient relationships are key to ensuring the preservation of adequate human connections. It is important for healthcare professionals to develop their ability to foster satisfactory human connections because: (i) they represent social support for patients; and (ii) they prevent work-related stress. In this study we assessed the relationship between absence (loneliness) and presence (empathy) of human connections with the occupational well-being of healthcare professionals. The Scale of Collateral Effects, which measures somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation; the Jefferson Scale of Empathy; and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, were mailed to 628 healthcare professionals working in Spanish public healthcare institutions. The following explanatory variables were used to evaluate work well-being: (a) empathy, as a professional competence; (b) loneliness, age, and family burden, as psychological indicators; and (c) professional experience, work dedication, and salary, as work indicators. Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to measure the relationships among these variables and occupational well-being. Of 628 surveys mailed, 433 (69% response rate) were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed for all instruments. The entire sample was divided into four groups, based on the combined variable, "occupation by sex." Comparative analyses demonstrated differences among "occupation by sex" groups in collateral effects (p = 0.03) and empathy (p = 0.04), but not loneliness (p = 0.84). Inverse associations between empathy and collateral effects were confirmed for somatization (r = -0.16; p < 0.001), exhaustion (r = -0.14; p = 0.003), and work alienation (r = -0.16; p < 0.001). Furthermore, loneliness was positively associated with

  14. [Blood vessels in human dermis during aging].

    PubMed

    Gunin, A G; Petrov, V V; Vasil'eva, O V; Golubtsova, N N

    2014-01-01

    A factor that potentially influences on skin aging is blood supply which determines global conditions for an organ or a tissue functioning, including skin. Scientific data on conditions of blood supply in the skin during aging are insufficient and contradictory. Therefore, this work was aimed to the study of age-related changes in the number of blood vessels in the human dermis. Blood vessels were visualized with immunohistochemical technique to two endothelial markers, as von Willebrand factor and antigen CD31. The results showed that von Willebrand factor and antigen CD31 are present in endothelial cells of blood vessels of dermis in all examined age periods, from 20 weeks of pregnancy to 85 yeas. Intensity of immunohistochemical staining to von Willebrand factor is enhanced during age. Intensity of staining to CD31 is not changed with age. The number of blood vessels positively stained either to von Willebrand factor or to CD31 in dermis was decreased gradually with age. A total number of fibroblasts in dermis decreased with age. The number of PCNA+ fibroblasts in dermis showing their proliferative activity was decreased with the progression of age. The decrease in the number of blood vessels is statistically associated with that in the general number of fibroblasts and proliferating fibroblasts. Hence, a factor that leads to aged decrease in the number of dermal fibroblasts is diminished blood supply, and actions targeted to enhancement of blood supply are to be in the basis of clinical approaches to prophylaxis and treatment aging changes of the skin.

  15. [Age and aging as incomplete architecture of human ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1999-12-01

    The focus is on the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development across the life span. The starting point is the frame provided by past evolutionary forces. A first conclusion is that for modern times and the relative brevity of the time windows involved in modernity, further change in human functioning is primarily dependent on the evolution of new cultural forms of knowledge rather than evolution-based changes in the human genome. A second conclusion concerns the general architecture of the life course. Three governing lifespan developmental principles coexist. First, because long-term evolutionary selection evince a negative age correlation, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity and negative effects associated with some principles of learning (e.g., negative transfer), the efficiency of culture is reduced as lifespan development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Three examples are given to illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture outlined. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes and their age-related dynamics: Selection, optimization, and compensation. The second example is theory and research on lifespan intelligence that distinguishes between the biology-based mechanics and culture-based pragmatics of intelligence and specifies distinct age gradients for the two categories of intellectual functioning. The third example considers the goal of evolving a positive biological and cultural scenario for the last phase of life (fourth age). Because of the general lifespan architecture outlined, this objective becomes

  16. [Physiological features of skin ageing in human].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, I V; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K

    2013-01-01

    The issue deals with the actual problem of gerontology, notably physiological features of human skin ageing. In the present review the authors have considered the kinds of ageing, central factors, affected on the ageing process (ultraviolet radiation and oxidation stress), as well as the research guidelines of the ageing changes in the skin structure and fuctions: study of mechanical properties, microcirculation, pH and skin thickness. The special attention has been payed to the methods of assessment of skin blood flow, and to results of investigations of age features of peripheral microhemodynamics. The laser Doppler flowmetry technique - one of the modern, noninvasive and extensively used methods for the assessmant of skin blood flow microcirculation system has been expanded in the review. The main results of the study of the ageing changes of skin blood perfusion using this method has been also presented.

  17. Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…

  18. Aging of the human ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Perheentupa, Antti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2009-02-05

    Aging is associated with structural and functional alterations in all organs of the human body. The aging of gonads represents in this respect a special case, because these organs are not functional for the whole lifespan of an individual and their normal function is not indispensable for functions of the rest of the body. Ovarian function lasts for the reproductive life of a woman, i.e., from menarche until menopause. The testicular endocrine function, in contrast, begins already in utero, is interrupted between neonatal life and puberty, and continues thereafter along with spermatogenesis, with only slight decline, until old age. The aging processes of the ovary and testis are therefore very different. We describe in this review the structural and functional alterations in the human ovary and testis upon aging. Special emphasis will be given to clinically significant alterations, which in women concern the causes and consequences of the individual variability of fertility during the latter part of the reproductive age. The clinically important aspect of testicular aging entails the decline of androgen production in aging men.

  19. The impact of aging on human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rienzo, B A

    1985-02-01

    Review of gerontological and medical literature reveals the need for education for lay persons and professionals about the effects of the aging process on human sexuality. Primary prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction could be abated by including accurate information about sexuality and aging and effective communication techniques in sexuality education programs, including those with young adults. In addition, professional preparation of health educators must include the skills and knowledge needed in this area.

  20. Assessing biofidelity of the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) against historic human volunteer data.

    PubMed

    Newby, Nate; Somers, Jeffrey T; Caldwell, Erin E; Perry, Chris; Littell, Justin; Gernhardt, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in characterizing the responses of THOR (test device for human occupant restraint) anthropometric test device (ATD) to representative loading acceleration pulses. Test conditions were selected both for their applicability to anticipated NASA landing scenarios, and for comparison to human volunteer data previously collected by the United States Air Force (USAF). THOR impact testing was conducted in the fore-to-aft frontal (-x) and in the upward spinal (-z) directions with peak sled accelerations ranging from 8 to 12 G and rise times of 40, 70, and 100ms. Each test condition was paired with historical human data sets under similar test conditions that were also conducted on the HIA. A correlation score was calculated for each THOR to human comparison using CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) software. A two-parameter beta distribution model fit was obtained for each dependent variable using maximum likelihood estimation. For frontal impacts, the THOR head x-acceleration peak response correlated with the human response at 8 and 10G 100ms, but not 10G 70ms. The phase lagged the human response. Head z-acceleration was not correlated. Chest x-acceleration was in phase, had a higher peak response, and was well correlated with lighter subjects (Cora = 0.8 for 46 kg vs. Cora = 0.4 for 126kg). Head x-displacement had a leading phase. Several subjects responded with the same peak displacement, but the mean of the group was lower. The shoulder x-displacement was in phase but had higher peaks than the human response. For spinal impacts, the THOR head x-acceleration was not well correlated. Head and chest z-acceleration was in phase, but had a higher peak response. Chest z-acceleration was highly correlated with heavier subjects at lower G pulses (Cora = 0.86 for 125kg at 8G). The human response was variable in should z-displacement, but the THOR was in phase and was comparable to the mean peak response. Head x

  1. Association of obesity, gender, age and occupation with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lam, N; Thurston, A

    1998-03-01

    The present study determines the association of obesity, gender, age and occupation in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a New Zealand population. Analysis of questionnaires and clinical review of patients who had undergone surgical decompression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. The age and gender distribution of 655 hands (512 patients) that had undergone carpal tunnel release (CTR) were compared with the age and gender distribution of the New Zealand population. The results indicate that the 3-year-period prevalence of CTS in females is more than double that in males. Proportionally there were more patients over age 55 than in the general population. The findings also indicate that, proportionally, six times the number of females who worked in moderate manual work underwent CTR compared with the general female population and proportionally twice the number of males who worked in heavy office/clerical work underwent CTR compared with the general male population. It was also found that CTR patients are twice as likely to be overweight (body mass index [BMI] > 25) than the general population and female patients are twice as likely to be obese (BMI > 30) than the general population. Carpal tunnel syndrome is more than twice as common in females as it is in males, and patients aged more than 55 years are more likely to suffer from CTS. Females with CTS are more likely to work in moderate manual work and males with CTS are more likely to work in heavy office/clerical work. Obesity and CTS are related statistically.

  2. [Socioeconomic differences in physical activity in the middle-aged working population: The role of education, occupation, and income].

    PubMed

    Hoebel, Jens; Finger, Jonas D; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Regular physical activity has positive effects on health at all ages. This study aims to investigate how far physical activity and regular sports engagement, as a more specific type of physical activity, are associated with socioeconomic factors in the middle-aged working population. Data were obtained from 21,699 working men and women aged between 30 and 64 years who participated in the 2009 and 2010 population-based national German Health Update (GEDA) surveys conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. Besides a multi-dimensional index of socioeconomic status (SES), three single dimensions of SES (education, occupation, and income) were used to analyse socioeconomic differences in total physical activity and regular sports engagement. While the prevalence of total physical activity increased with lower SES, the proportion of people with regular sports engagement decreased with lower SES. These associations remained after adjusting for age in men and women. After mutual adjustment of the three single socioeconomic dimensions, physical activity was independently associated with lower education and lower occupational status. Regular sports engagement was observed to be independently associated with higher education, higher occupational status, as well as higher income after mutual adjustment. This study demonstrates significant socioeconomic differences in physical and sports activity in the middle-aged working population. Education, occupation, and income show varying independent associations with physical activity behaviour. Such differences need to be considered when identifying target groups for health-enhancing physical activity interventions.

  3. Development and Validation of an Older Occupant Finite Element Model of a Mid-Sized Male for Investigation of Age-related Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Urban, Jillian E; Jones, Derek A; Stitzel, Joel D; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-11-01

    The aging population is a growing concern as the increased fragility and frailty of the elderly results in an elevated incidence of injury as well as an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. To assess elderly injury risk, age-specific computational models can be developed to directly calculate biomechanical metrics for injury. The first objective was to develop an older occupant Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) representative of a 65 year old (YO) and to perform regional validation tests to investigate predicted fractures and injury severity with age. Development of the GHBMC M50 65 YO model involved implementing geometric, cortical thickness, and material property changes with age. Regional validation tests included a chest impact, a lateral impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal bar impact, a pelvic impact, and a lateral sled test. The second objective was to investigate age-related injury risks by performing a frontal US NCAP simulation test with the GHBMC M50 65 YO and the GHBMC M50 v4.2 models. Simulation results were compared to the GHBMC M50 v4.2 to evaluate the effect of age on occupant response and risk for head injury, neck injury, thoracic injury, and lower extremity injury. Overall, the GHBMC M50 65 YO model predicted higher probabilities of AIS 3+ injury for the head and thorax.

  4. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Chamber bioaerosol study: outdoor air and human occupants as sources of indoor airborne microbes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel I; Bhangar, Seema; Pasut, Wilmer; Arens, Edward A; Taylor, John W; Lindow, Steven E; Nazaroff, William W; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Human occupants are an important source of microbes in indoor environments. In this study, we used DNA sequencing of filter samples to assess the fungal and bacterial composition of air in an environmental chamber under different levels of occupancy, activity, and exposed or covered carpeting. In this office-like, mechanically ventilated environment, results showed a strong influence of outdoor-derived particles, with the indoor microbial composition tracking that of outdoor air for the 2-hour sampling periods. The number of occupants and their activity played a significant but smaller role influencing the composition of indoor bioaerosols. Human-associated taxa were observed but were not particularly abundant, except in the case of one fungus that appeared to be transported into the chamber on the clothing of a study participant. Overall, this study revealed a smaller signature of human body-associated taxa than had been expected based on recent studies of indoor microbiomes, suggesting that occupants may not exert a strong influence on bioaerosol microbial composition in a space that, like many offices, is well ventilated with air that is moderately filtered and moderately occupied.

  6. Chamber Bioaerosol Study: Outdoor Air and Human Occupants as Sources of Indoor Airborne Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel I.; Bhangar, Seema; Pasut, Wilmer; Arens, Edward A.; Taylor, John W.; Lindow, Steven E.; Nazaroff, William W.; Bruns, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Human occupants are an important source of microbes in indoor environments. In this study, we used DNA sequencing of filter samples to assess the fungal and bacterial composition of air in an environmental chamber under different levels of occupancy, activity, and exposed or covered carpeting. In this office-like, mechanically ventilated environment, results showed a strong influence of outdoor-derived particles, with the indoor microbial composition tracking that of outdoor air for the 2-hour sampling periods. The number of occupants and their activity played a significant but smaller role influencing the composition of indoor bioaerosols. Human-associated taxa were observed but were not particularly abundant, except in the case of one fungus that appeared to be transported into the chamber on the clothing of a study participant. Overall, this study revealed a smaller signature of human body-associated taxa than had been expected based on recent studies of indoor microbiomes, suggesting that occupants may not exert a strong influence on bioaerosol microbial composition in a space that, like many offices, is well ventilated with air that is moderately filtered and moderately occupied. PMID:26024222

  7. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  8. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  9. Accelerated aging syndromes, are they relevant to normal human aging?

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Oliver; Stewart, Colin L

    2011-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) and Werner syndromes are diseases that clinically resemble some aspects of accelerated aging. HGPS is caused by mutations in theLMNA gene resulting in post-translational processing defects that trigger Progeria in children. Werner syndrome, arising from mutations in the WRN helicase gene, causes premature aging in young adults. What are the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these disorders and what aspects of the diseases resemble physiological human aging? Much of what we know stems from the study of patient derived fibroblasts with both mutations resulting in increased DNA damage, primarily at telomeres. However, in vivo patients with Werner's develop arteriosclerosis, among other pathologies. In HGPS patients, including iPS derived cells from HGPS patients, as well as some mouse models for Progeria, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) appears to be among the most severely affected tissues. Defective Lamin processing, associated with DNA damage, is present in VSM from old individuals, indicating processing defects may be a factor in normal aging. Whether persistent DNA damage, particularly at telomeres, is the root cause for these pathologies remains to be established, since not all progeroid Lmna mutations result in DNA damage and genome instability.

  10. Using a Classification of Occupations to Describe Age, Sex, and Time Differences in Employment Patterns. Report No. 223.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Gary D.; Daiger, Denise C.

    Employment data from the 1960 and 1970 censuses were organized using the occupational classification system of John Holland to examine age, sex, and level differences in employment and to detect changes over the 10-year period. Data were organized by both kind and level of work in an attempt to answer the following questions: What are the relative…

  11. Occupational Therapy Practitioners' Perceptions of Important Competencies for Handwriting Evaluation and Intervention in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Peter; Woodall, William; Weber, Mark; Bailey, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the practitioner competencies that occupational therapists perceive as important for handwriting evaluation and intervention in school-aged children. A secondary purpose was to compare the practitioner perceptions of those in school-based practice with those from other primary practice…

  12. Cell senescence in human aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Fossel, Michael

    2002-04-01

    The most common causes of death and suffering, even in most underdeveloped nations, are age-related diseases. These diseases share fundamental and often unappreciated pathology at the cellular and genetic levels, through cell senescence. In cancer, enforcing cell senescence permits us to kill cancer cells without significantly harming normal cells. In other age-related diseases, cell senescence plays a direct role, and we may be able to prevent and reverse much of the pathology. While aging is attributed to "wear and tear," genetic studies show that these effects are avoidable (as is the case in germ cell lines) and occur only when cells down-regulate active (and sufficient) repair mechanisms, permitting degradation to occur. Aging occurs when cells permit accumulative damage by wear and tear, by altering their gene expression rather than vice versa. Using telomerase in laboratory settings, we can currently reset this pattern and its consequences both within cells and between cells. Doing so resets not only cell behavior but the pathological consequences within tissues comprising such cells. We can currently grow histologically young, reconstituted human skin using old human skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts). Technically we could now test this approach in joints, vessels, the immune system, and other tissues. This model is consistent with all available laboratory data and known aging pathology. Within the next decade, we will be able to treat age-related diseases more effectively than ever before.

  13. Aging-associated changes in human brain.

    PubMed

    Mrak, R E; Griffin, S T; Graham, D I

    1997-12-01

    A wide variety of anatomic and histological alterations are common in brains of aged individuals. However, identification of intrinsic aging changes--as distinct from changes resulting from cumulative environmental insult--is problematic. Some degree of neuronal and volume loss would appear to be inevitable, but recent studies have suggested that the magnitudes of such changes are much less than previously thought, and studies of dendritic complexity in cognitively intact individuals suggest continuing neuronal plasticity into the eighth decade. A number of vascular changes become more frequent with age, many attributable to systemic conditions such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Age-associated vascular changes not clearly linked to such conditions include hyaline arteriosclerotic changes with formation of arterial tortuosities in small intracranial vessels and the radiographic changes in deep cerebral white matter known as "leukoaraiosis." Aging is accompanied by increases in glial cell activation, in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, in irreversible protein glycation, and in damage to DNA, and such changes may underlie in part the age-associated increasing incidence of "degenerative" conditions such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. A small number of histological changes appear to be universal in aged human brains. These include increasing numbers of corpora amylacea within astrocytic processes near blood-brain or cerebrospinal fluid-brain interfaces, accumulation of the "aging" pigment lipofuscin in all brain regions, and appearance of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary tangles (but not necessarily amyloid plaques) in mesial temporal structures.

  14. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Erhart, Wiebke; Brosch, Mario; Ammerpohl, Ole; von Schönfels, Witigo; Ahrens, Markus; Heits, Nils; Bell, Jordana T; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Spector, Tim D; Deloukas, Panos; Siebert, Reiner; Sipos, Bence; Becker, Thomas; Röcken, Christoph; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen

    2014-10-28

    Because of the dearth of biomarkers of aging, it has been difficult to test the hypothesis that obesity increases tissue age. Here we use a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred to as an "epigenetic clock") to study the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and the DNA methylation ages of human blood, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A significant correlation between BMI and epigenetic age acceleration could only be observed for liver (r = 0.42, P = 6.8 × 10(-4) in dataset 1 and r = 0.42, P = 1.2 × 10(-4) in dataset 2). On average, epigenetic age increased by 3.3 y for each 10 BMI units. The detected age acceleration in liver is not associated with the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score or any of its component traits after adjustment for BMI. The 279 genes that are underexpressed in older liver samples are highly enriched (1.2 × 10(-9)) with nuclear mitochondrial genes that play a role in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport. The epigenetic age acceleration, which is not reversible in the short term after rapid weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, may play a role in liver-related comorbidities of obesity, such as insulin resistance and liver cancer.

  15. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  16. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  17. Middle Palaeolithic human occupation of the high altitude region of Hovk-1, Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinhasi, R.; Gasparian, B.; Nahapetyan, S.; Bar-Oz, G.; Weissbrod, L.; Bruch, A. A.; Hovsepyan, R.; Wilkinson, K.

    2011-12-01

    Charting the timing of human occupation in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus during the Last Interglacial/Glacial periods is of particular interest to the understanding of past human adaptive and behavioural plasticity and capacity. In this paper we analyse palaeoenvironmental, faunal, and archaeological data gathered during 2006-2009 excavations of the Palaeolithic cave site of Hovk-1, Armenia, in order to address whether human presence in this cave correlates with episodes of mild climate and certain environmental and ecological conditions that were favourable to huminin occupation in such a region. In the second part of the paper we evaluate the implications of our results in understanding the nature of human presence in other mountainous regions such as the Alps and its potential implications for Palaeolithic research. Our analysis demonstrates that hominins occupied Hovk-1 Cave during milder climatic phases of the Last Interglacial sensu lato (MIS 5d-c) and Last Glacial (late MIS 4/early MIS 3) periods when the area surrounding the cave was an open meadow environment. The stratigraphic Units with noticeable traces of hominin occupation (Units 4, 5 & 8) contrast with others in the lack of cave bear fauna and suggest an inverse correlation between human and cave bear occupational phases in Hovk-1. We speculate that human groups visited this region to hunt specific prey species that prevailed in this habitat (such as the bezoar goat). However, the assemblages of large mammals from Hovk-1 do not provide any clear anthropogenic signal and therefore highlight the difficulty of teasing apart natural and cultural formation processes.

  18. The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical functional limitations (PFL) have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement) cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%); the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%). Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47 years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women. PMID:22494385

  19. Is Occupational Complexity Associated with Cognitive Performance or Decline? Results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lane, Anna P; Windsor, Tim D; Andel, Ross; Luszcz, Mary A

    2017-05-17

    Long-term protective associations proposed between previous complex occupational tasks and cognitive functioning in later life point to work roles contributing to cognitive reserve. To examine occupational complexity involving data, people, and things in relation to the level of, and rate of change in, cognitive functioning. Participants were 1,290 members of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing and initially aged 65-102 years (mean = 79). Information about main lifetime occupation was collected retrospectively. Cognition was assessed 4 times over a 13-year interval. In multilevel models adjusted for demographics, medical conditions, and depressive symptoms, higher complexity involving data was associated with faster speed (β = 0.73, p < 0.001), better memory (β = 0.32, p < 0.05), and mental status (β = 0.40, p < 0.001) at baseline. These associations remained statistically reliable after adjusting for complexity with people and things, sedentary and heavy physical work, retirement age, and leisure activity. Complexity with things was associated with slower speed (β = -0.50, p < 0.001) and poorer mental status (β = -0.26, p < 0.01) and was not explained by other variables. There were no associations of occupational complexity with rates of cognitive decline over time. Older individuals retired from occupations characterized by higher complexity with data maintain their cognitive advantage over those with lower complexity into older adulthood, although without additional moderation of this advantage in terms of less postretirement cognitive decline. Complexity of work with things confers a negative relation to cognition whilst also not affecting postretirement cognitive change. Although the relative contributions of occupation or other early life influences for cognition remain to be established, it nevertheless may be beneficial to promote workplace design strategies and interventions that incorporate complex activities, particularly tasks involving

  20. The Magnitude of Occupational Class Differences in Sickness Absence: 15-Year Trends among Young and Middle-Aged Municipal Employees.

    PubMed

    Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-06-09

    Background: Our aim was to examine the magnitude of relative occupational class differences in sickness absence (SA) days over a 15-year period among female and male municipal employees in two age-groups. Methods: 18-34 and 35-59-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki from 2002 to 2016 were included in our data (n = ~37,500 per year). Occupational class was classified into four groups. The magnitude of relative occupational class differences in SA was studied using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results: The relative occupational class differences were larger among older than younger employees; the largest differences were among 35-59-year-old men. Among women in both age-groups the relative class differences remained stable during 2002-2016. Among younger and older men, the differences were larger during the beginning of study period than in the end. Among women in both age-groups the RII values were between 2.19 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.98, 2.42) and 3.60 (95% CI 3.28, 3.95). The corresponding differences varied from 3.74 (95% CI 3.13, 4.48) to 1.68 (95% CI 1.44, 1.97) among younger and from 6.43 (95% CI 5.85, 7.06) to 3.31 (95% CI 2.98, 3.68) among older men. Relative occupational class differences were persistent among employees irrespective of age group and gender. Preventive measures should be started at young age.

  1. 60 ka lacustrine record from Lake Banyoles (NE-Spain): Environmental change with respect to human occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbig, N.; Weber, M. E.; Kehl, M.; Weniger, G.-C.; Juliá, R.; Melles, M.; Fülöp, R.-H.; Vogel, H.; Reicherter, K.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a new Last Glacial to Holocene paleolimnological record from NE-Spain. The new paleoenvironmental dataset shows great capability for further matching of this off-site archive with archaeological data from nearby on-site archives (e.g., Cova de l'Arbreda, Abric Romani). The karstic Lake Banyoles is surrounded by various archeological sites, which show evidences for human occupation since the Middle Pleistocene. We investigated a 67-m long sediment core from Lake Banyoles, which was drilled on the eastern shore in few meters distance to present-day lakeshore. The study reveals evidence for the paleoclimate history of the northern Iberian Peninsula using high-resolution and non-destructive sediment-physical, geochemical, and optical methods to generate proxies indicative for sedimentologic variability and paleoclimate change. Primary stratigraphic control is based on 14C and U-series dates of organic and inorganic material, as well as tephra from the Late Pleistocene Olot volcanic episode. Accordingly, the preliminary ages obtained for the core base date back to approximately 60 ka, the Last Glacial Maximum (23-19 ka) interval ends at 15 m, and the top 8 m represent the Holocene. Within the core section ten main facies have been identified, which include several s¬lump events. We found evidence for paleoclimate change in element ratios, which we interpret to represent effects of Heinrich Events H0-H5. For Heinrich Events a lowering in temperature and humidity has to be assumed for the western Mediterranean (according to Combourieu-Nebout, 2002), which may have affected human occupation during the Palaeolithic-Neolithic period. Implications on human occupation in northern Spain due to climate changes are discussed from archeological findings and cave sediments in neighboring areas. The authors give first considerations with respect to the paleolimnologic data of Lake Banyoles.

  2. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116.

  3. Biological Aging and the Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Vincent J; Kim, Sangkyu; Blanchard, Eugene; Luo, Meng; Jazwinski, S Michal; Taylor, Christopher M; Welsh, David A

    2017-04-25

    The human gastrointestinal microbiota plays a key homeostatic role in normal functioning of physiologic processes commonly undermined by aging. We used a previously validated 34-item frailty index (FI34) to identify changes in gut microbiota community structure associated with biological age of community-dwelling adults. Stool 16S rRNA cDNA libraries from 85 subjects ranging in age (43-79) and FI34 score (0-0.365) were deep sequenced, denoised, and clustered using DADA2. Subject biological age but not chronological age correlated with a decrease in stool microbial diversity. Specific microbial genera were differentially abundant in the lower, middle, and upper 33rd percentiles of biological age. Using Sparse Inverse Covariance Estimation for Ecological Association and Statistical Inference (SPIEC-EASI) and Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA), we identified modules of coabundant microbial genera that distinguished biological from chronological aging. A biological age-associated module composed of Eggerthella, Ruminococcus, and Coprobacillus genera was robust to correction for subject age, sex, body mass index, antibiotic usage, and other confounders. Subject FI34 score positively correlated with the abundance of this module, which exhibited a distinct inferred metagenome as predicted by Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt). We conclude that increasing biological age in community-dwelling adults is associated with gastrointestinal dysbiosis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Micronucleus monitoring to assess human occupational exposure to organochlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Augusto, L.G. da

    1997-10-01

    Health surveillance for hazardous situations due to chemical exposure, in particular those which are carcinogenic, requires sensitive monitoring tests. Although experimental studies have shown the geno-toxic and carcinogenic effect of several organochlorides, the lack of epidemiologic studies prevents their classification as carcinogenic to human beings. In this context, genotoxicity tests of short duration in human cells gain importance. The relation between the clastogenic effects (chromosome breaks) and cancer induction is already known to the scientific literature. The micronucleus test has been proposed as a good indicator of clastogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated, by means of the micronucleus test, 41 workers of a chemical industry in the state of Sao Paulo, southeast region of Brazil, who had been exposed to a mixture of chlorinated solvents (carbon tetrachloride, perchloroethylene, and hexachlorobenzene) and 28 workers who had not been exposed. Peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and with cytokinesis blocked by cytochalasin B were used. The results showed that the exposed workers presented a statistically significant higher frequency of micronuclei than the group which had not been exposed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Occupational Mobility in Queensland's Aged Care, Automotive and Civil Construction Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukka, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Current trends in workforce development indicate the movement of workers within and across occupations to be the norm. In 2009, only one in three vocational education and training (VET) graduates in Australia ended up working in an occupation for which they were trained. This implies that VET enhances the employability of its graduates by…

  6. Biomarkers related to aging in human populations.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Eileen; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Kim, Jung Ki; Alley, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers are increasingly employed in empirical studies of human populations to understand physiological processes that change with age, diseases whose onset appears linked to age, and the aging process itself. In this chapter, we describe some of the most commonly used biomarkers in population aging research, including their collection, associations with other markers, and relationships to health outcomes. We discuss biomarkers of the cardiovascular system, metabolic processes, inflammation, activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and organ functioning (including kidney, lung, and heart). In addition, we note that markers of functioning of the central nervous system and genetic markers are now becoming part of population measurement. Where possible, we detail interrelationships between these markers by providing correlations between high risk levels of each marker from three population-based surveys: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, NHANES 1999-2002, and the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging. NHANES III is used instead of NHANES 1999-2002 when specific markers of interest are available only in NHANES III and when we examine the relationship of biomarkers to mortality which is only known for NHANES III. We also describe summary measures combining biomarkers across systems. Finally, we examine associations between individual markers and mortality and provide information about biomarkers of growing interest for future research in population aging and health.

  7. How to integrate the aging of employees into occupational health policies: the approach of a French company.

    PubMed

    Bonnet-Belfais, Monique; Cholat, Jean-François; Bouchard, Denis; Goulfier, Charles; Casselle, Adina; Schram, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, French companies must integrate or retain seniors to avoid a fine of 1% of their payroll. This work examines how to integrate the aging of employees into occupational health policies. The literature on the complex relationships between age, work and health has been reviewed, and the feasibility of potential actions has been addressed. In the company setting, few diseases are specific to seniors. With retirement age postponing, chronic diseases may appear more frequently in people still working. Physiological aging linked to a functional decline is variable. Occupational wear and tear can result in some functional deterioration. Seniors can experience difficulties coping with heavy time demands that restrict their ability to organize the work, with physical stresses due to their diminished muscular capacity, and with unconventional schedules that have long-term deleterious effects on sleep quality and alertness. This position paper makes recommendations for adapting work organization and occupational medical care. Protective measures for seniors should be integrated in a global approach to improving work conditions for all. Aging employees need some leeway to develop experience-based strategies for bypassing new difficulties. Revising work rhythms and developing autonomy seem to be means for progress.

  8. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30–59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30–59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan’s social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession. PMID:26936097

  9. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-03-03

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30-59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30-59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan's social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession.

  10. Occupations of SSI recipients who work.

    PubMed

    Hemmeter, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the 2007 American Community Survey to estimate the occupational distribution of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability recipients aged 18-61 who work, and it compares their occupational distribution with that of working nonrecipients with and without disabilities. Based on models of occupational choice for working SSI recipients and nonrecipients, predicted occupational distributions are also estimated to understand what occupations are available to SSI recipients. Unlike the nonrecipient populations that are largely composed of sales- and office-based occupations (25 percent), the most common occupations of SSI recipients who work are in services (34 percent) and production, transportation, and material moving (30 percent), although sales- and office-based occupations are also common for SSI recipients (22 percent). The occupational distribution of working SSI recipients is also more concentrated than that of nonrecipient populations. Dissimilarity indices are used to compare the predicted and actual occupational distributions of the SSI recipient population and nonrecipient populations. More than one-half of the difference between the occupations of working SSI recipients and nonrecipients can be explained by demographic characteristics, human capital, and disability type. Additionally, nonemployed SSI recipients have similar predicted occupational distributions as currently employed SSI recipients. Given the estimated occupational distributions and the average earnings of individuals in the most common occupations of SSI recipients, the results suggest that more targeted vocational training may provide expanded opportunities for employment.

