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  1. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

  2. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  3. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  4. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  5. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  6. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  7. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  8. Who Gains from the Demographic Dividend? Forecasting Income by Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the population age structure are known to influence the total income per person, but little is known about whether the changes are equally shared across the population or are concentrated on particular age groups and/or birth cohorts. The answer to this question has potentially important implications for income inequality, for human capital investment, and for fertility decision-making. We propose a new model of intergenerational transfers which distinguishes between the effects of changes in population structure and the effects of changes in family age structure. Using age-specific data from annual income and expenditure surveys of Taiwan between 1978 and 1998, we show that changes in age structure have had a very favorable effect on Taiwan's income growth. The gains are not equally shared by all age groups, however. Children and young adults have benefited the most, while the elderly have benefited the least. The population and family age structures have independent effects on per capita income; the effect of the population age structure is most important. Generational differences in per capita income are closely related to intergenerational differences in earnings, suggesting only a weak form of altruism. Finally, we predict that, on average, population aging will adversely influence per capita income growth in Taiwan in the coming decades. PMID:18443647

  9. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  10. Do Age-Friendly Characteristics Influence the Expectation to Age in Place? A Comparison of Low-Income and Higher Income Detroit Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lehning, Amanda J.; Smith, Richard J.; Dunkle, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place. PMID:24652879

  11. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  12. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  13. 77 FR 4909 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... published on January 26, 2012 (77 FR 4034). In addition, LSC is publishing a chart listing income levels... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department...

  14. 76 FR 4550 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... published on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45628). In addition, LSC is publishing charts listing income levels that... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department...

  15. 75 FR 47487 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... published on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45628). In addition, LSC is publishing charts listing income levels that... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department...

  16. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  17. Sense of Community within Oxford House Recovery Housing: Impact of Resident Age and Income.

    PubMed

    Graham, B C; Jason, L A; Ferrari, J F

    2009-01-01

    The experience of psychological sense of community (PSOC) can play an important role in the substance abuse recovery process. This study explored the relationship between PSOC and setting-level variables of age and income amongst residents living in Oxford House, a communal, self-governed recovery housing model (n = 70). Age and income variables were not related to an overall PSOC or components such as shared common mission or feelings of reciprocal responsibility. However, both age and income variables were significant predictors of the harmony felt within these houses. The role that PSOC may play in recovery facilities and other co-housing arrangements was discussed, and implications for future research and application were outlined. PMID:20657670

  18. Province-Level Income Inequality and Health Outcomes in Canadian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of provincial income inequality (disparity between rich and poor), independent of provincial income and family socioeconomic status, on multiple adolescent health outcomes. Methods Participants (aged 12–17 years; N = 11,899) were from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Parental education, household income, province income inequality, and province mean income were measured. Health outcomes were measured across a number of domains, including self-rated health, mental health, health behaviors, substance use behaviors, and physical health. Results Income inequality was associated with injuries, general physical symptoms, and limiting conditions, but not associated with most adolescent health outcomes and behaviors. Income inequality had a moderating effect on family socioeconomic status for limiting conditions, hyperactivity/inattention, and conduct problems, but not for other outcomes. Conclusions Province-level income inequality was associated with some physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents, which has research and policy implications for this age-group. PMID:25324533

  19. Nutritional status of toddlers and preschoolers according to household income level: overweight tendency and micronutrient deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kirang; Shin, Sam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES The effects of malnutrition on growth of toddlers and preschoolers by socioeconomic status are not well known. This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary intake on growth outcomes in toddlers and preschoolers by household income level. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study population was a total of 1,687 children aged 1 to 5 years that participated in the KNHANES from 2009 to 2011. Growth of children was assessed by height for age (HFA) and weight for height (WFH). Children were classified into three groups according to children's HFA and WFH compared to the 10th and 90th percentiles of the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescent Growth Standard. Average monthly household income was divided into quartile groups. Dietary intake data were obtained by using the one day 24-hr recall method. Risks of inadequate intake of nutrients and unfavorable growth were estimated by using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age, region, and energy intake. RESULTS The low HFA group (< 10th percentile) had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, and thiamin as compared with the high group (≥ 90th percentile). For WFH status, vitamin C intake was lower in the low group than in the high group. Household income level was related to WFH status but not HFA. Children from lower income households were more likely to have high WFH than those from higher income households (P for trend = 0.038). Household income status was also significantly related with risk of inadequate intake of micronutrients such as thiamin (P for trend = 0.032) and vitamin C (P for trend = 0.002), showing higher odds of inadequate intakes in children from lower income households. CONCLUSIONS Children from lower income households were prone to be overweight and to have inadequate intakes of micronutrients such as thiamin and vitamin C. To reduce nutritional and health disparities, collective action in the public sector is required from early life. PMID:26425286

  20. Colorectal cancer screening awareness and intentions among low income, sociodemographically diverse adults under age 50.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Karen; Puleo, Elaine; McNeill, Lorna H; Bennett, Gary; Chan, Sophia; Syngal, Sapna

    2008-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the US are suboptimal, particularly among lower income and racial/ethnically diverse groups. If specific populations have limited awareness of screening when they reach age 50, there may be delays in screening adoption. This study investigated sociodemographic and social contextual factors associated with awareness of CRC and intentions to be screened at age 50 among 692 low income, racial, and ethnic minority adults living in low income housing. The majority of respondents (62%) were between ages 30 and 49, and 94% had some form of health insurance (e.g., Medicaid). About 70% reported having heard about CRC screening; 66% reported intentions to be screened at age 50. In multivariable analyses, screening awareness was associated with age and education. Immigrants who had English as a second language had lower awareness. Females tended to have higher awareness if they had private insurance; there were no differences among males. Multivariable analyses found that screening intentions were higher among men, those with more role responsibilities, more role conflicts, and higher levels of social cohesion. It is important to identify opportunities for maximizing screening uptake among those who become age-eligible for screening if we are to make a significant impact on CRC disparities. PMID:18478340

  1. 78 FR 7679 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Guidelines as published on January 24, 2013 (78 FR 5182). In addition, LSC is publishing charts listing... updates the specified income levels to reflect the annual amendments to the Federal Poverty Guidelines as... hundred and twenty-five percent (125%) of the Federal Poverty Guidelines. Since 1982, the Department...

  2. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  3. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M.; Shih, Regina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. Methods In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8–20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Results Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16–18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Conclusions Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States. PMID:27332986

  4. Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 μg/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 μg/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 μg/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 μg/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

  5. The Effects of Age and Household Income on the Use of Literate Language Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmon, Regina D.; McDade, Hiram L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of literate language features (LLFs) in the oral narratives of African American and Caucasian American preschoolers residing in either low- or middle-income homes to determine whether differences existed as a result of age or household income. The oral narratives of 96 preschoolers enrolled in public school programs and…

  6. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  7. The effects of income level, income distribution, education and urbanization on fertility rates among 28 administrative regions of China.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S

    1990-07-01

    Conflicting empirical evidence on the role of income distribution on fertility rates is the impetus for this 1982 study of providence-specific Chinese Census data, excluding Tibet. The findings support the prior thesis of Repetto but utilize the micromethods and per household income measures of the competing findings of Boulier. It is cautioned that in the Chinese analysis equal income distribution depresses fertility, but China may not reflect world wide patterns. China did not have until recently a market incentive system, and there are income measurement problems. The data are per capita economic output not per capita income, and those high output areas which did not produce low fertility may actually have had households with low incomes. The importance of this research is in establishing that cross-province data are a useful tool in understanding the influence of income distribution on fertility. As with most developing countries, women's education, for instance, at least junior high education explained the largest variation of fertility differences among the 28 provinces. The urbanization variable when controlling for income was positive, unlike the other developing countries. The 1949 Chinese government's spatial industrial policy encouraged urbanization and industrialization in rural areas and family planning programs such that highly urbanized provinces have low population density. A variety of variables on income level, income distribution, education, and urbanization are discussed. OLSQ regressions were generated utilizing such independent variables as output per capita in yuan (YOUTHPC80), the square of YOUTHPC80 (YOUTHPC802), YOUTHPC80 multiplied by the average family size in each province (YOUTHPH80), and the squared value of YOUTHPH80. PMID:12283836

  8. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5–15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT. PMID:26688747

  9. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  10. Basic Facts on College-Going Rates by Income, Race, Sex, and Age, 1970 to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol

    Data on the income, race, sex, and age of college students from 1970 to 1980 are presented, and policy implications of the trends are considered. The most significant finding is that the college-going rates for full-time students from the lowest incomes (under $5,000) increased measurably (9.5 percent in 1974 to 14.3 percent in 1980). The…

  11. Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school-aged children.

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, K; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A; Briefel, R R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between family income, food insufficiency, and health among US preschool and school-aged children. METHODS: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Children were classified as food insufficient if the family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. Regression analyses were conducted with health measures as the outcome variables. Prevalence rates of health variables were compared by family income category, with control for age and gender. Odds ratios for food insufficiency were calculated with control for family income and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Low-income children had a higher prevalence of poor/fair health status and iron deficiency than high-income children. After confounding factors, including poverty status, had been controlled, food-insufficient children were significantly more likely to have poorer health status and to experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than food-sufficient children; preschool food-insufficient children had more frequent colds. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency and low family income are health concerns for US preschool and school-aged children. PMID:11344887

  12. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  13. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1611 - Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Income Level for Individuals Eligible for Assistance A Appendix A to Part 1611 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION FINANCIAL ELIGIBILITY Pt. 1611, App. A Appendix A to Part 1611—Income Level...

  14. Estimated Participation and Hours in Early Care and Education by Type of Arrangement and Income at Ages 2 to 4 in 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Steve; Nores, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    This working paper estimates participation in early childhood education (ECE) programs by child's age, program setting, family income level, and child's household language. To produce the best possible estimates of participation, the authors combined information from multiple data sets. In 2010, approximately 6.6 million between the ages of 2 and…

  15. The Relationship between Type D Personality and Suicidality in Low-Income, Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and educational attainment, were gathered. Beck's 19-item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) was applied to evaluate suicidality, and the DS14 was used to assess type D personality. Results Unemployment (p<0.01) and absence of spouse (p=0.03) predicted higher SSI scores independent of other socioeconomic factors. All type D personality scores [i.e., negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and total score] predicted higher SSI scores independent of all socioeconomic factors (all, p<0.001). Subjects with type D personality had higher SSI scores (p<0.001), and the association between suicidality and socio-demographic factors (employment or physical health) could be found only in subjects without type D personality. Conclusion Type D personality was a risk factor for suicide in low-income Koreans, independently from socio-economic factors. In addition, the socio-demographic factors were less prominently associated with suicidality in those with type D personality. PMID:25670941

  16. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... public retirement system income. 1.37-3 Section 1.37-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... age 65 who have public retirement system income. (a) In general. This section provides rules for the... includes retirement income within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section (i.e., under a...