  11. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  12. Occupational Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  13. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  14. Human serum metabolic profiles are age dependent

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhonghao; Zhai, Guangju; Singmann, Paula; He, Ying; Xu, Tao; Prehn, Cornelia; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Lattka, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Soranzo, Nicole; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Mittelstraß, Kirstin; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Peters, Annette; Suhre, Karsten; Li, Yixue; Adamski, Jerzy; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; Wang-Sattler, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of aging is of utmost importance. This can now be addressed by the novel and powerful approach of metabolomics. However, to date, only a few metabolic studies based on large samples are available. Here, we provide novel and specific information on age-related metabolite concentration changes in human homeostasis. We report results from two population-based studies: the KORA F4 study from Germany as a discovery cohort, with 1038 female and 1124 male participants (32–81 years), and the TwinsUK study as replication, with 724 female participants. Targeted metabolomics of fasting serum samples quantified 131 metabolites by FIA-MS/MS. Among these, 71/34 metabolites were significantly associated with age in women/men (BMI adjusted). We further identified a set of 13 independent metabolites in women (with P values ranging from 4.6 × 10−04 to 7.8 × 10−42, αcorr = 0.004). Eleven of these 13 metabolites were replicated in the TwinsUK study, including seven metabolite concentrations that increased with age (C0, C10:1, C12:1, C18:1, SM C16:1, SM C18:1, and PC aa C28:1), while histidine decreased. These results indicate that metabolic profiles are age dependent and might reflect different aging processes, such as incomplete mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The use of metabolomics will increase our understanding of aging networks and may lead to discoveries that help enhance healthy aging. PMID:22834969

  15. Influence of aging on human sound localization

    PubMed Central

    Dobreva, Marina S.; O'Neill, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Errors in sound localization, associated with age-related changes in peripheral and central auditory function, can pose threats to self and others in a commonly encountered environment such as a busy traffic intersection. This study aimed to quantify the accuracy and precision (repeatability) of free-field human sound localization as a function of advancing age. Head-fixed young, middle-aged, and elderly listeners localized band-passed targets using visually guided manual laser pointing in a darkened room. Targets were presented in the frontal field by a robotically controlled loudspeaker assembly hidden behind a screen. Broadband targets (0.1–20 kHz) activated all auditory spatial channels, whereas low-pass and high-pass targets selectively isolated interaural time and intensity difference cues (ITDs and IIDs) for azimuth and high-frequency spectral cues for elevation. In addition, to assess the upper frequency limit of ITD utilization across age groups more thoroughly, narrowband targets were presented at 250-Hz intervals from 250 Hz up to ∼2 kHz. Young subjects generally showed horizontal overestimation (overshoot) and vertical underestimation (undershoot) of auditory target location, and this effect varied with frequency band. Accuracy and/or precision worsened in older individuals for broadband, high-pass, and low-pass targets, reflective of peripheral but also central auditory aging. In addition, compared with young adults, middle-aged, and elderly listeners showed pronounced horizontal localization deficiencies (imprecision) for narrowband targets within 1,250–1,575 Hz, congruent with age-related central decline in auditory temporal processing. Findings underscore the distinct neural processing of the auditory spatial cues in sound localization and their selective deterioration with advancing age. PMID:21368004

  16. Large-scale identification of sequence variants impacting human transcription factor occupancy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Maurano, Matthew T.; Haugen, Eric; Sandstrom, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Shafer, Anthony; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of human regulatory regions depends exquisitely on their local genomic environment and cellular context, complicating experimental analysis of the expanding pool of common disease- and trait-associated variants that localize within regulatory DNA. We leverage allelically resolved genomic DNaseI footprinting data encompassing 166 individuals and 114 cell types to identify >60,000 common variants that directly impact transcription factor occupancy and regulatory DNA accessibility in vivo. The unprecedented scale of these data enable systematic analysis of the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor occupancy in vivo. We leverage this analysis to develop accurate models of variation affecting the recognition sites for diverse transcription factors, and apply these models to discriminate nearly 500,000 common regulatory variants likely to affect transcription factor occupancy across the human genome. The approach and results provide a novel foundation for analysis and interpretation of noncoding variation in complete human genomes, and for systems-level investigation of disease-associated variants. PMID:26502339

  17. Human Benzene Metabolism Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Stephen M.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Lan, Qing; Li, Guilan; Vermeulen, Roel; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Zhang, Luoping; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two enzymes, including a hitherto unrecognized high-affinity enzyme that was responsible for an estimated 73 percent of total urinary metabolites [sum of phenol (PH), hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CA), E,E-muconic acid (MA), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA)] in nonsmoking females exposed to benzene at sub-saturating (ppb) air concentrations. Here, we used the same Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic models to individually analyze urinary levels of PH, HQ, CA and MA from 263 nonsmoking Chinese women (179 benzene-exposed workers and 84 control workers) with estimated benzene air concentrations ranging from less than 0.001 ppm to 299 ppm. One model depicted benzene metabolism as a single enzymatic process (1-enzyme model) and the other as two enzymatic processes which competed for access to benzene (2-enzyme model). We evaluated model fits based upon the difference in values of Akaike’s Information Criterion (ΔAIC), and we gauged the weights of evidence favoring the two models based upon the associated Akaike weights and Evidence Ratios. For each metabolite, the 2-enzyme model provided a better fit than the 1-enzyme model with ΔAIC values decreasing in the order 9.511 for MA, 7.379 for PH, 1.417 for CA, and 0.193 for HQ. The corresponding weights of evidence favoring the 2-enzyme model (Evidence Ratios) were: 116.2:1 for MA, 40.0:1 for PH, 2.0:1 for CA and 1.1:1 for HQ. These results indicate that our earlier findings from models of total metabolites were driven largely by MA, representing the ring-opening pathway, and by PH, representing the ring-hydroxylation pathway. The predicted percentage of benzene metabolized by the putative high-affinity enzyme at an air concentration of 0.001 ppm was 88% based upon urinary MA and was 80% based upon urinary PH. As benzene concentrations increased, the respective percentages of benzene metabolized to MA and PH by the high-affinity enzyme decreased successively

  18. Low occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection among dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Klein, R S; Phelan, J A; Freeman, K; Schable, C; Friedland, G H; Trieger, N; Steigbigel, N H

    1988-01-14

    We studied 1309 dental professionals (1132 dentists, 131 hygienists, and 46 assistants) without behavioral risk factors for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to determine their occupational risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Subjects completed questionnaires on behavior; type, duration, and location of their dental practice; infection-control practices; and estimated numbers of potential occupational exposures to HIV. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to HIV and to hepatitis B surface antigen (unvaccinated subjects). Fifty-one percent of the subjects practiced in locations where many cases of AIDS have been reported. Seventy-two percent treated patients who had AIDS or were at increased risk for it. Ninety-four percent reported accidental puncturing of the skin with instruments used in treating patients. Adherence to recommended infection-control practices was infrequent. Twenty-one percent of unvaccinated subjects had antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. Only one dentist without a history of behavioral risk factors for AIDS had serum antibodies to HIV. We conclude that despite infrequent compliance with recommended infection-control precautions, frequent occupational exposure to persons at increased risk for HIV infection, and frequent accidental puncturing of the skin with sharp instruments, dental professionals are at low occupational risk for HIV infection.

  19. Vocational intervention based on the Model of Human Occupation: a review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jenica; Kielhofner, Gary

    2010-09-01

    Work is a growing concern in disability and rehabilitation fields. Specific evidence related to occupational therapy in the area of vocational rehabilitation is somewhat limited. With increased demands for occupation-focused, evidence-based, and theory-informed practice, this review aims to use clinically relevant questions to organize and synthesize evidence regarding work-related interventions specifically related to an occupation-focused theory, the Model of Human Occupation. A total of 45 published works related to both the MOHO and vocational issues were identified and included in the review. The review demonstrates that there is a range of evidence that supports the use of the MOHO and its tools as a basis for work-based clinical interventions. Evidence supports the conclusion that MOHO-based work assessments have good psychometric properties and are useful in evaluating vocational potential and needs. MOHO-based work programs have been shown to have a positive impact in improving vocational outcomes to a range of clients.

  20. The role of income and occupation in the association of education with healthy aging: results from a population-based, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    White, Christine M; St John, Philip D; Cheverie, Madelon R; Iraniparast, Maryam; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2015-11-25

    The beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging are generally accepted, but the mechanisms are less well understood. Education may influence healthy aging through improved employment opportunities that enhance feelings of personal control and reduce hazardous exposures, or through higher incomes that enable individuals to access better health care or to reside in better neighbourhoods. Income and occupation have not been explored extensively as potential mediators of the effect of education on healthy aging. This study investigates the role of income and occupation in the association between education and healthy aging including potential effect modification by gender. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of education, income (perceived income adequacy, life satisfaction with finances) and occupation (occupational prestige) with healthy aging five years later in 946 community-dwelling adults 65+ years from a population-based, prospective cohort study in Manitoba, Canada. Higher levels of education generally increased the likelihood of healthy aging. After adjusting for education, both income measures, but not occupation, predicted healthy aging among men; furthermore, the association between education and healthy aging was no longer significant. Income and occupation did not explain the significant association between education and healthy aging among women. Perceived income adequacy and life satisfaction with finances explained the beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging among men, but not women. Identifying predictors of healthy aging and the mechanisms through which these factors exert their effects can inform strategies to maximize the likelihood of healthy aging.

  1. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helle R; Debes, Fróði; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11 years together with 44 newly recruited children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in the children as a whole and with impaired neuropsychological function in girls, while no effect was apparent in boys. In girls, language and motor speed functions were significantly inversely associated with prenatal exposure, and a non-significant tendency toward decreased function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on their children's neurodevelopment, despite the fact that the exposures occurred solely during early pregnancy and under well regulated working conditions, where special measures to protect pregnant women were applied.

  2. Relaxographic studies of aging normal human lenses.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Frederick A; Lizak, Martin J; Zigler, J Samuel

    2002-12-01

    Ten excised normal human lenses of various ages were studied. Seven sections of each lens, from anterior outer cortex to posterior outer cortex were imaged and the T(1) (spin-lattice) and T(2) (spin-spin) relaxation data on each section were collected. T(1) and T(2) relaxation were analysed by fitting pixel intensity to one term exponential expressions. Both T(1) and T(2) relaxation times showed minimal values in the nuclear region and maxima at the two outer cortexes. The pre-exponential terms of the fittings of both T(1) and T(2) relaxation,M(1) and M(2), were normalized in order to eliminate instrumental variations over a 2 year period. M(2) had a maximum in the nucleus and minima in the two cortexes. M(1) exhibited minimal value in the nucleus and maxima at the two cortexes. The positional dependence of T(2) relaxation times as well as that of M(2) indicated that they represent the behavior of the bound water in the lens. The positional dependence of M(1) suggests that this relaxation represents the total water that has a minimal value in the nucleus. The T(2) relaxation time decreases with increase in the age of the lens at each location. The slope of the change in T(2) relaxation time with age is greatest in the outer cortexes and diminishes as one proceeds to the nucleus. T(1) relaxation times and M(1) do not show significant change with age. This and the age dependence of the other relaxographic parameters imply that the aging of the lens involves major changes in its hydration properties that are more accentuated in the cortexes. The interpretation of these changes is in agreement with the syneretic theory of lens aging.

  3. Bitter taste receptor polymorphisms and human aging.

    PubMed

    Campa, Daniele; De Rango, Francesco; Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Passarino, Giuseppe; Barale, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics.

  4. Bitter Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics. PMID:23133589

  5. The Development of Occupational Sex-Role Stereotypes: The Effects of Gender Stability and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Eileen S.C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    1983-01-01

    Investigated occupational stereotypes of nursery school, kindergarten, third- and sixth-grade children, and the effects of their acquiring the concept of gender stability. Assessed (1) personal aspirations, and (2) ideas about jobs men and women do. (Author/GC)

  6. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations.

  7. Burnout in occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J C; Dodson, S C

    1988-12-01

    Burnout is a job-related condition involving feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981a) is the instrument most widely used to measure job-related stress in human service professions, such as occupational therapy. This study explored the application of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for use with occupational therapists. The subjects were 99 registered occupational therapists residing in the southeastern United States. Mean scores lower than the aggregate occupational norms provided by the test's authors on the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization subscales supported the need to develop specific norms for occupational therapists. Results of this study indicate that use of the aggregate norms would underestimate the level of experienced burnout. Correlational analyses delineated significant relationships between age and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, education and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, years of work as an occupational therapist and Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment, years in the present position and Personal Accomplishment (intensity only), hours of direct patient contact and Emotional Exhaustion (intensity only), and hours of direct patient contact and Depersonalization (frequency only). These correlates of burnout furnish clues for understanding the development of work-related stress in occupational therapists.

  8. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. PMID:26565102

  9. Sleep-wake cycle of adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire: influence of age, gender, religion and occupation.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.002), religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.

  10. Presbyopia - a maverick of human aging.

    PubMed

    Pierścionek, B K; Weale, R A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which the age-related variations of properties of the human lens may be able to account for presbyopia. Dimensionless linear regressions were calculated for age-related biological functions with special reference to ocular and lenticular ones. Their intercepts on the x-(age-)axis are compared, and their distribution is analyzed. An analysis was made of the effect of the growth of the lens on the relation between its shape and the proximal zonular anchorages on the one hand and the age-related variation of the angle between the zonule and the equatorial plane of the lens. The lens is not unusual in seeming to have evolved in support of a life-span of about 120 years. Presbyopia, however, fails to fit into the general picture and this is hypothesized to result from lenticular growth and a combination of factors which are not all governed by senescence. The potential involvement of the root of the iris throws an interesting light on the apparently worldwide variation of the condition.

  11. Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma.

    PubMed

    Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

    2011-06-28

    The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85-1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record.

  12. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed human beings of Himachal Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Shalmali; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Chahota, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    The chief objective of respective study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 165 serum samples that were obtained from human beings from various regions of the state were screened through a battery of serological tests which included RBPT, STAT, 2-MET, dot-ELISA and indirect-ELISA. 165 of human sera samples included 42 from veterinarians, 40 shepherds, 35 livestock owners, 20 workers at veterinary hospitals/clinics, 16 abattoir workers and 12 veterinary pharmacists. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings was observed to be 6.66% showing highest in abattoir workers (18.75%) followed by pharmacists (8.33%), veterinarians (7.14%), and livestock owners (5.71%) and shepherds (5.00%). In humans it is prevalent as an occult infection or under diagnosed disease, especially; in case of abattoir workers the highest seropositivity for brucella agglutinins was observed. Indirect-ELISA and Dot-ELISA proved best in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  13. Evidence of repeated wildfires prior to human occupation on San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.; Skipp, Gary L.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how early humans on the California Channel Islands might have changed local fire regimes requires a baseline knowledge of the frequency of natural wildfires on the islands prior to human occupation. A sedimentary sequence that was recently discovered in a small canyon on San Nicolas Island contains evidence of at least 24 burn events that date to between ~37 and 25 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), well before humans entered North America. The evidence includes abundant macroscopic charcoal, blackened sediments, and discrete packages of oxidized, reddish-brown sediments that are similar in appearance to sedimentary features called “fire areas” on Santa Rosa Island and elsewhere. Massive fine-grained sediments that contain the burn evidence are interpreted as sheetwash deposits and are interbedded with coarse-grained, clast-supported alluvial sediments and matrix supported sands, pebbles, and cobbles that represent localized debris flows. These sedimentary sequences suggest that the catchment area above our study site underwent multiple cycles of relative quiescence that were interrupted by fire and followed by slope instability and mass wasting events. Our 14C-based chronology dates these cycles to well before the arrival of humans on the Channel Islands and shows that natural wildfires occurred here, at a minimum, every 300–500 years prior to human occupation.

  14. [Gender, age, occupation, economic sector and mental health in the workplace: the results of the study SALVEO].

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve; Durand, Pierre

    2015-04-29

    This article examined the contribution of gender, age, occupation and economic sector on psychological distress, depression and burnout. The data came from the SALVEO study carried out in 2009- 2012 among 2,162 workers employed in 63 Canadian workplaces. Multilevel logistic regression models were estimated on the total sample and separately for men and women. The prevalences of psychological distress, depression and burnout were 23.8%, 5.8% and 3.9% respectively. Mental health problems varied between workplaces, but variations between workplaces were stronger for burnout. Differences between men and women were significant only for psychological distress, depression, and emotional exhaustion. Unskilled workers were found more at risk for depression and burnout. Associations among age, occupation and economic sector were not the same between genders. Results from the SALVEO study highlight important mental health problems in workers that vary between workplaces, and that differences in symptomatology are associated with gender, age, occupation and economic sector. Gender reveals differentiated profiles of relationships. These results point towards the development of targeted approaches to the prevention of and intervention on mental health problems in workplaces.

  15. Aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vestibular system contributes to sympathetic activation by engagement of the otolith organs. However, there is a significant loss of vestibular function with aging. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if young and older individuals differ in their cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to otolithic stimulation (ie, head-down rotation, HDR). We hypothesized that responses to otolithic stimulation would be attenuated in older adults because of morphological and physiological alterations that occur in the vestibular system with aging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and head rotation were measured during HDR in 11 young (26 +/- 1 years) and 11 older (64 +/- 1 years) subjects in the prone posture. Five older subjects performed head rotation (chin to chest) in the lateral decubitus position, which simulates HDR but does not alter afferent inputs from the vestibular system. MSNA responses to HDR were significantly attenuated in older as compared with young subjects (P<0.01). MSNA increased in the older subjects by only 12 +/- 5% as compared with 85 +/- 16% in the young. Furthermore, HDR elicited significant reductions in mean arterial blood pressure in older (Delta-6 +/- 1 mm Hg; P<0.01) but not young subjects (Delta1 +/- 1 mm Hg). In contrast to HDR, head rotation performed in the lateral decubitus position did not elicit hypotension. MSNA responses to baroreceptor unloading and the cold pressor test were not different between the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans and may contribute to the increased prevalence of orthostatic hypotension with age.

  16. Aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vestibular system contributes to sympathetic activation by engagement of the otolith organs. However, there is a significant loss of vestibular function with aging. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if young and older individuals differ in their cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to otolithic stimulation (ie, head-down rotation, HDR). We hypothesized that responses to otolithic stimulation would be attenuated in older adults because of morphological and physiological alterations that occur in the vestibular system with aging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and head rotation were measured during HDR in 11 young (26 +/- 1 years) and 11 older (64 +/- 1 years) subjects in the prone posture. Five older subjects performed head rotation (chin to chest) in the lateral decubitus position, which simulates HDR but does not alter afferent inputs from the vestibular system. MSNA responses to HDR were significantly attenuated in older as compared with young subjects (P<0.01). MSNA increased in the older subjects by only 12 +/- 5% as compared with 85 +/- 16% in the young. Furthermore, HDR elicited significant reductions in mean arterial blood pressure in older (Delta-6 +/- 1 mm Hg; P<0.01) but not young subjects (Delta1 +/- 1 mm Hg). In contrast to HDR, head rotation performed in the lateral decubitus position did not elicit hypotension. MSNA responses to baroreceptor unloading and the cold pressor test were not different between the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that aging attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans and may contribute to the increased prevalence of orthostatic hypotension with age.

  17. Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational Specialist Working with Groups. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, E. Thomas; Chick, Joyce M., Ed.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist better understand how to use basic human relations skills with students and others. Other modules in this set of three are Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions…

  18. Human disturbance and stage-specific habitat requirements influence snowy plover site occupancy during the breeding season

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Alyson F; Heath, Julie A; Fischer, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Habitat use has important consequences for avian reproductive success and survival. In coastal areas with recreational activity, human disturbance may limit use of otherwise suitable habitat. Snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus have a patchy breeding distribution along the coastal areas on the Florida Panhandle, USA. Our goal was to determine the relative effects of seasonal human disturbance and habitat requirements on snowy plover habitat use. We surveyed 303 sites for snowy plovers, human disturbance, and habitat features between January and July 2009 and 2010. We made multiple visits during three different sampling periods that corresponded to snowy plover breeding: pre-breeding, incubation, and brood-rearing and used multi-season occupancy models to examine whether human disturbance, habitat features, or both influenced site occupancy, colonization (probability of transition from an unoccupied site to an occupied site), and extinction (probability of transition from an occupied site to an unoccupied site). Snowy plover site occupancy and colonization was negatively associated with human disturbance and site extinction was positively associated with human disturbance. Interdune vegetation had a negative effect on occupancy and colonization, indicating that plovers were less likely to use areas with uniform, dense vegetation among dunes. Also, dune shape, beach debris, and access to low-energy foraging areas influenced site occupancy, colonization, and extinction. Plovers used habitat based on beach characteristics that provided stage-specific resource needs; however, human disturbance was the strongest predictor of site occupancy. In addition, vegetation plantings used to enhance dune rehabilitation may negatively impact plover site occupancy. Management actions that decrease human disturbance, such as symbolic fencing and signage, may increase the amount of breeding habitat available to snowy plovers on the Florida Panhandle and in other areas with high human

  19. Human environmental and occupational exposures to boric acid: reconciliation with experimental reproductive toxicity data.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçın

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive toxicity of boric acid and borates is a matter of current regulatory concern. Based on experimental studies in rats, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were found to be 17.5 mg boron (B)/kg body weight (b.w.) for male fertility and 9.6 mg B/kg b.w. for developmental toxicity. Recently, occupational human field studies in highly exposed cohorts were reported from China and Turkey, with both studies showing negative results regarding male reproduction. A comparison of the conditions of these studies with the experimental NOAEL conditions are based on reported B blood levels, which is clearly superior to a scaling according to estimated B exposures. A comparison of estimated daily B exposure levels and measured B blood levels confirms the preference of biomonitoring data for a comparison of human field studies. In general, it appears that high environmental exposures to B are lower than possible high occupational exposures. The comparison reveals no contradiction between human and experimental reproductive toxicity data. It clearly appears that human B exposures, even in the highest exposed cohorts, are too low to reach the blood (and target tissue) concentrations that would be required to exert adverse effects on reproductive functions.

  20. Melatonin and aging: prospects for human treatment.

    PubMed

    Bubenik, G A; Konturek, S J

    2011-02-01

    Human life span, with or without modern medicine is around 85-95 years. All living creatures have their inner clock that measures their daily (circadian) and their seasonal (circannual) time. These time changes are mediated by the alteration of levels of melatonin, an evolutionary ancient hormone, which is produced in many body tissues, including the pineal gland, retina and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Light is blocking the production of melatonin in the pineal gland, darkness is stimulating it. So, the diurnal changes of light intensity of melatonin, provide a "daily clock" and the seasonal changes provide a "seasonal clock". Finally, the reduction of melatonin observed with aging, may indicate the presence of an "age clock". Melatonin is a strong antioxidant (often it is called scavenger of free radicals), which protects the body from the effects of noxious compounds. Therefore it was hypothesized that the reduction of melatonin levels with age contributes to the aging process. So far, the only remedy to extend the life span was a 40% reduction in caloric intake, which prolonged the life in mice, rats, dogs and monkeys by 30-50%. A large group of people imitate these experiments performed on animals, but the results of these experiments will not be known for several decades. How is being hungry prolonging the life span? There is a connection between caloric reduction and melatonin levels in GIT. Several experiments indicate that fasting in animals substantially increased their production of GIT melatonin. Therefore, instead of being permanently hungry, a prolongation of human life could be achieved by a replacement melatonin therapy. A daily intake of melatonin before bed time might achieve the same effect as fasting e.g. an increase of body melatonin levels, which will protect the individual from the ravages of old age. That includes Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. There is a large group of people taking melatonin daily who believe that

  1. Aging of oocyte, ovary, and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, Chris; Uda, Manuela; Hamatani, Toshio; Crisponi, Laura; Garcia, Jose-Elias; Ko, Minoru; Pilia, Giuseppe; Sforza, Chiarella; Schlessinger, David; Forabosco, Antonino

    2004-12-01

    We review age-related changes in the ovary and their effect on female fertility, with particular emphasis on follicle formation, follicle dynamics, and oocyte quality. The evidence indicates that the developmental processes leading to follicle formation set the rules determining follicle quiescence and growth. This regulatory system is maintained until menopause and is directly affected in at least some models of premature ovarian failure (POF), most strikingly in the Foxl2 mouse knockout, a model of human POF with monogenic etiology (blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome). Several lines of evidence indicate that if the ovarian germ cell lineage maintains regenerative potential, as recently suggested in the mouse, a role in follicle dynamics for germ stem cells, if any, is likely indirect or secondary. In addition, age-related variations in oocyte quality in animal models suggest that reproductive competence is acquired progressively and might depend on parallel growth and differentiation of follicle cells and stroma. Genomewide analyses of the mouse oocyte transcriptome have begun to be used to systematically investigate the mechanisms of reproductive competence that are altered with aging. Investigative and therapeutic strategies can benefit from considering the role of continuous interactions between follicle cells and oocytes from the beginning of histogenesis to full maturation.

  2. Explaining occupational class differences in sickness absence: results from middle-aged municipal employees.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Rahkonen, O; Martikainen, P; Lahelma, E

    2010-09-01

    Low socioeconomic position is consistently associated with higher rates of sickness absence. We aimed to examine whether working conditions, health-related behaviours and family-related factors explain occupational class differences in medically certified sickness absence. The study included 5470 women and 1464 men employees of the City of Helsinki, surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were prospectively linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression was used to examine the occurrence of medically certified sickness absence episodes lasting 4 days or more. Medically certified sickness absence was roughly three times more common among manual workers than among managers and professionals in both women and men. Physical working conditions were the strongest explanatory factors for occupational class differences in sickness absence, followed by smoking and relative weight. Work arrangements and family-related factors had very small effects only. The effects of psychosocial working conditions were heterogeneous: job control narrowed occupational class differences in sickness absence while mental strain and job demands tended to widened them. Overall, the findings were quite similar in women and men. Physical working conditions provided strongest explanations for occupational class differences in sickness absence. Smoking and relative weight, which are well-known determinants of health, also explained part of the excess sickness absence in lower occupational classes. Applying tailored work arrangements to employees on sick leave, reducing physically heavy working conditions and promoting healthy behaviours provide potential routes to narrow occupational class differences in sickness absence.

  3. How bioinformatics can help reverse engineer human aging.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Toussaint, Olivier

    2004-04-01

    To study human aging is an enormous challenge. The complexity of the aging phenotype and the near impossibility of studying aging directly in humans oblige researchers to resort to models and extrapolations. Computational approaches offer a powerful set of tools to study human aging. In one direction we have data-mining methods, from comparative genomics to DNA microarrays, to retrieve information in large amounts of data. Afterwards, tools from systems biology to reverse engineering algorithms allow researchers to integrate different types of information to increase our knowledge about human aging. Computer methodologies will play a crucial role to reconstruct the genetic network of human aging and the associated regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

    2013-10-01

    Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs.

  5. Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

    2013-12-01

    Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs.

  6. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  7. Statistical shape analysis of the human spleen geometry for probabilistic occupant models.

    PubMed

    Yates, Keegan M; Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2016-06-14

    Statistical shape models are an effective way to create computational models of human organs that can incorporate inter-subject geometrical variation. The main objective of this study was to create statistical mean and boundary models of the human spleen in an occupant posture. Principal component analysis was applied to fifteen human spleens in order to find the statistical modes of variation, mean shape, and boundary models. A landmark sliding approach was utilized to refine the landmarks to obtain a better shape correspondence and create a better representation of the underlying shape contour. The first mode of variation was found to be the overall volume, and it accounted for 69% of the total variation. The mean model and boundary models could be used to develop probabilistic finite element (FE) models which may identify the risk of spleen injury during vehicle collisions and consequently help to improve automobile safety systems.

  8. Age Discrimination by Local Governmental Entities--The Defense of a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujar, Frances B.

    1979-01-01

    The bona fide occupational qualification defense is interpreted narrowly and is most likely to be applied in job situations that involve the safety of others. Available from Baylor Law Review, B.U. Station, Box 6262, Waco, TX 76706. (Author/IRT)

  9. Occupational Home Economics Education Series. Care and Independent Living Services for Aging. Competency Based Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Liston, Carol; And Others

    This large training module is intended to help prepare home helpers or others who can provide direct care and can utilize resources to assist older persons. The document presents first a general discussion of the background and rationale behind a series of occupational home economics modules. In addition, the particular module on serving the aging…

  10. The Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System: Knowledge-Age Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhasin, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of a communication council by the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System (CCCOES) for the purpose of consortial communication. Discusses the need for new approaches to marketing and communication, both at the individual colleges and consortially. Describes projects undertaken by the council,…

  11. Occupational Home Economics Education Series. Care and Independent Living Services for Aging. Competency Based Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Liston, Carol; And Others

    This large training module is intended to help prepare home helpers or others who can provide direct care and can utilize resources to assist older persons. The document presents first a general discussion of the background and rationale behind a series of occupational home economics modules. In addition, the particular module on serving the aging…

  12. Translational Modeling in Schizophrenia: Predicting Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Occupancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Martin; Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; Barton, Hugh A; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M M; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H

    2016-04-01

    To assess the ability of a previously developed hybrid physiology-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPKPD) model in rats to predict the dopamine D2 receptor occupancy (D2RO) in human striatum following administration of antipsychotic drugs. A hybrid PBPKPD model, previously developed using information on plasma concentrations, brain exposure and D2RO in rats, was used as the basis for the prediction of D2RO in human. The rat pharmacokinetic and brain physiology parameters were substituted with human population pharmacokinetic parameters and human physiological information. To predict the passive transport across the human blood-brain barrier, apparent permeability values were scaled based on rat and human brain endothelial surface area. Active efflux clearance in brain was scaled from rat to human using both human brain endothelial surface area and MDR1 expression. Binding constants at the D2 receptor were scaled based on the differences between in vitro and in vivo systems of the same species. The predictive power of this physiology-based approach was determined by comparing the D2RO predictions with the observed human D2RO of six antipsychotics at clinically relevant doses. Predicted human D2RO was in good agreement with clinically observed D2RO for five antipsychotics. Models using in vitro information predicted human D2RO well for most of the compounds evaluated in this analysis. However, human D2RO was under-predicted for haloperidol. The rat hybrid PBPKPD model structure, integrated with in vitro information and human pharmacokinetic and physiological information, constitutes a scientific basis to predict the time course of D2RO in man.

  13. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-01-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics. PMID:3707871

  14. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-05-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics.

  15. Education-related differences in physical performance after age 60: a cross-sectional study assessing variation by age, gender and occupation.

    PubMed

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Rydwik, Elisabeth; Angleman, Sara; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2013-07-10

    Having a low level of education has been associated with worse physical performance. However, it is unclear whether this association varies by age, gender or the occupational categories of manual and non-manual work. This study examined whether there are education-related differences across four dimensions of physical performance by age, gender or occupational class and to what extent chronic diseases and lifestyle-related factors may explain such differences. Participants were a random sample of 3212 people, 60 years and older, both living in their own homes and in institutions, from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, in Kungsholmen, Stockholm. Trained nurses assessed physical performance in grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands, and gathered data on education, occupation and lifestyle-related factors, such as physical exercise, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. Diagnoses of chronic diseases were made by the examining physician. Censored normal regression analyses showed that persons with university education had better grip strength, balance, chair stand time and walking speed than people with elementary school education. The differences in balance and walking speed remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjustment for chronic diseases and lifestyle. However, age-stratified analyses revealed that the differences were no longer statistically significant in advanced age (80+ years). Gender-stratified analyses revealed that women with university education had significantly better grip strength, balance and walking speed compared to women with elementary school education and men with university education had significantly better chair stands and walking speed compared to men with elementary school education in multivariate adjusted models. Further analyses stratified by gender and occupational class suggested that the education-related difference in grip strength was only evident among female manual workers

  16. Education-related differences in physical performance after age 60: a cross-sectional study assessing variation by age, gender and occupation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Having a low level of education has been associated with worse physical performance. However, it is unclear whether this association varies by age, gender or the occupational categories of manual and non-manual work. This study examined whether there are education-related differences across four dimensions of physical performance by age, gender or occupational class and to what extent chronic diseases and lifestyle-related factors may explain such differences. Methods Participants were a random sample of 3212 people, 60 years and older, both living in their own homes and in institutions, from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, in Kungsholmen, Stockholm. Trained nurses assessed physical performance in grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands, and gathered data on education, occupation and lifestyle-related factors, such as physical exercise, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. Diagnoses of chronic diseases were made by the examining physician. Results Censored normal regression analyses showed that persons with university education had better grip strength, balance, chair stand time and walking speed than people with elementary school education. The differences in balance and walking speed remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjustment for chronic diseases and lifestyle. However, age-stratified analyses revealed that the differences were no longer statistically significant in advanced age (80+ years). Gender-stratified analyses revealed that women with university education had significantly better grip strength, balance and walking speed compared to women with elementary school education and men with university education had significantly better chair stands and walking speed compared to men with elementary school education in multivariate adjusted models. Further analyses stratified by gender and occupational class suggested that the education-related difference in grip strength was only evident

  17. Human behavioral complexity peaks at age 25.

    PubMed

    Gauvrit, Nicolas; Zenil, Hector; Soler-Toscano, Fernando; Delahaye, Jean-Paul; Brugger, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Random Item Generation tasks (RIG) are commonly used to assess high cognitive abilities such as inhibition or sustained attention. They also draw upon our approximate sense of complexity. A detrimental effect of aging on pseudo-random productions has been demonstrated for some tasks, but little is as yet known about the developmental curve of cognitive complexity over the lifespan. We investigate the complexity trajectory across the lifespan of human responses to five common RIG tasks, using a large sample (n = 3429). Our main finding is that the developmental curve of the estimated algorithmic complexity of responses is similar to what may be expected of a measure of higher cognitive abilities, with a performance peak around 25 and a decline starting around 60, suggesting that RIG tasks yield good estimates of such cognitive abilities. Our study illustrates that very short strings of, i.e., 10 items, are sufficient to have their complexity reliably estimated and to allow the documentation of an age-dependent decline in the approximate sense of complexity.

  18. The aging human recipient of transfusion products.

    PubMed

    Nydegger, Urs E; Luginbühl, Martin; Risch, Martin

    2015-06-01

    In this review the different mechanisms of aging and frailty such as DNA defects due to impaired DNA repair, inflammatory processes, disturbances of oxidative phosphorylation are discussed together with mechanisms of cell repair. Components of blood plasma, such as the growth-differentiation protein GDF11, were shown to enhance neurogenesis and to improve the vasculature in the animal cortex and to rejuvenate muscle tissue. Advances in laboratory assays allow to identify plasma proteins that may affect tissue regeneration. This new knowledge from animal research might affect transfusion practice in geriatric patients in the future. Provided it can be translated and confirmed in human research, blood products might no longer be considered only as oxygen carriers or drugs to improve hemostasis. In the present time blood transfusion (RBCs, plasma or platelets) should be directed by differentiated guidelines considering not only cut-off values of hemoglobin, platelet count or coagulation but also old age-specific biologic variation, comorbidities and the clinical context e.g. of bleeding.

  19. Human behavioral complexity peaks at age 25

    PubMed Central

    Brugger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Random Item Generation tasks (RIG) are commonly used to assess high cognitive abilities such as inhibition or sustained attention. They also draw upon our approximate sense of complexity. A detrimental effect of aging on pseudo-random productions has been demonstrated for some tasks, but little is as yet known about the developmental curve of cognitive complexity over the lifespan. We investigate the complexity trajectory across the lifespan of human responses to five common RIG tasks, using a large sample (n = 3429). Our main finding is that the developmental curve of the estimated algorithmic complexity of responses is similar to what may be expected of a measure of higher cognitive abilities, with a performance peak around 25 and a decline starting around 60, suggesting that RIG tasks yield good estimates of such cognitive abilities. Our study illustrates that very short strings of, i.e., 10 items, are sufficient to have their complexity reliably estimated and to allow the documentation of an age-dependent decline in the approximate sense of complexity. PMID:28406953

  20. The role of calcium in human aging.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance.

  1. The Role of Calcium in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  2. iPSC technology to study human aging and aging-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Hui; Ding, Zhichao; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2012-12-01

    A global aging population, normally accompanied by a high incidence of aging-associated diseases, has prompted a renewed interest in basic research on human aging. Although encouraging progress has been achieved using animal models, the underlying fundamental mechanisms of aging remain largely unknown. Here, we review the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models of aging and aging-related diseases. These models seek to advance our knowledge of aging molecular mechanisms and help to develop strategies for treating aging-associated human diseases.