  17. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. PMID:24984907

  18. Income Level and Drug Related Harm among People Who Use Injection Drugs in a Canadian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Long, Cathy; DeBeck, Kora; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher income is generally associated with better health outcomes; however, among people who inject drugs (IDU) income generation frequently involves activities, such as sex work and drug dealing, which pose significant health risks. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between level of income and specific drug use patterns and related health risks. Methods This study involved IDU participating in a prospective cohort study in Vancouver, Canada. Monthly income was categorized based on non-fixed quartiles at each follow-up with the lowest level serving as the reference category in generalized linear mixed-effects regression. Results Among our sample of 1,032 IDU, the median average monthly income over the study follow-up was $1050 [Interquartile range=785–2000]. In multivariate analysis, the highest income category was significantly associated with sex work (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=7.65), drug dealing (AOR=5.06), daily heroin injection (AOR=2.97), daily cocaine injection (AOR=1.65), daily crack smoking (AOR=2.48), binge drug use (AOR=1.57) and unstable housing (AOR=1.67). The high income category was negatively associated with being female (AOR=0.61) and accessing addiction treatment (AOR=0.64), (all p < 0.05). In addition, higher income was strongly associated with higher monthly expenditure on drugs (>$400) (OR=97.8). Conclusion Among IDU in Vancouver, average monthly income levels were low and higher total monthly income was linked to high-risk income generation strategies as well as a range of drug use patterns characteristic of higher intensity addiction and HIV risk. These findings underscore the need for interventions that provide economic empowerment and address high intensity addiction, especially for female IDU. PMID:24380808

  19. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income. PMID:25393914

  20. Liminality and low-income aging families by choice: meanings of family and support.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Susan; Gazso, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Through the lens of individualization, aging families demonstrate changes both in family composition and in meanings of family and support. So, also, do low-income families that - in order to survive - choose flexible, sometimes novel, social-support relations, including kin and non-kin: these are aging families by choice. Applying the concept of liminality (transitional states of being) created through individualization, we explored the experiences of close relations in low-income families consisting of aging kin and non-kin members. Qualitative interviews with respondents representing two or three generations of aging families of choice illustrated how these families perceive the meanings of family and social support. We find that reciprocity is less vital to relationships of older with younger members in familial networks than may be expected. Liminality contours meanings and exchanges in low-income aging families of choice such that no matter how tenuous relations may be, they provide a sense of belonging and meaning. PMID:25298078

  1. [Changes in employment, retirement age and fertility: their effects on economic dependency and per capita income].

    PubMed

    Bravo, J H

    1991-04-01

    This article provides a very simplified analysis of the impact of changes in unemployment, retirement age, and fertility on economic dependency and per capita income in Latin America. The macroeconomic consequences of variations in age structure have received a little recent attention among Latin American researchers and policymakers, partly because of the lack of simple but rigorous analytical models to orient research. This analysis is simplified in that it focuses on changes in age distribution but does not explicitly consider effects of changes in population size, even though in reality the 2 types of changes are interrelated. The analysis has also been simplified by not taking into account any type of causal interaction between the demographic and economic variables analyzed; only the most elementary accounting relations between them are utilized. The 1st section defines the concept of economic dependency, specifies the effects of changes in its demographic and economic components, and establishes a simple link between the dependency ratio and per capita income. These and other derivations in the following sections permit evaluation of the impact of changes in employment, retirement age, and fertility on the dependency ratio and per capita income. The work concludes with a synthesis and general discussion, including a theoretical consideration of the effects of interactions among components. Only the most important equations are presented in the main text, but all variables, equations, and relations are defined and derived in the appendix. 6 countries were studied to illustrate the relationships in the context of the demographic diversity of Latin America. Argentina and Cuba represented countries in an advanced stage of the demographic transition, Chile and Mexico represented an intermediate phase, and Bolivia and Peru represented countries at the beginning of the transition. Results of decomposition of changes in dependency and income due to each of the

  2. 12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known. 1282.19 Section 1282.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.19 Affordability—Rent level definitions—tenant income is not known....

  3. Diurnal Cortisol Pattern, Eating Behaviors and Overweight in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Julie C.; Miller, Alison L.; Peterson, Karen E.; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3–4 years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60 minutes since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3 days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight versus not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with “hypocortisolism” reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. PMID:24177439

  4. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. PMID:24177439

  5. Use of an Income-Equivalence Scale to Understand Age-Related Changes in Financial Strain

    PubMed Central

    FRANCOEUR, RICHARD BENOIT

    2007-01-01

    Income-equivalence scales (IES) provide distinct advantages over poverty indices to adjust family income for differences in family size, including improved specification of hypothesized causal relationships involving objective measures of economic well-being. In a novel IES application, cancer patients' out-of-pocket health costs are adjusted for differences in family income and size and, along with five other subindices, contribute to an overall index of “objective family financial stress.” Age-related changes are modeled simultaneously within relationships between overall objective family financial stress and subjective patient perceptions about financial strain. Among the findings, the impact of age on one area of subjective financial strain, “difficulty paying bills,” is negative and curvilinear. Regardless of adjusted out-of-pocket costs, as age advances, patients appear increasingly likely to accommodate to financial stress by reporting less difficulty paying bills. This phenomenon could serve to mask and isolate older adults who are foregoing needed yet unaffordable medical care and prescriptions. PMID:18443643

  6. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P.; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-01-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50–1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p value < 0.001). Among lower-income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. PMID:24930053

  7. Trends in the Level and Distribution of Income in Metropolitan Areas, 1959-1969. Discussion Paper 316-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon

    An overview of the level and distribution of income for a sample of Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) during the period 1959-1969, using data on pretax pretransfer incomes published by the Internal Revenue Service, is presented in this paper. Several results are described. (1) The level and distribution of income vary widely among…

  8. Assessing the Preparedness Level of Incoming Principles of Accounting Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Phillip W.

    2000-01-01

    Reports that the introductory level Principles of Accounting classes at Southwest Virginia Community College (SVCC) had high unsuccessful grade rates between 1989 and 1999. Describes a study conducted to determine whether there was a statistical difference in the test scores and GPA of successful versus unsuccessful accounting students. Finds that…

  9. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  10. What users want in e-commerce design: effects of age, education and income.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Nancy J

    2003-01-15

    Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction. PMID:12554404

  11. 12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 1282.17 Section 1282.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals §...

  12. Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

  13. The elasticity of demand for health care in Burkina Faso: differences across age and income groups.

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Latimer, E

    1994-06-01

    Like many other developing countries, Burkina Faso has been exploring how community resources can be tapped to co-finance health services. Although revenue generation is important for the viability of health services, effects on utilization and on equity of access to health care must also be considered. The authors present a logistic regression model to derive price elasticities of demand for health care based on cross-sectional survey data. While demand for health care appears inelastic overall (-0.79), subgroup analysis reveals differences in elasticity across age and income groups. Elasticities of demand for infants and children (-3.6 and -1.7) and for the lowest income quartile (-1.4) are substantially greater than overall elasticity. The method used is unusual in that it allows estimation of elasticities before the introduction of user fees. This increases the value of the information to policy makers. PMID:15726780

  14. Reading and Comprehension Levels in a Sample of Urban, Low-Income Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Cheryl; Weitzel, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because health literacy is related to healthcare outcomes, this study looked at reading and comprehension levels in a sample of urban, low-income persons. Design: This was a descriptive exploration of reading comprehension levels, controlled for medical problems that could impact on vision and therefore ability to read. Setting: Ninety…

  15. The Use of Refundable Tax Credits to Increase Low-Income Children's After-School Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve; Ebin, Vicki J.; Efrat, Merav W.; Efrat, Rafael; Lane, Christianne J.; Plunkett, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low income children's after-school physical activity levels. Methods An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary school-age children (n=130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized-controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the four month intervention (post-intervention), and six-weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included: (a) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment and long term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs; and (b) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low- income children's rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at post-intervention or follow-up. Conclusion The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low- income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure. PMID:25184738

  16. Aging in Neighborhoods Differing in Walkability and Income: Associations with Physical Activity and Obesity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Sallis, James F.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Cain, Kelli; Conway, Terry L.; Chapman, James E.; Ahn, David K.; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    While there is a growing literature on the relations between neighborhood design and health factors such as physical activity and obesity, less focus has been placed on older adults, who may be particularly vulnerable to environmental influences. This study evaluates the relations among objectively measured neighborhood design, mobility impairment, and physical activity and body weight in two U.S. regional samples of community dwelling older adults living in neighborhoods differing in walkability and income levels. An observational design involving two time points six months apart was employed between 2005–2008. U.S. Census block groups in Seattle-King County, Washington and Baltimore. Maryland-Washington DC regions were selected via geographic information systems to maximize variability in walkability and income. Participants were 719 adults ages 66 years and older who were able to complete surveys in English and walk at least 10 feet continuously. Measurements included reported walking or bicycling for errands (i.e., transport activity) and other outdoor aerobic activities measured via the CHAMPS questionnaire: accelerometry-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; reported body mass index; and reported lower-extremity mobility impairment measured via the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument. Across regions, time, and neighborhood income, older adults living in more walkable neighborhoods had more transport activity and moderate-to- vigorous physical activity and lower body mass index relative to those living in less walkable neighborhoods. The most mobility-impaired adults living in more walkable neighborhoods reported transport activity levels that were similar to less mobility-impaired adults living in less walkable neighborhoods. The results add to the small literature aimed at understanding how neighborhood design may influence physical activity and related aspects of health linked with day-to-day function and independence as people age. PMID

  17. Cardiovascular inflammation in healthy women: multilevel associations with state-level prosperity, productivity and income inequality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular inflammation is a key contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and the prediction of cardiovascular events among healthy women. An emerging literature suggests biomarkers of inflammation vary by geography of residence at the state-level, and are associated with individual-level socioeconomic status. Associations between cardiovascular inflammation and state-level socioeconomic conditions have not been evaluated. The study objective is to estimate whether there are independent associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and individual-level biomarkers of inflammation, in excess of individual-level income and clinical covariates among healthy women. Methods The authors examined cross-sectional multilevel associations among state-level socioeconomic conditions, individual-level income, and biomarkers of inflammation among women (n = 26,029) in the Women's Health Study, a nation-wide cohort of healthy women free of cardiovascular diseases at enrollment. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and fibrinogen were measured between 1993 and 1996. Biomarker levels were examined among women within quartiles of state-level socioeconomic conditions and within categories of individual-level income. Results The authors found that favorable state-level socioeconomic conditions were correlated with lower hsCRP, in excess of individual-level income (e.g. state-level real per capital gross domestic product fixed effect standardized Βeta coefficient [Std B] -0.03, 95% CI -0.05, -0.004). Individual-level income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 (Std B -0.04, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) and fibrinogen (Std B -0.05, 95% CI -0.06, -0.03) than state-level conditions. Conclusions We found associations between state-level socioeconomic conditions and hsCRP among healthy women. Personal household income was more closely associated with sICAM-1 and fibrinogen than state-level