  3. Occupational exposure to pesticides are associated with fixed airflow obstruction in middle-age.

    PubMed

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Burgess, John A; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Morrison, Stephen; Johns, David Peter; Giles, Graham G; Gurrin, Lyle C; Thomas, Paul S; Hopper, John Llewelyn; Wood-Baker, Richard; Thompson, Bruce R; Feather, Iain H; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Walters, E Haydn; Abramson, Michael J; Matheson, Melanie Claire

    2017-07-07

    Population-based studies have found evidence of a relationship between occupational exposures and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but these studies are limited by the use of prebronchodilator spirometry. Establishing this link using postbronchodilator is critical, because occupational exposures are a modifiable risk factor for COPD. To investigate the associations between occupational exposures and fixed airflow obstruction using postbronchodilator spirometry. One thousand three hundred and thirty-five participants were included from 2002 to 2008 follow-up of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS). Spirometry was performed and lifetime work history calendars were used to collect occupational history. ALOHA plus Job Exposure Matrix was used to assign occupational exposure, and defined as ever exposed and cumulative exposure unit (EU)-years. Fixed airflow obstruction was defined by postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7 and the lower limit of normal (LLN). Multinomial logistic regressions were used to investigate potential associations while controlling for possible confounders. Ever exposure to biological dust (relative risk (RR)=1.58, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.48), pesticides (RR=1.74,95% CI 1.00 to 3.07) and herbicides (RR=2.09,95% CI 1.18 to 3.70) were associated with fixed airflow obstruction. Cumulative EU-years to all pesticides (RR=1.11,95% CI 1.00 to 1.25) and herbicides (RR=1.15,95% CI 1.00 to 1.32) were also associated with fixed airflow obstruction. In addition, all pesticides exposure was consistently associated with chronic bronchitis and symptoms that are consistent with airflow obstruction. Ever exposure to mineral dust, gases/fumes and vapours, gases, dust or fumes were only associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non-asthmatics only. Pesticides and herbicides exposures were associated with fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis. Biological dust exposure was also associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non

  4. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments.

  5. Trends in cause specific mortality across occupations in Japanese men of working age during period of economic stagnation, 1980-2005: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Kondo, Naoki; Gilmour, Stuart; Ichida, Yukinobu; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Satoh, Toshihiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2012-03-06

    To assess the temporal trends in occupation specific all causes and cause specific mortality in Japan between 1980 and 2005. Longitudinal analysis of individual death certificates by last occupation before death. Data on population by age and occupation were derived from the population census. Government records, Japan. Men aged 30-59. Age standardised mortality rate for all causes, all cancers, cerebrovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, unintentional injuries, and suicide. Age standardised mortality rates for all causes and for the four leading causes of death (cancers, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and unintentional injuries) steadily decreased from 1980 to 2005 among all occupations except for management and professional workers, for whom rates began to rise in the late 1990s (P<0.001). During the study period, the mortality rate was lowest in other occupations such as production/labour, clerical, and sales workers, although overall variability of the age standardised mortality rate across occupations widened. The rate for suicide rapidly increased since the late 1990s, with the greatest increase being among management and professional workers. Occupational patterns in cause specific mortality changed dramatically in Japan during the period of its economic stagnation and resulted in the reversal of occupational patterns in mortality that have been well established in western countries. A significant negative effect on the health of management and professional workers rather than clerks and blue collar workers could be because of increased job demands and more stressful work environments and could have eliminated or even reversed the health inequality across occupations that had existed previously.

  6. Occupational Safety in the Age of the Opioid Crisis: Needle Stick Injury among Baltimore Police.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier A; Beletsky, Leo; Sawyer, Anne; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Han, Jennifer; Robinowitz, Natanya; Sherman, Susan G

    2017-01-19

    At a time of resurgence in injection drug use and injection-attributable infections, needle stick injury (NSI) risk and its correlates among police remain understudied. In the context of occupational safety training, a convenience sample of 771 Baltimore city police officers responded to a self-administered survey. Domains included NSI experience, protective behaviors, and attitudes towards syringe exchange programs. Sixty officers (8%) reported lifetime NSI. Officers identifying as Latino or other race were almost three times more likely (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.96) to have experienced NSI compared to whites, after adjusting for potential confounders. Findings highlight disparate burdens of NSIs among officers of color, elevating risk of hepatitis, HIV, and trauma. Training, equipment, and other measures to improve occupational safety are critical to attracting and safeguarding police, especially minority officers.

  7. Evolution of multilevel caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) and its relation to human occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A. I.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Pérez-González, A.; Martín-Merino, M. A.; Pérez-Martínez, R.; Parés, J. M.; Aramburu, A.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Carbonell, E.

    2013-08-01

    The evolution of the Torcas cave system (Sierra de Atapuerca) is analysed in order to shed light on the formation of the Atapuerca archaeological sites and human occupation in the area, critical for identifying the paths of the first human dispersal into Europe. The geomorphological analysis of the endokarst system and the regional base levels has revealed a multilevel cave system, with drainage directions from south to north, where old karst springs fed the Pico River. Using morphological and topographic evidence we have correlated the fluvial terraces situated at relative heights of + 84-80 m and + 78-70 m above the Arlanzón River (main course), with the first and second cave levels, respectively, both of Early Pleistocene age. The fluvial levels T4 (+ 60-67 m) and T5 (+ 50-54 m) are linked with the third level (Early-Middle Pleistocene), which contains fluvial deposits probably related to terrace T6 (+ 44-46 m). Progressive fluvial incision allowed humans to gain access to the cave system through several entrances from ~ 1.22 Myr until the end of the Middle Pleistocene, when these cave entrances became filled, forming the most interesting hominid-bearing deposits in Europe.

  8. Mastery motivation as a predictor of occupational performance following upper limb intervention for school-aged children with congenital hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-10-01

    To determine the extent to which children's mastery motivation predicts occupational performance outcomes following upper limb intervention (ULI). In this cohort study, participants received 45 hours of ULI, either in an intensive group-based or distributed individualized model. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) measured mastery motivation at baseline. Occupational performance outcomes were assessed at baseline and 13 weeks' post-intervention using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Multivariable models determined the contribution of mastery motivation to COPM outcome irrespective of group membership. Forty-two children with congenital hemiplegia (29 males, 13 females; mean age 7y 8mo [SD 2y 2mo]; range 5y 1mo-12y 8mo; Manual Ability Classification System [MACS] I=20 and II=22; predominant motor type unilateral spastic n=41) participated in the study. Significant gains were seen in COPM performance and satisfaction scores (p<0.001) post-intervention with no between group differences. Children who had greater persistence with object-oriented tasks (p=0.02) and better manual ability (p=0.03) achieved higher COPM performance scores at 13 weeks. Children's persistence on object-oriented tasks was the strongest predictor of COPM satisfaction (p=0.01). Children's persistence with object-oriented tasks as well as manual abilities needs to be considered when undertaking ULI. Predetermining children's motivational predispositions can assist clinicians to tailor therapy sessions individually based on children's strengths, contributing to effective engagement in ULI. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  9. The effect of precrash velocity reduction on occupant response using a human body finite element model.

    PubMed

    Guleyupoglu, B; Schap, J; Kusano, K D; Gayzik, F S

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) to evaluate the effect of simulated precrash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads, and computed injury criteria in 4 commonly injured body regions. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid III 50th percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced 3-point belt and driver airbag. Fifteen simulations per model (30 total) were conducted, including 4 scenarios at 3 severity levels: median, severe, and the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (U.S.-NCAP) and 3 extra per model with high-intensity braking. The 4 scenarios were no precollision system (no PCS), forward collision warning (FCW), FCW with prebraking assist (FCW+PBA), and FCW and PBA with autonomous precrash braking (FCW + PBA + PB). The baseline ΔV was 17, 34, and 56.4 kph for median, severe, and U.S.-NCAP scenarios, respectively, and were based on crash reconstructions from NASS/CDS. Pulses were then developed based on the assumed precrash systems equipped. Restraint properties and the generic pulse used were based on literature. In median crash severity cases, little to no risk (<10% risk for Abbreviated injury Scale [AIS] 3+) was found for all injury measures for both models. In the severe set of cases, little to no risk for AIS 3+ injury was also found for all injury measures. In NCAP cases, highest risk was typically found with No PCS and lowest with FCW + PBA + PB. In the higher intensity braking cases (1.0-1.4 g), head injury criterion (HIC), brain injury criterion (BrIC), and chest deflection injury measures increased with increased braking intensity. All other measures for these cases tended to decrease. The ATD also predicted and trended similar to the human body models predictions for both the median

  10. Environmental Restrictors to Occupational Participation in Old Age: Exploring Differences across Gender in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M.; Mountain, Gail A.; Rosario, Marlene; Colón, Zahira M.; Acevedo, Sujeil; Tirado, Janiliz

    2015-01-01

    Many older adults face challenges that prevent them from accomplishing common daily activities such as moving around, home maintenance, and leisure activities. There is still a need to examine and understand how environmental factors impact daily participation across gender. This study sought to make a qualitative comparison of gender differences regarding environmental barriers to participation in daily occupations from the perspectives of older adults who live alone in Puerto Rico. Twenty-six Hispanic older adults, 70 years or older participated in this study. We used a descriptive qualitative research design in which researchers administered an in-depth interview to each participant. The results elucidated that women were more likely than men to experience restricted participation due to lack of accessibility of the built environment and transportation systems. The findings could help with the development of tailored, occupation-based, preventive interventions that address gender specific environmental barriers and promote greater participation among both women and men. Further research is required to explore whether these environmental barriers to occupational participation remain consistent across living situations, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. PMID:26378554

  11. The Association of Levels of and Decline in Grip Strength in Old Age with Trajectories of Life Course Occupational Position.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Hannes; Fritzell, Johan; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The study of the influence of life course occupational position (OP) on health in old age demands analysis of time patterns in both OP and health. We study associations between life course time patterns of OP and decline in grip strength in old age. We analyze 5 waves from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 5108, ages 65-90). We use a pattern-mixture latent growth model to predict the level and decline in grip strength in old age by trajectory of life course OP. We extend and generalize the structured regression approach to establish the explanatory power of different life course models for both the level and decline of grip strength. Grip strength declined linearly by 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.74;-0.66) for men and 0.42 kg (95% CI -0.45;-0.39) for women per year. The level of men's grip strength can best be explained by a critical period during midlife, with those exposed to low OP during this period having 1.67 kg (95% CI -2.33;-1.00) less grip strength. These differences remain constant over age. For women, no association between OP and levels of or decline in grip strength was found. Men's OP in midlife seems to be a critical period for the level of grip strength in old age. Inequalities remain constant over age. The integration of the structured regression approach and latent growth modelling offers new possibilities for life course epidemiology.

  12. The anorexia of aging in humans.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Roberts, Susan B

    2006-06-30

    Energy intake is reduced in older individuals, with several lines of evidence suggesting that both physiological impairment of food intake regulation and non-physiological mechanisms are important. Non-physiological causes of the anorexia of aging include social (e.g. poverty, isolation), psychological (e.g. depression, dementia), medical (e.g. edentulism, dysphagia), and pharmacological factors. Physiological factors include changes in taste and smell, diminished sensory-specific satiety, delayed gastric emptying, altered digestion-related hormone secretion and hormonal responsiveness, as well as food intake-related regulatory impairments for which specific mechanisms remain largely unknown. Studies in healthy elderly individuals have shown that men who consume diets over several weeks providing either too few or too many calories relative to dietary energy needs subsequently do not compensate for the resulting energy deficit or surplus when provided an ad libitum diet. Healthy elders have also been shown to be less hungry at meal initiation and to become more rapidly satiated during a standard meal compared to younger adults. Studies in animal models are required to investigate potential mechanisms underlying these observations, while human studies should focus on examining the potential consequences of this phenomenon and practical therapeutic strategies for the maintenance of appropriate energy intake with increasing age. In light of this need, we have recently demonstrated that low reported hunger assessed using a simple questionnaire predicts unintentional weight loss in a sample of healthy older women, and thus may provide a clinically useful tool for identifying older individuals at risk for undesirable weight change and therefore at high priority for intervention.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of interstratified Neanderthal and early modern human occupations at the Chatelperronian type-site.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Brad; Mellars, Paul; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk

    2005-11-03

    The question of the coexistence and potential interaction between the last Neanderthal and the earliest intrusive populations of anatomically modern humans in Europe has recently emerged as a topic of lively debate in the archaeological and anthropological literature. Here we report the results of radiocarbon accelerator dating for what has been reported as an interstratified sequence of late Neanderthal and early anatomically modern occupations at the French type-site of the Chatelperronian, the Grotte des Fées de Châtelperron, in east-central France. The radiocarbon measurements seem to provide the earliest secure dates for the presence of Aurignacian technology--and from this, we infer the presence of anatomically modern human populations--in France.

  14. [Human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia morbidity of women from different occupations in Shenzhen city, China].

    PubMed

    Tang, Hui-ru; Zhou, Yan-qiu; Wu, Lan-na; Liu, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Li-jie; Wu, Rui-fang

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) morbidity of women from different occupations in Shenzhen city. 2045 women of five kinds of occupation in Shenzhen city, including 130 teachers, 385 workers, 316 service women, 199 poverish women, 420 doctors or nurses and 595 general residents were included. We screened these women by methods of detecting high risk HPV of hc2 combing with LCT. Women with screening positive results were diagnosed CIN by colposcopic biopsy. (1) High risk factors on HPV infection rate in different occupations were different with the highest in service occupation (19.3%) while the lowest appeared in medical workers (11.9%). (2) In those 2045 women, we found 199 cervical lesions including pathological HPV infection, CIN1, 2, 3 and cervical cancers, with morbidity rates as 4.11%, 3.28%, 1.67%, 0.54% and 0.15% respectively. Along with the progress of the cervical lesions, the morbidity decreased. (3) The morbidity rates of CIN in different occupations were different, with the highest of HSIL in service occupation and the lowest in teachers. Women of different occupations in Shenzhen city had different high risk HPV infection rates and CIN morbidity. The HPV infection rate and HSIL morbidity were highest among women having service related jobs.

  15. Health-seeking behavior and social networks of the aged living in single-room occupancy hotels.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C I; Sokolovsky, J

    1979-06-01

    The elderly who reside in single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels often have been depicted as "isolates," lacking the interest or ability to engage primary or secondary support systems. This characterization has not enhanced understanding of how the SRO aged are able to survive in the community. With the use of network analysis techniques, this study demonstrates the inaccuracy of the assertion that these old persons lack significant social support. The data pointed to differences in network size, complexity, intensity, connectedness, and directionality in relation to varying degrees of physical and psychiatric health.

  16. Middle palaeolithic and neolithic occupations around Mundafan Palaeolake, Saudi Arabia: implications for climate change and human dispersals.

    PubMed

    Crassard, Rémy; Petraglia, Michael D; Drake, Nick A; Breeze, Paul; Gratuze, Bernard; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Arbach, Mounir; Groucutt, Huw S; Khalidi, Lamya; Michelsen, Nils; Robin, Christian J; Schiettecatte, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is a key region for understanding climate change and human occupation history in a marginal environment. The Mundafan palaeolake is situated in southern Saudi Arabia, in the Rub' al-Khali (the 'Empty Quarter'), the world's largest sand desert. Here we report the first discoveries of Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in association with the palaeolake. We associate the human occupations with new geochronological data, and suggest the archaeological sites date to the wet periods of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and the Early Holocene. The archaeological sites indicate that humans repeatedly penetrated the ameliorated environments of the Rub' al-Khali. The sites probably represent short-term occupations, with the Neolithic sites focused on hunting, as indicated by points and weaponry. Middle Palaeolithic assemblages at Mundafan support a lacustrine adaptive focus in Arabia. Provenancing of obsidian artifacts indicates that Neolithic groups at Mundafan had a wide wandering range, with transport of artifacts from distant sources.

  17. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  18. Environmental and human influences on trumpeter swan habitat occupancy in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, J.H.; Lindberg, M.S.; Johnson, D.S.; Schmultz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 70-80% of the entire population of the Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus huccinator) depends for reproduction on wetlands in Alaska. This makes the identification of important habitat features and the effects of human interactions important for the species' long-term management. We analyzed the swan's habitat preferences in five areas throughout the state and found that swan broods occupied some wetland types, especially larger closed-basin wetlands such as lakes and ponds, at rates much higher than they occupied other wetland types, such as shrubby or forested wetlands. We also found a negative effect of transportation infrastructure on occupancy by broods in and around the Minto Flats State Game Refuge, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. This finding is of particular interest because much of the Minto Flats refuge has recently been licensed for oil and gas exploration and parts of the Kenai refuge have been developed in the past. We also investigated the potential effects of the shrinkage of closed-basin ponds on habitat occupancy by nesting Trumpeter Swans. We compared nesting swans' use of ponds with changes in the ponds' size and other characteristics from 1982 to 1996 and found no relationships between occupancy and changes in pond size. However, we believe that the recent and rapid growth of Trumpeter Swan populations in Alaska may become limited by available breeding habitat, and anthropogenic and climate-induced changes to the swan's breeding habitats have the potential to limit future production. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Human occupation of Iberia prior to the Jaramillo magnetochron (>1.07 Myr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Joan; Martínez, Kenneth; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-08-01

    The first migration out of Africa undertaken by the genus Homo is documented in Georgia at 1.8 Myr (Dmanisi) and some 0.4 Myr afterwards in the Middle East ('Ubeidiya). However, the debate on when the European continent was populated for the first time remains open. The first human presence in Europe prior to the Jaramillo subchron (1.07-0.99 Myr) is evidenced at Fuente Nueva 3 and Barranco León D (Orce) and at Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca), an occupation that seems to have continued through the Jaramillo at Gran Dolina TD3-4 and TD5 (Atapuerca), at Vallparadís (Barcelona), and up to the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary at Gran Dolina TD6. Even so, those who still defend a ‘short chronology' espouse an intermittent early population limited to the Mediterranean area, delaying the first occupation until after the Jaramillo. These hypotheses fail to explain what factors were behind the absence of population in Europe prior to this period, bearing in mind that there were populations of hominins at the gates of Europe between 1 and 0.5 Myr before the first archaeological record documented in Western Europe. Paleomagnetic analyses of the archaeological sites are rarely able to detect the Jaramillo subchron due to its short duration, while the radiometric dating methods (U-series/ESR) usually applied are limited in the accuracy they can achieve for the chronologies in question. These limitations make it necessary to depend on the biostratigraphy of small and large mammals to ascertain with precision the time of the first colonization of the continent. Accordingly, in the present article we discuss the chronological data from the older Iberian archaeological sites using biostratigraphic data to establish an archaeological sequence that demonstrates the expansion of the first hominin occupation of Southern Europe prior to Jaramillo.

  20. A MADYMO model of near-side human occupants in side impacts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; King, A I; Cavanaugh, J M

    1994-05-01

    The protection of automotive occupants against broadside collisions is of current interest due to the implementation of a new Federal standard on side impact. There is controversy as to the validity of the standard, the best criterion to assess injury to the thorax and the type and manner in which padding should be used. Although it has been shown in a series of 17 cadaveric tests that paper honeycomb can reduce thoracic injuries dramatically, there are still concerns regarding the loss of air space between the door and the occupant due to the presence of the padding and regarding the loss of protection for the thorax when there is no engagement of the shoulder with the intruding side structure of the car. This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional rigid body model to simulate cadaveric experiments carried out at Wayne State University. Model parameters were chosen to yield human-like responses at the level of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis. The model was then used to study the effect of padding on injury parameters related to the nearside occupant when a relatively thick padding is used (up to 100 mm). It was also used to study the increase in force on the thorax when shoulder engagement is lost. Laboratory tests were conducted with full shoulder engagement but in the field most cars have a low beltline (window sill) which effectively eliminates shoulder contact if the arms are outstretched in a normal driving posture. If a sufficiently soft padding was used, the model did not predict an increase in thoracic force level or any of the injury parameters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  2. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in breast milk correlated to maternal age, education level, and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Chao, H Albert; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-Mine; Koh, Teck-Wai; Chang-Chien, Gou-Ping; Ouyang, Eileen; Lin, Show-Lian; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Chen, Fu-An; Chao, How-Ran

    2010-03-15

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in breast milk in the general population are associated with demographic parameters, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and occupational exposure. Forty-six participants are randomly selected from healthy women recruited between April 2007 and April 2008 from local hospitals in southern Taiwan. Thirty PBDE isomers in breast milk are analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The mean+/-standard deviation of Sigma PBDEs in breast milk is 3.59+/-1.07 ng/g lipid. Our current value of Sigma PBDEs in breast milk is 0.7-fold lower compared to the past value in our previous study between 2000 and 2001. Higher levels of Sigma PBDEs might be significantly associated with older maternal age and maternal age of the present study is between 22 and 42 years old. Levels of Sigma PBDEs and certain PBDEs in breast milk are not correlated with maternal pre-pregnant BMI (Body mass index), parity, and lipid contents of breast milk. The Sigma PBDEs level in breast milk is lower in more educated women after controlling for age and pre-pregnancy BMI in our subjects. The main factors associated with Sigma PBDEs in breast milk are age and education level among the binary variables of demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics in this report. The exploratory relationships are found between PBDEs in breast milk and age, education level, or occupational exposure due to small sampling size. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence of the direct adsorption of mercury in human hair during occupational exposure to mercury vapour.

    PubMed

    Queipo Abad, Silvia; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    We have found clear evidence of direct adsorption of mercury in human hair after the occupational exposure to mercury vapour. We have performed both longitudinal analysis of human hair by laser ablation ICP-MS and speciation analysis by gas chromatography ICP-MS in single hair strands of 5 individuals which were occupationally exposed to high levels of mercury vapour and showed acute mercury poisoning symptoms. Hair samples, between 3.5 and 11cm long depending on the individual, were taken ca. three months after exposure. Single point laser ablation samples of 50μm diameter were taken at 1mm intervals starting from the root of the hairs. Sulfur-34 was used as internal standard. The ratio (202)Hg/(34)S showed a distinct pattern of mercury concentration with much lower levels of mercury near the root of the hair and high levels of mercury near the end of the hair. In all cases a big jump in the concentration of mercury in hair occurred at a given distance from the root, between 32 and 42mm depending on the individual, with a high and almost constant concentration of mercury for longer distances to the root. When we took into account the rate of hair growth in humans, 9-15mm/month, the jump in mercury concentration agreed approximately with the dates when the contamination occurred with the new growing hair showing much lower mercury concentration. In some cases the concentration of mercury at the tip of the hair was ca. 1000 times higher than that near the root. Additionally, speciation studies confirmed that mercury in all hair samples was present as inorganic mercury. The only explanation for these results was the direct adsorption of mercury vapour in hair at the time of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate, agriculture, and cycles of human occupation over the last 4000 yr in southern Zacatecas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Michelle; Fisher, Christopher T.; Nelson, Ben A.; Molina Garza, Roberto S.; Collins, Shawn K.; Pearsall, Deborah M.

    2010-07-01

    Scholars attribute the growth and decline of Classic period (AD 200-900) settlements in the semi-arid northern frontier zone of Mesoamerica to rainfall cycles that controlled the extent of arable land. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this claim. We present phytolith, organic carbon, and magnetic susceptibility analyses of a 4000-yr alluvial record of climate and human land use from the Malpaso Valley, the site of one such Classic frontier community. The earliest farming occupation is detected around 500 BC and appears related to a slight increase of aridity, similar to the level of the modern day valley. By AD 500, the valley's Classic period Mesoamerican settlements were founded under these same dry conditions, which continued into the Postclassic period. This indicates that the La Quemada occupation did not develop during a period of increased rainfall, but rather an arid phase. The most dramatic changes detected in the valley resulted from the erosion associated with Spanish Colonial grazing and deforestation that began in the 16th century. The landscape of the modern Malpaso Valley is thus primarily the product of a series of intense and rapid transformations that were concentrated within the last 400 yr.

  5. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carducci, Annalaura; Donzelli, Gabriele; Cioni, Lorenzo; Verani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methodology, which has already been applied to drinking water and food safety, may also be applied to risk assessment and management at the workplace. The present study developed a preliminary QMRA model to assess microbial risk that is associated with inhaling bioaerosols that are contaminated with human adenovirus (HAdV). This model has been applied to air contamination data from different occupational settings, including wastewater systems, solid waste landfills, and toilets in healthcare settings and offices, with different exposure times. Virological monitoring showed the presence of HAdVs in all the evaluated settings, thus confirming that HAdV is widespread, but with different average concentrations of the virus. The QMRA results, based on these concentrations, showed that toilets had the highest probability of viral infection, followed by wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste landfills. Our QMRA approach in occupational settings is novel, and certain caveats should be considered. Nonetheless, we believe it is worthy of further discussions and investigations. PMID:27447658

  6. Assessment of occupational fitness in the context of human rights legislation.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1990-06-01

    The potential applications of occupational fitness assessment are briefly reviewed in the general context of recent human rights legislation. Limiting tasks in an industrial process must be examined, and bona fide occupational requirements must be defined in terms of psychomotor ability and physiological capacity. Heavy work may demand a high level of aerobic power, muscular strength, or tolerance of adverse environments. Such criteria can define an action limit, above which the task must be redesigned, or workers must be specially selected and trained. The courts may accept the results of field performance tests more readily than laboratory measurements of aerobic power or muscular strength. However, neither type of test currently has the reliability and validity needed to characterize the individual, or to distinguish a good worker from a poor worker. If the concern is public safety, employment must thus be based upon average data for a given population, while if the concern is employment equity, the only recourse seems a probationary period of employment.

  7. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Donzelli, Gabriele; Cioni, Lorenzo; Verani, Marco

    2016-07-20

    Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methodology, which has already been applied to drinking water and food safety, may also be applied to risk assessment and management at the workplace. The present study developed a preliminary QMRA model to assess microbial risk that is associated with inhaling bioaerosols that are contaminated with human adenovirus (HAdV). This model has been applied to air contamination data from different occupational settings, including wastewater systems, solid waste landfills, and toilets in healthcare settings and offices, with different exposure times. Virological monitoring showed the presence of HAdVs in all the evaluated settings, thus confirming that HAdV is widespread, but with different average concentrations of the virus. The QMRA results, based on these concentrations, showed that toilets had the highest probability of viral infection, followed by wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste landfills. Our QMRA approach in occupational settings is novel, and certain caveats should be considered. Nonetheless, we believe it is worthy of further discussions and investigations.

  8. Occupational Status and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Dominique I.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined relationship between occupational status and suicide in California males since 1925. Findings show an inverse relationship between occupational status and suicide for all age groups. Over time, male suicide rates have increased, particularly for employed males over 65, employed males aged 14 to 24, and males in low-status occupations.…

  9. Testing the Relationship between Human Occupancy in the Landscape and Tadpole Developmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Eterovick, Paula C.; Bar, Luís F. F.; Souza, Jorge B.; Castro, José F. M.; Leite, Felipe S. F.; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

  10. Testing the relationship between human occupancy in the landscape and tadpole developmental stress.

    PubMed

    Eterovick, Paula C; Bar, Luís F F; Souza, Jorge B; Castro, José F M; Leite, Felipe S F; Alford, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance.

  11. Accidental occupational exposure of intravenous nurses to human immunodeficiency virus. Anticipating the consequences.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, J B

    1998-01-01

    This descriptive study randomly surveyed all 302 Massachusetts members of the Intravenous Nurses Society in 1991 regarding their perceptions of nine possible consequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection caused by accidental occupational exposure. Areas of highest concern were financial: adequacy of worker's compensation, ability of the employer to cover all healthcare costs, and job security. Nurses also were concerned about confidentiality of their HIV status and personal history jeopardizing their benefits. The i.v. nurses felt most secure in areas of their personal lives: housing and support of family and friends. Although some concerns correlated significantly with fear of contagion, others were unrelated, indicating a need for policy and attitude changes to promote comfort in working with HIV.

  12. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n = 81) and female (n = 118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M = 39.4 years, SD = 11.3; Women: M = 42.8 years, SD = 11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p = 0.033) and older men (p = 0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p = 0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p = 0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p = 0.031) and older women (p = 0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications.

  13. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently <1.0 and was negatively influenced by distance to roads and elevation gradient, averaging 0.08-0.56 across primary periods (distinct agricultural seasons within each year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for

  14. Caffeine occupancy of human cerebral A1 adenosine receptors: in vivo quantification with 18F-CPFPX and PET.

    PubMed

    Elmenhorst, David; Meyer, Philipp T; Matusch, Andreas; Winz, Oliver H; Bauer, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Caffeine is the neuroactive agent in coffee and tea and is a broadly consumed stimulant. It is a nonselective antagonist of the neuromodulator adenosine and, if applied in commonly consumed doses, evokes its stimulating effects through the blockade of adenosine receptors. (18)F-8-cyclopentyl-3-(3-fluoropropyl)-1-propylxanthine ((18)F-CPFPX) has been established as a highly selective and affine PET ligand for the A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR). The objective of the present study was to visualize and quantify the in vivo occupancy of the human cerebral A(1)AR by caffeine using (18)F-CPFPX and PET. Fifteen subjects (age range, 24-68 y) underwent a 140-min bolus-plus-constant-infusion PET experiment after at least 36 h of caffeine abstinence. Metabolite-corrected blood data were used to calculate steady-state distribution volumes (V(T)) during the baseline condition of the scan between 70 and 90 min. Subsequently, subjects received a 10-min infusion of varying concentrations (0.5-4.3 mg/kg of body weight) of caffeine at 90 min. Occupancy V(T) of the A(1)AR was thereafter estimated using data acquired between 120 and 140 min. Occupancy levels were calculated using the Lassen plot, from which the inhibitory concentrations of 50% were derived. Plasma levels of caffeine were determined at regular intervals. One subject received an intravenous vehicle as a placebo. Caffeine displaced 5%-44% of (18)F-CPFPX binding in a concentration-dependent manner. There was no change of radioligand binding after the administration of placebo. Half-maximal displacement was achieved at a plasma caffeine concentration of 67 μM, which corresponds to 450 mg in a 70-kg subject or approximately 4.5 cups of coffee. Given a biologic half-life of about 5 h, caffeine might therefore occupy up to 50% of the cerebral A(1)AR when caffeinated beverages are repeatedly consumed during a day. Furthermore, the present study provides evidence that (18)F-CPFPX PET is suitable for studying the cerebral

  15. Holocene climate evolution, human occupation, soil erosion and vegetation cover change in southeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellin, Nicolas; Vanacker, Veerle

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is commonly reported as the European region that is most affected by soil degradation. The degradation of Mediterranean soils has often been linked to inappropriate agricultural practices during the last decades besides its typical semiarid conditions. The present-day landscape in Southeast Spain is the result of a long occupation history. To have a better understanding of the impact of human societies on soil degradation, the main shifts in vegetation cover, climate and human occupation have to be taken into account. Recently published paleo-environmental data from continental pollen sequences, high-resolution marine cores, and estimations of the past Sea Surface Temperature (SST) of the Alborán Sea provide new insights in the evolution of the Mediterranean climate and vegetation during the Holocene. These data allow overcoming some of the shortcomings of previous studies on the interaction between humans and the landscape that were mainly based on extrapolations of site-specific information from continental deposits and archeological sites and large-scale regional correlations. Our compilation of multi-continental proxies from the Iberic Peninsula indicates that environmental conditions are strongly related to climatic oscillations and strongly correlated with the North Atlantic changes. By use of a vertical approach, several aridification episodes were detected from marine and continental records at 12000-11600 (H), 11100-10800 (G), 10300-9900 (F), 8600-8000 (E), 5500-4600 (D), 4000-3400 (C), 2700-2400 (B), 1800-1300 (A) cal. years BP. The data suggest that those severe aridification phases were most likely climatically induced, not human-driven and well correlated with the Bond events. We observe a clear association between climate, vegetation cover and sediment fluxes for the period from 12000 to 4600 cal. years BP. In contrast, during the last 4600 years, the reconstruction of various eco-historical periods indicated a weak to low

  16. Ages for hominin occupation in Lushi Basin, middle of South Luo River, central China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huayu; Sun, Xuefeng; Wang, Shejiang; Cosgrove, Richard; Zhang, Hongyan; Yi, Shuangwen; Ma, Xiaolin; Wei, Ming; Yang, Zhenyu

    2011-05-01

    A newly discovered Paleolithic site in loess deposits in the Lushi Basin, South Luo River, central China, is dated using pedostratigraphic analysis, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and magnetostratigraphic analysis. This region is regarded as an important place for hominin occupation and settlement during the early to middle Pleistocene. Results indicate that the archaeological site dates from 600ka to 620ka, reinforcing the view that Homo erectus had occupied a large area of eastern Asia by 620ka. The lithic assemblages of Lushi Basin is a flake and core technology, typical for this time period in north-central China. It may be compared with that at the Zhoukoudian locality 1 in north China and some sites in the Luonan Basin, and provides important data for understanding the behavior and stone tool technology of early Chinese hominins.

  17. The Association of Levels of and Decline in Grip Strength in Old Age with Trajectories of Life Course Occupational Position

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of the influence of life course occupational position (OP) on health in old age demands analysis of time patterns in both OP and health. We study associations between life course time patterns of OP and decline in grip strength in old age. Methods We analyze 5 waves from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 5108, ages 65–90). We use a pattern-mixture latent growth model to predict the level and decline in grip strength in old age by trajectory of life course OP. We extend and generalize the structured regression approach to establish the explanatory power of different life course models for both the level and decline of grip strength. Results Grip strength declined linearly by 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.74;-0.66) for men and 0.42 kg (95% CI -0.45;-0.39) for women per year. The level of men’s grip strength can best be explained by a critical period during midlife, with those exposed to low OP during this period having 1.67 kg (95% CI -2.33;-1.00) less grip strength. These differences remain constant over age. For women, no association between OP and levels of or decline in grip strength was found. Conclusions Men’s OP in midlife seems to be a critical period for the level of grip strength in old age. Inequalities remain constant over age. The integration of the structured regression approach and latent growth modelling offers new possibilities for life course epidemiology. PMID:27232696

  18. Olfactory phenotypic expression unveils human aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Cellerino, Alessandro; Origlia, Nicola; Barloscio, Davide; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Giulio, Camillo Di; Domenici, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of the natural aging of olfaction and its declinein the absence of any overt disease conditions remains unclear. Here, we investigated this mechanism through measurement of one of the parameters of olfactory function, the absolute threshold, in a healthy population from childhood to old age. The absolute olfactory threshold data were collected from an Italian observational study with 622 participants aged 5-105 years. A subjective testing procedure of constant stimuli was used, which was also compared to the ‘staircase’ method, with the calculation of the reliability. The n-butanol stimulus was used as an ascending series of nine molar concentrations that were monitored using an electronic nose. The data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics because of the multimodal distribution. We show that the age-related variations in the absolute olfactory threshold are not continuous; instead, there are multiple olfactory phenotypes. Three distinct age-related phenotypes were defined, termed as ‘juvenile’, ‘mature’ and ‘elder’. The frequency of these three phenotypes depends on age. Our data suggest that the sense of smell does not decrease linearly with aging. Our findings provide the basis for further understanding of olfactory loss as an anticipatory sign of aging and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:27027240

  19. The dating and interpretation of Chusang indicates permanent human occupation of the interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael; Aldenderfer, Mark; Wang, Zhijun; Hoffmann, Dirk; Dahl, Jenny; Degering, Detlev; Haas, Randy; Schlütz, Frank; Gliganic, Luke; May, Jan-Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    The nature and timing of a permanent human settlement on the Tibetan Plateau and the accompanying cultural and physiological responses, including genetic high-altitude adaptations, are subject to ongoing debate (1-3). The latest genetic data (based on extensive analysis of the modern Tibetan genome) suggest a main wave of human migration onto the plateau between 15 and 8 ka but genetic traces that hint to an even earlier initial occupation (dating to 65 ka) have to be considered too (4, 5). The archaeological record against which these genetic data can be compared to remains scant. The few archaeological sites with a chronometric age are all located on the northeastern margin of the plateau and range in date from 9 to 15 ka. These sites typically are at medium to low elevations (≤ 3300 masl) and are believed to have been short-term, seasonal occupations monitored from lower-elevation base camps (1). It is widely believed that permanent peopling of the interior (higher-elevation zones) of the Tibetan Plateau was only facilitated by an agricultural lifeway at 3.6 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present (2). The climatic and paleoenvironmental constraints on this colonization process are poorly understood (1-3). Here we report a reanalysis of the chronology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Chusang site, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at an elevation of 4270 meters above sea level (3). The site is known for its hot springs and extensive hydrothermal carbonate (travertine) formations and also preserves 19 human hand- and footprints on the surface of a fossil travertine sheet. The minimum age of the site is fixed at 7.4 thousand years (thorium-230/uranium dating), with a maximum age between 8.20 and 12.67 thousand calibrated carbon-14 years before present based on radiocarbon and OSL single-grain dating. Travel cost modeling and archaeological data suggest that the site was part of an annual, permanent, preagricultural occupation of the

  20. Human information processing in different age.

    PubMed

    Korobeynikov, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of investigation was to study the aging pecularities of information processing organization. 60 men and 90 women in four age groups: 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-65 were examined. The information processing was modeled by special computer test with working algorithm changes. The time and accuracy of each assignment were registered for each person. The psychophysiological mechanisms of informational processing were studied by informative mathematical methods. The results are showed that within the aging reduction of perception, processing and speed of reaction in older. As a result of the negative influence of aging shows the decline of mental activity efficiency. Aging decrease on mental capability provokes the compensation of psychophysiological mechanisms of adaptation. The main mechanism increases the psychophysiological organization stochastic and changes the type organization in informational processing to a self-finishing quest response. (Tab. 5, Ref. 22.)

  1. Myths of Human Sexuality in the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    Human sexuality is discussed in terms of misconceptions about its function and the changing sexual needs of older adults. A review of history indicates that human sexuality has traditionally been connected with ideas of purity and strict importance of procreation. Judaeo-Christian ethics and the doctrine of Saint Augustine illustrate these…

  2. Myths of Human Sexuality in the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    Human sexuality is discussed in terms of misconceptions about its function and the changing sexual needs of older adults. A review of history indicates that human sexuality has traditionally been connected with ideas of purity and strict importance of procreation. Judaeo-Christian ethics and the doctrine of Saint Augustine illustrate these…

  3. [50 years anniversary of Research Institute for Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Shaiakhmetov, S F; Gus'kova, T M

    2010-01-01

    The article covers main steps of establishment and development of Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc over 50 years of activities, major results of research, contribution of the Institute personnel into development of hygienic science and practical medicine in Siberia.

  4. Innovative Program for Achieving the Goals of Education in Human Relations and Occupational Competencies (Grades 7-12). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviess County School District, Owensboro, KY.

    During the 1974-75 school year, the Owensboro-Daviess County middle and high schools engaged in developing an exemplary program in human relationships and occupational competencies. The purpose of the program was to provide classroom instruction and exploration-placement activities that would enable the student to gain knowledge about himself in…

  5. Disparities in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its Components Among University Employees by Age, Gender and Occupation.

    PubMed

    Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Wu, Gui-Rong; Shen, Li-Ye; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS), a known risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and type II diabetes is an emerging epidemic in China. Studies carried out on the general population indicate a varied clustering of cardiovascular risks in many parts of the country. However, there is limited data on its prevalence in the working population. Workplace can serve as an important place for prevention, control and management of CVD risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MS and its components among University workers, and determine how the prevalence varied according to sex and occupation. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,428 University employees (22-60 years) who received an annual clinical examination at the University hospital. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), and lipid profiles were measured. MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment panel III modified criteria. Overall prevalence of MS was 6.1%, higher in males (5.1%) than females (1.1%), and increased with age. The most prevalent MS components in all workers were hypertension (37.9%) and hypertryglyceridemia (20.8%), corresponding rates in males were 28.3% and 16.1% while females had a prevalence of 9.6% and 4.7%. After adjustment for age, administrative work was associated (p<0.05) with increased hypertension (odds ratio (OR) =1.474; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.146-1.896) and hyperglycemia (OR=1.469; 95% CI, 1.082-1.993) in male workers, and with hypertension (OR=1.492; 95% CI, 1.071-2.080) in females. However, prevalence of hypertryglyceridemia was lower (OR=0.390; 95% CI, 0.204-0.746) in female administrators compared to those in academics. Obesity, MS and reduced High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol prevalence was not different (p>0.05) between the two occupations in both sexes. Prevalence of MS and its components was higher in male workers than in females, increased with age, and were

  6. Predicting impacts of future human population growth and development on occupancy rates of forest-dependent birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Michelle L.; Donovan, Therese; Schwenk, W. Scott; Theobald, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Forest loss and fragmentation are among the largest threats to forest-dwelling wildlife species today, and projected increases in human population growth are expected to increase these threats in the next century. We combined spatially-explicit growth models with wildlife distribution models to predict the effects of human development on 5 forest-dependent bird species in Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, USA. We used single-species occupancy models to derive the probability of occupancy for each species across the study area in the years 2000 and 2050. Over half a million new housing units were predicted to be added to the landscape. The maximum change in housing density was nearly 30 houses per hectare; however, 30% of the towns in the study area were projected to add less than 1 housing unit per hectare. In the face of predicted human growth, the overall occupancy of each species decreased by as much as 38% (ranging from 19% to 38% declines in the worst-case scenario) in the year 2050. These declines were greater outside of protected areas than within protected lands. Ninety-seven percent of towns experienced some decline in species occupancy within their borders, highlighting the value of spatially-explicit models. The mean decrease in occupancy probability within towns ranged from 3% for hairy woodpecker to 8% for ovenbird and hermit thrush. Reductions in occupancy probability occurred on the perimeters of cities and towns where exurban development is predicted to increase in the study area. This spatial approach to wildlife planning provides data to evaluate trade-offs between development scenarios and forest-dependent wildlife species.

  7. [MSDs and job security of employees aged 50 years and over: a challenge for occupational health and public health].

    PubMed

    Chiron, Elise; Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Touranchet, Annie; Chotard, Anne; Bidron, Patrick; Ledenvic, Béatrice; Leroux, François; Mazoyer, Annick; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs (MSDs) are the first cause of occupational illness in France, as in Europe. A pilot network for epidemiological surveillance system of MSDs has been implemented in France's Loire Valley region to assess the prevalence of MSDs and their risk factors in the working population, namely the ageing workforce. The surveillance was based on a network of occupational physicians and used the recommendations of a group of European experts ('Saltsa Criteria document' consensus). Between 2002 and 2004, 3710 men and women (aged 20-59) representative of the regional workforce were randomly selected. Exposure to risk factors of MSDs was evaluated by the use of a self-administered questionnaire which aimed to assess bio-mechanical and psychosocial risk factors. With at least one of the six primary MSDs of the upper limbs having been clinically diagnosed using a rigorous protocol, the prevalence of clinically-diagnosed MSDs was high: about 11% of male and 15% of female workers suffered from at least one of the MSDs studied. After age fifty, about 19% of male and 27% of female workers suffered from at least one MSD and 4% of male and 6% of female workers from at least two disorders. Blue-collar workers were the most affected, regardless of age or gender, followed by office employees. Exposure to MSD risk factors of remained high after age fifty: 77% of male and 72% of female blue-collar workers were exposed to at least two MSD risk factors. The implications for the prevention of MSDs and job security of workers are discussed. The high prevalence of specific MSDs of the upper limb combined with a high exposure to risk factors of MSDs in ageing workers emphasizes the need to implement comprehensive prevention programs in most sectors to reduce the exposure to risk, the prevalence of MSDs and ensure the capacity to keep employees suffering from MSDs working, or at least to quickly return to work after recovery.

  8. Finite element study of human pelvis model in side impact for Chinese adult occupants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhengwei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing; Liu, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The occupant's pelvis is very vulnerable to side collision in road accidents. Finite element (FE) studies on pelvic injury help to design occupant protection devices to improve vehicle safety. This study was aimed to develop a highly biofidelic pelvis model of Chinese adults and assess its sensitivity to variations in pelvis cortical bone thickness, bone material properties, and loading conditions. In this study, 4 different FE models of the pelvis were developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a volunteer representing the 50th percentile Chinese male. Two of them were meshed using entirely hexahedral elements with variable and constant cortical thickness distribution (the V-Hex and C-Hex models), and the others were modeled with hexahedral elements for cancellous bone and variable or constant thickness shell elements for cortical bone (the V-HS and C-HS models). In model developments, the semi-automatic multiblock meshing approach was employed to maintain the pelvis geometric curvature and generate a high-quality hexahedral mesh. Then, several simulations with postmortem human subjects (PMHS) tests were performed to obtain the most accurate model in predicting pelvic injury. Based on the most accurate model, sensitivity studies were conducted to analyze the effects of the cortex thickness, Young's modulus of the cortical and cancellous bone, impactor velocity, and impactor with or without padding on the biomechanical responses and injuries of pelvis. The results indicate that the models with variable cortical bone thickness can give more accurate predictions than those with constant cortical thickness. Both the V-Hex and V-HS models are favorable for simulating pelvic response and injury, but the simulation results of the V-Hex model agree with the tests better. The sensitivity study shows that pelvic response is more sensitive to alterations in the Young's modulus of cortical bone than cancellous bone. Compared to failure displacement, peak force is

  9. Age-Based Methods to Explore Time-Related Variables in Occupational Epidemiology Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Janice P. Watkins, Edward L. Frome, Donna L. Cragle

    2005-08-31

    Although age is recognized as the strongest predictor of mortality in chronic disease epidemiology, a calendar-based approach is often employed when evaluating time-related variables. An age-based analysis file, created by determining the value of each time-dependent variable for each age that a cohort member is followed, provides a clear definition of age at exposure and allows development of diverse analytic models. To demonstrate methods, the relationship between cancer mortality and external radiation was analyzed with Poisson regression for 14,095 Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. Based on previous analysis of this cohort, a model with ten-year lagged cumulative radiation doses partitioned by receipt before (dose-young) or after (dose-old) age 45 was examined. Dose-response estimates were similar to calendar-year-based results with elevated risk for dose-old, but not when film badge readings were weekly before 1957. Complementary results showed increasing risk with older hire ages and earlier birth cohorts, since workers hired after age 45 were born before 1915, and dose-young and dose-old were distributed differently by birth cohorts. Risks were generally higher for smokingrelated than non-smoking-related cancers. It was difficult to single out specific variables associated with elevated cancer mortality because of: (1) birth cohort differences in hire age and mortality experience completeness, and (2) time-period differences in working conditions, dose potential, and exposure assessment. This research demonstrated the utility and versatility of the age-based approach.

  10. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J; Aagaard, Per; Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Conboy, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans. Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response to muscle attrition, due to diminished activation of Notch compounded by elevated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/phospho Smad3 (pSmad3). Furthermore, this work reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) signalling declines in human muscle with age, and is important for activating Notch in human muscle stem cells. This molecular understanding, combined with data that human satellite cells remain intrinsically young, introduced novel therapeutic targets. Indeed, activation of MAPK/Notch restored ‘youthful’ myogenic responses to satellite cells from 70-year-old humans, rendering them similar to cells from 20-year-old humans. These findings strongly suggest that aging of human muscle maintenance and repair can be reversed by ‘youthful’ calibration of specific molecular pathways. PMID:20049743

  11. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  12. Age as a bona fide occupational qualification for firefighting. A review on the importance of measuring aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, M S; Landy, F; Saupe, K

    1992-01-01

    Recent federal and judicial initiatives have led to controversy over the justification of mandatory retirement policies applied to public safety occupations. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has been mandated to study this issue, and a critical element of that study will be to determine the types of tests to be employed as substitutes for a mandatory retirement age. In this review, a rationale is presented for the measurement of aerobic power (VO2max) as a predictor of the physical performance capability of firefighters. We conclude that task simulations rarely replicate the environmental conditions present at structural fires that stress the cardiorespiratory capability of firefighters. VO2max is an important predictor of performance effectiveness of firefighters to be used in conjunction with task-specific testing.

  13. Extensive occupational finger use delays age effects in tactile perception-an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Winneke, Axel H; Godde, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Tactile expertise, resulting from extensive use of hands, has previously been shown to improve tactile perception in blind people and musicians and to be associated with changes in the central processing of tactile information. This study investigated whether expertise, due to precise and deliberate use of the fingers at work, relates to improved tactile perception and whether this expertise interacts with age. A tactile pattern and a frequency discrimination task were conducted while ERPs were measured in experts and nonexperts of two age groups within middle adulthood. Independently of age, accuracy was better in experts than in nonexperts in both tasks. Somatosensory N70 amplitudes were larger with increasing age and for experts than for nonexperts. P100 amplitudes were smaller in experts than in nonexperts in the frequency discrimination task. In the pattern discrimination task, P300 difference wave amplitude was reduced in experts and late middle-aged adults. In the frequency discrimination task, P300 was more equally distributed in late middle-aged adults. We conclude that extensive, dexterous manual work leads to acquisition of tactile expertise and that this expertise might delay, but not counteract, age effects on tactile perception. Comparable neurophysiological changes induced by age and expertise presumably have different underlying mechanisms. Enlarged somatosensory N70 amplitudes might result from reduced inhibition in older adults but from enhanced, specific excitability of the somatosensory cortex in experts. Regarding P300, smaller amplitudes might indicate fewer available resources in older adults and, by contrast, a reduced need to engage as much cognitive effort to the task in experts.

  14. Oxidative stress in aging human skin.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-21

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis.

  15. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis. PMID:25906193

  16. First dated human occupation of Italy at ~ 0.85 Ma during the late Early Pleistocene climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Scardia, Giancarlo; Kent, Dennis V.; Morsiani, Enrico; Tremolada, Fabrizio; Cremaschi, Mauro; Peretto, Carlo

    2011-07-01

    A candidate for the oldest human occupation site in Italy is Monte Poggiolo where the lithic tool-bearing levels are currently dated to ~ 1 Ma based on electron spin resonance (ESR). The low analytical precision of ± 30% at 2σ makes it unclear whether the date actually conflicts with a recent reassessment of age constraints on key hominin sites from Italy, France, and Spain pointing to a uniformly young timing for the earliest habitation of southern Europe during the late Early Pleistocene climate transition within reverse magnetic polarity subchron C1r.1r (0.988-0.781 Ma). Our new magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic results show a sequence of stable normal and reverse polarities in a regional lithostratigraphic context that indicate the Monte Poggiolo tool-bearing site post-dates the Jaramillo normal polarity subchron, most probably occurring at ~ 0.85 Ma immediately after the pronounced cooling that culminated with marine isotope stage 22 when the associated regression may have opened new migration routes through the Po Valley for large mammals and hominins.

  17. Aging of the Human Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging affects every sensory system in the body, including the vestibular system. Although its impact is often difficult to quantify, the deleterious impact of aging on the vestibular system is serious both medically and economically. The deterioration of the vestibular sensory end organs has been known since the 1970s; however, the measurable impact from these anatomical changes remains elusive. Tests of vestibular function either fall short in their ability to quantify such anatomical deterioration, or they are insensitive to the associated physiologic decline and/or central compensatory mechanisms that accompany the vestibular aging process. When compared with healthy younger individuals, a paucity of subtle differences in test results has been reported in the healthy older population, and those differences are often observed only in response to nontraditional and/or more robust stimuli. In addition, the reported differences are often clinically insignificant insomuch that the recorded physiologic responses from the elderly often fall within the wide normative response ranges identified for normal healthy adults. The damaging economic impact of such vestibular sensory decline manifests itself in an exponential increase in geriatric dizziness and a subsequent higher prevalence of injurious falls. An estimated $10 to $20 billion dollar annual cost has been reported to be associated with falls-related injuries and is the sixth leading cause of death in the elderly population, with a 20% mortality rate. With an estimated 115% increase in the geriatric population over 65 years of age by the year 2050, the number of balanced-disordered patients with a declining vestibular system is certain to reach near epidemic proportions. An understanding of the effects of age on the vestibular system is imperative if clinicians are to better manage elderly patients with balance disorders, dizziness, and vestibular disease. PMID:27516717

  18. Gene expression in the aging human brain: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Adith; Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Baune, Bernhard T; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-03-01

    The review aims to provide a summary of recent developments in the study of gene expression in the aging human brain. Profiling differentially expressed genes or 'transcripts' in the human brain over the course of normal aging has provided valuable insights into the biological pathways that appear activated or suppressed in late life. Genes mediating neuroinflammation and immune system activation in particular, show significant age-related upregulation creating a state of vulnerability to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease in the aging brain. Cellular ionic dyshomeostasis and age-related decline in a host of molecular influences on synaptic efficacy may underlie neurocognitive decline in later life. Critically, these investigations have also shed light on the mobilization of protective genetic responses within the aging human brain that help determine health and disease trajectories in older age. There is growing interest in the study of pre and posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, and the role of noncoding RNAs in particular, as mediators of the phenotypic diversity that characterizes human brain aging. Gene expression studies in healthy brain aging offer an opportunity to unravel the intricately regulated cellular underpinnings of neurocognitive aging as well as disease risk and resiliency in late life. In doing so, new avenues for early intervention in age-related neurodegenerative disease could be investigated with potentially significant implications for the development of disease-modifying therapies.

  19. Human Values in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses technology and its effects on society and humans, particularly library and information technology. Highlights include the evolving history of technology; and values related to technology in libraries, including democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, literacy and learning, rationalism, and equity of access. (LRW)

  20. Human Values in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses technology and its effects on society and humans, particularly library and information technology. Highlights include the evolving history of technology; and values related to technology in libraries, including democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, literacy and learning, rationalism, and equity of access. (LRW)

  1. Intergenerational Service Learning: To Promote Active Aging, and Occupational Therapy Gerontology Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Beverly P.; Wong, Stephanie Dapice; Dechello, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Americans are living longer, and the meaning of age has changed, particularly for Boomers and seniors. These demographic changes have economic and social ramifications with implications for health care, including rehabilitation services, and health science education. Service learning is an experiential learning pedagogy that integrates traditional…

  2. Intergenerational Service Learning: To Promote Active Aging, and Occupational Therapy Gerontology Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Beverly P.; Wong, Stephanie Dapice; Dechello, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Americans are living longer, and the meaning of age has changed, particularly for Boomers and seniors. These demographic changes have economic and social ramifications with implications for health care, including rehabilitation services, and health science education. Service learning is an experiential learning pedagogy that integrates traditional…

  3. Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Walter, R C; Buffler, R T; Bruggemann, J H; Guillaume, M M; Berhe, S M; Negassi, B; Libsekal, Y; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; von Cosel, R; Néraudeau, D; Gagnon, M

    2000-05-04

    The geographical origin of modern humans is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. The 'multiregional evolution' hypothesis argues that modern humans evolved semi-independently in Europe, Asia and Africa between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago, whereas the 'out of Africa' hypothesis contends that modern humans evolved in Africa between 200 and 100 kyr ago, migrating to Eurasia at some later time. Direct palaeontological, archaeological and biological evidence is necessary to resolve this debate. Here we report the discovery of early Middle Stone Age artefacts in an emerged reef terrace on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, which we date to the last interglacial (about 125 kyr ago) using U-Th mass spectrometry techniques on fossil corals. The geological setting of these artefacts shows that early humans occupied coastal areas and exploited near-shore marine food resources in East Africa by this time. Together with similar, tentatively dated discoveries from South Africa this is the earliest well-dated evidence for human adaptation to a coastal marine environment, heralding an expansion in the range and complexity of human behaviour from one end of Africa to the other. This new, wide-spread adaptive strategy may, in part, signal the onset of modern human behaviour, which supports an African origin for modern humans by 125 kyr ago.

  4. Human ageing and the origins of religion.

    PubMed

    Holliday, R

    2001-01-01

    During the evolution of hominids, the population could be sustained even with an expectation of life at birth of less than 20 years. Under these circumstances very few individuals reached old age. In these hunter-gatherer communities, altruistic behaviour was encouraged because it increased the likelihood of survival, whereas self-interest did not. An early moral code benefited the community as a whole. As social evolution progressed, the chances of survival increased, and for the first time very elderly individuals appeared. However, the reward for survival to old age was merely decrepitude and death. Under these circumstances, new incentives became a social necessity, and these took the form of a belief in an eternal afterlife. Religion then became the basis for the moral code, and it provided an assurance of continual survival after death.

  5. T CELL REPLICATIVE SENESCENCE IN HUMAN AGING

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jennifer P.; Effros, Rita B.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of the immune system appears to be an intractable consequence of aging, leading to increased susceptibility to infections, reduced effectiveness of vaccination and higher incidences of many diseases including osteoporosis and cancer in the elderly. These outcomes can be attributed, at least in part, to a phenomenon known as T cell replicative senescence, a terminal state characterized by dysregulated immune function, loss of the CD28 costimulatory molecule, shortened telomeres and elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Senescent CD8 T cells, which accumulate in the elderly, have been shown to frequently bear antigen specificity against cytomegalovirus (CMV), suggesting that this common and persistent infection may drive immune senescence and result in functional and phenotypic changes to the T cell repertoire. Senescent T cells have also been identified in patients with certain cancers, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections, such as HIV. This review discusses the in vivo and in vitro evidence for the contribution of CD8 T cell replicative senescence to a plethora of age-related pathologies and a few possible therapeutic avenues to delay or prevent this differentiative end-state in T cells. The age-associated remodeling of the immune system, through accumulation of senescent T cells has far-reaching consequences on the individual and society alike, for the current healthcare system needs to meet the urgent demands of the increasing proportions of the elderly in the US and abroad. PMID:23061726

  6. DNA-related pathways defective in human premature aging.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2002-05-07

    One of the major issues in studies on aging is the choice of biological model system. The human premature aging disorders represent excellent model systems for the study of the normal aging process, which occurs at a much earlier stage in life in these individuals than in normals. The patients with premature aging also get the age associated diseases at an early stage in life, and thus age associated disease can be studied as well. It is thus of great interest to understand the molecular pathology of these disorders.

  7. Climate change in the age of humans

    Treesearch

    J. Curt. Stager

    2014-01-01

    The Anthropocene epoch presents a mix of old and new challenges for the world’s forests. Climatic instability has typified most of the Cenozoic Era but today’s situation is unique due to the presence of billions of humans on the planet. The potential rate and magnitude of future warming driven by continued fossil fuel combustion could be unprecedented during the last...

  8. An Empirical Investigation of Occupational Choice and Human Capital Accumulation at Mid-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xue, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Individual variation in labor supply can arise from more than just a choice among discrete occupation groups, especially given the joint process of wage determination and time allocation. Other factors can include differential preferences for earnings, the time length of work and other related occupational attributes. Using data from the Wisconsin…

  9. An Empirical Investigation of Occupational Choice and Human Capital Accumulation at Mid-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xue, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Individual variation in labor supply can arise from more than just a choice among discrete occupation groups, especially given the joint process of wage determination and time allocation. Other factors can include differential preferences for earnings, the time length of work and other related occupational attributes. Using data from the Wisconsin…

  10. "Using recruitment source timing and diagnosticity to enhance applicants' occupation-specific human capital": Correction to Campion, Ployhart, and Campion (2017).

    PubMed

    2017-05-01

    Reports an error in "Using Recruitment Source Timing and Diagnosticity to Enhance Applicants' Occupation-Specific Human Capital" by Michael C. Campion, Robert E. Ployhart and Michael A. Campion (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Feb 02, 2017, np). In the article, the following headings were inadvertently set at the wrong level: Method, Participants and Procedure, Measures, Occupation specific human capital, Symbolic jobs, Relevant majors, Occupation-specific capital hotspots, Source timing, Source diagnosticity, Results, and Discussion. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-04566-001.) This study proposes that reaching applicants through more diagnostic recruitment sources earlier in their educational development (e.g., in high school) can lead them to invest more in their occupation-specific human capital (OSHC), thereby making them higher quality candidates. Using a sample of 78,157 applicants applying for jobs within a desirable professional occupation in the public sector, results indicate that applicants who report hearing about the occupation earlier, and applicants who report hearing about the occupation through more diagnostic sources, have higher levels of OSHC upon application. Additionally, source timing and diagnosticity affect the likelihood of candidates applying for jobs symbolic of the occupation, selecting relevant majors, and attending educational institutions with top programs related to the occupation. These findings suggest a firm's recruiting efforts may influence applicants' OSHC investment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Occupational Choice: A Conditional Logit Model with Special Reference to Wage Subsidies and Occupational Choice. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    A model of occupational choice based on the theory of human capital is developed and estimated by conditional logit analysis. The empirical results estimated the probability of individuals with certain characteristics (such as race, sex, age, and education) entering each of 11 occupational groups. The results indicate that individuals tend to…

  12. Biochemical Markers of Aging for Longitudinal Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Engelfriet, Peter M.; Jansen, Eugène H. J. M.; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Dollé, Martijn E. T.

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the past decades in unraveling the mechanisms that are responsible for aging. The discovery that particular gene mutations in experimental species such as yeast, flies, and nematodes are associated with longevity has led to many important insights into pathways that regulate aging processes. However, extrapolating laboratory findings in experimental species to knowledge that is valid for the complexity of human physiology remains a major challenge. Apart from the restricted experimental possibilities, studying aging in humans is further complicated by the development of various age-related diseases. The availability of a set of biomarkers that really reflect underlying aging processes would be of much value in disentangling age-associated pathology from specific aging mechanisms. In this review, we survey the literature to identify promising biochemical markers of aging, with a particular focus on using them in longitudinal studies of aging in humans that entail repeated measurements on easily obtainable material, such as blood samples. Our search strategy was a 2-pronged approach, one focused on general mechanisms of aging and one including studies on clinical biomarkers of age-related diseases. PMID:23382477

  13. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes.

  14. Can polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and enantiomer fractions be used for source identification and to age date occupational exposure?

    PubMed

    Megson, David; Focant, Jean-Françios; Patterson, Donald G; Robson, Matthew; Lohan, Maeve C; Worsfold, Paul J; Comber, Sean; Kalin, Robert; Reiner, Eric; O'Sullivan, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and chiral Enantiomer Fractions (EFs) of CB-95, CB-136 and CB-149 were measured for 30 workers at a transformer dismantling plant. This was undertaken to identify sources of exposure and investigate changes to the PCB signature and EFs over different exposure periods. Approximately 1.5 g of serum was extracted and PCB signatures were created through analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and EFs calculated following analysis by gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). A total of 84 PCBs were identified in the serum samples with concentrations of the 7 indicator PCBs ranging from 11-350 ng g(-1) of serum (1.2-39 μg g(-1) lipid). The PCB signatures were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA) which was able to distinguish workers with background or recent minimal exposure from those with prolonged occupational exposure. Occupationally exposed individuals had a similar PCB profile to Aroclor A1260. However, individuals with prolonged exposure had depleted proportions of several PCB congeners that are susceptible to metabolism (CB-95, CB-101 and CB-151) and elevated proportions of PCBs that are resistant to metabolism (CB-74, CB-153, CB-138 and CB-180). The results also identified a third group of workers with elevated proportions of CB-28, CB-60, CB-66, CB-74, CB-105 and CB-118 who appeared to have been exposed to an additional source of PCBs. The results show near complete removal of the CB-95 E2 enantiomer in some samples, indicating that bioselective metabolism or preferential excretion of one enantiomer occurs in humans. By considering PCB concentrations along with detailed congener specific signatures it was possible to identify different exposure sources, and gain an insight into both the magnitude and duration of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tissue specific CTCF occupancy and boundary function at the human growth hormone locus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E; Liebhaber, Stephen A

    2014-04-01

    The robust and tissue-specific activation of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene cluster in the pituitary and placenta constitutes an informative model for analysis of gene regulation. The five-gene hGH cluster is regulated by two partially overlapping sets of DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs) that constitute the pituitary (HSI, II, III and V) and placental (HSIII, IV, and V) locus control regions (LCRs). The single placenta-specific LCR component, HSIV, is located at -30 kb to the cluster. Here we generate a series of hGH/BAC transgenes specifically modified to identify structural features of the hGH locus required for its appropriate placental expression. We find that placental specificity is dependent on the overall multigene configuration of the cluster whereas the distance between the cluster and its LCR impacts the level of placental expression. We further observe that a major function of the placental hGH LCR is to insulate the transgene locus from site-of-integration effects. This insulation activity is linked to placenta-specific occupancy of the chromatin architectural protein, CTCF, at HSIV. These data reveal a remarkable combination of structural configurations and regulatory determinants that must work in concert to insure robust and tightly controlled expression from a complex multigene locus.

  16. Computer-aided human factors analysis of the industrial vehicle driver cabin to improve occupational health.

    PubMed

    Koushik Balaji, K; Alphin, M S

    2016-09-01

    Industrial vehicle operator's solace and safety have gained significant consideration because of the increment in occupational health issues and accidents. The purpose of this work was to amend the design of the excavator driver cabin through human factor analysis. Thirty operators of excavators who were serving as subjects, were interviewed and identified that their wrist, upper arm and trunk were at a higher risk level while operating. Photograph of the operators was taken and the work environment was simulated. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) and REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) scoring was made on different simulated work posture of operators using CATIA V5 and UEAT1.8 softwares. Based on overall RULA and REBA scoring, it was found nearly 46% of the operators were operating at a high hazard level and needed investigation immediately, whereas 35% of operators were at a medium risk level and only 19% of operators were operating safely. The individual RULA and REBA scoring proved prevalence of discomfort in wrist, upper arm and trunk while operating. Identifying the optimized conditions to hold the control levers will help to reduce the operator strain. From the design optimization in excavators, the optimal conditions to hold the control lever is found to be 40cm for popliteal height, 60.51 cm for distance from elbow to ground and 15.07º for reach angle from the seat reference point.

  17. Were Upper Pleistocene human/non-human predator occupations at the Témara caves (El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra, Morocco) influenced by climate change?

    PubMed

    Campmas, Emilie; Michel, Patrick; Costamagno, Sandrine; Amani, Fethi; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Nespoulet, Roland; El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil

    2015-01-01

    The influence of climate change on human settlements in coastal areas is a central question for archaeologists. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on the Témara region in Morocco. The study area was selected for two main reasons. First, it contains numerous caves with Upper Pleistocene deposits, which have yielded remains of anatomically modern humans in association with Aterian and Iberomaurusian artifacts. Second, these caves are currently located on the shore, thus this region is particularly sensitive to major climate change and sea level fluctuations. Diachronic taphonomic study of faunal remains from two sites in the region, El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, shows alternating human/non-human predator occupations. The lower layers of El Mnasra Cave dating to Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 5 have yielded diverse ungulate remains with significant anthropogenic impact marks, together with numerous mollusk shells, Nassarius shell beads, hearths, lithics, some bone tools and used pigments. Faunal remains from the upper layers dating to OIS 4, 3 and 2 of El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra caves, largely dominated by gazelles, provide evidence of carnivore activities, such as tooth marks, numerous semi-digested bones and coprolites alongside some anthropogenic signatures (cut marks and burnt bones). Non-human predators appear to be the main agents responsible for faunal modifications and accumulations. The 'non-intensive' nature of human occupation is confirmed by analyses of the lithic industry at El Harhoura 2. The 'intensive' human occupations date to OIS 5 and could have taken place during wet periods in connection with high sea levels, which allowed the exploitation of shellfish in this area. 'Non-intensive' human occupations generally correspond to arid periods and lower sea levels, during which the Témara area was further inland and may have been less attractive to humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Odim, Angenay P; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults. We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength. Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.

  19. About Occupational Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to improve your documentation. Children & Youth Health & Wellness Mental Health Productive Aging Rehabilitation & Disability Work & Industry Manage Your Practice Evidence-Based Practice & Research Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants ...

  20. Carcinogen biomonitoring in human exposures and laboratory research: validation and application to human occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Glenn; Maier, Andrew; Henn, Scott; Booth-Jones, Angela; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Vermeulen, Roel; Schumann, Brenda L

    2002-08-05

    A multiple biomarker approach is required to integrate for metabolism, temporal response and exposure-response kinetics, biological relevance, and positive predictive value. Carcinogen DNA adduct analysis can be used in animal and in vitro studies to detect absorption permutations caused by mixture interactions, and to control metabolic variation when specific CYP450 genes (1A1 or 1A2) are knocked out. These enzymes are not critical to the metabolic activation of model Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and aromatic amines, respectively, as suggested by in vitro analysis. Several human studies have been carried out where multiple biomarkers have been measured. In a study of benzidine workers, the similarities in elimination kinetics between urinary metabolites and mutagenicity is likely responsible for a better correlation between these markers than to BZ-DNA adducts in exfoliated cells. In a study of rubber workers, the relationship between specific departments, urinary 1 HP and DNA adducts in exfoliated cells coincided with the historical urinary bladder cancer risk in these departments; the same relationship did not hold for urinary mutagenicity. In a study of automotive mechanics, biomarkers were used to monitor the effectiveness of exposure interventions. These data reinforce the notion that carcinogen biomarkers are useful to monitor exposure, but that a complementary approaches involving effect and perhaps susceptibility biomarkers is necessary to obtain the necessary information.