  18. Socioemotional Effects of Fathers' Incarceration on Low-Income, Urban, School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Marani, Jodi E.; Appugliese, Danielle; Woods, Ryan; Siegel, Jane A.; Cabral, Howard J.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal was to evaluate whether children of incarcerated fathers are more likely to report or exhibit behavioral symptoms than their equally disadvantaged peers without an incarcerated father. METHODS During an ongoing longitudinal study of intrauterine cocaine exposure involving 102 children (50% male and 89% black) from urban, low-income homes, questions regarding incarceration of the child's father were asked of the child's primary caregiver at each visit during school age. Children were administered the Children's Depression Inventory between the ages of 6 and 11 years, and their primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In addition, the children's teachers completed the Teacher Report Form. Children's Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist, and Teacher Report Form data obtained at the oldest available age after the first report of paternal incarceration were analyzed. RESULTS In bivariate analyses, children whose fathers were in jail had higher Children's Depression Inventory total scores compared with children without incarcerated fathers, indicating more depressive symptoms. This finding was robust in multivariate analyses after adjustment for children's age, gender, prenatal cocaine and alcohol exposure, and school-age violence exposure. Teachers reported higher Teacher Report Form externalizing scores for children whose fathers were in jail, after adjustment for age, gender, prenatal cocaine and marijuana exposure, and school-age violence exposure. CONCLUSIONS Children of incarcerated fathers reported more depressive symptoms and their teachers noted more externalizing behaviors, after controlling for other biopsychosocial risks. Interventions targeted to ameliorate the distress of children with incarcerated fathers should be considered. PMID:17766508

  19. Income level, gender, ethnicity, and household composition as predictors of children's school-based competence.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C J; Kupersmidt, J B; Vaden, N A

    1990-04-01

    In the United States, being black, male, or growing up in a low-income and/or single-parent household have all been identified as risk factors for maladjustment during childhood. Interpretation of these findings is, however, often difficult because of the well-known associations among these variables. In the present study, we compared predictions of 3 different forms of children's competence from each of these 4 variables. In a sample of 868 black and white elementary school children from 2-parent and mother-headed 1-parent homes, we studied 3 aspects of school-based competence: conduct, peer relations, and academic achievement. Results showed that although the independent variables accounted for different amounts of variance in each domain of competence, income level and gender were better overall predictors of children's competence in conduct and peer relations than were ethnicity or household composition. Income level and ethnicity were better overall predictors of academic achievement than were gender or household composition, although each of the 4 variables made a significant contribution. Overall, income level and gender were thus the strongest predictors of children's competence. Black children were, however, more likely than white children to live in low-income homes. Our results thus highlighted some correlates of the unequal distribution of economic resources among black and white children growing up in the United States today. PMID:2344784

  20. Commentary: irrational exuberance for the aging in place of vulnerable low-income older homeowners.

    PubMed

    Golant, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    This commentary argues that one-size-fits-all aging in place solutions will often not be in the best interests of low-income and frail older homeowners in the United States. This contrarian view runs counter to the reported preferences of this group, various private-sector activities, and U.S. public policies that are increasingly funding home and community-based care. The particular focus is on low-income elderly homeowners living in the oldest housing stock in the country who have demographic characteristics putting them at greater risk of having both unmet care and housing needs, which in turn have spillover effects on their neighborhoods. These vulnerable homeowners would be better served if they relocated to more affordable, easier to maintain, and better designed smaller owned units or rental properties or to planned affordable seniors' rental housing complexes that can offer both light and heavy care. Such residential moves are often not feasible, however, because of the shortage of these housing arrangements. PMID:19042553

  1. Income levels of bad-debt and free-care patients in Massachusetts hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J S; Dryfoos, P; London, K

    1999-01-01

    This study disputes the common notion that many hospitalized patients whose expenses are written off to bad debt are able to pay their bills. By matching 1996 state tax returns to more than 350,000 bad-debt and free-care claims at seven Massachusetts hospitals, we found that most patients involved had incomes below the federal poverty level and thus were presumably eligible for either public programs or hospital-based free care. This suggests that hospitals and public officials need to investigate further why low-income, uninsured patients are not receiving benefits for which they are eligible. Our results also suggest that measurements of indigent care levels in hospitals for purposes of research or regulation should include some portion of bad debt. PMID:10425853

  2. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico's cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805

  3. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico’s cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805

  4. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  5. Income level and regional policies, underlying factors associated with unwarranted variations in conservative breast cancer surgery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geographical variations in medical practice are expected to be small when the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of a particular technology is abundant. This would be the case of the prescription of conservative surgery in breast cancer patients. In these cases, when variation is larger than expected by need, socioeconomic factors have been argued as an explanation. Objectives: Using an ecologic design, our study aims at describing the variability in the use of surgical conservative versus non-conservative treatment. Additionally, it seeks to establish whether the socioeconomic status of the healthcare area influences the use of one or the other technique. Methods 81,868 mastectomies performed between 2002 and 2006 in 180 healthcare areas were studied. Standardized utilization rates of breast cancer conservative (CS) and non-conservative (NCS) procedures were estimated as well as the variation among areas, using small area statistics. Concentration curves and dominance tests were estimated to determine the impact of income and instruction levels in the healthcare area on surgery rates. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine the influence of regional policies. Results Variation in the use of CS was massive (4-fold factor between the highest and the lowest rate) and larger than in the case of NCS (2-fold), whichever the age group. Healthcare areas with higher economic and instruction levels showed highest rates of CS, regardless of the age group, while areas with lower economic and educational levels yielded higher rates of NCS interventions. Living in a particular Autonomous Community (AC), explained a substantial part of the CS residual variance (up to a 60.5% in women 50 to 70). Conclusion The place where a woman lives -income level and regional policies- explain the unexpectedly high variation found in utilization rates of conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:21504577

  6. 12 CFR 1282.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 1282.18 Section 1282.18 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.18 Affordability—Income...

  7. Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persistent among neighborhoods, generally, but mixed middle-income neighborhoods are more fluid. Persistence also dominates among individuals, though Latino-Americans are much more likely than African Americans or whites to be exposed to mixed middle-income neighborhoods in the first place and to transition into them over time, even when adjusting for immigrant status, education, income, and residential mobility. The results here enhance our knowledge of the dynamics of income inequality at the neighborhood level, and the endurance of concentrated extremes suggests that policies seeking to promote mixed-income neighborhoods face greater odds than commonly thought. PMID:26722129

  8. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  9. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...

  10. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...

  11. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to individuals under age...

  12. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  13. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...

  14. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  15. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to individuals under age...

  16. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  17. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...

  18. Influences of the neighborhood food environment on adiposity of low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, M. Pia; Whaley, Shannon E.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Koleilat, Maria; Nobari, Tabashir Z.; Seto, Edmund; Wang, May C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the association between the food environment and adiposity in early childhood, a critical time for obesity prevention. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between neighborhood food environment and adiposity among low-income preschool-aged children in a major metropolitan region in the United States. Methods The study sample was 32,172 low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County who had repeated weight and height measurements collected between ages 2 and 5 years through a federal nutrition assistance program. We conducted multilevel longitudinal analyses to examine how spatial densities of healthy and unhealthy retail food outlets in the children’s neighborhoods were related to adiposity, as measured by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), while controlling for neighborhood-level income and education, family income, maternal education, and child’s gender and race/ethnicity. Results Density of healthy food outlets was associated with mean WHZ at age 3 in a non-linear fashion, with mean WHZ being lowest for those exposed to approximately 0.7 healthy food outlets per square mile and higher for lesser and greater densities. Density of unhealthy food outlets was not associated with child WHZ. Conclusions We found a non-linear relationship between WHZ and density of healthy food outlets. Research aiming to understand the socio-behavioral mechanisms by which the retail food environment influences early childhood obesity development is complex and must consider contextual settings. PMID:25012991

  19. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  20. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  1. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide

  2. Income, cumulative risk, and longitudinal profiles of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Thompson, Stephanie F; Kiff, Cara J

    2016-05-01

    Environmental risk predicts disrupted basal cortisol levels in preschool children. However, little is known about the stability or variability of diurnal cortisol morning levels or slope patterns over time in young children. This study used latent profile analysis to identify patterns of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity during the preschool period. Using a community sample (N = 306), this study measured income, cumulative risk, and children's diurnal cortisol (morning level and slope) four times across 2.5 years, starting when children were 36 months old. Latent profile analysis profiles indicated that there were predominantly stable patterns of diurnal cortisol level and slope over time and that these patterns were predicted by income and cumulative risk. In addition, there were curvilinear relations of income and cumulative risk to profiles of low morning cortisol level and flattened diurnal slope across time, suggesting that both lower and higher levels of income and cumulative risk were associated with a stress-sensitive physiological system. Overall, this study provides initial evidence for the role of environmental risk in predicting lower, flattened basal cortisol patterns that remain stable over time. PMID:26040201

  3. Skin cancer risk perceptions: A comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income

    PubMed Central

    Buster, Kesha J.; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of non-cutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. Objective We evaluated skin cancer risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods Respondents with no prior history of skin cancer were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of skin cancer. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of skin cancer and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Results Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing skin cancer. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their skin cancer risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent skin cancer that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin exam. Limitations HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of skin cancer perceptions. Conclusion Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the skin cancer risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in skin cancer outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the skin cancer-related health disparities. PMID:21875760

  4. 42 CFR 435.622 - Individuals in institutions who are eligible under a special income level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for SSI or State supplements if they were not institutionalized, the agency must use income standards... eligibility for SSI or for an optional State supplement. (c) The agency must apply the income...

  5. Association of Obesity with Hypertension Amongst School-Age Children Belonging to Lower Income Group and Middle Income Group in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Sachdev, HPS; Dwivedi, S N; Lakshmi, R; Kapil, Umesh; Sareen, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24019604

  6. Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes among older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoki; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Relative deprivation of income is hypothesised to generate frustration and stress through upward social comparison with one's peers. If psychosocial stress is the mechanism, relative deprivation should be more strongly associated with specific health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (compared with other health outcomes, eg, non-tobacco-related cancer). Methods We evaluated the association between relative income deprivation and mortality by leading causes, using a cohort of 21 031 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. A baseline mail-in survey was conducted in 2003. Information on cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Our relative deprivation measure was the Yitzhaki Index, derived from the aggregate income shortfall for each person, relative to individuals with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Reference groups were defined according to gender, age group and same municipality of residence. Results We identified 1682 deaths during the 4.5 years of follow-up. A Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic, health and socioeconomic factors including income, the HR for death from cardiovascular diseases per SD increase in relative deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.08) in men, whereas HRs for mortality by cancer and other diseases were close to the null value. Additional adjustment for depressive symptoms and health behaviours (eg, smoking and preventive care utilisation) attenuated the excess risks for mortality from cardiovascular disease by 9%. Relative deprivation was not associated with mortality for women. Conclusions The results partially support our hypothesised mechanism: relative deprivation increases health risks via psychosocial stress among men. PMID:25700534

  7. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children. PMID:26844162

  8. The Quality of Life of Hong Kong's Poor Households in the 1990s: Levels of Expenditure, Income Security and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hung

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in the quality of life of poor households in Hong Kong in the late 1990s by analyzing their levels of expenditure, income security and poverty before and after 1997. Though there have been significant increases in the levels of expenditure among CSSA recipients, the expenditure among these poorest households in Hong…

  9. Association of Work Attitudes and Mental Health with Level or Type of Income Support Received by Unemployed People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernice, R.