  1. Detailed Occupation and Years of School Completed by Age, for the Civilian Labor Force by Sex, Race, and Spanish Origin: 1980 Census of Population Supplementary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, John A.; And Others

    The report presents tabular data on occupation and years of school completed by age for the civilian labor force, by sex, race and Spanish origin, obtained from the 1980 Census/Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Special File. All tables list males and females separately for each category. Table 1 lists totals for 613 labor force categories, then…

  2. Occupational activity and cognitive reserve: implications in terms of prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Adam, Stéphane; Bonsang, Eric; Grotz, Catherine; Perelman, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the concept of activity (including both professional and nonprofessional) and cognitive functioning among older European individuals. In this research, we used data collected during the first wave of SHARE (Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe), and a measurement approach known as stochastic frontier analysis, derived from the economic literature. SHARE includes a large population (n > 25,000) geographically distributed across Europe, and analyzes several dimensions simultaneously, including physical and mental health activity. The main advantages of stochastic frontier analysis are that it allows estimation of parametric function relating cognitive scores and driving factors at the boundary and disentangles frontier noise and distance to frontier components, as well as testing the effect of potential factors on these distances simultaneously. The analysis reveals that all activities are positively related to cognitive functioning in elderly people. Our results are discussed in terms of prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease, and regarding the potential impact that some retirement programs might have on cognitive functioning in individuals across Europe.

  3. Mid- to Late Holocene shoreline reconstruction and human occupation in Ancient Eretria (South Central Euboea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilardi, Matthieu; Psomiadis, David; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Çelka, Sylvie Müller; Fachard, Sylvian; Theurillat, Thierry; Verdan, Samuel; Knodell, Alex R.; Theodoropoulou, Tatiana; Bicket, Andrew; Bonneau, Amandine; Delanghe-Sabatier, Doriane

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have aimed to reconstruct landscape change in the area of Eretria (South Central Euboea, Greece) during the last 6000 years. The aim of this paper is to partially fill in this gap by examining the interaction between Mid- to Late Holocene shoreline evolution and human occupation, which is documented in the area from the Late Neolithic to the Late Roman period (with discontinuities). Evidence of shoreline displacements is derived from the study of five boreholes (maximum depth of 5.25 m below the surface) drilled in the lowlands of Eretria. Based on sedimentological analyses and micro/macrofaunal identifications, different facies have been identified in the cores and which reveal typical features of deltaic progradation with marine, lagoonal, fluvio-deltaic and fluvial environments. In addition, a chronostratigraphy has been obtained based on 20 AMS 14C radiocarbon dates performed on samples of plant remains and marine/lagoonal shells found in situ. The main sequences of landscape reconstruction in the plain of Eretria can be summarized as follows: a marine environment predominated from ca. 4000 to 3200 cal. BC and a gradual transition to shallow marine conditions is observed ca. 3200-3000 cal. BC due to the general context of deltaic progradation west of the ancient city. Subsequently, from ca. 3000 to 2000 cal. BC, a lagoon occupied the area in the vicinity of the Temple of Apollo and the settlement's development was restricted to several fluvio-deltaic levees, thus severely limiting human activities in the plain. From ca. 2000 to 800 cal. BC, a phase of shallow marine presence prevailed and constrained settlement on higher ground, forcing abandonment of the major part of the plain. Finally, since the eighth century BC, the sea has regressed southward and created the modern landscape.

  4. Equality and the duty to retard human ageing.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colin

    2010-10-01

    Where does the aspiration to retard human ageing fit in the 'big picture' of medical necessities and the requirements of just healthcare? Is there a duty to retard human ageing? And if so, how much should we invest in the basic science that studies the biology of ageing and could lead to interventions that modify the biological processes of human ageing? I consider two prominent accounts of equality and just healthcare - Norman Daniels's application of the principle of fair equality of opportunity and Ronald Dworkin's account of equality of resources - and conclude that, once suitably amended and revised, both actually support the conclusion that anti-ageing research is important and could lead to interventions that ought to be considered 'medical necessities'.

  5. Expanding Our Understanding of Human Skin Aging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2016-05-01

    Two very different studies expand our understanding of human skin aging. In the first study, Hüls et al. show an association between nitrogen dioxide levels in outdoor air and number of lentigines on the cheek. In the second study, Bowman and Birch-Machin show that mitochondrial complex II activity in human skin fibroblasts decreases with age. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age effects on B cells and humoral immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Landin, Ana Marie; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2010-01-01

    Both humoral and cellular immune responses are impaired in aged individuals, leading to decreased vaccine responses. Although T cell defects occur, defects in B cells play a significant role in age-related humoral immune changes. The ability to undergo class switch recombination (CSR), the enzyme for CSR, AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) and the transcription factor E47 are all decreased in aged stimulated B cells. We here present an overview of age-related changes in human B cell markers and functions, and also discuss some controversies in the field of B cell aging. PMID:20728581

  7. Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Aging Human Retina.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Katie L; DeAngelis, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, have complex etiologies with environmental, genetic, and epigenetic contributions to disease pathology. Much effort has gone into elucidating both the genetic and the environmental risk factors for these retinal diseases. However, little is known about how these genetic and environmental risk factors bring about molecular changes that lead to pathology. Epigenetic mechanisms have received extensive attention of late for their promise of bridging the gap between environmental exposures and disease development via their influence on gene expression. Recent studies have identified epigenetic changes that associate with the incidence and/or progression of each of these retinal diseases. Therefore, these epigenetic modifications may be involved in the underlying pathological mechanisms leading to blindness. Further genome-wide epigenetic studies that incorporate well-characterized tissue samples, consider challenges similar to those relevant to gene expression studies, and combine the genome-wide epigenetic data with genome-wide genetic and expression data to identify additional potentially causative agents of disease are needed. Such studies will allow researchers to create much-needed therapeutics to prevent and/or intervene in disease progression. Improved therapeutics will greatly enhance the quality of life and reduce the burden of disease management for millions of patients living with these potentially blinding conditions.

  8. Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Aging Human Retina

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Katie L.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, have complex etiologies with environmental, genetic, and epigenetic contributions to disease pathology. Much effort has gone into elucidating both the genetic and the environmental risk factors for these retinal diseases. However, little is known about how these genetic and environmental risk factors bring about molecular changes that lead to pathology. Epigenetic mechanisms have received extensive attention of late for their promise of bridging the gap between environmental exposures and disease development via their influence on gene expression. Recent studies have identified epigenetic changes that associate with the incidence and/or progression of each of these retinal diseases. Therefore, these epigenetic modifications may be involved in the underlying pathological mechanisms leading to blindness. Further genome-wide epigenetic studies that incorporate well-characterized tissue samples, consider challenges similar to those relevant to gene expression studies, and combine the genome-wide epigenetic data with genome-wide genetic and expression data to identify additional potentially causative agents of disease are needed. Such studies will allow researchers to create much-needed therapeutics to prevent and/or intervene in disease progression. Improved therapeutics will greatly enhance the quality of life and reduce the burden of disease management for millions of patients living with these potentially blinding conditions. PMID:26966390

  9. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  10. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  11. Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic Occupations around Mundafan Palaeolake, Saudi Arabia: Implications for Climate Change and Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Crassard, Rémy; Petraglia, Michael D.; Drake, Nick A.; Breeze, Paul; Gratuze, Bernard; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Arbach, Mounir; Groucutt, Huw S.; Khalidi, Lamya; Michelsen, Nils; Robin, Christian J.; Schiettecatte, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is a key region for understanding climate change and human occupation history in a marginal environment. The Mundafan palaeolake is situated in southern Saudi Arabia, in the Rub’ al-Khali (the ‘Empty Quarter’), the world’s largest sand desert. Here we report the first discoveries of Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in association with the palaeolake. We associate the human occupations with new geochronological data, and suggest the archaeological sites date to the wet periods of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and the Early Holocene. The archaeological sites indicate that humans repeatedly penetrated the ameliorated environments of the Rub’ al-Khali. The sites probably represent short-term occupations, with the Neolithic sites focused on hunting, as indicated by points and weaponry. Middle Palaeolithic assemblages at Mundafan support a lacustrine adaptive focus in Arabia. Provenancing of obsidian artifacts indicates that Neolithic groups at Mundafan had a wide wandering range, with transport of artifacts from distant sources. PMID:23894519

  12. Bibliography: Occupation and Manpower Research Division, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (1957-1979).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Psychological Association guidelines for references. This bibliography includes reports accomplished by the Occupation and Manpower Research Division (OR...career programs and reassignment systems. This bibliography has been compiled by chronological year, and within the year, using the American

  13. Glycosaminoglycans in the Human Cornea: Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Elena; Pacella, Fernanda; De Paolis, Giulio; Parisella, Francesca Romana; Turchetti, Paolo; Anello, Giulia; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate possible age-related changes in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the human cornea. The substances today called GAGs were previously referred to as mucopolysaccharides. METHODS Samples of human cornea were taken from 12 younger (age 21 ± 1.2) and 12 older (age 72 ± 1.6) male subjects. Samples were weighed, homogenized, and used for biochemical and molecular analyses. All the quantitative results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS The human cornea appears to undergo age-related changes, as evidenced by our biochemical and molecular results. The total GAG and hyaluronic acid counts were significantly higher in the younger subjects than in the older subjects. The sulfated heavy GAGs, such as chondroitin, dermatan, keratan, and heparan sulfate, were lower in the younger subjects than in the older subjects. DISCUSSION GAGs of the human cornea undergo numerous age-related changes. Their quantity is significantly altered in the elderly in comparison with younger subjects. GAGs play an important role in age-related diseases of the human cornea. PMID:25674020

  14. The concept of ageing in evolutionary algorithms: Discussion and inspirations for human ageing.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, Christos; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Boustras, George; Efstathiades, Christodoulos

    2017-02-04

    This paper discusses the concept of ageing as this applies to the operation of Evolutionary Algorithms, and examines its relationship to the concept of ageing as this is understood for human beings. Evolutionary Algorithms constitute a family of search algorithms which base their operation on an analogy from the evolution of species in nature. The paper initially provides the necessary knowledge on the operation of Evolutionary Algorithms, focusing on the use of ageing strategies during the implementation of the evolutionary process. Background knowledge on the concept of ageing, as this is defined scientifically for biological systems, is subsequently presented. Based on this information, the paper provides a comparison between the two ageing concepts, and discusses the philosophical inspirations which can be drawn for human ageing based on the operation of Evolutionary Algorithms.

  15. The many faces of human ageing: toward a psychological culture of old age.

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1991-11-01

    In an effort to distil major findings about the nature of human ageing, seven propositions are presented as a guiding frame of reference. This propositional framework is then used to specify some conditions for a positive culture of old age and to advance one possible model of good psychological ageing. This model focuses on the dynamic interplay between three processes: selection, optimization, and compensation. The model is universal in its basic features, but at the same time emphasizes individual variations in phenotypic manifestation.

  16. Epigenetic Age Acceleration Assessed with Human White-Matter Images.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Karen; Carless, Melanie A; Kulkarni, Hemant; Curran, Joanne E; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Mathias, Samuel; Göring, Harald H H; Yao, Nailin; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2017-05-03

    The accurate estimation of age using methylation data has proved a useful and heritable biomarker, with acceleration in epigenetic age predicting a number of age-related phenotypes. Measures of white matter integrity in the brain are also heritable and highly sensitive to both normal and pathological aging processes across adulthood. We consider the phenotypic and genetic interrelationships between epigenetic age acceleration and white matter integrity in humans. Our goal was to investigate processes that underlie interindividual variability in age-related changes in the brain. Using blood taken from a Mexican-American extended pedigree sample (n = 628; age = 23.28-93.11 years), epigenetic age was estimated using the method developed by Horvath (2013). For n = 376 individuals, diffusion tensor imaging scans were also available. The interrelationship between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter integrity was investigated with variance decomposition methods. To test for neuroanatomical specificity, 16 specific tracts were additionally considered. We observed negative phenotypic correlations between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter tract integrity (ρpheno = -0.119, p = 0.028), with evidence of shared genetic (ρgene = -0.463, p = 0.013) but not environmental influences. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlations with age acceleration were also seen for a number of specific white matter tracts, along with additional negative phenotypic correlations between granulocyte abundance and white matter integrity. These findings (i.e., increased acceleration in epigenetic age in peripheral blood correlates with reduced white matter integrity in the brain and shares common genetic influences) provide a window into the neurobiology of aging processes within the brain and a potential biomarker of normal and pathological brain aging.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Epigenetic measures can be used to predict age with a high degree of accuracy and so

  17. Disaster management and the critical thinking skills of local emergency managers: correlations with age, gender, education, and years in occupation.

    PubMed

    Peerbolte, Stacy L; Collins, Matthew Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Emergency managers must be able to think critically in order to identify and anticipate situations, solve problems, make judgements and decisions effectively and efficiently, and assume and manage risk. Heretofore, a critical thinking skills assessment of local emergency managers had yet to be conducted that tested for correlations among age, gender, education, and years in occupation. An exploratory descriptive research design, using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Short Form (WGCTA-S), was employed to determine the extent to which a sample of 54 local emergency managers demonstrated the critical thinking skills associated with the ability to assume and manage risk as compared to the critical thinking scores of a group of 4,790 peer-level managers drawn from an archival WGCTA-S database. This exploratory design suggests that the local emergency managers, surveyed in this study, had lower WGCTA-S critical thinking scores than their equivalents in the archival database with the exception of those in the high education and high experience group.

  18. Occupational trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: human herpesvirus 6 reactivation and rash phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kamijima, Michihiro; Wang, Hailan; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Ito, Yuki; Xia, Lihua; Yanagiba, Yukie; Chen, Cishan; Okamura, Ai; Huang, Zhenlie; Qiu, Xinxiang; Song, Xiangrong; Cai, Tingfeng; Liu, Lili; Ge, Yichen; Deng, Yingyu; Naito, Hisao; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Tohyama, Mikiko; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent which can cause severe generalized dermatitis, i.e., occupational TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. Reactivation of latent human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) can occur in such patients, which has made TCE known as a causative chemical of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). This study aimed to clarify HHV6 status, cytokine profiles and their association with rash phenotypes in patients with TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. HHV6 DNA copy numbers, anti-HHV6 antibody titers, and cytokines were measured in blood prospectively sampled 5-7 times from 28 hospitalized patients with the disease. The patients (19 had exfoliative dermatitis (ED) and 9 had non-ED type rash) generally met the diagnostic criteria for DIHS. Viral reactivation defined as increases in either HHV6 DNA (≥100 genomic copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells) or antibody titers was identified in 24 (89%) patients. HHV6 DNA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were remarkably higher in the patients than in the healthy workers (p<0.01). Positive correlations between HHV6 DNA, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significant (p<0.05) except for that between HHV6 DNA and IFN-γ. An increase in HHV6 DNA was positively associated with an increase in TNF-α on admission (p<0.01). HHV6 DNA, the antibody titers, TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in ED than in the non-ED type (p<0.05). Reactivated HHV6 and the increased cytokines could be biomarkers of TCE hypersensitivity syndrome. The higher-level reactivation and stronger humoral responses were associated with ED-type rash. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Historical evolution of human anthrax from occupational disease to potentially global threat as bioweapon.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Gentile, Bernardina; Lista, Florigio; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can naturally infect livestock, wildlife and occupationally exposed humans. However, for its resistance due to spore formation, ease of dissemination, persistence in the environment and high virulence, B. anthracis has been considered the most serious bioterrorism agent for a long time. During the last century anthrax evolved from limited natural disease to potentially global threat if used as bioweapon. Several factors may mitigate the consequences of an anthrax attack, including 1. the capability to promptly recognize and manage the illness and its public health consequences; 2. the limitation of secondary contamination risk through an appropriate decontamination; and 3. the evolution of genotyping methods (for microbes characterization at high resolution level) that can influence the course and/or focus of investigations, impacting the response of the government to an attack. A PubMed search has been done using the key words “bioterrorism anthrax”. Over one thousand papers have been screened and the most significant examined to present a comprehensive literature review in order to discuss the current knowledge and strategies in preparedness for a possible deliberate release of B. anthracis spores and to indicate the most current and complete documents in which to deepen. The comprehensive analysis of the two most relevant unnatural anthrax release events, Sverdlovsk in the former Soviet Union (1979) and the contaminated letters in the USA (2001), shows that inhalational anthrax may easily and cheaply be spread resulting in serious consequences. The damage caused by an anthrax attack can be limited if public health organization, first responders, researchers and investigators will be able to promptly manage anthrax cases and use new technologies for decontamination methods and in forensic microbiology.

  20. Age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization in human sclera.

    PubMed

    Klumb, Karolin; Matzenauer, Christian; Reckert, Alexandra; Lehmann, Klaus; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation based on racemization of aspartic acid residues (AAR) in permanent proteins has been established in forensic medicine for years. While dentine is the tissue of choice for this molecular method of age estimation, teeth are not always available which leads to the need to identify other suitable tissues. We examined the suitability of total tissue samples of human sclera for the estimation of age at death. Sixty-five samples of scleral tissue were analyzed. The samples were hydrolyzed and after derivatization, the extent of aspartic acid racemization was determined by gas chromatography. The degree of AAR increased with age. In samples from younger individuals, the correlation of age and D-aspartic acid content was closer than in samples from older individuals. The age-dependent racemization in total tissue samples proves that permanent or at least long-living proteins are present in scleral tissue. The correlation of AAR in human sclera and age at death is close enough to serve as basis for age estimation. However, the precision of age estimation by this method is lower than that of age estimation based on the analysis of dentine which is due to molecular inhomogeneities of total tissue samples of sclera. Nevertheless, the approach may serve as a valuable alternative or addition in exceptional cases.

  1. Loss of Brain Aerobic Glycolysis in Normal Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manu S; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Blazey, Tyler M; Su, Yi; Couture, Lars E; Durbin, Tony J; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L-S; Morris, John C; Raichle, Marcus E

    2017-08-01

    The normal aging human brain experiences global decreases in metabolism, but whether this affects the topography of brain metabolism is unknown. Here we describe PET-based measurements of brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow in cognitively normal adults from 20 to 82 years of age. Age-related decreases in brain glucose uptake exceed that of oxygen use, resulting in loss of brain aerobic glycolysis (AG). Whereas the topographies of total brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow remain largely stable with age, brain AG topography changes significantly. Brain regions with high AG in young adults show the greatest change, as do regions with prolonged developmental transcriptional features (i.e., neoteny). The normal aging human brain thus undergoes characteristic metabolic changes, largely driven by global loss and topographic changes in brain AG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Knibbe-Hollinger, Jaclyn S; Fields, Natasha R; Chaudoin, Tammy R; Epstein, Adrian A; Makarov, Edward; Akhter, Sidra P; Gorantla, Santhi; Bonasera, Stephen J; Gendelman, Howard E; Poluektova, Larisa Y

    2015-09-09

    Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization.

  3. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Knibbe-Hollinger, Jaclyn S.; Fields, Natasha R.; Chaudoin, Tammy R; Epstein, Adrian A.; Makarov, Edward; Akhter, Sidra P.; Gorantla, Santhi; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Poluektova, Larisa Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization. PMID:26353862

  4. Abundance-occupancy dynamics in a human dominated environment: linking interspecific and intraspecific trends in British farmland and woodland birds.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J; Noble, David; Freckleton, Robert P

    2007-01-01

    1. Range size, population size and body size, the key macroecological variables, vary temporally both within and across species in response to anthropogenic and natural environmental change. However, resulting temporal trends in the relationships between these variables (i.e. macroecological patterns) have received little attention. 2. Positive relationships between the local abundance and regional occupancy of species (abundance-occupancy relationships) are among the most pervasive of all macroecological patterns. In the absence of formal predictions of how abundance-occupancy relationships may vary temporally, we outline several scenarios of how changes in abundance within species might affect interspecific patterns. 3. We use data on the distribution and abundance of 73 farmland and 55 woodland bird species in Britain over a 32-year period encompassing substantial habitat modification to assess the likelihood of these scenarios. 4. In both farmland and woodland habitats, the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship changed markedly over the period 1968-99, with a significant decline in the strength of the relationship. 5. Consideration of intraspecific dynamics shows that this has been due to a decoupling of abundance and occupancy particularly in rare and declining species. Insights into the intraspecific processes responsible for the interspecific trend are obtained by analysis of temporal trends in the distribution of individuals between sites, which show patterns consistent with habitat quality declines. 6. This study shows that a profitable approach to ascertaining the nature of human impacts is to link intra- and interspecific processes. In the case of British farmland and woodland birds, changes to the environment lead to species-specific responses in large-scale distributions. These species-specific changes are the driver of the observed changes in the form and strength of the interspecific relationship.

  5. Nutrition modulation of human aging: The calorie restriction paradigm.

    PubMed

    Das, Sai Krupa; Balasubramanian, Priya; Weerasekara, Yasoma K

    2017-11-05

    Globally, the aging population is growing rapidly, creating an urgent need to attenuate age-related health conditions, including metabolic disease and disability. A promising strategy for healthy aging based on consistently positive results from studies with a variety of species, including non-human primates (NHP), is calorie restriction (CR), or the restriction of energy intake while maintaining intake of essential nutrients. The burgeoning evidence for this approach in humans is reviewed and the major study to date to address this question, CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), is described. CALERIE findings indicate the feasibility of CR in non-obese humans, confirm observations in NHP, and are consistent with improvements in disease risk reduction and potential anti-aging effects. Finally, the mechanisms of CR in humans are reviewed which sums up the fact that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms mediate the anti-aging effects of CR. Overall, the prospect for further research in both NHP and humans is highly encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased mobilization of aged carbon to rivers by human disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, David E.; Wilson, Henry F.; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2015-02-01

    Approximately 8% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to come from land-use change, but this estimate excludes fluxes of terrestrial carbon to aquatic ecosystems from human disturbance. Carbon fluxes from land to rivers have probably increased by 0.1 to 0.2 petagrams of carbon per year as a result of disturbances such as deforestation, agricultural intensification and the injection of human wastewater. Most dissolved organic carbon in rivers originates from young organic carbon from soils and vegetation, but aged carbon removed from the modern carbon cycle is also exported in many systems. Here we analyse a global data set of radiocarbon ages of riverine dissolved organic carbon and spatial data on land cover, population and environmental variables. We find that the age of dissolved organic carbon in rivers increases with population density and the proportion of human-dominated landscapes within a watershed, and decreases with annual precipitation. We reason that disturbance reintroduces aged soil organic matter into the modern carbon cycle, although fossil carbon in fertilizer or petroleum products may also be a source of aged carbon in disturbed watersheds. The total export from the terrestrial environment to freshwater systems remains unknown; nevertheless, our results suggest that 3-9% of dissolved organic carbon in rivers is aged carbon mobilized by human disturbance.

  7. Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85–1.78 Ma

    PubMed Central

    Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

    2011-01-01

    The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85–1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record. PMID:21646521

  8. Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Ian; Brown, Francis H; Fleagle, John G

    2005-02-17

    In 1967 the Kibish Formation in southern Ethiopia yielded hominid cranial remains identified as early anatomically modern humans, assigned to Homo sapiens. However, the provenance and age of the fossils have been much debated. Here we confirm that the Omo I and Omo II hominid fossils are from similar stratigraphic levels in Member I of the Kibish Formation, despite the view that Omo I is more modern in appearance than Omo II. 40Ar/39Ar ages on feldspar crystals from pumice clasts within a tuff in Member I below the hominid levels place an older limit of 198 +/- 14 kyr (weighted mean age 196 +/- 2 kyr) on the hominids. A younger age limit of 104 +/- 7 kyr is provided by feldspars from pumice clasts in a Member III tuff. Geological evidence indicates rapid deposition of each member of the Kibish Formation. Isotopic ages on the Kibish Formation correspond to ages of Mediterranean sapropels, which reflect increased flow of the Nile River, and necessarily increased flow of the Omo River. Thus the 40Ar/39Ar age measurements, together with the sapropel correlations, indicate that the hominid fossils have an age close to the older limit. Our preferred estimate of the age of the Kibish hominids is 195 +/- 5 kyr, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described.

  9. Occupational Clusters. Occupational Investigation Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This occupational investigation guide contains learning activities for instruction in fifteen occupational clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business and office, (3) communications and media, (4) construction, (5) consumer and homemaking, (6) environment, (7) fine arts and humanities, (8) health, (9) hospitality and recreation,…

  10. Evidence for the hallmarks of human aging in replicatively aging yeast

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Georges E.; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, efforts have been made to characterize the hallmarks that accompany and contribute to the phenomenon of aging, as most relevant for humans 1. Remarkably, studying the finite lifespan of the single cell eukaryote budding yeast (recently reviewed in 2 and 3) has been paramount for our understanding of aging. Here, we compile observations from literature over the past decades of research on replicatively aging yeast to highlight how the hallmarks of aging in humans are present in yeast. We find strong evidence for the majority of these, and summarize how yeast aging is especially characterized by the hallmarks of genomic instability, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:28357364

  11. Managing implementation: roles of line managers, senior managers, and human resource professionals in an occupational health intervention.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Henna; Villaume, Karin; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Palm, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    To contrast line managers', senior managers', and (human resource) HR professionals' descriptions of their roles, tasks, and possibilities to perform them during the implementation of an occupational health intervention. Interviews with line managers (n = 13), senior managers (n = 7), and HR professionals (n = 9) 6 months after initiation of an occupational health intervention at nine organizations. The groups' roles were described coherently, except for the HR professionals. These roles were seldom performed in practice, and two main reasons appeared: use of individuals' engagement rather than an implementation strategy, and lack of integration of the intervention with other stakeholders and organizational processes. Evaluation of stakeholders' perceptions of each other's and their own roles is important, especially concerning HR professionals. Clear role descriptions and implementation strategies, and aligning an intervention to organizational processes, are crucial for efficient intervention management.

  12. Central D2 receptor occupancy and effects of zuclopenthixol acetate in humans.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, S; Farde, L; Bartfai, A; Halldin, C

    1995-11-01

    Repeated positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of D2 receptor occupancy, plasma concentrations of zuclopenthixol and reaction time were performed in three healthy subjects after injection of 12.5 mg zuclopenthixol acetate (ZPTA) in an open study design. Five control subjects were examined for reaction time only. D2 receptor occupancy was 51%, 71% and 75% after 7 h and 75%, 83% and 87% after 31 h in the three subjects. The subjects reported sedation, but reaction time was not prolonged. After the low dose of 12.5 mg ZPTA, D2 receptor occupancy exceeded the 70% assumed to be required to induce antipsychotic effect. Extrapolation of data to a clinical dose interval indicates that 50-150 mg ZPTA should induce very high D2 receptor occupancy lasting several days after injection. Such high doses may be required to induce sedation and to avoid frequent intramuscular injections in acutely psychotic patients. However, the simultaneously induced very high D2 receptor occupancy calls for careful assessment of acute extrapyramidal symptoms.

  13. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing cognitive aging in humans with links to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439

  15. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents.

  16. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  17. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  18. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics in a new hospital building.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Gilbert, Jack A; Stephens, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogate measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO2 concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ∼8×106 data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for

  20. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics in a new hospital building

    DOE PAGES

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; ...

    2015-03-02

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogatemore » measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO₂ concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ~8×10⁶ data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics in a new hospital building

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Stephens, Brent

    2015-03-02

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogate measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO₂ concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ~8×10⁶ data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Indoor Environmental Conditions, Human Occupancy, and Operational Characteristics in a New Hospital Building

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Tiffanie; Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Stephens, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse stations in a new hospital building in Chicago, IL to characterize the indoor environment in which microbial samples were taken for the Hospital Microbiome Project. Measurements included environmental conditions (indoor dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, humidity ratio, and illuminance) in the patient rooms and nurse stations; differential pressure between the patient rooms and hallways; surrogate measures for human occupancy and activity in the patient rooms using both indoor air CO2 concentrations and infrared doorway beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals over consecutive days for nearly one year, providing a total of ∼8×106 data points. Indoor temperature, illuminance, and human occupancy/activity were all weakly correlated between rooms, while relative humidity, humidity ratio, and outdoor air fractions showed strong temporal (seasonal) patterns and strong spatial correlations between rooms. Differential pressure measurements confirmed that all patient rooms were operated at neutral pressure. The patient rooms averaged about 100 combined entrances and exits per day, which suggests they were relatively lightly occupied compared to higher traffic environments (e.g., retail buildings) and more similar to lower traffic office environments. There were also clear differences in several environmental parameters before and after the hospital was occupied with patients and staff. Characterizing and understanding factors that influence these building dynamics is vital for

  3. Records of human occupation from Pleistocene river terrace and aeolian sediments in the Arneiro depression (Lower Tejo River, central eastern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Pedro P.; Almeida, Nelson A. C.; Aubry, Thierry; Martins, António A.; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Sohbati, Reza; Raposo, Luis; Rocha, Leonor

    2012-09-01

    In the uppermost reach of the Lower Tejo River (eastern central Portugal), where the river crosses two quartzite ridges that separate the Ródão (upstream) and Arneiro (downstream) depressions, Palaeolithic artefacts have been recovered from three lower river terrace levels and a cover unit of aeolian sands. This paper presents data on the discovery of archaeological artefacts from the terrace levels and the aeolian sands that can be linked to Middle and Upper Palaeolithic industries from new field sites at Tapada do Montinho and Castelejo. The archaeological data when placed in a geomorphological, sedimentary and chronological framework, contribute new information on the understanding of human occupation in western Iberia during cold-climate episodes of the last 62 to 12 ka; and especially during the cooler and driest conditions that occurred between 32 and 12 ka, when the climate favoured aeolian sediment transport. In the Lower Tejo River, the integration of absolute age datasets with archaeological, geomorphological and sedimentary data indicate that in westernmost Iberia the first appearance of artefacts in river terrace sediments suggests that the earliest marker for human occupation dates from the lower Acheulian (Lower Palaeolithic), probably corresponding to an age of ~ 340 ka. Data also suggest, for the first time, that Acheulian lithic industries were replaced by Middle Palaeolithic ones (namely the Levallois stone knapping technique) by ~ 160 ka (~ MIS6). Middle Palaeolithic industries were later replaced by Upper Palaeolithic industries at 32 ka. The post 32 ka period, dominated by aeolian sediment transport, is related to the onset of cold-dry climate conditions which resulted in low river flow discharges, floodplain exposure and reworking by NW winds. This cold-dry period is coeval with the disappearance of Megafauna and associated Neanderthal communities, and the replacement of the Middle Palaeolithic industries by Upper Palaeolithic ones in this

  4. Deterioration of muscle function in the human esophagus with age.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Hans; Pedersen, Jan; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2008-12-01

    Most studies on the effect of aging on esophageal motor function have shown that peristaltic function deteriorates with age. Esophageal motor function is traditionally studied by means of manometry and radiography. Distension of the esophagus with evaluation of active and passive mechanical parameters have become available during recent years. In this study, we did a manometric swallow analysis and used the distension method to study esophageal properties and function during aging. An impedance planimetric probe with a bag for distension was placed in the distal esophagus of 25 healthy volunteers with a median age of 35 (range 23-86) years. Distensions were done at an infusion rate of 25 ml min(-1) with and without relaxation of neuromuscular activity with butylscopolamine. The infusion was reversed when moderate pain was experienced by the subjects. Swallow-induced contraction amplitudes decreased as function of age for persons older than 40 years (P < 0.05). The total and passive tension showed an exponential increase as function of the change in radius, whereas the active tension increased until it reached a local maximum point. The maximum active tension deteriorated as a function of age after the age of 40 years (P < 0.05). Furthermore, esophagus became stiffer with age. In conclusion, age-related changes of increased stiffness and reduced primary and secondary peristalsis were found in the human esophagus with a deterioration of esophageal function after the age of 40 years. Such changes may contribute to the high prevalence of reflux disease in elderly.

  5. Aging in mouse and human systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd

    2006-05-01

    This article discusses the significance of mouse models as a basis for elucidating the aging process in humans. We identify certain parallels between mouse and human systems and review the theoretical and empirical support for the claim that the large divergence in the rate of aging between the two species resides in differences in the stability of their metabolic networks. We will show that these differences in metabolic stability have their origin in the different ecological constraints the species experience during their evolutionary history. We exploit these ideas to compare the effect of caloric restriction on murine and human systems. The studies predict that the large increases in mean life span and maximum life-span potential observed in laboratory rodents subject to caloric restriction will not obtain in human populations. We predict that, in view of the different metabolic stability of the two systems, caloric restriction will have no effect on the maximum life-span potential of humans, and a relatively minor effect on the mean life span of nonobese populations. This article thus points to certain intrinsic limitations in the use of mouse models in elucidating the aging process in humans. We furthermore contend the view that these limitations can be mitigated by considering the metabolic stability of the two species.

  6. Lipofuscin Granules in the Epileptic Human Temporal Neocortex with Age.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Suélen; Nakayama, Ana Beatriz S; Brusco, Janaina; Rossi, Marcos A; Carlotti, Carlos G; Moreira, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    Lipofuscin granules (LGs), the "age pigments", are autofluorescent cell products from lysosomes that diverge in number and size among brain regions. Human temporal cortex from 20- to 55-year-old epileptic subjects were studied with the fat soluble dye Sudan Black, under confocal and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural analysis showed that with age LGs increase in area, but not in number. Proportionally to the LGs area, the electron lucid portion increases and the electron dense reduces over time. The robust increase in lipid components is possibly due to modifications in the neuronal metabolism with age in physiological and pathological conditions.

  7. Role of Age-Associated Alterations of the Dermal Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment in Human Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Taihao; Fisher, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Human skin is largely composed of a collagen-rich connective tissue, which provides structural and functional support. The collagen-rich connective tissue is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. During aging, dermal collagen fibrils undergo progressive loss and fragmentation, leading to thin and structurally weakened skin. Age-related alterations of collagen fibrils impairs skin structure and function and creates a tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin diseases, such as delayed wound healing and skin cancer development. This review describes cellular mechanisms that give rise to self-perpetuating, collagen fibril fragmentation that creates an age-associated dermal microenvironment (AADM), which contributes to decline of human skin function. PMID:25660807

  8. The Human Right to Leisure in Old Age: Reinforcement of the Rights of an Aging Population.

    PubMed

    Karev, Iris; Doron, Israel Issi

    2017-01-01

    The right to leisure is recognized as a human right under the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The actual meaning and material content of this human right is subject to debate. The aim of this study is to examine the extent and the context to which this human right is specifically recognized with regard to older persons. Methodologically, this study textually analyzed 17 different international older persons' human rights documents. The findings reveal that in the majority of these documents there is no reference to the right to leisure. In the remaining documents, the right to leisure is mostly referred to indirectly or in a narrow legal construction. These findings support the notion that despite the growing body of knowledge regarding the importance of meaningful leisure in old age-and its empowering and anti-ageist nature-this knowledge has not transformed into a legal human rights discourse.

  9. [An occupational evaluation of disabled people from a human abilities' viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Angarita, Marisol; Cortés-Reyes, Edgar; Cárdenas-Jiménez, Andrea; Giraldo-Rátiva, Zulma; Mena-Ortiz, Luz Z

    2013-01-01

    Describing how a tool was designed for assessing disabled people in Colombia (called "Occupational evaluation of handicapped people in Colombia"). This was a multi-method study which consisted of five phases and a stakeholder participation-based strategy. The first stage of the multi-method research involved a literature review followed by expert judgment and then peer assessment of the tool; the fourth stage involved a pilot study and and a basic training course in occupational assessment involved the tool's socialisation with actors working in the field of occupational assessment, taking their suggestions into account for final adjustment of the tool. A tool was developed for the occupational assessment of disabled people in Colombia which was based on identifying their capabilities in terms of performance and general work skills to promote their inclusion in the workforce. Considering the Colombian state's responsibility for ensuring disabled people's right to work and their inclusion in the workforce (Law 1346/2009, Law 1618/2013 and Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD)), this tool will not replace existing ones but will promote a more favourable perception of disabled people, thereby facilitating their inclusion in the workforce.

  10. Relationship between Human Aging Muscle and Oxidative System Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Doria, Enrico; Buonocore, Daniela; Focarelli, Angela; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is a complex process that in muscle is usually associated with a decrease in mass, strength, and velocity of contraction. One of the most striking effects of ageing on muscle is known as sarcopenia. This inevitable biological process is characterized by a general decline in the physiological and biochemical functions of the major systems. At the cellular level, aging is caused by a progressive decline in mitochondrial function that results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the addition of a single electron to the oxygen molecule. The aging process is characterized by an imbalance between an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in the organism and the antioxidant defences as a whole. The goal of this review is to examine the results of existing studies on oxidative stress in aging human skeletal muscles, taking into account different physiological factors (sex, fibre composition, muscle type, and function). PMID:22685621

  11. Livestock-associated methicillin and multidrug resistant S. aureus in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Yanping; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Weidong; Yu, Haifeng; Zhou, Junli; Chen, Sidong; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the association of livestock-associated S. aureus with occupational pig contact and pet contact. In this cross-sectional study, 1,422 participants (including 244 pig workers, 200 pet-owning workers and 978 control workers) responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes, and multilocus sequence type. Compared with controls, the pig workers demonstrated a greater prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.38; 95% CI: 2.07–5.53] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (PR = 7.42; 95% CI: 3.71–14.83), but the prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA was similar in pet-owning workers and controls. There was a positive relation of frequency of pig contact with prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA carriage. Only pig workers carried MDRSA CC9 (16 isolates) and MRSA CC9 (16 isolates), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant and absent of IEC genes. These findings suggest that livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA(CC9, IEC-negative, tetracycline-resistant) in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact, and support growing concern about antibiotics use in pig farms and raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus. PMID:26755419

  12. Livestock-associated methicillin and multidrug resistant S. aureus in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Yanping; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Weidong; Yu, Haifeng; Zhou, Junli; Chen, Sidong; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2016-01-12

    This study aimed to explore the association of livestock-associated S. aureus with occupational pig contact and pet contact. In this cross-sectional study, 1,422 participants (including 244 pig workers, 200 pet-owning workers and 978 control workers) responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes, and multilocus sequence type. Compared with controls, the pig workers demonstrated a greater prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.38; 95% CI: 2.07-5.53] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (PR = 7.42; 95% CI: 3.71-14.83), but the prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA was similar in pet-owning workers and controls. There was a positive relation of frequency of pig contact with prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA carriage. Only pig workers carried MDRSA CC9 (16 isolates) and MRSA CC9 (16 isolates), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant and absent of IEC genes. These findings suggest that livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA(CC9, IEC-negative, tetracycline-resistant) in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact, and support growing concern about antibiotics use in pig farms and raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus.

  13. Wetlands and Paleolakes in the Hyperarid Atacama Desert During the Late Quaternary and Their Implications for Early Human Occupation of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, M.; Latorre Hidalgo, C.; Santoro, C.; Gayo, E.; McRostie, V.; Finstad, K. M.; Amundson, R.

    2016-12-01

    The hyperarid Atacama Desert has long been considered a natural barrier to human dispersal. However, several archaeological sites dating from the late Pleistocene have been recently reported on, and other as yet unpublished evidence is rapidly accumulating. It has been established that these occupations were facilitated by increased fluvial activity and biologically productive riparian ecosystems along the western slope of the Andes, and that the presence of humans disappeared with declines in this water flow. The considerable evidence for regional stream flow suggests that basins and lowlands should have contained lakes or wetlands contemporaneous with the ages of the fluvial activity, but there has been no published data on late Quaternary lakes in the region. Here, we report on our observations that possibly many present day salars (salt covered basins) were fresh water lakes and marshlands during the Central Andean Pluvial Event (CAPE) that occurred during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. We performed radiocarbon analysis of described stratigraphic profiles on paleo-shorelines or in paleo-lake basins that lie within the Pampa del Tamarugal (PDT) basin. We additionally described gastropods, plant remnants, phytoliths and diatomea, which provide a reliable source for paleoenvironmental facies interpretation. These data indicate that a paleolake existed at the location of the present-day Salar de Bellavista, and that wetlands (and possibly lakes) were present at the Salar de Llamara and Pintados. These past aquatic systems are coeval with the activation of the riparian systems of the PDT reported by previous studies. Furthermore, they would have contributed to a starkly different set of resource constraints for early inhabitants than the inhospitable conditions existing today. Additionally, the presence of these water sources provides guidance in the search for additional evidence of human occupation in the region, and for understanding the geographical

  14. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  15. Early human occupation of a maritime desert, Barrow Island, North-West Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veth, Peter; Ward, Ingrid; Manne, Tiina; Ulm, Sean; Ditchfield, Kane; Dortch, Joe; Hook, Fiona; Petchey, Fiona; Hogg, Alan; Questiaux, Daniele; Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee; Spooner, Nigel; Levchenko, Vladimir; Skippington, Jane; Byrne, Chae; Basgall, Mark; Zeanah, David; Belton, David; Helmholz, Petra; Bajkan, Szilvia; Bailey, Richard; Placzek, Christa; Kendrick, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Archaeological deposits from Boodie Cave on Barrow Island, northwest Australia, reveal some of the oldest evidence for Aboriginal occupation of Australia, as well as illustrating the early use of marine resources by modern peoples outside of Africa. Barrow Island is a large (202 km2) limestone continental island located on the North-West Shelf of Australia, optimally located to sample past use of both the Pleistocene coastline and extensive arid coastal plains. An interdisciplinary team forming the Barrow Island Archaeology Project (BIAP) has addressed questions focusing on the antiquity of occupation of coastal deserts by hunter-gatherers; the use and distribution of marine resources from the coast to the interior; and the productivity of the marine zone with changing sea levels. Boodie Cave is the largest of 20 stratified deposits identified on Barrow Island with 20 m3 of cultural deposits excavated between 2013 and 2015. In this first major synthesis we focus on the dating and sedimentology of Boodie Cave to establish the framework for ongoing analysis of cultural materials. We present new data on these cultural assemblages - including charcoal, faunal remains and lithics - integrated with micromorphology, sedimentary history and dating by four independent laboratories. First occupation occurs between 51.1 and 46.2 ka, overlapping with the earliest dates for occupation of Australia. Marine resources are incorporated into dietary assemblages by 42.5 ka and continue to be transported to the cave through all periods of occupation, despite fluctuating sea levels and dramatic extensions of the coastal plain. The changing quantities of marine fauna through time reflect the varying distance of the cave from the contemporaneous shoreline. The dietary breadth of both arid zone terrestrial fauna and marine species increases after the Last Glacial Maximum and significantly so by the mid-Holocene. The cave is abandoned by 6.8 ka when the island becomes increasingly distant

  16. Influence of Connectivity, Wild Prey and Disturbance on Occupancy of Tigers in the Human-Dominated Western Terai Arc Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Harihar, Abishek; Pandav, Bivash

    2012-01-01

    Occupying only 7% of their historical range and confined to forested habitats interspersed in a matrix of human dominated landscapes, tigers (Panthera tigris) typify the problems faced by most large carnivores worldwide. With heads of governments of tiger range countries pledging to reverse the extinction process and setting a goal of doubling wild tiger numbers by 2022, achieving this target would require identifying existing breeding cores, potential breeding habitats and opportunities for dispersal. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) represents one region which has recently witnessed recovery of tiger populations following conservation efforts. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit tiger occupancy model with survey data from 2009–10 based on a priori knowledge of tiger biology and specific issues plaguing the western TAL (6,979 km2), which occurs in two disjunct units (Tiger Habitat Blocks; THBs). Although the overall occupancy of tigers was 0.588 (SE 0.071), our results clearly indicate that loss in functionality of a regional corridor has resulted in tigers now occupying 17.58% of the available habitat in THB I in comparison to 88.5% in THB II. The current patterns of occupancy were best explained by models incorporating the interactive effect of habitat blocks (AIC w = 0.883) on wild prey availability (AIC w = 0.742) and anthropogenic disturbances (AIC w = 0.143). Our analysis has helped identify areas of high tiger occupancy both within and outside existing protected areas, which highlights the need for a unified control of the landscape under a single conservation unit with the primary focus of managing tigers and associated wildlife. Finally, in the light of global conservation targets and recent legislations in India, our study assumes significance as we identify opportunities to secure (e.g. THB II) and increase (e.g. THB I) tiger populations in the landscape. PMID:22792220

  17. Influence of connectivity, wild prey and disturbance on occupancy of tigers in the human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape.

    PubMed

    Harihar, Abishek; Pandav, Bivash

    2012-01-01

    Occupying only 7% of their historical range and confined to forested habitats interspersed in a matrix of human dominated landscapes, tigers (Panthera tigris) typify the problems faced by most large carnivores worldwide. With heads of governments of tiger range countries pledging to reverse the extinction process and setting a goal of doubling wild tiger numbers by 2022, achieving this target would require identifying existing breeding cores, potential breeding habitats and opportunities for dispersal. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) represents one region which has recently witnessed recovery of tiger populations following conservation efforts. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit tiger occupancy model with survey data from 2009-10 based on a priori knowledge of tiger biology and specific issues plaguing the western TAL (6,979 km(2)), which occurs in two disjunct units (Tiger Habitat Blocks; THBs). Although the overall occupancy of tigers was 0.588 (SE 0.071), our results clearly indicate that loss in functionality of a regional corridor has resulted in tigers now occupying 17.58% of the available habitat in THB I in comparison to 88.5% in THB II. The current patterns of occupancy were best explained by models incorporating the interactive effect of habitat blocks (AIC w = 0.883) on wild prey availability (AIC w = 0.742) and anthropogenic disturbances (AIC w = 0.143). Our analysis has helped identify areas of high tiger occupancy both within and outside existing protected areas, which highlights the need for a unified control of the landscape under a single conservation unit with the primary focus of managing tigers and associated wildlife. Finally, in the light of global conservation targets and recent legislations in India, our study assumes significance as we identify opportunities to secure (e.g. THB II) and increase (e.g. THB I) tiger populations in the landscape.

  18. Occupational Social Class and Personality Traits in Relation to Leisure-Time Physical Activity Level: Cross-Sectional Results From the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Gitte L; Mortensen, Erik L; Rod, Naja H; Lange, Theis; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Hansen, Åse M; Lund, Rikke

    2017-06-01

    To investigate separate and combined associations of occupational social class and personality traits with late midlife leisure-time physical activity duration and intensity. Cross-sectional data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank ( N = 4,649) were analyzed using linear regression models with leisure-time physical activity (metric equivalence) as outcome. Low versus high occupational social class was associated with 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [3%, 5%]) greater leisure-time physical activity duration, but 2% (CI = [1%, 3%]) lower intensity. Each 10-unit increase in extraversion was associated with 5% (CI = [2%, 8%]) greater duration. Intensity increased by each 10-unit increase in conscientiousness (6%, CI = [4%, 7%]), openness (3%, CI = [1%, 4%]), neuroticism (3%, CI = [1%, 4%]), and extraversion (5%, CI = [4%, 7%]). Conscientiousness was positively associated with duration in low, but not in high, occupational social class (interaction p value = .002). Higher occupational social class was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity duration, but higher intensity. Extraversion was positively associated with duration and intensity. Conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism were positively associated with intensity. Overall, interactions were not consistent.

  19. The Laboratory Rat: Relating Its Age With Human's

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    By late 18th or early 19th century, albino rats became the most commonly used experimental animals in numerous biomedical researches, as they have been recognized as the preeminent model mammalian system. But, the precise correlation between age of laboratory rats and human is still a subject of debate. A number of studies have tried to detect these correlations in various ways, But, have not successfully provided any proper association. Thus, the current review attempts to compare rat and human age at different phases of their life. The overall findings indicate that rats grow rapidly during their childhood and become sexually mature at about the sixth week, but attain social maturity 5-6 months later. In adulthood, every day of the animal is approximately equivalent to 34.8 human days (i.e., one rat month is comparable to three human years). Numerous researchers performed experimental investigations in albino rats and estimated, in general, while considering their entire life span, that a human month resembles every-day life of a laboratory rat. These differences signify the variations in their anatomy, physiology and developmental processes, which must be taken into consideration while analyzing the results or selecting the dose of any research in rats when age is a crucial factor. PMID:23930179

  20. DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not yet known whether DNA methylation levels can be used to accurately predict age across a broad spectrum of human tissues and cell types, nor whether the resulting age prediction is a biologically meaningful measure. Results I developed a multi-tissue predictor of age that allows one to estimate the DNA methylation age of most tissues and cell types. The predictor, which is freely available, was developed using 8,000 samples from 82 Illumina DNA methylation array datasets, encompassing 51 healthy tissues and cell types. I found that DNA methylation age has the following properties: first, it is close to zero for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells; second, it correlates with cell passage number; third, it gives rise to a highly heritable measure of age acceleration; and, fourth, it is applicable to chimpanzee tissues. Analysis of 6,000 cancer samples from 32 datasets showed that all of the considered 20 cancer types exhibit significant age acceleration, with an average of 36 years. Low age-acceleration of cancer tissue is associated with a high number of somatic mutations and TP53 mutations, while mutations in steroid receptors greatly accelerate DNA methylation age in breast cancer. Finally, I characterize the 353 CpG sites that together form an aging clock in terms of chromatin states and tissue variance. Conclusions I propose that DNA methylation age measures the cumulative effect of an epigenetic maintenance system. This novel epigenetic clock can be used to address a host of questions in developmental biology, cancer and aging research. PMID:24138928

  1. Magnesium and fluoride distribution in human cementum with age.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, S; Nakagaki, H; Takami, Y; Eba, H; Kirkham, J; Robinson, C

    2000-12-01

    Sixty-two human teeth, obtained from subjects aged 11 to 80 years, were used to determine the magnesium and fluoride concentration and distribution with age in human cementum. Transverse sections were prepared from the root region of teeth. Samples, each 30 microm thick, were abraded in sequence from the cementum surface and the cemento-dentine junction by an abrasive micro-sampling technique. Magnesium concentrations were lower in the cementum surface, and increased towards the cemento-dentine junction (CDJ), while fluoride concentrations were higher in cementum surfaces and tended to decrease towards CDJ. Fluoride distribution patterns were similar to that reported earlier while average fluoride concentration increased with age, however, either no change or decreasing tendencies were observed with magnesium.

  2. Occupant-to-occupant contact injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S

    2017-10-03

    This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk of occupant-to-occupant contact injury by crash type and occupant age. It focused on rear impacts because of a recent Senate inquiry. 1994-2013 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the effects of occupant-to-occupant contact on the risk of serious-to-fatal injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3+) by crash type and age group. NASS-CDS in-depth cases were analyzed to identify crash circumstances for AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury in rear crashes. Serious injury (AIS 3+) due to occupant-to-occupant contact was uncommon. It represented only 0.84% of all AIS 3+ injury for all age groups. The overall risk of AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury was 0.042 ± 0.007%. The highest incidence was in side impacts (69.8%) followed by rollovers (22.9%). Occupant-to-occupant contact injury risk was lower in rear impacts than in other crash types, at 0.0078 ± 0.0054%. The highest risk of AIS 3+ injury with occupant-to-occupant was for the <9-year-old age group when compared to other age groups for all crash types. The risk was 0.051 ± 0.026%, representing 2.69% of all AIS 3+ injury in the <9-year-old age group. Only 4.2% of AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury occurred to children <9 years old in rear impacts. The corresponding injury risk was lowest in rear impacts, at 0.014 ± 0.014%%, when compared to other crash types. The analysis of in-depth NASS-CDS cases of occupant-to-occupant contact injury in children< 9 years old involved in rear impacts identified very severe collisions in older model vehicles with deformation of the occupant compartment and yielding front seats as main factors for the contact injury. Front seat occupants injuring rear-seated children was not identified in the in-depth NASS-CDS cases. AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury occurs primarily in side impacts and rollovers. Most contact injury is to adults (89.4% incidence). Occupant-to-occupant contact injury to

  3. A consensus for occupational health management of healthcare workers infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and / or hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R

    2017-05-25

    Occupational health management plays an important role in the prevention of provider-to-patient transmission in healthcare workers infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, the Japan Society for Occupational Health's Research Group on Occupational Health for Health Care Workers has proposed a consensus for the management of healthcare workers infected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV based on recent evidence for each concerned group. The consensus recommends that: (1) employers in medical institutions should establish a policy of respecting the human rights of healthcare workers, management strategies for occupational blood exposure, and occupational health consultation; (2) occupational health staff should appropriately assess the risk of provider-to-patient transmission of HIV, HBV, and/or HCV infection and rearrange their tasks if necessary. When conducting risk assessment, occupational health staff should obtain informed consent and then cooperate with the physician in charge as well as infection control experts in the workplace; (3) healthcare workers infected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV should disclose their employment to their treating physician and consult with their doctor regarding the need for special considerations at work; and (4) supervisors and colleagues in medical institutions should correctly understand the risks of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection and should not engage in any behavior that leads to discrimination against colleagues infected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV.

  4. Occupancy of Norepinephrine Transporter by Duloxetine in Human Brains Measured by Positron Emission Tomography with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sho; Takano, Harumasa; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Nagashima, Tomohisa; Takahata, Keisuke; Kubota, Manabu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Ishii, Tatsuya; Ichise, Masanori; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Shimada, Hitoshi; Mimura, Masaru; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2017-08-03

    The norepinephrine transporter in the brain has been targeted in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Duloxetine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that has been widely used for the treatment of depression. However, the relationship between dose and plasma concentration of duloxetine and norepinephrine transporter occupancy in the human brain has not been determined. In this study, we examined norepinephrine transporter occupancy by different doses of duloxetine. We calculated norepinephrine transporter occupancies from 2 positron emission tomography scans using (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 before and after a single oral dose of duloxetine (20 mg, n = 3; 40 mg, n = 3; 60 mg, n =2). Positron emission tomography scans were performed from 120 to 180 minutes after an i.v. bolus injection of (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. Venous blood samples were taken to measure the plasma concentration of duloxetine just before and after the second positron emission tomography scan. Norepinephrine transporter occupancy by duloxetine was 29.7% at 20 mg, 30.5% at 40 mg, and 40.0% at 60 mg. The estimated dose of duloxetine inducing 50% norepinephrine transporter occupancy was 76.8 mg, and the estimated plasma drug concentration inducing 50% norepinephrine transporter occupancy was 58.0 ng/mL. Norepinephrine transporter occupancy by clinical doses of duloxetine was approximately 30% to 40% in human brain as estimated using positron emission tomography with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2.

  5. Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Antebi, Adam; Bartke, Andrzej; Barzilai, Nir; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Caruso, Calogero; Curiel, Tyler J; de Cabo, Rafael; Franceschi, Claudio; Gems, David; Ingram, Donald K; Johnson, Thomas E; Kennedy, Brian K; Kenyon, Cynthia; Klein, Samuel; Kopchick, John J; Lepperdinger, Guenter; Madeo, Frank; Mirisola, Mario G; Mitchell, James R; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rudolph, Karl L; Sedivy, John M; Shadel, Gerald S; Sinclair, David A; Spindler, Stephen R; Suh, Yousin; Vijg, Jan; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-08-01

    The workshop entitled 'Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?' was held in Erice, Italy, on October 8-13, 2013, to bring together leading experts in the biology and genetics of aging and obtain a consensus related to the discovery and development of safe interventions to slow aging and increase healthy lifespan in humans. There was consensus that there is sufficient evidence that aging interventions will delay and prevent disease onset for many chronic conditions of adult and old age. Essential pathways have been identified, and behavioral, dietary, and pharmacologic approaches have emerged. Although many gene targets and drugs were discussed and there was not complete consensus about all interventions, the participants selected a subset of the most promising strategies that could be tested in humans for their effects on healthspan. These were: (i) dietary interventions mimicking chronic dietary restriction (periodic fasting mimicking diets, protein restriction, etc.); (ii) drugs that inhibit the growth hormone/IGF-I axis; (iii) drugs that inhibit the mTOR-S6K pathway; or (iv) drugs that activate AMPK or specific sirtuins. These choices were based in part on consistent evidence for the pro-longevity effects and ability of these interventions to prevent or delay multiple age-related diseases and improve healthspan in simple model organisms and rodents and their potential to be safe and effective in extending human healthspan. The authors of this manuscript were speakers and discussants invited to the workshop. The following summary highlights the major points addressed and the conclusions of the meeting.

  6. Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Valter D; Antebi, Adam; Bartke, Andrzej; Barzilai, Nir; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Caruso, Calogero; Curiel, Tyler J; de Cabo, Rafael; Franceschi, Claudio; Gems, David; Ingram, Donald K; Johnson, Thomas E; Kennedy, Brian K; Kenyon, Cynthia; Klein, Samuel; Kopchick, John J; Lepperdinger, Guenter; Madeo, Frank; Mirisola, Mario G; Mitchell, James R; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rudolph, Karl L; Sedivy, John M; Shadel, Gerald S; Sinclair, David A; Spindler, Stephen R; Suh, Yousin; Vijg, Jan; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The workshop entitled ‘Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?’ was held in Erice, Italy, on October 8–13, 2013, to bring together leading experts in the biology and genetics of aging and obtain a consensus related to the discovery and development of safe interventions to slow aging and increase healthy lifespan in humans. There was consensus that there is sufficient evidence that aging interventions will delay and prevent disease onset for many chronic conditions of adult and old age. Essential pathways have been identified, and behavioral, dietary, and pharmacologic approaches have emerged. Although many gene targets and drugs were discussed and there was not complete consensus about all interventions, the participants selected a subset of the most promising strategies that could be tested in humans for their effects on healthspan. These were: (i) dietary interventions mimicking chronic dietary restriction (periodic fasting mimicking diets, protein restriction, etc.); (ii) drugs that inhibit the growth hormone/IGF-I axis; (iii) drugs that inhibit the mTOR–S6K pathway; or (iv) drugs that activate AMPK or specific sirtuins. These choices were based in part on consistent evidence for the pro-longevity effects and ability of these interventions to prevent or delay multiple age-related diseases and improve healthspan in simple model organisms and rodents and their potential to be safe and effective in extending human healthspan. The authors of this manuscript were speakers and discussants invited to the workshop. The following summary highlights the major points addressed and the conclusions of the meeting. PMID:25902704

  7. The Longitudinal Course of Insomnia Symptoms: Inequalities by Sex and Occupational Class Among Two Different Age Cohorts Followed for 20 Years in the West of Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J.; Espie, Colin A.; Hunt, Kate; Benzeval, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The natural history of insomnia symptomatology is poorly understood. Cross-sectional associations have been demonstrated among socioeconomic disadvantage, female sex, and poor sleep but it is unclear how these social factors predict patterns of insomnia symptoms over time. The aim of this article is to describe longitudinal patterns of insomnia symptoms as people age and investigate how they vary by sex and occupational class. Design: A prospective cohort study with 20 yr of follow-up from 1987 to 1988. Setting: West of Scotland. Participants: One cohort approximately 36 yr of age at baseline aging to 57 yr (n = 1,444), and another aging from approximately 56 to 76 yr (n = 1,551). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: At approximately 5-yr intervals, respondents self-reported trouble initiating and maintaining sleep. Latent class analysis identified 4 main sleep patterns: a healthy pattern with little sleeping trouble across the 20 yr; an episodic pattern, characterized by trouble maintaining sleep; a chronic pattern with trouble maintaining and initiating sleep throughout the study; and a pattern where symptoms developed during the 20-yr follow-up. Chronic patterns were more likely in the older cohort than the younger one, for women than men in the older cohort, and for those from a manual rather than a nonmanual occupational class in both cohorts. In the middle-aged cohort a developing pattern was more likely for women than men. Conclusions: Chronic symptoms, characterized by both trouble maintaining and initiating sleep, are patterned by social factors. Citation: Green MJ; Espie CA; Hunt K; Benzeval M. The longitudinal course of insomnia symptoms: inequalities by sex and occupational class among two different age cohorts followed for 20 years in the west of Scotland. SLEEP 2012;35(6):815-823. PMID:22654201

  8. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  9. Microscopic age changes in the human occipital bone.

    PubMed

    Cool, S M; Hendrikz, J K; Wood, W B

    1995-09-01

    The value of histological examination of the human occipital bone for estimation of age-at-death was assessed. Undecalcified sections of occipital bone from eighteen male Caucasian subjects between the ages of 21 and 70 years were prepared for analysis using polarized light microscopy. The fractional volumes of primary osteons, secondary osteons, osteon fragments, and lamellar bone in both the outer and inner cortical tables were determined. It was found that with increasing age there is a decrease in the fractional volume of primary osteons and a significant decrease in the fractional volume of lamellar bone. The fractional volume of secondary osteons was not found to change significantly with age, while the fractional volume of osteon fragments significantly increases. The microscopic results reflect the continuous process of bone remodeling that is responsible for the variation in cortical parameters with age and is the primary basis for age predicting methods. While observable changes in the occipital bone do occur with increasing age, the amount of random variation in the parameters examined preclude their use for accurate age estimation.

  10. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Asthma Library ▸ Occupational asthma TTR Share | Occupational Asthma This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Occupational asthma has become the most common work-related lung ...

  11. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  12. Occupational Class Inequalities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Middle-Aged Men in 14 European Populations during the Early 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C.; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000–2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30–59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations. PMID:25268702

  13. Occupational class inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged men in 14 European populations during the early 2000s.

    PubMed

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000-2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30-59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations.

  14. Telocytes and putative stem cells in ageing human heart.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Laurentiu M; Curici, Antoanela; Wang, Enshi; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Tradition considers that mammalian heart consists of about 70% non-myocytes (interstitial cells) and 30% cardiomyocytes (CMs). Anyway, the presence of telocytes (TCs) has been overlooked, since they were described in 2010 (visit www.telocytes.com). Also, the number of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has not accurately estimated in humans during ageing. We used electron microscopy to identify and estimate the number of cells in human atrial myocardium (appendages). Three age-related groups were studied: newborns (17 days-1 year), children (6-17 years) and adults (34-60 years). Morphometry was performed on low-magnification electron microscope images using computer-assisted technology. We found that interstitial area gradually increases with age from 31.3 ± 4.9% in newborns to 41 ± 5.2% in adults. Also, the number of blood capillaries (per mm(2) ) increased with several hundreds in children and adults versus newborns. CMs are the most numerous cells, representing 76% in newborns, 88% in children and 86% in adults. Images of CMs mitoses were seen in the 17-day newborns. Interestingly, no lipofuscin granules were found in CMs of human newborns and children. The percentage of cells that occupy interstitium were (depending on age): endothelial cells 52-62%; vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes 22-28%, Schwann cells with nerve endings 6-7%, fibroblasts 3-10%, macrophages 1-8%, TCs about 1% and stem cells less than 1%. We cannot confirm the popular belief that cardiac fibroblasts are the most prevalent cell type in the heart and account for about 20% of myocardial volume. Numerically, TCs represent a small fraction of human cardiac interstitial cells, but because of their extensive telopodes, they achieve a 3D network that, for instance, supports CSCs. The myocardial (very) low capability to regenerate may be explained by the number of CSCs, which decreases fivefold by age (from 0.5% to 0.1% in newborns versus adults).

  15. Ultrastructural changes in the melanocytes of aging human choroid.

    PubMed

    Nag, Tapas Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial cells as well as choroidal melanocytes (CM) possess melanin granules. The former show clear, age-related changes (formation of lipofuscin granules with a concomitant decrease in melanin content); however, data on changes in the CM with aging are fairly limited. We examined CM in human macular and mid-peripheral areas by light- and transmission electron microscopy in 50-94 year-old donor eyes (N=12). Unlike in the choroid of lower ages, the melanocytes from aging choroid (>75 years) showed partial fusion of about 8-15 melanosomes, forming rosettes-like structures. Besides, there was evidence of emptiness in cytoplasm caused by the loss of melanosomes in aged CM, as was confirmed by quantification in macular part of choroid. In advanced aged eyes (85-94-year-old), the CM possessed many lipid droplets as well as irregular lipofuscin granules, the latter had a tendency to fuse with melanosomes, as happens in aged retinal pigment epithelium. Macrophages in their cytoplasm contained abundant irregular as well as clumped melanosomes of variable size, suggesting that damaged granules/melanocytes are cleared by these phagocytes. These obvious changes in the CM are likely to make the choroid prone to damage by visible light.

  16. Structural modifications of dentinal microcracks with human aging.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Mizuho; Miura, Jiro; Sakata, Takao; Nishi, Ryuji; Takeshige, Fumio

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have reported the mechanism of crack propagation with aging. Although structural modifications of dentinal microcracks with aging have been evaluated by observing the cracked surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM), very few attempts have been made at sectional observation of the microcracks inside dentine using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the process of dentinal microcrack formation using TEM and (2) to morphologically evaluate the relation between dentinal microcrack propagation and human aging. Molars from 'young' (16-28 years) and 'aged' (62-76 years) subjects were evaluated. Dentine blocks were cracked with an indenter and sectioned using a diamond knife and ultramicrotome after embedding in epoxy resin. Microcracks were observed by TEM and ultra-high-voltage electron microscope tomography to determine the characteristics of crack propagation in the young and aged teeth. The results show that, in young teeth, crack propagation tended to pass through the dentinal tubules, while in aged teeth, it tended to deflect to the outer side of peritubular dentine (PTD), especially in coronal dentine. The advantage of this method is that it allows visualization and evaluation of the ultrastructural propagation of microcracks in dentine. The differences in crack propagation between young and aged dentine could be explained by differences in PTD thickness.

  17. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  18. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in recent years in reducing human exposures to lead, the potential for high intake of this contaminant still exists in millions of homes and in many occupational settings. Moreover, there is growing evidence that levels of lead intake considered inconsequential just a few years ago can result in subtle, adverse health effects, particularly in children. Consequently, there have been increased efforts by health protection agencies to develop credible, versatile methods for relating levels of lead in environmental media to levels in blood and tissues of exposed humans of all ages. In a parallel effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age-specific biokinetic models for calculating radiation doses from environmentally important radionuclides, including radioisotopes of lead. This paper describes a new age-specific biokinetic model for lead originally developed for the ICRP but expanded to include additional features that are useful for consideration of lead as a chemical toxin. The model is developed within a generic, physiologically motivated framework designed to address a class of calciumlike elements. This framework provides a useful setting in which to synthesize experimental, occupational, and environmental data on lead and exploit common physiological properties of lead and the alkaline earth elements. The modular design is intended to allow researchers to modify specific parameter values or model components to address special problems in lead toxicology or to incorporate new information. Transport of lead between compartments is assumed to follow linear, first-order kinetics provided the concentration in red blood cells remains below a nonlinear threshold level, but a nonlinear relation between plasma lead and red blood cell lead is modeled for concentrations above that level. The model is shown to be consistent

  19. Relationship between dopamine transporter occupancy and methylphenidate induced high in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S. |

    1996-05-01

    The inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by cocaine has been shown to be indispensable for its reinforcing properties. The development of drugs that inibit the DAT has become a major target to prevent cocaine`s effects. However prevention of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by DAT inhibitors has never been demonstrated. This study evaluates the ability to block methylphenidate (MP), a DAT inhibitor drug with similar reinforcing properties to cocaine, induced {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} by prior DAT inhibition. It uses PET and [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate to measure the relationship between DAT occupancy prior to administration of MP and the intensity of the subjective perception of the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} in 8 controls. MP (0.375 mg/kg iv) which was administered as a single injection and also as two sequential doses given 60 minutes apart significantly reduced the ratio of the distribution volume for [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate in striatum to that in cerebellum from a baseline of 2.83 {plus_minus} 0.2 to 1.29 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes and to 1.37 {plus_minus} 0.2 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and to 1.14 {plus_minus} 0.1 at 7 minutes after the second of two sequential MP doses. This corresponds to a DAT occupancy by MP of 84% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 minutes and of 77% {plus_minus} 6 at 60 minutes after a single injection of MP and of 93% {plus_minus} 7 at 7 after the second of two sequential MP doses. The subjective perception of {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} experienced after the second injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection of MP was of a similar magnitude to that experienced after the first injection, in spite of the very different starting DAT occupancies (0 and 77%, respectively). DAT occupancy was not correlated with the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}; and one subject with 100% DAT occupancy did not perceive the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes}.