    1998-01-01

    This New Zealand study investigated employment attitudes and their relationship to mental health of 137 long-term unemployed people with disabilities. Results suggested that level of income support was not related to employment attitudes. People receiving the invalid's benefit had high levels of work commitment in contrast to those receiving…

  10. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools…

  11. Economic Growth, Rural Educational Investment and the Level and Distribution of Rural Incomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badiani, Reena Chandu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…

  12. Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter and Age at First Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in a Low-Income Urban Community in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Emily S.; Salje, Henrik; Homaira, Nusrat; Ram, Pavani K.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J.; Luby, Stephen P.; Breysse, Patrick; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's age at first ALRI and indoor exposure to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through age 2 years to record their age at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative age at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m3. Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m3 was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in age at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 could increase the ages at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community. PMID:24607596

  13. Mortality under age 50 accounts for much of the fact that US life expectancy lags that of other high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica Y

    2013-03-01

    Life expectancy at birth in the United States is among the lowest of all high-income countries. Most recent studies have concentrated on older ages, finding that Americans have a lower life expectancy at age fifty and experience higher levels of disease and disability than do their counterparts in other industrialized nations. Using cross-national mortality data to identify the key age groups and causes of death responsible for these shortfalls, I found that mortality differences below age fifty account for two-thirds of the gap in life expectancy at birth between American males and their counterparts in sixteen comparison countries. Among females, the figure is two-fifths. The major causes of death responsible for the below-fifty trends are unintentional injuries, including drug overdose--a fact that constitutes the most striking finding from this study; noncommunicable diseases; perinatal conditions, such as pregnancy complications and birth trauma; and homicide. In all, this study highlights the importance of focusing on younger ages and on policies both to prevent the major causes of death below age fifty and to reduce social inequalities. PMID:23459724

  14. Developmental Screening Tools: Feasibility of Use at Primary Healthcare Level in Low- and Middle-income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jodi; Martines, José

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An estimated 150 million children have a disability. Early identification of developmental disabilities is a high priority for the World Health Organization to allow action to reduce impairments through Gap Action Program on mental health. The study identified the feasibility of using the developmental screening and monitoring tools for children aged 0-3 year(s) by non-specialist primary healthcare providers in low-resource settings. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the tools, assess their psychometric properties, and feasibility of use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Key indicators to examine feasibility in LMICs were derived from a consultation with 23 international experts. We identified 426 studies from which 14 tools used in LMICs were extracted for further examination. Three tools reported adequate psychometric properties and met most of the feasibility criteria. Three tools appear promising for use in identifying and monitoring young children with disabilities at primary healthcare level in LMICs. Further research and development are needed to optimize these tools. PMID:25076668

  15. Persistent food insecurity is associated with higher levels of cost-related medication nonadherence in low-income older adults.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Elisabeth Lilian Pia; Lee, Jung Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between changes in food insecurity (FI) and cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) among Older Americans Act Nutrition Program participants and wait-listed individuals in Georgia. This study used data collected from 3 waves of self-administered mail surveys conducted 4 months apart in 2008 and 2009 (n = 664, mean age 74.6 ± 8.9 years, 71.5% female, 31.0% African American). FI was assessed by using a validated 6-item U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Practice of 5 CRN behaviors was evaluated. Changes in FI and CRN were determined based on ≥ 2 repeated measures. Participants with persistent FI and CRN were more likely to be younger, low-income, and in poorer health. After controlling for potential confounders, persistently food insecure individuals and those who became food insecure showed 8.2 (95% CI: 5.4-12.5) times and 5.3 (95% CI: 3.2-8.8) times increased odds of reporting higher levels of CRN than persistently food secure individuals. PMID:23451845

  16. Supplemental Security Income: determining disability for a child under age 18. Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2000-09-11

    On February 11, 1997, we published interim final rules with a request for comments to implement the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) childhood disability provisions of sections 211 and 212 of Public Law (Pub. L.) 104-193, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. We are now publishing revised final rules in response to public comments. We are also conforming our rules to amendments to Public Law 104-193 made by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Public Law 105-33. Finally, we are simplifying and clarifying some rules in keeping with the President's goal of using plain language in regulations. PMID:11503639

  17. 76 FR 14417 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles III, VII and VIII of the Public Health Service... nursing training for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. These various programs are included in... professions and nursing grant and cooperative agreement programs that use the low-income levels to...

  18. 77 FR 22790 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles III, VII and VIII of the Public Health Service... nursing training for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. These various programs are included in... professions and nursing grant and cooperative agreement programs that use the low-income levels to...

  19. 42 CFR 435.236 - Individuals in institutions who are eligible under a special income level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under § 435.211 to individuals in institutions who would be eligible for AFDC, SSI, or State supplements... institutions who— (1) Because of their income, would not be eligible for SSI or State supplements if they...

  20. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  1. Older Adults' Level of Knowledge about Old Age Using the Facts of Aging Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Arleen J.

    The Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) has been used in different studies to assess the level of knowledge about old age. It contains 25 factual statements concerning basic physical, mental, and social facts and the most common misconceptions about aging. One purpose of this study was to identify the most frequent misconceptions in a group of older adults…

  2. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1) prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2) use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3) be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1) being nagged by children’s food requests, 2) being undermined by other

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  4. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administration in Pediatric Older Age Groups in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kimberly; Welch, Emily; Elder, Kate; Cohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is included in the World Health Organization’s routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries. Methods An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes. Results Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2ug/ml and 0.35ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality. Discussion PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older

  5. Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Brian; King, Lawrence; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2010-07-01

    Despite findings indicating that both national income level and income inequality are each determinants of public health, few have studied how national income level, poverty and inequality interact with each other to influence public health outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in purchasing power parity, extreme poverty rates, the gini coefficient for personal income and three common measures of public health: life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates. Introducing poverty and inequality as modifying factors, we then assessed whether the relationship between GDP and health differed during times of increasing, decreasing, and decreasing or constant poverty and inequality. Data were taken from twenty-two Latin American countries from 1960 to 2007 from the December 2008 World Bank World Development Indicators, World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Database 2008, and the Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Consistent with previous studies, we found increases in GDP have a sizable positive impact on population health. However, the strength of the relationship is powerfully influenced by changing levels of poverty and inequality. When poverty was increasing, greater GDP had no significant effect on life expectancy or TB mortality, and only led to a small reduction in infant mortality rates. When inequality was rising, greater GDP had only a modest effect on life expectancy and infant mortality rates, and no effect on TB mortality rates. In sharp contrast, during times of decreasing or constant poverty and inequality, there was a very strong relationship between increasing GDP and higher life expectancy and lower TB and infant mortality rates. Finally, inequality and poverty were found to exert independent, substantial effects on the relationship between national income level and health. Wealthier is indeed healthier, but how much healthier depends on how

  6. Household Income, Maternal Acculturation, Maternal Education Level and Health Behaviors of Chinese-American Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine factors associated with health behaviors, including physical activity and dietary intake, of Chinese women who have immigrated to the United States and their children. Participants Using convenience sampling, a total of 65 Chinese-American children and their mothers in the San Francisco Bay Area participated in the study. Measures Information related to children’s weight, height, level of physical activity (Caltrac accelerometer), and dietary intake (Kids’ food frequency questionnaire) was collected using standardized instruments. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding household income, their levels of education and acculturation (Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale), dietary intake (SWAN Food Frequency Questionnaire), and level of physical activity (Seven-day physical activity recall). Results 36.9% (n = 24) of the children were overweight (body mass index higher than the 85th percentile). A high household income was related to low maternal body mass index (R2 = .08, P= .04), high maternal fat intake (R2 = .21, P = .0001), and high maternal intake of sweets (R2 = .08, P = .033), and a high level of maternal acculturation was related to low body mass index in children (R2 = .07, P = .034). Conclusions The results suggest that an intervention aimed at reducing obesity and promoting health behaviors must be appropriate for different ethnic groups with various incomes and levels of acculturation. PMID:18306042

  7. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  8. Income and heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Design Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Setting Saskatchewan. Participants A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Main outcome measures Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. Results The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Conclusion Household

  9. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the “agin...

  10. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  11. Lung cancer treatment is influenced by income, education, age and place of residence in a country with universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Yngvar; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Fjellbirkeland, Lars; Bartnes, Kristian; Brustugun, Odd Terje; O'Connell, Dianne L; Yu, Xue Qin; Møller, Bjørn

    2016-03-15

    Selection of lung cancer treatment should be based on tumour characteristics, physiological reserves and preferences of the patient. Our aims were to identify and quantify other factors associated with treatment received. Lung cancer patient data from 2002 to 2011 were obtained from the national population-based Cancer Registry of Norway, Statistics Norway and the Norwegian Patient Register. Multivariable logistic regression examined whether year of diagnosis, age, sex, education, income, health trust, smoking status, extent of disease, histology and comorbidities were associated with choice of treatment; surgery or radical or palliative radiotherapy, within 1 year of diagnosis. Among the 24,324 lung cancer patients identified, the resection rate remained constant while the proportion of radical radiotherapy administered increased from 8.6 to 14.1%. Older patients, those with lower household incomes and certain health trusts were less likely to receive any treatment. Lower education and the male gender were identified as negative predictors for receiving surgery. Smoking history was positively associated with both radical and palliative radiotherapy, while comorbidity and symptoms were independently associated with receiving surgery and palliative radiotherapy. Although Norway is a highly egalitarian country with a free, universal healthcare system, this study indicates that surgery and radical and palliative radiotherapy were under-used among the elderly, those with a lower socioeconomic status and those living in certain health trusts. PMID:26421593

  12. 42 CFR 435.622 - Individuals in institutions who are eligible under a special income level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Financial... use income standards based on the greater need for financial assistance that the individuals...

  13. 42 CFR 435.622 - Individuals in institutions who are eligible under a special income level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Financial... use income standards based on the greater need for financial assistance that the individuals...

  14. 42 CFR 435.622 - Individuals in institutions who are eligible under a special income level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Financial... use income standards based on the greater need for financial assistance that the individuals...