  20. Thinking Differently About Aging: Changing Attitudes Through the Humanities.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Leni

    2015-08-01

    Ageism has many cumulative negative health effects, so reducing ageism in college-age youths can have a significant, long-term impact on public health. Reduced ageism decreases the prevalence and severity of many negative health events, such as myocardial infarctions, and can add an average of 7.5 years to the life span. One of the few proven methods for reducing ageist ideation is through participation in a video screening and a pair of follow-up conversations. This intervention is similar to the regular activities of many faculty members in the humanities. Gerontologists' expertise with quantitative studies, qualitative studies, and data analysis is needed to determine what factors can improve the efficacy of the intervention and to demonstrate the long-term health impact of specific interventions. Humanities research also will benefit from expanded understandings of aging and old age. Organizations such as the Gerontological Society of America, the European Network in Aging Studies, and the North American Network in Aging Studies can facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration.

  1. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during orthostatic challenge in aging humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    Aging attenuates the increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and elicits hypotension during otolith organ engagement in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine the neural and cardiovascular responses to otolithic engagement during orthostatic stress in older adults. We hypothesized that age-related impairments in the vestibulosympathetic reflex would persist during orthostatic challenge in older subjects and might compromise arterial blood pressure regulation. MSNA, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate responses to head-down rotation (HDR) performed with and without lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in prone subjects were measured. Ten young (27 +/- 1 yr) and 11 older subjects (64 +/- 1 yr) were studied prospectively. HDR performed alone elicited an attenuated increase in MSNA in older subjects (Delta106 +/- 28 vs. Delta20 +/- 7% for young and older subjects). HDR performed during simultaneous orthostatic stress increased total MSNA further in young (Delta53 +/- 15%; P < 0.05) but not older subjects (Delta-5 +/- 4%). Older subjects demonstrated consistent significant hypotension during HDR performed both alone (Delta-6 +/- 2 mmHg) and during LBNP (Delta-7 +/- 2 mmHg). These data provide experimental support for the concept that age-related impairments in the vestibulosympathetic reflex persist during orthostatic challenge in older adults. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the concept that age-related alterations in vestibular function might contribute to altered orthostatic blood pressure regulation with age in humans.

  2. Age-associated changes in microvasculature of human adult testis.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Hatakeyama, S

    1978-07-01

    Age-associated architectural changes of the human testicular microvasculature from 70 autopsy cases were stereoscopically examined with a silicone-rubber injection technique. In the testis of a young subject, the interlobular main arteries run straight. The coiling phenomena of the interlobular centripetal or centrifugal arteries, which are commonly seen in adult testis, have been so far considered as physiological transformation of the vasculature. It was confirmed that the coiling changes in the interlobular main arteries of the human testis appear as an age-dependent alteration of the vasculature closely related to the volume of the gland. The practical importance of the spirallin or coiling of arteries is that it results in a considerable reduction of blood flow. The age-related coiling of the interlobular arteries is virtually accompanied by varying degrees of collapse of the peritubular capillary networks. The reduction of blood supply to the seminiferous tubules plays an active role in promoting aging of the testis. These stereoscopical observations of age-related transfiguration of testicular microvasculature were ascertained also by histometrical examinations.

  3. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during orthostatic challenge in aging humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    Aging attenuates the increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and elicits hypotension during otolith organ engagement in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine the neural and cardiovascular responses to otolithic engagement during orthostatic stress in older adults. We hypothesized that age-related impairments in the vestibulosympathetic reflex would persist during orthostatic challenge in older subjects and might compromise arterial blood pressure regulation. MSNA, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate responses to head-down rotation (HDR) performed with and without lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in prone subjects were measured. Ten young (27 +/- 1 yr) and 11 older subjects (64 +/- 1 yr) were studied prospectively. HDR performed alone elicited an attenuated increase in MSNA in older subjects (Delta106 +/- 28 vs. Delta20 +/- 7% for young and older subjects). HDR performed during simultaneous orthostatic stress increased total MSNA further in young (Delta53 +/- 15%; P < 0.05) but not older subjects (Delta-5 +/- 4%). Older subjects demonstrated consistent significant hypotension during HDR performed both alone (Delta-6 +/- 2 mmHg) and during LBNP (Delta-7 +/- 2 mmHg). These data provide experimental support for the concept that age-related impairments in the vestibulosympathetic reflex persist during orthostatic challenge in older adults. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the concept that age-related alterations in vestibular function might contribute to altered orthostatic blood pressure regulation with age in humans.

  4. Strategies and Challenges in Clinical Trials Targeting Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John C.; Milman, Sofiya; Hashmi, Shahrukh K.; Austad, Steve N.; Kirkland, James L.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that target fundamental aging processes have the potential to transform human health and health care. A variety of candidate drugs have emerged from basic and translational research that may target aging processes. Some of these drugs are already in clinical use for other purposes, such as metformin and rapamycin. However, designing clinical trials to test interventions that target the aging process poses a unique set of challenges. This paper summarizes the outcomes of an international meeting co-ordinated by the NIH-funded Geroscience Network to further the goal of developing a translational pipeline to move candidate compounds through clinical trials and ultimately into use. We review the evidence that some drugs already in clinical use may target fundamental aging processes. We discuss the design principles of clinical trials to test such interventions in humans, including study populations, interventions, and outcomes. As examples, we offer several scenarios for potential clinical trials centered on the concepts of health span (delayed multimorbidity and functional decline) and resilience (response to or recovery from an acute health stress). Finally, we describe how this discussion helped inform the design of the proposed Targeting Aging with Metformin study. PMID:27535968

  5. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  6. A human protein interaction network shows conservation of aging processes between human and invertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Bell, Russell; Hubbard, Alan; Chettier, Rakesh; Chen, Di; Miller, John P; Kapahi, Pankaj; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Sahasrabuhde, Sudhir; Melov, Simon; Hughes, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    We have mapped a protein interaction network of human homologs of proteins that modify longevity in invertebrate species. This network is derived from a proteome-scale human protein interaction Core Network generated through unbiased high-throughput yeast two-hybrid searches. The longevity network is composed of 175 human homologs of proteins known to confer increased longevity through loss of function in yeast, nematode, or fly, and 2,163 additional human proteins that interact with these homologs. Overall, the network consists of 3,271 binary interactions among 2,338 unique proteins. A comparison of the average node degree of the human longevity homologs with random sets of proteins in the Core Network indicates that human homologs of longevity proteins are highly connected hubs with a mean node degree of 18.8 partners. Shortest path length analysis shows that proteins in this network are significantly more connected than would be expected by chance. To examine the relationship of this network to human aging phenotypes, we compared the genes encoding longevity network proteins to genes known to be changed transcriptionally during aging in human muscle. In the case of both the longevity protein homologs and their interactors, we observed enrichments for differentially expressed genes in the network. To determine whether homologs of human longevity interacting proteins can modulate life span in invertebrates, homologs of 18 human FRAP1 interacting proteins showing significant changes in human aging muscle were tested for effects on nematode life span using RNAi. Of 18 genes tested, 33% extended life span when knocked-down in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations indicate that a broad class of longevity genes identified in invertebrate models of aging have relevance to human aging. They also indicate that the longevity protein interaction network presented here is enriched for novel conserved longevity proteins.

  7. Holocene radiocarbon-dated sites in northeastern Siberia: issues of temporal frequency, reservoir age, and human-nature interaction.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yaroslav V

    2010-01-01

    The existing corpus of data on radiocarbon dates for Holocene sites in Northeastern Siberia was used as proxy to reconstruct the chronology of human occupation of the region. The problem of reservoir age correction in the Bering Sea region complicated this task and this issue needs to be solved in order to obtain more reliable age determinations for coastal archaeological sites. Using a chronology built after excluding the questionable dates from the database, the major patterns of human population dynamics and their possible correlation with climatic fluctuations were examined. No direct relationship appears to exist between these two processes. Additional archaeological and paleo environmental work needs to be carried out in this region of the North.

  8. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  10. Determination of dideoxyosone precursors of AGEs in human lens proteins.

    PubMed

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Kaid Johar, S R; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2011-10-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl)benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by Western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 vs. 31.7±19.5AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of Dideoxyosone Precursors of AGEs in Human Lens Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Johar, Kaid; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R.; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2011-01-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-{[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl) benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 AU/mg protein vs. 31.7±19.5 AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. PMID:21820400

  12. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  13. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-being. (c) Occupations that involve operating, tending, setting up, adjusting, cleaning, oiling, or... permitted by § 570.34(c). (i) Work in freezers and meat coolers and all work in the preparation of meats for... motor vehicles, the stocking and restocking of sales kits and trays, the exchanging of cash and...

  14. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-being. (c) Occupations that involve operating, tending, setting up, adjusting, cleaning, oiling, or... permitted by § 570.34(c). (i) Work in freezers and meat coolers and all work in the preparation of meats for... motor vehicles, the stocking and restocking of sales kits and trays, the exchanging of cash and...

  15. The Influence of Selected Family Factors on the Educational and Occupational Aspiration Levels of High School-Aged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemens, Leonard B.

    The first in a series of 4 studies based on data collected from 1,844 high school students in Canada, this study examined eleventh and twelfth grade students from 2 rural Manitoba sample areas and from 2 large suburban high schools in metropolitan Winnipeg. This study focused on the educational and occupational aspiration levels and 10 selected…

  16. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... occupations requiring the performance of any duties in work rooms or work places where goods are manufactured... repairing hoisting apparatus. (d) Work performed in or about boiler or engine rooms or in connection with... cleaners and floor waxers pursuant to § 570.34(h). (f) The operation of motor vehicles; the service...

  17. Molecular basis of retinol anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shao, Y; He, T; Fisher, G J; Voorhees, J J; Quan, T

    2017-02-01

    Retinoic acid has been shown to improve the aged-appearing skin. However, less is known about the anti-ageing effects of retinol (ROL, vitamin A), a precursor of retinoic acid, in aged human skin in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of ROL anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo. Sun-protected buttock skin (76 ± 6 years old, n = 12) was topically treated with 0.4% ROL and its vehicle for 7 days. The effects of topical ROL on skin epidermis and dermis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, Northern analysis, real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis. Collagen fibrils nanoscale structure and surface topology were analysed by atomic force microscopy. Topical ROL shows remarkable anti-ageing effects through three major types of skin cells: epidermal keratinocytes, dermal endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Topical ROL significantly increased epidermal thickness by stimulating keratinocytes proliferation and upregulation of c-Jun transcription factor. In addition to epidermal changes, topical ROL significantly improved dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment; increasing dermal vascularity by stimulating endothelial cells proliferation and ECM production (type I collagen, fibronectin and elastin) by activating dermal fibroblasts. Topical ROL also stimulates TGF-β/CTGF pathway, the major regulator of ECM homeostasis, and thus enriched the deposition of ECM in aged human skin in vivo. 0.4% topical ROL achieved similar results as seen with topical retinoic acid, the biologically active form of ROL, without causing noticeable signs of retinoid side effects. 0.4% topical ROL shows remarkable anti-ageing effects through improvement of the homeostasis of epidermis and dermis by stimulating the proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells, and activating dermal fibroblasts. These data provide evidence that 0.4% topical ROL is a promising and safe treatment to improve the naturally aged human skin

  18. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  19. Human premature aging, DNA repair and RecQ helicases.

    PubMed

    Brosh, Robert M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2007-01-01

    Genomic instability leads to mutations, cellular dysfunction and aberrant phenotypes at the tissue and organism levels. A number of mechanisms have evolved to cope with endogenous or exogenous stress to prevent chromosomal instability and maintain cellular homeostasis. DNA helicases play important roles in the DNA damage response. The RecQ family of DNA helicases is of particular interest since several human RecQ helicases are defective in diseases associated with premature aging and cancer. In this review, we will provide an update on our understanding of the specific roles of human RecQ helicases in the maintenance of genomic stability through their catalytic activities and protein interactions in various pathways of cellular nucleic acid metabolism with an emphasis on DNA replication and repair. We will also discuss the clinical features of the premature aging disorders associated with RecQ helicase deficiencies and how they relate to the molecular defects.

  20. Human Ageing Genomic Resources: Integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E.; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology. PMID:23193293

  1. Human Ageing Genomic Resources: integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing.

    PubMed

    Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology.

  2. Impact of Aging on Dendritic Cell Functions in humans

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anshu; Gupta, Sudhir

    2010-01-01

    Aging is a paradox of reduced immunity and chronic inflammation. Dendritic cells are central orchestrators of the immune response with a key role in the generation of immunity and maintenance of tolerance. The functions of DCs are compromised with age. There is no major effect on the numbers and phenotype of DC subsets in aged subjects; nevertheless, their capacity to phagocytose antigens and migrate is impaired with age. There is aberrant cytokine secretion by various DC subsets with CDCs secreting increased basal level of pro-inflammatory cytokines but the response on stimulation to foreign antigens is decreased. In contrast, the response to self antigens is increased suggesting erosion of peripheral self tolerance. PDC subset also secretes reduced IFN-alpha in response to viruses. The capacity of DCs to prime T cell responses is also affected. Aging thus has a profound affect on DC functions. Present review summarizes the effect of advancing age on DC functions in humans in the context of both immunity and tolerance. PMID:20619360

  3. Occupations, U. S. A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    The booklet divides job titles, selected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, into 15 career clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, business and office education, communication and media, construction, consumer and home economics, fine arts and humanities, health occupations, hospitality and recreation, manufacturing, marine science,…

  4. Environmental and Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Human Sperm Parameters: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January, 2007 and August, 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  5. Environmental and occupational pesticide exposure and human sperm parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-05-10

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January 2007 and August 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  6. Molecular Networks of Human Muscle Adaptation to Exercise and Age

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Bethan E.; Williams, John P.; Gustafsson, Thomas; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Knudsen, Steen; Smith, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity and molecular ageing presumably interact to precipitate musculoskeletal decline in humans with age. Herein, we have delineated molecular networks for these two major components of sarcopenic risk using multiple independent clinical cohorts. We generated genome-wide transcript profiles from individuals (n = 44) who then undertook 20 weeks of supervised resistance-exercise training (RET). Expectedly, our subjects exhibited a marked range of hypertrophic responses (3% to +28%), and when applying Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) up-stream analysis to ∼580 genes that co-varied with gain in lean mass, we identified rapamycin (mTOR) signaling associating with growth (P = 1.4×10−30). Paradoxically, those displaying most hypertrophy exhibited an inhibited mTOR activation signature, including the striking down-regulation of 70 rRNAs. Differential analysis found networks mimicking developmental processes (activated all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, Z-score = 4.5; P = 6×10−13) and inhibited aryl-hydrocarbon receptor signaling (AhR, Z-score = −2.3; P = 3×10−7)) with RET. Intriguingly, as ATRA and AhR gene-sets were also a feature of endurance exercise training (EET), they appear to represent “generic” physical activity responsive gene-networks. For age, we found that differential gene-expression methods do not produce consistent molecular differences between young versus old individuals. Instead, utilizing two independent cohorts (n = 45 and n = 52), with a continuum of subject ages (18–78 y), the first reproducible set of age-related transcripts in human muscle was identified. This analysis identified ∼500 genes highly enriched in post-transcriptional processes (P = 1×10−6) and with negligible links to the aforementioned generic exercise regulated gene-sets and some overlap with ribosomal genes. The RNA signatures from multiple compounds all targeting serotonin, DNA topoisomerase antagonism, and RXR

  7. Molecular networks of human muscle adaptation to exercise and age.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bethan E; Williams, John P; Gustafsson, Thomas; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Knudsen, Steen; Smith, Kenneth; Timmons, James A; Atherton, Philip J

    2013-03-01

    Physical activity and molecular ageing presumably interact to precipitate musculoskeletal decline in humans with age. Herein, we have delineated molecular networks for these two major components of sarcopenic risk using multiple independent clinical cohorts. We generated genome-wide transcript profiles from individuals (n = 44) who then undertook 20 weeks of supervised resistance-exercise training (RET). Expectedly, our subjects exhibited a marked range of hypertrophic responses (3% to +28%), and when applying Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) up-stream analysis to ~580 genes that co-varied with gain in lean mass, we identified rapamycin (mTOR) signaling associating with growth (P = 1.4 × 10(-30)). Paradoxically, those displaying most hypertrophy exhibited an inhibited mTOR activation signature, including the striking down-regulation of 70 rRNAs. Differential analysis found networks mimicking developmental processes (activated all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, Z-score = 4.5; P = 6 × 10(-13)) and inhibited aryl-hydrocarbon receptor signaling (AhR, Z-score = -2.3; P = 3 × 10(-7))) with RET. Intriguingly, as ATRA and AhR gene-sets were also a feature of endurance exercise training (EET), they appear to represent "generic" physical activity responsive gene-networks. For age, we found that differential gene-expression methods do not produce consistent molecular differences between young versus old individuals. Instead, utilizing two independent cohorts (n = 45 and n = 52), with a continuum of subject ages (18-78 y), the first reproducible set of age-related transcripts in human muscle was identified. This analysis identified ~500 genes highly enriched in post-transcriptional processes (P = 1 × 10(-6)) and with negligible links to the aforementioned generic exercise regulated gene-sets and some overlap with ribosomal genes. The RNA signatures from multiple compounds all targeting serotonin, DNA topoisomerase antagonism, and RXR activation were significantly related to

  8. Investigations Into Age-related Changes in the Human Mandible().

    PubMed

    Parr, Nicolette M; Passalacqua, Nicholas V; Skorpinski, Katie

    2017-03-02

    While changes in mandibular shape over time are not widely recognized by skeletal biologists, mandibular remodeling and associated changes in gross morphology may result from a number of causes related to mechanical stress such as antemortem tooth loss, changes in bite force, or alterations of masticatory performance. This study investigated the relationship between age-related changes and antemortem tooth loss in adult humans via dry bone measurements. This study examined 10 standard mandibular measurements as well as individual antemortem tooth loss scores using the Eichner Index from a total of 319 female and male individuals with ages ranging from 16 to 99 years. Results indicate that few mandibular measurements exhibited age-related changes, and most were affected by antemortem tooth loss.

  9. Age-Dependent Human Hepatic Carboxylesterase 1 (Ces1) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human hepatic carboxylesterase 1 and 2 (CES1 and CES2) are important for ester- and amide- bond containing pharmaceutical and environmental chemical disposition. Despite concern regarding juvenile sensitivity to such compounds, CES1 and CES2 ontogeny has not been well characterized. To define human hepatic microsomal and cytosolic CES1 and CES2 expression during early postnatal life, microsomal and cytosolic fractions were prepared using liver samples from subjects without liver disease [N=165, 1d-18 yrs]. Proteins were fractionated, detected and quantitated by western blotting. Median microsomal CES1 was lower among samples from subjects < 3 weeks of age (N=36) compared to the rest of the population (N=126; 6.27 vs 17.5 pmoles/mg microsomal protein, respectively; p<0.001; Kruskal Wallis test). Cytosolic CES1 increased sequentially with expression being lowest among samples from individuals between birth and 3 weeks of age (N=36), markedly greater among those from ages 3 weeks to 6 years (N=90), and then modestly greater still among those over 6 years of age (N=36; median values = 4.7, 15.8, and 16.6 pmoles/mg cytosolic protein, respectively; p values <0.001 and 0.05, respectively, Kruskal Wallis test). Microsomal CES2 also increased sequentially across the same three age groups with median values of 1.8, 2.9, and 4.2 pmoles/mg microsomal protein, respectively (p<0.001, both), whereas for cytosolic CES2, only the youngest age group differed from the two older g

  10. Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography.

    PubMed

    Yatsunenko, Tanya; Rey, Federico E; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Contreras, Monica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Baldassano, Robert N; Anokhin, Andrey P; Heath, Andrew C; Warner, Barbara; Reeder, Jens; Kuczynski, Justin; Caporaso, J Gregory; Lozupone, Catherine A; Lauber, Christian; Clemente, Jose Carlos; Knights, Dan; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2012-05-09

    Gut microbial communities represent one source of human genetic and metabolic diversity. To examine how gut microbiomes differ among human populations, here we characterize bacterial species in fecal samples from 531 individuals, plus the gene content of 110 of them. The cohort encompassed healthy children and adults from the Amazonas of Venezuela, rural Malawi and US metropolitan areas and included mono- and dizygotic twins. Shared features of the functional maturation of the gut microbiome were identified during the first three years of life in all three populations, including age-associated changes in the genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis and metabolism. Pronounced differences in bacterial assemblages and functional gene repertoires were noted between US residents and those in the other two countries. These distinctive features are evident in early infancy as well as adulthood. Our findings underscore the need to consider the microbiome when evaluating human development, nutritional needs, physiological variations and the impact of westernization.

  11. Prediction of alpha1-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate from plasma concentrations of silodosin, tamsulosin and terazosin to treat urinary obstruction in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shizuo; Kato, Yasuhiro; Okura, Takashi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Kazuki

    2007-07-01

    Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are clinically useful for the improvement of urinary obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and their therapeutic effects are mediated through the blockade of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The present study was undertaken to predict the magnitude and duration of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate after oral alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. Prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding parameters of silodosin were estimated by measuring specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat prostate after oral administration of this drug. The plasma concentration of silodosin after oral administration in rats and healthy volunteers was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin in the human prostate and plasma concentrations of tamsulosin and terazosin were obtained from the literature. Using the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor binding parameters of silodosin in rat prostate, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate was estimated to be around 60-70% at 1-6 h after oral administration of silodosin at doses of 3.0, 8.1, and 16.1 micromol. Thereafter, the receptor occupancy was periodically decreased, to 24% (8.1 micromol) and 54% (16.1 micromol) 24 h later. A similar magnitude and time course of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by silodosin in the human prostate were estimated using alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) in the human prostate. Despite about two orders of differences in the plasma unbound concentrations after clinically effective oral dosages of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, there was a comparable magnitude of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by these drugs. In conclusion, the prediction of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may provide the rationale for the optimum dosage regimen of these drugs in the

  12. A comparative study of human levels of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene after occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Skender, L.J.; Karacic, V.; Prpic-Majic, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The rate of trichloroethylene (TRI) and perchloroethylene (PER) absorption was investigated in workers who were (1) occupationally exposed to TRI in four dry-cleaning shops (Group 1, n = 10) and (2) occupationally exposed to PER in one dry-cleaning shop (Group 2, n = 18). Concentrations of TRI and PER in blood were analyzed, and concentrations of trichloroethanol (TCE) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in blood and urine were analyzed. Results varied widely: PER was found in the blood of workers in group 1, but TRI was not detected in blood from any worker in group 2; most blood samples from group 2 workers did not contain a detectable quantity of TCE, and urine TCE concentrations in this group were very low. During the work week, a significant difference was found in group 1 for TRI in blood and TCE in blood and urine. In group 2, however, the only significant difference during the work week was for PER in blood. Therefore, the most reliable biological indicators for TRI and PER exposure are TCE in blood and PER in blood, respectively.

  13. Dimethylphosphoryl-inhibited human cholinesterases: inhibition, reactivation, and aging kinetics.

    PubMed

    Worek, F; Diepold, C; Eyer, P

    1999-02-01

    Human poisoning by organophosphates bearing two methoxy groups, e.g. by malathion, paraoxon-methyl, dimethoate and oxydemeton-methyl, is generally considered to be rather resistant to oxime therapy. Since the oxime effectiveness is influenced not only by its reactivating potential but also by inhibition, aging and spontaneous reactivation kinetics, experiments were performed with human acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) to determine the respective kinetic constants. The efficacy of obidoxime in reactivating dimethylphosphoryl-AChE was 40, 9 and 3 times higher than of HI 6, pralidoxime and HLö 7, respectively. Aging (t1/2 3.7 h) and spontaneous reactivation (t1/2 0.7 h) occurred concomitantly, with the portion of the aged enzyme being dependent on the presence of excess inhibitor. Calculation of steady-state AChE activity in the presence of inhibitor and oxime revealed that obidoxime was superior to pralidoxime. In addition, organophosphate concentrations up to 10(-6) M (paraoxon-methyl) and 10(-4) M (oxydemeton-methyl) could be counteracted at clinically relevant oxime concentrations (10 microM). These data indicate that oximes may effectively reactivate human dimethylphosphoryl-AChE. Failure of oximes may be attributed to megadose intoxications and to prolonged time intervals between poison uptake and oxime administration. The potency of the oximes to reactivate dimethylphosphoryl-BChE was much lower and the spontaneous reactivation slower (t1/2 9 h), while aging proceeded at a comparable rate. Thus, BChE activity determination for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring may give no reliable information on AChE status.

  14. Health and human services in an age of maturity.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, M G

    1986-12-01

    Catholic health care organizations are experiencing a tension between evangelical mission and expanding competition in medical markets. For the voluntary, not-for-profit health and human services system to survive and grow, hospital communities must find new revenue sources that do not create dependence on state and federal monies. The United States entered the Age of Maturity in 1985 as the "baby boomers" born between 1945 and 1957 became 40 years old, requiring health care providers to begin to plan for their care in old age. This large aging population, combined with a longer life span for Americans, will put increased burdens on health care organizations, particularly for chronic care, up to the year 2020 or beyond. Changes in family structure and social networks will be necessary as more people care for older relatives. The ratio of nonworkers to workers will increase, further burdening national and state tax bases, Social Security, and other worker-contributor programs. Investment banks are one option to finance the older population's increased needs for health and human services. Investment banks are funded by donations from the private sector (local and national businesses), the public sector (state, national, and local agencies), and new for-profit ventures for older persons. The contributions themselves remain in a central fund, with only the interest generated being used to fund local organizations committed to financial self-sufficiency and to helping the elderly. Older persons will carry increased economic and political clout in the Age of Maturity and will constitute a large percentage of hospitals' business. Therefore hospitals will have to develop a strong market position among the elderly. They must consider integrating a new service mix of both health and human services. Candidates for new hospital services for the elderly include housing programs, long-term care and continuum of care programs, employment programs, retirement planning, estate

  15. Occupational fatalities in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdallat, Emad M; Oqailan, Ahmad Mohammad A; Al Ali, Rayyan; Hudaib, Arwa A; Salameh, Ghada A M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational fatalities are a worldwide problem. Certain occupations pose a greater risk than others. Recent statistics on global occupational injuries and diseases that might lead to temporary or permanent disability and even worse might lead to death, are staggering. The purpose of this study was to estimate the death rates from occupational injuries in Jordan over a period of four years; to estimate occupational fatality rate that results from accidental injuries and identify the most risky concurrent occupations with the type of injuries, the age and nationality of the victims. A total of 88 work related fatalities were admitted to three hospitals in Amman through 2008-2012 and were examined by a forensic (occupational) physician at the time. They were categorized according to, age, nationality, occupation, type of injury and were all tested for toxic substances. The occupation with the most fatalities was construction (44%); falling from a height was the commonest type of accident (44%) and head injuries were the leading injury type (21.6%); 9.1% of the deaths were positive for alcohol. Moreover, 22.7% of deaths were between ages of 25-29. Consequently, the mean occupational fatality rate was 2 per 100.000 workers during 2008-2012. Constructions and other types of occupations are more extensive problems than what is usually anticipated, especially when safety precautions are not effective or implemented. They may cause injuries and death, which will have a socioeconomic burden on families, society, governments and industries. Not to mention the grief that is associated with the death of a worker at his work site to all concerned parties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans (Review).

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases.

  17. Cytotoxicity and inflammation in human alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to occupational levels of gold and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachand, George D.; Allen, Amy; Bachand, Marlene; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Seagrave, Jean Clare; Brozik, Susan M.

    2012-10-01

    While inhalation represents one of the most likely routes of exposure, the toxicity and response of nanoparticles at concentrations expected from such an exposure are not well understood. Here we characterized the in vitro response of human A549 adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to gold (AuNP) and silver (AgNP) nanoparticles at levels approximating an occupational exposure. Changes in neither oxidative stress nor cytotoxicity were significantly affected by exposure to AgNPs and AuNPs, regardless of NP type (Ag vs. Au), concentration, surface ligand (citrate or tannic acid), or size. An inflammatory response was, however, observed in response to 20 nm AgNPs and 20 nm AuNPs, where significant differences in the release of interleukin (IL)-8 but not IL-6 were observed. Additional data demonstrated that increased IL-8 secretion was strongly dependent on both nanoparticle size and concentration. Overall these data suggest that, while not acutely toxic, occupational exposure to AuNPs and AgNPs may trigger a significant inflammatory response in alveolar epithelium. Moreover, the differential responses in IL-8 and IL-6 secretion suggest that NPs may induce a response pathway that is distinct from those commonly elicited by allergens and pathogens.

  18. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases. PMID:27748877

  19. Age Discrimination in Employment--The Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Defense--Balancing the Interest of the Older Worker in Acquiring and Continuing Employment against the Interest in Public Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Janet C.; Obee, John A.

    1978-01-01

    The judicial interpretations of age as a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 are examined. The applications, extension, and results of these interpretations, and alternate approaches to BFOQ analysis in age discrimination cases are discussed. (BH)

  20. Aging and the reduction in fracture toughness of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Nazari, A; Bajaj, D; Zhang, D; Romberg, E; Arola, D

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human coronal dentin was performed on tissue obtained from patients between ages 18 and 83. Stable crack extension was achieved over clinically relevant lengths (0< or = a < or =1mm) under Mode I quasi-static loading and perpendicular to the nominal tubule direction. Results distinguished that human dentin exhibits an increase in crack growth resistance with extension (i.e. rising R-curve) and that there is a significant reduction in both the initiation (K(o)) and plateau (K(p)) components of toughness with patient age. In the young dentin (18< or =age< or =35) there was a 25% increase in the crack growth resistance from the onset of extension (K(o)=1.34 MPa m(0.5)) to the maximum or "plateau" toughness (K(p)=1.65 MPa m(0.5)). In comparison, the crack growth resistance of the old dentin (55< or =age) increased with extension by less than 10% from K(o)=1.08 MPa m(0.5) to K(p)=1.17 MPa m(0.5). In young dentin toughening was achieved by a combination of inelastic deformation of the mineralized collagen matrix and microcracking of the peritubular cuffs. These mechanisms facilitated further toughening via the development of unbroken ligaments of tissue and posterior crack-bridging. Microstructural changes with aging decreased the capacity for near-tip inelastic deformation and microcracking of the tubules, which in turn suppressed the formation of unbroken ligaments and the degree of extrinsic toughening.

  1. Predicting Human Age with Bloodstains by sjTREC Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-sheng; Lu, Hui-ling; Sun, Hong-yu

    2012-01-01

    The age-related decline of signal joint T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjTRECs) in human peripheral blood has been demonstrated in our previous study and other reports. Until now, only a few studies on sjTREC detection in bloodstain samples were reported, which were based on a small sample of subjects of a limited age range, although bloodstains are much more frequently encountered in forensic practice. In this present study, we adopted the sensitive Taqman real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method to perform sjTREC quantification in bloodstains from individuals ranging from 0–86 years old (n = 264). The results revealed that sjTREC contents in human bloodstains were declined in an age-dependent manner (r = −0.8712). The formula of age estimation was Age  = −7.1815Y−42.458±9.42 (Y dCtTBP-sjTREC; 9.42 standard error). Furthermore, we tested for the influence of short- or long- storage time by analyzing fresh and stored bloodstains from the same individuals. Remarkably, no statistically significant difference in sjTREC contents was found between the fresh and old DNA samples over a 4-week of storage time. However, significant loss (0.16–1.93 dCt) in sjTREC contents was detected after 1.5 years of storage in 31 samples. Moreover, preliminary sjTREC quantification from up to 20-year-old bloodstains showed that though the sjTREC contents were detectable in all samples and highly correlated with donor age, a time-dependent decrease in the correlation coefficient r was found, suggesting the predicting accuracy of this described assay would be deteriorated in aged samples. Our findings show that sjTREC quantification might be also suitable for age prediction in bloodstains, and future researches into the time-dependent or other potential impacts on sjTREC quantification might allow further improvement of the predicting accuracy. PMID:22879970

  2. Human Services Occupations in the Two-Year College: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiffer, Theodore E.; Burns, Martha A.

    This handbook is intended as a guide for community college administrators in setting up human services programs. (Human services programs refer here to training programs for paraprofessionals involved in helping people.) Data were gathered from 176 two-year colleges regarding the human services curricula offered in 1970-71. In Part I, the survey…

  3. Telocytes and putative stem cells in ageing human heart

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Laurentiu M; Curici, Antoanela; Wang, Enshi; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Tradition considers that mammalian heart consists of about 70% non-myocytes (interstitial cells) and 30% cardiomyocytes (CMs). Anyway, the presence of telocytes (TCs) has been overlooked, since they were described in 2010 (visit http://www.telocytes.com). Also, the number of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has not accurately estimated in humans during ageing. We used electron microscopy to identify and estimate the number of cells in human atrial myocardium (appendages). Three age-related groups were studied: newborns (17 days–1 year), children (6–17 years) and adults (34–60 years). Morphometry was performed on low-magnification electron microscope images using computer-assisted technology. We found that interstitial area gradually increases with age from 31.3 ± 4.9% in newborns to 41 ± 5.2% in adults. Also, the number of blood capillaries (per mm2) increased with several hundreds in children and adults versus newborns. CMs are the most numerous cells, representing 76% in newborns, 88% in children and 86% in adults. Images of CMs mitoses were seen in the 17-day newborns. Interestingly, no lipofuscin granules were found in CMs of human newborns and children. The percentage of cells that occupy interstitium were (depending on age): endothelial cells 52–62%; vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes 22–28%, Schwann cells with nerve endings 6–7%, fibroblasts 3–10%, macrophages 1–8%, TCs about 1% and stem cells less than 1%. We cannot confirm the popular belief that cardiac fibroblasts are the most prevalent cell type in the heart and account for about 20% of myocardial volume. Numerically, TCs represent a small fraction of human cardiac interstitial cells, but because of their extensive telopodes, they achieve a 3D network that, for instance, supports CSCs. The myocardial (very) low capability to regenerate may be explained by the number of CSCs, which decreases fivefold by age (from 0.5% to 0.1% in newborns versus adults). PMID:25545142

  4. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  5. Syneretic response of aging normal human lens to pressure.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Frederick A; Lizak, Martin J; Zigler, J Samuel

    2003-01-01

    The study was designed to observe whether a reversible syneretic response to pressure is operative in normal human lenses and whether such a response demonstrates a uniform age dependence. Seven sections (from the anterior outer cortex to the posterior outer cortex) of 10 human lenses were imaged at 2 atmospheres (atm) pressure and the T(1) (spin-lattice) and T(2) (spin-spin) relaxation data on each section were collected. The pressure was then released and NMR relaxographic data were collected under 1 atm. Both T(1) and T(2) relaxation times were at their minimum in the nuclear region and at their maximum at the two outer cortexes. With increasing pressure, T(2) relaxation times decreased. The pressure-dependent change in T(2) relaxation times decreased with age. Changes in T(1) relaxation times showed no consistent pressure or age dependence. The population index of T(2) relaxation, M(2), had a maximum in the nucleus and a minimum in the two cortexes. The population index of T(1) relaxation, M(1,) was minimal in the nucleus and maximal at the two cortexes. M(2) increased with increasing pressure, whereas M(1) did not show consistent pressure dependence. The percentage of change in M(2) (DeltaM(2)) showed a statistically significant increase with increasing age, whereas the %DeltaM(1) showed no significant age-dependent trend. The positional dependence of relaxation times and the population indexes indicated that spin-spin relaxation represents the behavior of the bound water and the spin-lattice relaxation that of total water. As pressure increases, the strength of hydrogen bonding as well as the amount of bound water increases. The pressure-induced change in the total water is minimal. Thus, the free water-to-bound water ratio decreases with increasing pressure, demonstrating a significant syneretic response. The extent of reversible syneretic response decreases with age and is actually reversed in older lenses. The implication is that the ability of the human

  6. Sympathetic regulation during thermal stress in human aging and disease

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Jody L.; Kenney, W. Larry; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2015-01-01

    Humans control their core temperature within a narrow range via precise adjustments of the autonomic nervous system. In response to changing core and/or skin temperature, several critical thermoregulatory reflex effector responses are initiated and include shivering, sweating, and changes in cutaneous blood flow. Cutaneous vasomotor adjustments, mediated by modulations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), aid in the maintenance of thermal homeostasis during cold and heat stress since (1) they serve as the first line of defense of body temperature and are initiated before other thermoregulatory effectors, and (2) they are on the efferent arm of non-thermoregulatory reflex systems, aiding in the maintenance of blood pressure and organ perfusion. This review article highlights the sympathetic responses of humans to thermal stress, with a specific focus on primary aging as well as impairments that occur in both heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Age- and pathology-related changes in efferent muscle and skin SNA during cold and heat stress, measured directly in humans using microneurography, are discussed. PMID:26627337

  7. Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara S.; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.; Bronikowski, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Women rarely give birth after ∼45 y of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles, menopause, at ∼50 y of age after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Furthermore, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out a unique detailed comparative study of reproductive senescence in seven species of nonhuman primates in natural populations, using long-term, individual-based data, and compared them to a population of humans experiencing natural fertility and mortality. In four of seven primate species we found that reproductive senescence occurred before death only in a small minority of individuals. In three primate species we found evidence of reproductive senescence that accelerated throughout adulthood; however, its initial rate was much lower than mortality, so that relatively few individuals experienced reproductive senescence before death. In contrast, the human population showed the predicted and well-known pattern in which reproductive senescence occurred before death for many women and its rate accelerated throughout adulthood. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that reproductive senescence in midlife, although apparent in natural-fertility, natural-mortality populations of humans, is generally absent in other primates living in such populations. PMID:23898189

  8. Impact Of Human Aging And Modern Lifestyle On Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Valle Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela; Closs, Vera Elizabeth; Junges, Vilma Maria; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin

    2017-01-13

    Human evolution and lifestyle changes caused by the agricultural and industrial revolutions have led to great advances in medicine and increased life expectancy, whilst also profoundly altering the ecological relationships and disease patterns of populations. Studies involving populations that still enjoy a rural way of life and with traits similar to the Paleolithic period reveal them to present a more robust, resistant and diverse gut microbiota, in comparison to highly industrialized civilizations. The human diet has expanded and broadened to include the consumption of high-calorie foods, particularly from animal sources such as game, meat and eggs. For some time, the authors have been alert to the fact that a modern lifestyle leads to reduced intake of beneficial bacteria, suggesting that nonpathogenic bacteria are being eradicated. Furthermore, therapeutic procedures, including the use of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to lead to recovery of this microbiota, which is altered due to both the ageing process and lifestyle related aspects. Accordingly, this article aims to review the impact of human aging and modern lifestyle on gut microbiota, within an evolutionary, ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic context.

  9. Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the northern Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Pinhasi, Ron; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Golovanova, Liubov V.; Doronichev, Vladimir B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in direct radiocarbon dating of Neanderthal and anatomically modern human (AMH) fossils and the development of archaeostratigraphic chronologies now allow refined regional models for Neanderthal–AMH coexistence. In addition, they allow us to explore the issue of late Neanderthal survival in regions of Western Eurasia located within early routes of AMH expansion such as the Caucasus. Here we report the direct radiocarbon (14C) dating of a late Neanderthal specimen from a Late Middle Paleolithic (LMP) layer in Mezmaiskaya Cave, northern Caucasus. Additionally, we provide a more accurate chronology for the timing of Neanderthal extinction in the region through a robust series of 16 ultrafiltered bone collagen radiocarbon dates from LMP layers and using Bayesian modeling to produce a boundary probability distribution function corresponding to the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya. The direct date of the fossil (39,700 ± 1,100 14C BP) is in good agreement with the probability distribution function, indicating at a high level of probability that Neanderthals did not survive at Mezmaiskaya Cave after 39 ka cal BP ("calendrical" age in kiloannum before present, based on IntCal09 calibration curve). This challenges previous claims for late Neanderthal survival in the northern Caucasus. We see striking and largely synchronous chronometric similarities between the Bayesian age modeling for the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya and chronometric data from Ortvale Klde for the end of the LMP in the southern Caucasus. Our results confirm the lack of reliably dated Neanderthal fossils younger than ∼40 ka cal BP in any other region of Western Eurasia, including the Caucasus. PMID:21555570

  10. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ajay D.; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Kalorey, Dewanand R.; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Naik, Rajesh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods In this study, serum samples (n=282) from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) (n=243), and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39) were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusion Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame. PMID:24762925

  11. Inferring chronological age from DNA methylation patterns of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Cristina; Cilli, Elisabetta; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Sazzini, Marco; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Franceschi, Claudio; Garagnani, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata

    2016-04-01

    Current methods to determine chronological age from modern and ancient remains rely on both morphological and molecular approaches. However, low accuracy and the lack of standardized protocols make the development of alternative methods for the estimation of individual's age even more urgent for several research fields, such as biological anthropology, biodemography, forensics, evolutionary genetics, and ancient DNA studies. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify genomic regions whose DNA methylation level correlates with age in modern teeth. We used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to analyze DNA methylation levels of specific CpGs located in the ELOVL2, FHL2, and PENK genes. We considered methylation data from cementum, dentin and pulp of 21 modern teeth (from 17 to 77 years old) to construct a mathematical model able to exploit DNA methylation values to predict age of the individuals. The median difference between the real age and that estimated using DNA methylation values is 1.20 years (SD = 1.9) if DNA is recovered from both cementum and pulp of the same modern teeth, 2.25 years (SD = 2.5) if DNA is recovered from dental pulp, 2.45 years (SD = 3.3) if DNA is extracted from cementum and 7.07 years (SD = 7.0) when DNA is recovered from dentin only. We propose for the first time the evaluation of DNA methylation at ELOVL2, FHL2, and PENK genes as a powerful tool to predict age in modern teeth for anthropological applications. Future studies are needed to apply this method also to historical and relatively ancient human teeth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Human occupation of the Arabian Empty Quarter during MIS 5: evidence from Mundafan Al-Buhayrah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groucutt, Huw S.; White, Tom S.; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Parton, Ash; Crassard, Rémy; Shipton, Ceri; Jennings, Richard P.; Parker, Adrian G.; Breeze, Paul S.; Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    The Empty Quarter (or Rub' al Khali) of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest continuous sandy desert in the world. It has been known for several decades that Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, representing phases of wetter climate, are preserved there. These sequences have yielded palaeontological evidence in the form of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils and have been dated using various radiometric techniques. However, evidence for human presence during these wetter phases has until now been ephemeral. Here, we report on the first stratified and dated archaeology from the Empty Quarter, recovered from the site of Mundafan Al-Buhayrah (MDF-61). Human occupation at the site, represented by stone tools, has been dated to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 using multiple luminescence dating techniques (multigrain and single grain OSL, TT-OSL). The sequence consists primarily of lacustrine and palustrine sediments, from which evidence for changing local environmental conditions has been obtained through analysis of fossil assemblages (phytoliths and non-marine molluscs and ostracods). The discovery of securely-dated archaeological material at ∼100 to 80 ka in the Empty Quarter has important implications for hypotheses concerning the timing and routes of dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa, which have been much debated. Consequently, the data presented here fill a crucial gap in palaeoenvironmental and archaeological understanding of the southern Arabian interior. Fossils of H. sapiens in the Levant, also dated to MIS 5, together with Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites in Arabia and India are thought to represent the earliest dispersal of our species out of Africa. We suggest that the widespread occurrence of similar lithic technologies across southern Asia, coupled with a growing body of evidence for environmental amelioration across the Saharo-Arabian belt, indicates that occupation of the Levant by H. sapiens during MIS 5

  13. Elastic hysteresis in human eyes is age dependent value.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kotaro; Saito, Kei; Kameda, Toshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-06-19

    Background:  The elastic hysteresis phenomenon is observed when cyclic loading is applied to a viscoelastic system. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate elastic hysteresis in living human eyes against an external force. Design:  Prospective case series. Participants:  Twenty-four eyes of 24 normal human subjects (mean age: 41.5 ± 10.6 years) were recruited. Methods:  A non-contact tonometry process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal thickness at 4 mm from the center, corneal curvature, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was also measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometer (DCT). Main Outcome Measures:  Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was calculated and graphed. Results:  The mean CCT was 552.5 ± 36.1 µm, corneal curvature was 7.84 ± 0.26 mm, and ACD was 2.83 ± 0.29 mm. The mean GAT-IOP was 14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg and DCT-IOP was 16.3 ± 3.5 mmHg. The mean energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was 3.90 × 10(-6) ± 2.49 × 10(-6) Nm. Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis correlated significantly with age (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.596, p = 0.0016). There were no significant correlations between energy loss due to elastic hysteresis and other measurements. Conclusion:  Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis in the eyes of subjects was found to positively correlate with age, independent of anterior eye structure or IOP. Therefore, it is believed that the viscosity of the eye increases with age. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. AGING AND THE REDUCTION IN FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF HUMAN DENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, A.; Bajaj, D.; Zhang, D.; Romberg, E.; Arola, D.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human coronal dentin was performed on tissue obtained from patients between ages 18 and 83. Stable crack extension was achieved over clinically relevant lengths (0 ≤ a ≤1 mm) under Mode I quasi-static loading and perpendicular to the nominal tubule direction. Results distinguished that human dentin exhibits an increase in crack growth resistance with extension (i.e. rising R-curve) and that there is a significant reduction in both the initiation (Ko) and plateau (Kp) components of toughness with patient age. In the young dentin (18≤age≤35) there was a 25 % increase in the crack growth resistance from the onset of extension (Ko =1.34 MPa·m0.5) to the maximum or “plateau” toughness (Kp = 1.65 MPa·m0.5). In comparison, the crack growth resistance of the old dentin (55≤age) increased with extension by less than 10 % from Ko = 1.08 MPa·m0.5 to Kp = 1.17 MPa·m0.5. In young dentin toughening was achieved by a combination of inelastic deformation of the mineralized collagen matrix and microcracking of the peritubular cuffs. These mechanisms facilitated further toughening via the development of unbroken ligaments of tissue and posterior crack-bridging. Microstructural changes with aging decreased the capacity for near-tip inelastic deformation and microcracking of the tubules, which in turn suppressed the formation of unbroken ligaments and the degree of extrinsic toughening. PMID:19627862

  15. Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masami; Nakahira, Yuko

    2015-11-01

    Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method. The validation results suggest that the THUMS has good biofidelity in the responses of the regional or full body for side impacts, but relatively poor biofidelity in its local level of responses such as brain displacements. Occupant kinematics predicted by the THUMS with a muscle controller using 22 PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) controllers were compared with those of volunteer test data on low-speed lateral impacts. The THUMS with muscle controller reproduced the head kinematics of the volunteer data more accurately than that without muscle activation, although further studies on validation of torso kinematics are needed for more accurate predictions of occupant head kinematics.

  16. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  17. Prevalence of airflow obstruction among ever-employed US adults aged 18–79 years by longest held occupation group: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Halldin, Cara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction among ever-employed US adults. Methods Data from the 2007 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for adults 18–79 years with valid spirometry and longest held occupation were analysed. The age-standardised prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction was estimated overall and by smoking status. Results Age-standardised prevalence of airflow obstruction was 13.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 15.0%) and was highest in participants aged 60–79 years (17.4%, 95% CI 15.2% to 19.6%), males (14.8%, 95% CI 12.0% to 17.6%), non-Hispanic whites (15.4%, 95% CI 13.8% to 16.7%) and ever smokers (19.1%, 95% CI 16.6% to 21.5%). Age-standardised prevalence of airflow obstruction was >20% for installation, maintenance and repair occupations (p=22.1%, 95% CI 16.5% to 27.8%), and for construction and extraction occupations (20.7%, 95% CI 13.5% to 27.9%). Conclusions Prevalence of airflow obstruction varied by demographic characteristics and occupational factors with a higher prevalence among ever smokers for most demographic characteristics and occupational factors. Study findings emphasise the importance of monitoring the lung function of workers in occupations with a high prevalence of airflow obstruction. PMID:27152013

  18. Sympathetic activity during passive heat stress in healthy aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Daniel; Schlader, Zachary J; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular adjustments during heat stress are generally attenuated in healthy aged humans, which could be due to lower increases in sympathetic activity compared to the young. We compared muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) between 11 young (Y: 28 ± 4 years) and 10 aged (A: 70 ± 5 years) subjects prior to and during passive heating. Furthermore, MSNA responses were compared when a cold pressor test (CPT) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were superimposed upon heating. Baseline MSNA burst frequency (Y: 15 ± 4 vs. A: 31 ± 3 bursts min−1, P ≤ 0.01) and burst incidence (Y: 26 ± 8 vs. A: 50 ± 7 bursts (100 cardiac cycles (CC))−1, P ≤ 0.01) were greater in the aged. Heat stress increased core temperature to a similar extent in both groups (Y: +1.2 ± 0.1 vs. A: +1.2 ± 0.0°C, P = 0.99). Absolute levels of MSNA remained greater in the aged during heat stress (burst frequency: Y: 47 ± 6 vs. A: 63 ± 11 bursts min−1, P ≤ 0.01; burst incidence: Y: 48 ± 8 vs. A: 67 ± 9 bursts (100 CC)−1, P ≤ 0.01); however, the increase in both variables was similar between groups (both P ≥ 0.1). The CPT and LBNP further increased MSNA burst frequency and burst incidence, although the magnitude of increase was similar between groups (both P ≥ 0.07). These results suggest that increases in sympathetic activity during heat stress are not attenuated in healthy aged humans. Key points Cardiovascular adjustments to heat stress are attenuated in healthy aged individuals, which could contribute to their greater prevalence of heat-related illnesses and deaths during heat waves. The attenuated cardiovascular adjustments in the aged could be due to lower increases in sympathetic nerve activity during heat stress. We examined muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and plasma catecholamine concentrations in healthy young and aged individuals during whole-body passive heat stress. The main finding

  19. Advanced age increases chromosome structural abnormalities in human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Templado, Cristina; Donate, Anna; Giraldo, Jesús; Bosch, Mercè; Estop, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between sperm structural aberrations and age by using a multicolor multichromosome FISH strategy that provides information on the incidence of duplications and deletions on all the autosomes. ToTelvysion kit (Abbott Molecular, Abbott Park, IL, USA) with telomere-specific probes was used. We investigated the sperm of 10 male donors aged from 23 to 74 years old. The donors were divided into two groups according to age, a cohort of five individuals younger than 40 and a cohort of five individuals older than 60 years. The goal of this study was to determine (1) the relationship between donor age and frequency and type of chromosome structural abnormalities and (2) chromosomes more frequently involved in sperm structural aberrations. We found that the older patients had a higher rate of structural abnormalities (6.6%) compared with the younger cohort (4.9%). Although both duplications and deletions were seen more frequently in older men, our findings demonstrate the presence of an excess of duplications versus deletions in both groups at a ratio of 2 to 1. We demonstrate that the distribution of duplications and deletions was not linear along the chromosomes, although a trend toward a higher rate of abnormalities in larger chromosomes was observed. This work is the first study addressing the frequencies of sperm chromosome structural aberrations of all autosomes in a single assay thus making a contribution to the clarification of the amount and origin of damage present in human spermatozoa and in relation to age. PMID:21045871

  20. Ages for the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa: implications for human behavior and dispersal.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Zenobia; Roberts, Richard G; Galbraith, Rex F; Deacon, Hilary J; Grün, Rainer; Mackay, Alex; Mitchell, Peter; Vogelsang, Ralf; Wadley, Lyn

    2008-10-31

    The expansion of modern human populations in Africa 80,000 to 60,000 years ago and their initial exodus out of Africa have been tentatively linked to two phases of technological and behavioral innovation within the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa-the Still Bay and Howieson's Poort industries-that are associated with early evidence for symbols and personal ornaments. Establishing the correct sequence of events, however, has been hampered by inadequate chronologies. We report ages for nine sites from varied climatic and ecological zones across southern Africa that show that both industries were short-lived (5000 years or less), separated by about 7000 years, and coeval with genetic estimates of population expansion and exit times. Comparison with climatic records shows that these bursts of innovative behavior cannot be explained by environmental factors alone.

  1. Harsh social conditions and perinatal survival: an age-period-cohort analysis of the World War II occupation of Norway.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, A J; Skjaerven, R; Irgens, L M

    1994-09-01

    The hypothesis was tested that unfavorable social conditions are associated with poor perinatal survival through direct effects on pregnancy or, more indirectly, through effects on mothers born under such conditions. The occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany was used as a period of social hardship. Data from Norwegian vital statistics and the Medical Birth Registry were used to describe perinatal mortality during World War II and also a generation later, among babies born to mothers who had themselves been born during the war. Logistic regression was used to identify a possible cohort effect among mothers born in 1940 through 1944 compared with mothers born before or after that period. Harsh conditions in Norway during the occupation increased childhood mortality. However, perinatal mortality declined during that period. Likewise, no adverse effect was seen on the survival of babies born to mothers who had themselves been born during the war (odds ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval = 0.96, 1.04). We find no evidence that wartime conditions in Norway impaired perinatal survival, either directly or through an effect on women born during the war. These data underscore how little is known about the ways that social conditions influence perinatal mortality.

  2. The impact of everyday racism on the occupations of African Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Beagan, Brenda L; Etowa, Josephine

    2009-10-01

    Occupational therapy has increasingly explored the impact of cultural differences on occupations but has not yet begun to explore the impact of racism on human occupation. This study with 50 African Canadian women used mixed methods to explore the effects of racism on their occupational experiences. Women aged 40-65 were interviewed in-depth about everyday experiences with racism and overall well-being. Three standardized instruments assessed frequency and stressfulness of race-related experiences. Everyday racism had subtle, almost intangible, impacts, shaping women's engagement with and the meaning of leisure, productive, and caring occupations. As occupational therapy increasingly attends to issues of cultural difference, it is critical to also attend to racism. This means learning to ask thoughtful questions about how racism may shape clients' occupations. Attention to this aspect of the social environment will enhance practice with African-heritage clients and clients from other racial minority groups.

  3. A phenomenological inquiry into the embodied nature of occupation at end of life.

    PubMed

    Lala, Anna Park; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-10-01

    Occupational therapists propose that occupation is a basic human need across the lifespan. However, there is limited understanding of how occupation contributes to the end-of-life experience. The purpose of this study was to examine the embodied nature of occupation at end of life from the perspectives of Canadians 60 years of age or older who are diagnosed with a terminal illness. The study adopted a phenomenological methodological approach to conduct semi-structured interviews with eight participants. Six themes were identified. Participants described orientations toward occupations that involved: living with death, reworking everyday life, being guided by the will of the body, giving priority to relationships, attending to the small things, and engaging existential orientations. This study contributes to knowledge about occupation at end of life and offers a starting point to guide practice that is attentive to the lived dimensions of occupation at end of life.

  4. Retaining an aging nurse workforce: perceptions of human resource practices.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Mary Val; McIntosh, Barbara; Rambur, Betty; Naud, Shelly

    2009-01-01

    The expected retirement of the largest cohort of nurses will push the RN workforce below projected need by 2020. The challenges of managing a nursing workforce with the majority of nurses over 45 years of age are now necessitating attention to polices for recruitment and retention of older nurses, particularly in rural areas. This convenience sample study employed a mailed survey to investigate perceptions of nurses in 12 institutions (four hospitals, seven home health agencies, and one nursing home serving a small rural state). The goal was to explore rural RNs' perceptions of intent to stay in their current position, with their organization, and employment as a nurse; organizational and unit-level culture regarding older nurses in the workplace; importance of specific human resource practices/policies to their own intention to stay; and extent to which these human resource practices/policies are currently done. The results indicate that although there are similarities across age cohorts, important differences exist that can be addressed to create career-span sensitive policies and practices. This study provides an indicator of progress or lack of progress in addressing older nurse recruitment and retention, and also offers guidance for differentiating policies and practices for younger and older nurses.

  5. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  6. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states.

  7. BCL2 translocation frequency rises with age in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hernandez, A.M.; Shibata, D.; Cortopassi, G.A.

    1994-09-13

    The background frequency of t(14;18) (q32;q21) chromosomal translocations at the locus associated with B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL2) was determined from a survey of the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 53 living individuals and from tissues of 31 autopsies by using a nested PCR assay. The translocation was detected in 55% of PBLs and 35% of autopsied spleens with a frequency of between less than 1 to 853 translocations per million cells. Translocations copurified with B lymphocytes. The frequency of translocations significantly increased with age in PBLs and spleens, as does human risk for lymphoma. Average translocation frequency was more than 40 times greater in the spleen and 13 times greater in the peripheral blood in the oldest individuals (61 yr and older) compared with the youngest individuals (20 yr or younger). Particular t(14;18)-bearing clones persisted over a period of 5 months in two individuals. These findings demonstrate that clones harboring the oncogenic t(14;18) chromosomal translocation are commonly present in normal humans, that such clones are long-lived, and that they rise in frequency with age. A multihit model of lymphomagenesis involving t(14;18) translocation followed by antigen stimulation is proposed. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Remuneration of Graduates, as at 1 July 1994. Human Resources, Financial, and Economic Occupations = Vergoeding van Gegradueerdes, soos op 1 Julie 1994. Menslike Hulpbronne, Finansiele en Ekonomiese Beroepe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Johan

    This report, in both English and Afrikaans, is based on data gathered during a September 1994 mail survey of 215,284 South African graduates that elicited a total response rate of 18.3%. It details the remuneration of graduates (as of July 1, 1994) in a wide range of human resources, accounting and financial, economic, and sales occupations in the…

  9. Patch-occupancy models indicate human activity as major determinant of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis seasonal distribution in an industrial corridor in Gabon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buij, R.; McShea, W.J.; Campbell, P.; Lee, M.E.; Dallmeier, F.; Guimondou, S.; Mackaga, L.; Guisseougou, N.; Mboumba, S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Alonso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of human activity and ecological features in influencing African forest elephant ranging behaviour was investigated in the Rabi-Ndogo corridor of the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in southwest Gabon. Locations in a wide geographical area with a range of environmental variables were selected for patch-occupancy surveys using elephant dung to assess seasonal presence and absence of elephants. Patch-occupancy procedures allowed for covariate modelling evaluating hypotheses for both occupancy in relation to human activity and ecological features, and detection probability in relation to vegetation density. The best fitting models for old and fresh dung data sets indicate that (1) detection probability for elephant dung is negatively related to the relative density of the vegetation, and (2) human activity, such as presence and infrastructure, are more closely associated with elephant distribution patterns than are ecological features, such as the presence of wetlands and preferred fresh fruit. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of elephants to human disturbance, in this case infrastructure development associated with gas and oil production. Patch-occupancy methodology offers a viable alternative to current transect protocols for monitoring programs with multiple covariates.

  10. Effectiveness of meaningful occupation interventions for people living with dementia in residential aged care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Travers, Catherine; Brooks, Deborah; Hines, Sonia; O'Reilly, Maria; McMaster, Mitchell; He, Wei; MacAndrew, Margaret; Fielding, Elaine; Karlsson, Lina; Beattie, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    The ability to participate in valued activities, whether for work, leisure or family, is an important aspect of personal identity. In dementia, progressive memory loss means that abilities developed over a lifetime begin to be lost as well, contributing to the loss of self and identity. Some studies have reported that activities or interventions tailored to be meaningful to the person with dementia (defined as any activity important to the individual) are more effective in addressing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and improving quality of life (QoL) than those that are not so tailored. However, the effectiveness of individualizing interventions or activities for this population is not known. In response to consumer feedback by the Consumer Dementia Research Network that this question ought to be addressed, this review was undertaken, the aim of which was to determine the effectiveness of meaningful occupation interventions for people living with dementia in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). People living with dementia in RACFs (nursing homes).Any intervention that was individualized to be meaningful to the participant, versus any active control condition or usual care.Experimental and observational studies. Quality of life, BPSD (such as agitation, aggression, depression, wandering and apathy), mood, function, cognition and sleep. The search strategy aimed to identify both published and unpublished studies, with the following 12 databases extensively searched: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, OTSeeker, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, Mednar, OpenSIGLE, New York Academy of Medicine Library Gray Literature Report, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The search strategy was limited to papers published in English between 2004 and January 31, 2015. All studies were assessed independently by two reviewers for relevance, eligibility and methodological quality. Data from included papers were extracted using a

  11. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the

  12. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the

  13. Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Meredith; Justice, Amy C.; Lampiris, Harry W.; Valcour, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Importance Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients treated with antiretroviral therapy now have increased life expectancy and develop chronic illnesses that are often seen in older HIV-negative patients. Objective To address emerging issues related to aging with HIV. Screening older adults for HIV, diagnosis of concomitant diseases, management of multiple comorbid medical illnesses, social isolation, polypharmacy, and factors associated with end-of-life care are reviewed. Evidence Acquisition Published guidelines and consensus statements were reviewed. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched between January 2000 and February 2013. Articles not appearing in the search that were referenced by reviewed articles were also evaluated. Findings The population of older HIV-positive patients is rapidly expanding. It is estimated that by 2015 one-half of the individuals in the United States with HIV will be older than age 50. Older HIV-infected patients are prone to having similar chronic diseases as their HIV-negative counterparts, as well as illnesses associated with co-infections. Medical treatments associated with these conditions, when added to an antiretroviral regimen, increase risk for polypharmacy. Care of aging HIV-infected patients involves a need to balance a number of concurrent comorbid medical conditions. Conclusions and Relevance HIV is no longer a fatal disease. Management of multiple comorbid diseases is a common feature associated with longer life expectancy in HIV-positive patients. There is a need to better understand how to optimize the care of these patients. PMID:23549585

  14. Twins for epigenetic studies of human aging and development.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    Most of the complex traits including aging phenotypes are caused by the interaction between genome and environmental conditions and the interface of epigenetics may be a central mechanism. Although modern technologies allow us high-throughput profiling of epigenetic patterns already at genome level, our understanding of genetic and environmental influences on the epigenetic processes remains limited. Twins are of special interest for genetic studies due to their genetic similarity and rearing-environment sharing. The classical twin design has made a great contribution in dissecting the genetic and environmental contributions to human diseases and complex traits. In the era of functional genomics, the valuable sample of twins is helping to bridge the gap between gene activity and the environments through epigenetic mechanisms unlimited by DNA sequence variations. We propose to extend the classical twin design to study the aging-related molecular epigenetic phenotypes and link them with environmental exposures especially early life events. Different study designs and application issues will be highlighted and novel approaches introduced with aim at making uses of twins in assessing the environmental impact on epigenetic changes during development and in the aging process.

  15. Maladaptive bias for extrahippocampal navigation strategies in aging humans.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan M; de Condappa, Olivier; Harris, Mathew A; Wolbers, Thomas

    2013-04-03

    Efficient spatial navigation requires not only accurate spatial knowledge but also the selection of appropriate strategies. Using a novel paradigm that allowed us to distinguish between beacon, associative cue, and place strategies, we investigated the effects of cognitive aging on the selection and adoption of navigation strategies in humans. Participants were required to rejoin a previously learned route encountered from an unfamiliar direction. Successful performance required the use of an allocentric place strategy, which was increasingly observed in young participants over six experimental sessions. In contrast, older participants, who were able to recall the route when approaching intersections from the same direction as during encoding, failed to use the correct place strategy when approaching intersections from novel directions. Instead, they continuously used a beacon strategy and showed no evidence of changing their behavior across the six sessions. Given that this bias was already apparent in the first experimental session, the inability to adopt the correct place strategy is not related to an inability to switch from a firmly established response strategy to an allocentric place strategy. Rather, and in line with previous research, age-related deficits in allocentric processing result in shifts in preferred navigation strategies and an overall bias for response strategies. The specific preference for a beacon strategy is discussed in the context of a possible dissociation between beacon-based and associative-cue-based response learning in the striatum, with the latter being more sensitive to age-related changes.

  16. Mitochondrial-Nuclear Epistasis: Implications for Human Aging and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Tranah, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that mitochondria are involved in the aging process. Mitochondrial function requires the coordinated expression of hundreds of nuclear genes and a few dozen mitochondrial genes, many of which have been associated with either extended or shortened life span. Impaired mitochondrial function resulting from mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation is likely to contribute to an imbalance in cellular energy homeostasis, increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, and an increased rate of cellular senescence and aging. The complex genetic architecture of mitochondria suggests that there may be an equally complex set of gene interactions (epistases) involving genetic variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Results from Drosophila suggest that the effects of mtDNA haplotypes on longevity vary among different nuclear allelic backgrounds, which could account for the inconsistent associations that have been observed between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and survival in humans. A diversity of pathways may influence the way mitochondria and nuclear – mitochondrial interactions modulate longevity, including: oxidative phosphorylation; mitochondrial uncoupling; antioxidant defenses; mitochondrial fission and fusion; and sirtuin regulation of mitochondrial genes. We hypothesize that aging and longevity, as complex traits having a significant genetic component, are likely to be controlled by nuclear gene variants interacting with both inherited and somatic mtDNA variability. PMID:20601194

  17. The role of TRPV1 channel in aged human skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mee; Kang, So Min; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a member of the nonselective cationic channel family. Activation of TRPV1 induces an influx of divalent and monovalent cations (i.e., Ca(2+), Na(+), and Mg(2+)) which are activated by capsaicin, heat, and acid. TRPV1 is known to be expressed in the epidermis, but little is known about the physiological significance and functional role of TRPV1 in skin. Recent studies suggested that heat- and ultraviolet (UV)-induced matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) expression may be partly mediated by TRPV1 activation in human keratinocytes. Also, heat and UV increased expression of TRPV1 proteins in human skin in vivo. TRPV1 protein was expressed more in the sun-protected (upper-inner arm) skin of the elderly than in young subjects. In addition, the photoaged (forearm) skin of the elderly showed increased TRPV1 expression compared to sun-protected skin of the same individuals. The increased TRPV1 expression in the old skin implies that TRPV1 may be related to senile skin symptoms, such as senile pruritus and neurogenic inflammation. This review provides a summary of current researches on the role of TRPV1 channel in human skin, especially in aged skin. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  19. Aging and fracture of human cortical bone and tooth dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Kurt J.; Ager, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-06-01

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms, which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms, which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms, which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force (e.g., the stress intensity) as a function of crack extension (“R-curve approach”). Here this methodology is used to study the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  20. Synergistic roles of climate warming and human occupation in Patagonian megafaunal extinctions during the Last Deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Jessica L.; Turney, Chris; Barnett, Ross; Martin, Fabiana; Bray, Sarah C.; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Orlando, Ludovic; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Loponte, Daniel; Medina, Matías; De Nigris, Mariana; Civalero, Teresa; Fernández, Pablo Marcelo; Gasco, Alejandra; Duran, Victor; Seymour, Kevin L.; Otaola, Clara; Gil, Adolfo; Paunero, Rafael; Prevosti, Francisco J.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Wheeler, Jane C.; Borrero, Luis; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The causes of Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions (60,000 to 11,650 years ago, hereafter 60 to 11.65 ka) remain contentious, with major phases coinciding with both human arrival and climate change around the world. The Americas provide a unique opportunity to disentangle these factors as human colonization took place over a narrow time frame (~15 to 14.6 ka) but during contrasting temperature trends across each continent. Unfortunately, limited data sets in South America have so far precluded detailed comparison. We analyze genetic and radiocarbon data from 89 and 71 Patagonian megafaunal bones, respectively, more than doubling the high-quality Pleistocene megafaunal radiocarbon data sets from the region. We identify a narrow megafaunal extinction phase 12,280 ± 110 years ago, some 1 to 3 thousand years after initial human presence in the area. Although humans arrived immediately prior to a cold phase, the Antarctic Cold Reversal stadial, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until the stadial finished and the subsequent warming phase commenced some 1 to 3 thousand years later. The increased resolution provided by the Patagonian material reveals that the sequence of climate and extinction events in North and South America were temporally inverted, but in both cases, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until human presence and climate warming coincided. Overall, metapopulation processes involving subpopulation connectivity on a continental scale appear to have been critical for megafaunal species survival of both climate change and human impacts. PMID:27386563