  15. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. PMID:26845616

  16. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. Methods The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Results Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. Conclusions The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China. PMID:26938866

  17. State-level variations in income-related inequality in health and health achievement in the US.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke Tom

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state-level variations in income-related inequality in health and overall health achievement in the US. Data that were representative of the US and each state in 2001 were extracted from the Current Population Survey 2001. Income-related inequality in health and health achievement were measured by Health Concentration and Health Achievement Indices, respectively. Significant variations were found across states in income-related inequality in health and health achievement. In particular, states in the south and east regions, on average, experienced a higher degree of health inequality and lower health achievement. About 80% of the state-level variation in health achievement could be explained by demographics, economic structure and performance, and state and local government spending and burden. In contrast, medical care resource indicators were not found to contribute to health achievement in states. States with better health achievement were more urbanized, had lower proportions of minority groups, females and the elderly, fewer individuals below the poverty line, larger primary industry, and lower unemployment rates. Also, per capita state and local government spending, particularly the proportion spent on public health, was positively associated with better health achievement. Because of the direct implications of health level and distribution in resource allocation and social norms, states with a lower level of health achievement need to prioritize efforts in increasing and reallocating resources to diminish health inequality and to improve population health. PMID:16500008

  18. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  19. Social–Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents’ Restriction of Screen Time Among Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Parents’ rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social–cognitive predictors of parents’ restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2–6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use. PMID:23239766

  20. Minimum income protection and European integration: trends and levels of minimum benefits in comparative perspective, 1990-2005.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This article draws attention to the Europeanization of social policy and the development of minimum income protection in a large number of welfare democracies. The empirical analyses are based on unique institutional and comparative data on benefit levels from the Social Assistance and Minimum Income Protection Interim Dataset. There is some evidence of convergence in benefit levels among the European countries in the new millennium, but there is no clear proof of universal ambitions to fight poverty or of the existence of a single European social model. There are still welfare front-runners and those who lag behind in this regard, not only among industrial welfare democracies in general but also in Europe. PMID:18341125

  1. The Impact of Wind Development on County-Level Income and Employment: A Review of Methods and an Empirical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Lantz

    2012-09-21

    To gain an understanding of the long-term county-level impacts from a large sample of wind power projects and to understand the potential significance of methodological criticisms, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently joined efforts to complete a first-of-its-kind study that quantifies the annual impact on county-level personal income resulting from wind power installations in nearly 130 counties across 12 states. The results of this study as well as a comparison with the prior county-level estimates generated from input-output models, are summarized in the fact sheet.

  2. 24 CFR 81.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 81... prospective tenants). In determining whether a dwelling unit is affordable to very-low-, low-, or moderate... prospective tenants is available, income not in excess of the following percentages of area median...

  3. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes.Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years.Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  4. Increased kinin levels and decreased responsiveness to kinins during aging.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Viviana; Velarde, Victoria; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Gómez, Christian; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2005-08-01

    Kinins are vasoactive peptides released from precursors called kininogens, and serum levels of both T- and K-kininogens increase dramatically as rats age. Kinin release is tightly regulated, and here we show that serum kinin levels also increase with age, from 63 +/- 16 nmol/L in young Fisher 344 rats to 398 +/- 102 nmol/L in old animals. Both K- and T-kininogens contribute sequentially to this increase, with the increase in middle-aged animals being driven primarily by K-kininogen, whereas the further augmentation in older rats occurs by increasing T-kininogen. By measuring ERK activation, we show that aorta endothelial cells from old animals are hyporesponsive to exogenous bradykinin. However, if serum kinin levels are experimentally decreased by lipopolysaccharide treatment, then the endothelial response to bradykinin is re-established. These results indicate that serum levels of kinins increase with age, whereas the responsiveness of target cells to kinins is reduced in these same animals. PMID:16127100

  5. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  6. Medical school tuition fees reach record levels as MD incomes shrink.

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, S

    1996-01-01

    At half the country's 16 faculties of medicine, 1996-97 tuition fees are a minimum 16% higher than last year, and more large increases loom on the horizon. Administrators increasingly support the idea that medical students and those in other professional degree programs should assume a greater proportion of the cost of their education because their future earning potential is higher than it is for graduates with other degrees. However, medical students say they are being saddled with huge debt loads. These debts may be harder to repay, because they are rising at the same time physicians' incomes are either stagnant or being cut. PMID:8837550

  7. Benzonidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulffer, Romina Fernanda; Castro, José Alberto; Fanelli, Silvia Laura

    2011-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz) exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg). We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals. PMID:21655830

  8. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  9. A framework for evaluating safety-net and other community-level factors on access for low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Pamela L; Andersen, Ronald M; Wyn, Roberta; Brown, E Richard

    2004-01-01

    The framework presented in this article extends the Andersen behavioral model of health services utilization research to examine the effects of contextual determinants of access. A conceptual framework is suggested for selecting and constructing contextual (or community-level) variables representing the social, economic, structural, and public policy environment that influence low-income people's use of medical care. Contextual variables capture the characteristics of the population that disproportionately relies on the health care safety net, the public policy support for low-income and safety-net populations, and the structure of the health care market and safety-net services within that market. Until recently, the literature in this area has been largely qualitative and descriptive and few multivariate studies comprehensively investigated the contextual determinants of access. The comprehensive and systematic approach suggested by the framework will enable researchers to strengthen the external validity of results by accounting for the influence of a consistent set of contextual factors across locations and populations. A subsequent article in this issue of Inquiry applies the framework to examine access to ambulatory care for low-income adults, both insured and uninsured. PMID:15224958

  10. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (p<.04); for each 1-SDU increase in sAA slope across the day, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.12 (SE 0.05) SDU's (p<.03); and for each 1-SDU decrease in sAA AUCI during the stress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (p<.03). Blunted stress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. PMID:25588701

  11. "I Wish Kids Didn't Watch So Much TV": Out-of-School Time in Three Low Income Communities. School-Age Child Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beth M.; And Others

    Research suggests that how children spend their out-of-school hours can significantly affect their social development and school success. The Out-of-School Time Study, conducted by the School-Age Child Care Project at the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women, investigated how young low-income children in three urban communities spent…

  12. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population, making Chile an intriguing case study for examining the impact of these societal-level trends on the aging experience. This paper highlights essential characteristics of this country for understanding its emerging aging society. It reveals that there is a fundamental lack of adequate and depthful epidemiologic and country-specific research from which to fully understand the aging experience and guide new policies in support of health and well-being. PMID:22534464

  13. Aging behavior of polymeric solar absorber materials: Aging on the component level

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlen, S.; Wallner, G.M.; Lang, R.W.; Meir, M.; Rekstad, J.

    2010-03-15

    Within this study, the aging behavior of a PPE + PS absorber material was investigated on the absorber component level. To indicate aging, characteristic mechanical values were determined by indentation tests of specimens taken from components and exposed to laboratory aging (140 C in air, 80 C in water) and service near outdoor aging conditions (stagnation in northern climate). In addition to the mechanical tests, the unaged and aged specimens were also characterized thermo-analytically via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that reductions in both characteristic mechanical values of the indentation tests, i.e., load of the first transition and ultimate indentation, reflect at least some physical aging although chemical aging may also be of importance based on previous analytical investigations of laboratory aged polymer films. While laboratory aging in air at 140 C and service exposure at a test facility in Oslo (N) under stagnation conditions led to a significant reduction in the mechanical indentation resistance, no influence of laboratory aging in water at 80 C on the mechanical behavior of the absorber sheet was found. Depending on the ultimate failure criterion applied (reduction of characteristic mechanical values to 80% and 50%, respectively), the technical service life found for hot air laboratory and stagnation service conditions was found to be less than 51 and 159 h, respectively. As these durations are significantly below the estimated stagnation conditions accumulated in the desired operation lifetime for such a collector, the PPE + PS type investigated does not seem to be a proper material candidate for solar thermal absorbers. Finally, based on the results obtained, a relation between laboratory aging time in air at 140 C and cumulated irradiation energy during exposure on the test facility in Oslo was established. (author)

  14. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: impact on parenting and child conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-02-01

    Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412

  15. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: Impact on parenting and child conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior and health by strengthening parenting, early childhood classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a “pre-kindergarten education as usual” control condition. Intervention included a family program (13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88%) of the pre-kindergarten population (N=1050; age 4) enrolled in the trial and nearly 60% of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on knowledge, positive behavior support and teacher-rated parent involvement in early learning. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23% of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412

  16. Evidence Acquisition and Evaluation for Evidence Summit on Population-Level Behavior Change to Enhance Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Balster, Robert L.; Levy, Stephanie; Stammer, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for evidence to inform public health officials and health care workers in the U.S. government and low- and middle-income country governments on efficient, effective behavior change policies, strategies, and programs for child health and development, the U.S. government convened the Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. This article summarizes the background and methods for the acquisition and evaluation of the evidence used to the achieve the goals of the summit that is reviewed in other articles in this special issue of the Journal of Health Communication. The process began by identifying focal questions intended to inform the U.S. and low- and middle-income governments about behavior change interventions that accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize healthy and protective child development to 5 years of age. Experts were selected representing the research and program communities, academia, relevant nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies and assembled into evidence review teams. This was followed by the systematic gathering of relevant peer-reviewed literature that would inform the focal questions. Members of the evidence review teams were invited to add relevant articles not identified in the initial literature review to complete the bibliographies. Details of the search processes and methods used for screening and quality reviews are described. The evidence review teams were asked to comply with a specific evaluation framework for recommendations on practice and policy on the basis of both expert opinion and the quality of the data reviewed. PMID:25207446

  17. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects. PMID:25317118

  18. Ageing and dementia in low and middle income countries - Using research to engage with public and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, Ks; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata; Uwakwe, Richard; Van Der Poel, Rikus; Williams, Joseph; Wortmann, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract While two thirds of the 24 million people with dementia worldwide live in low and middle income countries, very little research has been conducted to support policy making in these regions. Among the non-communicable diseases, dementia (in common with other chronic NCDs linked more to long-term disability than to mortality) has been relatively under-prioritized. International agreements, plans and policy guidelines have called for an end to ageist discrimination and a focus upon reducing disadvantage arising from poverty and the consequences of ill health. Social protection, access to good quality age-appropriate healthcare and addressing the problem of disability are all key issues. However, as yet, little progress has been made in addressing these concerns. In this review we outline the current international policy agenda for older individuals, and its specific relevance to those with dementia and other disabling non-communicable diseases. We consider the potential for epidemiological research to raise awareness, refine the policy agenda, and promote action, using the example of the dissemination strategy developed by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. PMID:18925482

  19. Age dependent levels of plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Aruna; Ilango, K; Singh, Praveen K; Karmakar, Dipankar; Singh, G P I; Kumari, Rinki; Dubey, G P

    2015-04-15

    Elevated plasma homocysteine (hcy) levels, also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (hhcy), have been associated with cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. Hhcy has been attributed to deficiency of B vitamins which can adversely affect the brain and result in memory loss and poor attention power. Monitoring hcy levels and the use of vitamin supplementation to treat hhcy may therefore prove advantageous for the prevention and management of cognitive impairment. With this in consideration, we measured plasma hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in 639 subjects from different age groups in two sub-regions of India. Cognitive function was also measured using attention span and immediate and delayed memory recall tests. Depression scores were obtained using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and functional impairment was assessed using the functional activities questionnaire (FAQ) score. As hhcy has also been linked to inflammation, plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were also measured. The results demonstrated significant negative correlations between hcy levels and folic acid levels, vitamin B12 levels and cognitive performance (attention span and delayed but not immediate memory recall) along with significant positive correlations between hcy levels and depression scores and hsCRP (but not IL-6) levels. A positive correlation was also observed between hcy levels and FAQ scores, however this was not found to be significant. Based on these results, folic acid and vitamin B12 intervention in people with elevated hcy levels in India could prove to be effective in lowering hcy levels and help maintain or improve cognitive function. PMID:25601573

  20. Federal Income Tax Cuts and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammartino, Frank J.

    This report identifies overall tax burdens faced by low income families, explaining how those burdens would change if certain types of federal income tax cuts were enacted. Using detailed household-level data on incomes and taxes, the report shows how federal income and payroll taxes differ for low income families and how these families benefit…

  1. Parenting Behaviours among Low-Income Mothers of Preschool Age Children in the USA: Implications for Parenting Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall quality of parenting behaviours among low-income mothers in the USA and the extent to which they are influenced by risk factors within the family environment, maternal well-being and maternal risk characteristics associated with socio-economic status. Participants consisted of 1070 low-income mothers of…

  2. Assessing the Feasibility of a Web-Based Weight Loss Intervention for Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sisneros, Jessica A; Ronay, Ashley A; Robbins, Cheryl L; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ni, Ai; Morrow, John; Vu, Maihan B; Johnston, Larry F; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-income women of reproductive age are at increased risk for obesity and resulting increases in the risk of maternal/fetal complications and mortality and morbidity. Very few weight-loss interventions, however, have been targeted to this high-risk group. Based on the high prevalence of social media use among young and low-income individuals and previous successes using group formats for weight-loss interventions, the use of social media as a platform for weight-loss intervention delivery may benefit low-income women of reproductive age. Objective Examine the feasibility of delivering group-based weight-loss interventions to low-income women of reproductive age using face-to-face meetings and Web-based modalities including social media. Methods Participants attended a family planning clinic in eastern North Carolina and received a 5-month, group- and Web-based, face-to-face weight-loss intervention. Measures were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks. Results Forty participants enrolled, including 29 (73%) African American women. The mean body mass index of enrollees was 39 kg/m2. Among the 12 women who completed follow-up, mean weight change was -1.3 kg. Participation in the intervention was modest and retention at 5 months was 30%. Returnees suggested sending reminders to improve participation and adding activities to increase familiarity among participants. Conclusions Engagement with the intervention was limited and attrition was high. Additional formative work on the barriers and facilitators to participation may improve the intervention’s feasibility with low-income women of reproductive age. PMID:26920252

  3. Assessment of universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in six middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Frenz, Patricia; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Keil, Thomas; Tinnemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Methods We obtained data on 16 631 participants aged 50 years or older who had at least one diagnosed chronic condition from the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Access to basic chronic care and financial hardship were assessed and the influence of health insurance and rural or urban residence was determined by logistic regression analysis. Findings The weighted proportion of participants with access to basic chronic care ranged from 20.6% in Mexico to 47.6% in South Africa. Access rates were unequally distributed and disadvantaged poor people, except in South Africa where primary health care is free to all. Rural residence did not affect access. The proportion with catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure for the last outpatient visit ranged from 14.5% in China to 54.8% in Ghana. Financial hardship was more common among the poor in most countries but affected all income groups. Health insurance generally increased access to care but gave insufficient protection against financial hardship. Conclusion No country provided access to basic chronic care for more than half of the participants with chronic illness. The poor were less likely to receive care and more likely to face financial hardship in most countries. However, inequity of access was not fully determined by the level of economic development or insurance coverage. Future health reforms should aim to improve service quality and increase democratic oversight of health care. PMID:27034521

  4. Factors modifying valproate plasma level/dose ratio: age, sex, dose and plasma level.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Durán, J A; Abadín, J A

    1989-09-01

    Valproate plasma level/dose (L/D) ratios obtained from 155 outpatients under long-term monotherapeutic regimen have been studied. Analytical data were obtained by enzymatic immunoassay (EMIT) from paired samples taken before the morning drug dosage. L/D ratios were increased with age and plasma level and decreased with dose. There were no sex differences in L/D in the different age, dose and concentration groups. L/D ratios were higher than those found by other researchers in our country. PMID:2511386

  5. Financial Factors and Institutional Characteristics That Explain Undergraduate Enrollment by Low-Income Students at Public Master's-Level Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborn, Lindsay Claire

    2011-01-01

    Low-income students continue to struggle with the rising costs of higher education. Four-year college tuition typically exceeds financial aid awarded to undergraduates at public institutions. St. John (2005) contended that grant amounts remain inadequate for low-income students. Tinto (2008) highlighted the growing income stratification within…

  6. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M C; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which observed associations between income inequality and mortality at population level are statistical artifacts. Design Indirect "what if" simulation using observed risks of mortality at individual level as a function of income to construct hypothetical state-level mortality specific for age and sex as if the statistical artifact argument were 100% correct. Method Data from the 1990 census for the 50 US states plus Washington, DC, were used for population distributions by age, sex, state, and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex, and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual-level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results Hypothetical mortality, although correlated with inequality (as implied by the logic of the statistical artifact argument), showed a weaker association with the level of income inequality in each state than the observed mortality. Conclusions The observed associations in the United States at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual-level relation between income and mortality. There remains an important association between income inequality and mortality at state level above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This result reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health. PMID:18751209

  7. Testosterone levels in an aging population: screen, measure, and restore.

    PubMed

    Kells, John; Dollbaum, Charles M

    2011-01-01

    An insufficient level of testosterone in aging men and women is associated with a constellation of adverse conditions (cognitive decline, loss of muscle mass, osteopenia, decreased libido, changes in fat distribution, fragility, depression, a greater risk of fracture). Research has confirmed that supplementary testosterone can ameliorate those signs and symptoms in hypogonadic individuals, but the benefits and risks of that therapy remain controversial. The treatment of such patients should be based on knowledge of the physiologic effects of testosterone in the elderly, effective screening for testosterone deficiency accurate measurement of bioavailable levels of that hormone, and safe and effective treatment options, all of which are examined in this article. In designing hormone replacement regimens, the skill of a compounding pharmacist who can customize dose and dosage forms to answer individual medical needs and preferences can be instrumental in achieving the desired outcome. PMID:23696079

  8. Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ≥1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ≥$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ≥1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

  9. Multi-level intervention to prevent influenza infections in older low income and minority adults.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Jean J; Radda, Kim; Coman, Emil; Vazquez, Elsie

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we describe a successful multi-level participatory intervention grounded in principles of individual and group empowerment, and guided by social construction theory. The intervention addressed known and persistent inequities in influenza vaccination among African American and Latino older adults, and associated infections, hospitalizations and mortality. It was designed to increase resident ability to make informed decisions about vaccination, and to build internal and external infrastructure to support sustainability over time. The intervention brought a group of social scientists, vaccine researchers, geriatricians, public health nurses, elder services providers and advocates together with senior housing management and activist African American and Latino residents living in public senior housing in a small east coast city. Two buildings of equal size and similar ethnic composition were randomized as intervention and control buildings. Pre and post intervention surveys were conducted in both buildings, measuring knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Processes and outcomes were documented at four levels: Influenza Strategic Alliance (macro and exo levels), building management (meso level), building resident committee (meso level) and individual residents. The Influenza Strategic Alliance (I.S.A.) provided ongoing resources, information and vaccine; the building management provided economic and other in-kind resources and supported residents to continue flu clinics in the building. The V.I.P. Resident Committee conducted flu campaigns with flu clinics in English and Spanish. The vaccination rate in the intervention building at post test exceeded the study goal of 70% and showed a significant improvement over the control building. The intervention achieved desired outcomes at all four levels and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccination, and improvements in pro-vaccination knowledge, beliefs, and understanding of health consequences

  10. Best Practices for Ethical Sharing of Individual-Level Health Research Data From Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Denny, Spencer; Jao, Irene; Marsh, Vicki; Merson, Laura; Shah More, Neena; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Osrin, David; Tangseefa, Decha; Wassenaar, Douglas; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sharing individual-level data from clinical and public health research is increasingly being seen as a core requirement for effective and efficient biomedical research. This article discusses the results of a systematic review and multisite qualitative study of key stakeholders’ perspectives on best practices in ethical data sharing in low- and middle-income settings. Our research suggests that for data sharing to be effective and sustainable, multiple social and ethical requirements need to be met. An effective model of data sharing will be one in which considered judgments will need to be made about how best to achieve scientific progress, minimize risks of harm, promote fairness and reciprocity, and build and sustain trust. PMID:26297751

  11. Best Practices for Ethical Sharing of Individual-Level Health Research Data From Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    PubMed

    Bull, Susan; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Denny, Spencer; Jao, Irene; Marsh, Vicki; Merson, Laura; Shah More, Neena; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Osrin, David; Tangseefa, Decha; Wassenaar, Douglas; Parker, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sharing individual-level data from clinical and public health research is increasingly being seen as a core requirement for effective and efficient biomedical research. This article discusses the results of a systematic review and multisite qualitative study of key stakeholders' perspectives on best practices in ethical data sharing in low- and middle-income settings. Our research suggests that for data sharing to be effective and sustainable, multiple social and ethical requirements need to be met. An effective model of data sharing will be one in which considered judgments will need to be made about how best to achieve scientific progress, minimize risks of harm, promote fairness and reciprocity, and build and sustain trust. PMID:26297751

  12. Perceived benefits and challenges for low-income mothers of having family meals with preschool-aged children: childhood memories matter.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Khushi; Herman, Allison N; Wright, Gretchen; Bruton, Yasmeen; Fisher, Jennifer O; Whitaker, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Eating regular family meals is associated with a lower risk of obesity among preschool-aged children. Children in lower-income households are at higher risk for obesity, but there is little information about their mothers' perceptions of family meals, and such information could improve nutrition counseling. To identify the perceived benefits and challenges of having family meals, four focus groups were conducted with 20 mothers of preschool-aged children living in low-income households in Philadelphia, PA. Three authors independently analyzed verbatim transcripts using an inductive method of open coding, and themes were established by consensus among all authors. Of the 20 mothers, 18 were black, 11 had education beyond high school, and 12 were living with an adult partner or husband. Mothers' strong childhood memories of mealtimes, both negative and positive, motivated them to have family meals because of the opportunities afforded by mealtimes to build strong relationships with their children. However, mothers also described needing help, especially from other household adults, in preparing meals and establishing calm and order with their children during mealtimes. To identify what motivates the mothers of low-income, preschool-aged children to have family meals, registered dietitians can benefit from asking about the mothers' own childhood experiences of family meals. Studies are needed to examine whether such an approach to identifying maternal motivations, when combined with practical advice about overcoming challenges with meal preparation and managing children's mealtime behavior, could lead to more frequent and nutritious family meals in this population. PMID:24144074

  13. Ice Age Sea Level Change on a Dynamic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Latychev, K.; Rovere, A.; Moucha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global mean sea level (GMSL) are a sensitive indicator of climate variability during the current ice age. Reconstructions are largely based on local sea level records, and the mapping to GMSL is computed from simulations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) on 1-D Earth models. We argue, using two case studies, that resolving important, outstanding issues in ice age paleoclimate requires a more sophisticated consideration of mantle structure and dynamics. First, we consider the coral record from Barbados, which is widely used to constrain global ice volume changes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21 ka). Analyses of the record using 1-D viscoelastic Earth models have estimated a GMSL change since LGM of ~120 m, a value at odds with analyses of other far field records, which range from 130-135 m. We revisit the Barbados case using a GIA model that includes laterally varying Earth structure (Austermann et al., Nature Geo., 2013) and demonstrate that neglecting this structure, in particular the high-viscosity slab in the mantle linked to the subduction of the South American plate, has biased (low) previous estimates of GMSL change since LGM by ~10 m. Our analysis brings the Barbados estimate into accord with studies from other far-field sites. Second, we revisit estimates of GMSL during the mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP, ~3 Ma), which was characterized by temperatures 2-3°C higher than present. The ice volume deficit during this period is a source of contention, with estimates ranging from 0-40 m GMSL equivalent. We argue that refining estimates of ice volume during MPWP requires a correction for mantle flow induced dynamic topography (DT; Rowley et al., Science, 2013), a signal neglected in previous studies of ice age sea level change. We present estimates of GIA- and DT-corrected elevations of MPWP shorelines from the U.S. east coast, Australia and South Africa in an attempt to reconcile these records with a single GMSL value.

  14. Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-09-01

    Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

  15. Low health-related quality of life in school-aged children in Tonga, a lower-middle income country in the South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Fotu, Kalesita; Tupoulahi-Fusimalohi, Caroline; Faeamani, Gavin; Moodie, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensuring a good life for all parts of the population, including children, is high on the public health agenda in most countries around the world. Information about children's perception of their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its socio-demographic distribution is, however, limited and almost exclusively reliant on data from Western higher income countries. Objectives To investigate HRQoL in schoolchildren in Tonga, a lower income South Pacific Island country, and to compare this to HRQoL of children in other countries, including Tongan children living in New Zealand, a high-income country in the same region. Design A cross-sectional study from Tonga addressing all secondary schoolchildren (11–18 years old) on the outer island of Vava'u and in three districts of the main island of Tongatapu (2,164 participants). A comparison group drawn from the literature comprised children in 18 higher income and one lower income country (Fiji). A specific New Zealand comparison group involved all children of Tongan descendent at six South Auckland secondary schools (830 participants). HRQoL was assessed by the self-report Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Results HRQoL in Tonga was overall similar in girls and boys, but somewhat lower in children below 15 years of age. The children in Tonga experienced lower HRQoL than the children in all of the 19 comparison countries, with a large difference between children in Tonga and the higher income countries (Cohen's d 1.0) and a small difference between Tonga and the lower income country Fiji (Cohen's d 0.3). The children in Tonga also experienced lower HRQoL than Tongan children living in New Zealand (Cohen's d 0.6). Conclusion The results reveal worrisome low HRQoL in children in Tonga and point towards a potential general pattern of low HRQoL in children living in lower income countries, or, alternatively, in the South Pacific Island countries. PMID:25150029

  16. Association of body mass index and waist circumference with hypertension among school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group and middle income group in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Sareen, Neha; Kaur, Supreet

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Materials and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using standard methodology. Results: The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.8% and 4.1% respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Statistical positive correlation was observed between BMI and WC with SBP and DBP. Thus, it can be inferred that children with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24251210

  17. Health and Aging Curriculum Grade Level: Preschool-Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    This curriculum on aging is designed to help promote positive attitudes toward age and aging among young children. It focuses on developing the concepts of: (1) aging is a natural and lifelong process of growing and developing; (2) old and young are similar in many ways; (3) older people are valuable and contributing members of society; (4) old…

  18. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and others

  19. 42 CFR 435.904 - Establishment of outstation locations to process applications for certain low-income eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Federal poverty level as specified under section 1902(a)(10)(A)(i)(IV) of the Act; (2) The group of children age 1 up to age 6 with incomes at 133 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified... September 30, 1983, with incomes up to 100 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified under...

  20. 42 CFR 435.904 - Establishment of outstation locations to process applications for certain low-income eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Federal poverty level as specified under section 1902(a)(10)(A)(i)(IV) of the Act; (2) The group of children age 1 up to age 6 with incomes at 133 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified... September 30, 1983, with incomes up to 100 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified under...

  1. 42 CFR 435.904 - Establishment of outstation locations to process applications for certain low-income eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Federal poverty level as specified under section 1902(a)(10)(A)(i)(IV) of the Act; (2) The group of children age 1 up to age 6 with incomes at 133 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified... September 30, 1983, with incomes up to 100 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified under...

  2. 42 CFR 435.904 - Establishment of outstation locations to process applications for certain low-income eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Federal poverty level as specified under section 1902(a)(10)(A)(i)(IV) of the Act; (2) The group of children age 1 up to age 6 with incomes at 133 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified... September 30, 1983, with incomes up to 100 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified under...

  3. 42 CFR 435.904 - Establishment of outstation locations to process applications for certain low-income eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Federal poverty level as specified under section 1902(a)(10)(A)(i)(IV) of the Act; (2) The group of children age 1 up to age 6 with incomes at 133 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified... September 30, 1983, with incomes up to 100 percent of the Federal poverty level as specified under...

  4. Income Dynamics and the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Data Source Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Study Design Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (<138 percent of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL], 138–250 percent FPL, 250–400 percent FPL, and >400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Data Collection/Extraction Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22–64 years. Principal Findings Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Conclusions Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. PMID:25327987

  5. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents' Restriction of Screen Time among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents ("N" =…

  6. Parent feeding strategy clusters are associated with the weight status of preschool-aged children in low-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To identify clusters of parents based on use of feeding strategies (FS) and evaluate their relationship with children's weight status. Methods: A study to investigate facilitators and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake among low-income preschoolers was performed with 761 parent/child dy...

  7. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women’s Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women’s health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income—contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks—religion and clubs—among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and

  8. 24 CFR 81.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 81.18 Section 81.18 Housing and Urban... (actual or prospective tenants). In determining whether a rental unit is affordable to very-low, low-, or..., and affordability determined as follows: (a) For moderate-income, the income of prospective...

  9. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20–5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42–1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8–588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding Wellcome Trust

  10. Association of hypometabolism and amyloid levels in aging, normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Weigand, Stephen D.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jordan, Lennon; Kantarci, Kejal; Boeve, Bradley; Jack, Clifford R.; Knopman, David; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the relationship of amyloid, seen on Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, and metabolism, seen on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, in normal subjects to better understand pathogenesis and biomarker selection in presymptomatic subjects. Methods: Normal participants (aged 70–95 years; 600 with PiB-PET, FDG-PET, and MRI) were included. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation and subcategorized participants into amyloid-negative (<1.4), high-normal (1.4–1.5), positive (1.5–2.0), and markedly positive (>2.0) PiB standardized uptake value ratio groups representing different levels of amyloid brain load. Associations with metabolism were assessed in each group. Relationships with APOE ε4 carriage were evaluated. Results: Hypometabolism in “Alzheimer disease (AD)-signature” regions was strongly associated with PiB load. Hypometabolism was greater with more positive PiB levels. Additional, more-diffuse cortical hypometabolism was also found to be associated with PiB, although less so. No hypermetabolism was seen in any subset. No significant incremental hypometabolism was seen in APOE-positive vs -negative subjects. Conclusions: Hypometabolism in PiB-positive, cognitively normal subjects in a population-based cohort occurs in AD-signature cortical regions and to a lesser extent in other cortical regions. It is more pronounced with higher amyloid load and supports a dose-dependent association. The effect of APOE ε4 carriage in this group of subjects does not appear to modify their hypometabolic “AD-like” neurodegeneration. Consideration of hypometabolism associated with amyloid load may aid trials of AD drug therapy. PMID:24793183

  11. Stress and Mental Health in Families With Different Income Levels: A Strategy to Collect Multi-Actor Data

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have focused on family stress processes, examining the association between various sources of stress and the mental health and well-being of parents and adolescents. The majority of these studies take the individual as the unit of analysis. Multi-actor panel data make it possible to examine the dynamics of the family context over time and the differentiating effects of individual roles within the same family. Accurate information about family processes allows practitioners to provide support that enhances family resilience and minimizes the risk of mental health problems. Objective Our study contributes to the research on family stress processes by focusing on families with different income levels, and by collecting panel data from mothers, fathers, and adolescents within the same family. Methods The relationship between mothers, fathers, and children (RMFC) study is an ongoing Flemish multi-actor panel study that aims to enhance our understanding of family processes that protect the mental health and well-being of two-parent families with a target adolescent between 11 and 17 years old. Mothers, fathers, and children provide information about various aspects of family life, including finances, sources of stress, health, mental health, parenting, and coping strategies. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings and robust psychometric properties. The study posed two challenges. First, economically disadvantaged families are difficult to reach. Second, the collection of multi-actor data is often plagued by high nonresponse. To ensure that the families were targeted as successfully as possible, the study employed a purposive nonprobability sampling method. Results The RMFC study is one of the largest triadic panel studies of its kind. The first wave of quantitative data collection was conducted between February 2012 and January 2013. A total of 2566 individuals of 880 families participated in our

  12. Low Income Families’ Utilization of the Federal “Safety Net”: Individual and State-Level Predictors of TANF and Food Stamp Receipt

    PubMed Central

    Purtell, Kelly M.; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Two of the primary programs through which the federal government provides benefits to low income families are the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and the Food Stamp program. However, many eligible low income families do not actually receive these benefits. We combined state-level policy data with rich data on a national sample of low income families to investigate family and state-level predictors of TANF and Food Stamp receipt. Our findings indicate: 1) families experiencing more economic hardship and health challenges are more likely to receive benefits, and 2) states’ coverage is associated with families’ receipt of TANF, but not Food Stamps. Implications for policy and research are discussed. PMID:22711951

  13. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. Methods In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)—a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. Findings We obtained data for 22 188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19 403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (≤19 years) and older (≥35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02–1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03–1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25–1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18–1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20–24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained

  14. Income Testing and Social Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadka, Efraim; And Others

    The Federal government can meet its responsibility to ensure a certain minimum level of living for its citizens in two ways. An income-tested approach provides minimum standards of income, goods, and/or services for only the poor. A non-income-tested approach provides minimum standards for all citizens, regardless of income. This paper reports on…

  15. Disparities in built and natural features of urban parks: comparisons by neighborhood level race/ethnicity and income.

    PubMed

    Bruton, Candice M; Floyd, Myron F

    2014-10-01

    Known associations between the built environment and health outcomes have accelerated research examining racial/ethnic and income disparities in access to parks and other community features that support physical activity. Currently, it cannot be concluded that park characteristics are equal in quantity or condition across areas of disparate race/ethnicity and income composition. This study examined natural and built park characteristics across areas of different race/ethnicity and income composition to identify potential disparities. Twenty-one parks in Greensboro, NC (USA), located in minority or non-minority areas and in low or medium-high income areas were inventoried using a park audit tool and GIS. Parks were compared on number of activity areas, features, amenities, size, percent tree canopy, cleanliness, and condition. Independent sample t tests and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare means of outcome variables. Fisher's exact tests were applied for categorical variables. Fewer wooded areas and more trash cans were found in low-income and minority areas as compared to medium-high income and non-minority areas. Low-income areas were found to have more picnic areas than their counterparts. Sitting and resting features in non-minority areas were found to be cleaner than those in minority areas. Results showed some evidence of disparities in park characteristics. Findings can inform park policy and design as well as renovations and maintenance procedures, particularly in specific areas where existing disparities were identified. PMID:25078037

  16. Explaining the Growth in US Health Care Spending Using State-Level Variation in Income, Insurance, and Provider Market Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Herring, Bradley; Trish, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The slowed growth in national health care spending over the past decade has led analysts to question the extent to which this recent slowdown can be explained by predictable factors such as the Great Recession or must be driven by some unpredictable structural change in the health care sector. To help address this question, we first estimate a regression model for state personal health care spending for 1991-2009, with an emphasis on the explanatory power of income, insurance, and provider market characteristics. We then use the results from this simple predictive model to produce state-level projections of health care spending for 2010-2013 to subsequently compare those average projected state values with actual national spending for 2010-2013, finding that at least 70% of the recent slowdown in health care spending can likely be explained by long-standing patterns. We also use the results from this predictive model to both examine the Great Recession's likely reduction in health care spending and project the Affordable Care Act's insurance expansion's likely increase in health care spending. PMID:26655685

  17. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  18. A comparison of age level on baseball hitting kinematics.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; DeRenne, Coop; Taylor, Marcus K; Moorman, Claude T; Imamura, Rodney; Barakatt, Edward; Andrews, James R

    2009-08-01

    We propose that learning proper hitting kinematics should be encouraged at a young age during youth baseball because this may help reinforce proper hitting kinematics as a player progresses to higher levels of baseball in their adult years. To enhance our understanding between youth and adult baseball hitting, kinematic and temporal analyses of baseball hitting were evaluated with a high-speed motion analysis system between 12 skilled youth and 12 skilled adult baseball players. There were only a small number of temporal differences between youth and adult hitters, with adult hitters taking significantly greater time than youth hitters during the stride phase and during the swing. Compared with youth hitters, adult hitters a) had significantly greater (p < .01) lead knee flexion when the hands started to move forward; b) flexed the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the transition phase (31 degrees versus 13 degrees); c) extended the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the bat acceleration phase (59 degrees versus 32 degrees); d) maintained a more open pelvis position at lead foot off ground; and e) maintained a more open upper torso position when the hands started to move forward and a more closed upper torso position at bat-ball contact. Moreover, adult hitters had greater peak upper torso angular velocity (857 degrees/s versus 717 degrees/s), peak left elbow extension angular velocity (752 degrees/s versus 598 degrees/s), peak left knee extension angular velocity (386 degrees/s versus 303 degrees/s), and bat linear velocity at bat-ball contact (30 m/s versus 25 m/s). The numerous differences in kinematic and temporal parameters between youth and adult hitters suggest that hitting mechanics are different between these two groups. PMID:19827470

  19. Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance and Supplemental Security Income for the aged, blind, and disabled; substantial gainful activity amounts; "services" for trial work period purposes--monthly amounts; student child earned income exclusion. Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2000-12-29

    We are revising the rules to automatically adjust each year, based on any increases in the national average wage index, the average monthly earnings guideline we use to determine whether work done by persons with impairments other than blindness is substantial gainful activity; provide that we will ordinarily find that an employee whose average monthly earnings are not greater than the "primary substantial gainful activity amount," has not engaged in substantial gainful activity without considering other information beyond the employee's earnings; increase the minimum amount of monthly earnings and the minimum number of self-employed work hours in month that we consider shows that a person receiving title II Social Security benefits based on disability is performing or has performed "services" during a trial work period, and automatically adjust the earnings amount each year thereafter; increase the maximum monthly and yearly Student Earned Income Exclusion amounts we use in determining Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program eligibility and payment amounts for student children, and automatically adjust the monthly and yearly exclusion amounts each year thereafter. We are revising these rules as part of our efforts to encourage individuals with disabilities to test their ability to work and keep working. We expect that these changes will provide greater incentives for many beneficiaries to attempt to work or, if already working, to continue to work or increase their work effort. PMID:11503739

  20. Comparisons of levels and predictors of mothers’ and fathers’ engagement with their preschool aged children

    PubMed Central

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers’ and fathers’ engagement with their preschool aged children: socialization, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialization, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved than mothers in physical play. Mothers’ greatest engagement was in caregiving, whereas fathers were about equally engaged in didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers who contributed more to family income were less engaged in socialization and caregiving, whereas fathers with nontraditional beliefs about their roles were more engaged in didactic and caregiving. Children with greater temperamental effortful control received more didactic and physical play engagement from mothers. Fathers were more likely to engage in socialization activities with earlier-born children, whereas mothers were more likely to engage in socialization with girls high in effortful control. Mothers were more likely to engage in physical play with boys and with later-born children. PMID:23645966

  1. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Credit for individuals under age 65 who have... by certain married taxpayers. If a married individual under age 65 at the close of the taxable year...) For individuals under 65. In the case of an individual who has not attained the age of 65 before...

  2. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit for individuals under age 65 who have... by certain married taxpayers. If a married individual under age 65 at the close of the taxable year...) For individuals under 65. In the case of an individual who has not attained the age of 65 before...

  3. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Credit for individuals under age 65 who have... by certain married taxpayers. If a married individual under age 65 at the close of the taxable year...) For individuals under 65. In the case of an individual who has not attained the age of 65 before...

  4. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit for individuals under age 65 who have... by certain married taxpayers. If a married individual under age 65 at the close of the taxable year...) For individuals under 65. In the case of an individual who has not attained the age of 65 before...

  5. A Study of the Relationship Between the Level of Nutritional Consumption and the Education, Income, and Family Size of Selected Poor Families in Atlanta, Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Flora Powell

    The stated objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the differences in knowledge of nutrition, of income, and of family size in the upper and lower strata families; (2) the shopping practices of families; (3) average weekly food expenditures; (4) mean educational level; and (5) differences in the mean weekly food expenditures -- a…

  6. An Analysis of the Impact of Parent Education Level and Family Income on the Academic Achievement of Students of Hispanic and White Ethnicities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the socioeconomic factors of parent education level and family income on the academic achievement of students of Hispanic and white ethnicities. Scaled scores from the 2009 administration of the California Standards Tests in English language arts and mathematics and matched demographic…

  7. Outcomes of a systems-level intervention offering breast cancer risk assessments to low-income underserved women.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Sharff, McKane E; DeMarco, Tiffani A; Williams, Bernice; Beck, Beth; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Peshkin, Beth N; Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk assessments (CRAs) are underutilized by low-income and racial/ethnic minority women, potentially exacerbating cancer-related disparities observed within these populations. We deployed and evaluated a systems-level intervention designed to identify patients potentially at-risk for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, refer them for CRAs, and facilitate CRA utilization at an urban community-based breast health care center. Cancer family history forms were completed by patients seen at the center during an 18-month period and reviewed by staff for CRA eligibility against published referral criteria. A patient navigator educated eligible patients about the benefits of CRA, navigating interested patients to this service. CRA-specific patient interest and utilization outcomes are reported. In total, 94.7 % of all patients (n = 2,436) completed forms and 65 patients (2.7 %) met CRA eligibility criteria. Most eligible patients (72.3 %) were interested in CRA. Interested patients had a greater risk for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (i.e., more affected relatives, greater objective risk scores) than uninterested patients: 57.4 % scheduled a CRA appointment and 51.9 % of scheduled patients utilized CRAs. Patients scheduling a CRA were contacted in less time and required fewer follow-up contacts by the patient navigator, and were more likely to be African American, than those who declined a CRA or were lost to follow-up (all p's ≤ .05). The systems-level intervention successfully identified patients eligible for CRA and linked interested and at-risk patients with CRA resources. More intensive patient navigation addressing the unique barriers encountered within this population may be required to enhance utilization. PMID:22711611

  8. First investigation of two obesity-related loci (TMEM18, FTO) concerning their association with educational level as well as income: the MONICA/KORA study

    PubMed Central

    Holzapfel, Christina; Grallert, Harald; Baumert, Jens; Thorand, Barbara; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Hauner, Hans; Illig, Thomas; Mielck, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background Strong evidence exists for an association between socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) as well as between genetic variants and BMI. The association of genetic variants with socioeconomic status has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate two obesity-related loci - the transmembrane 18 (TMEM18) and the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene - for their association with educational level and per capita income, and to test whether the detected genotype-BMI association is mediated by these social factors. Methods 12,425 adults from a large population-based study were genotyped for the polymorphism rs6548238 near TMEM18 and rs9935401 within FTO gene. Data on educational level and per capita income were based on standardized questionnaires. Results High educational level and high per capita income were significantly associated with decreased BMI (−1.503 kg/m2, p<.0001 / −0.820 kg/m2, p<.0001). Neither the polymorphism rs6548238 nor rs9935401 nor their combination were significantly associated with educational level (p=0.773 / p=0.827 / p=0.755) or income (p=0.751 / p=0.991 / p=0.820). Adjustment for social factors did not change the association between rs6548238 or rs9935401 and BMI. Conclusions As far as the authors know, this is the first study to investigate the association between polymorphisms and socioeconomic status. The polymorphisms rs6548238 and rs9935401 showed no association with educational level or income. PMID:20628085

  9. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation. PMID:27453625

  10. Above-Level Test Item Functioning across Examinee Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Doty, Kristine J.; Malbica, Anne Marie; Angeles, Victor R.; Innes, Scott; Hall, Jared; Masterson-Nixon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    "Above-level testing" (also called "above-grade testing," "out-of-level testing," and "off-level testing") is the practice of administering to a child a test that is designed for an examinee population that is older or in a more advanced grade. Above-level testing is frequently used to help educators design…

  11. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups. PMID:25728882

  12. Risk Factors and Disability Associated with Low Back Pain in Older Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Ng, Nawi; Peltzer, Karl; Yawson, Alfred; Biritwum, Richard; Maximova, Tamara; Wu, Fan; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background Back pain is a common disabling chronic condition that burdens individuals, families and societies. Epidemiological evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows positive association between back pain prevalence and older age. There is an urgent need for accurate epidemiological data on back pain in adult populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where populations are ageing rapidly. The objectives of this study are to: measure the prevalence of back pain; identify risk factors and determinants associated with back pain, and describe association between back pain and disability in adults aged 50 years and older, in six LMICs from different regions of the world. The findings provide insights into country-level differences in self-reported back pain and disability in a group of socially, culturally, economically and geographically diverse LMICs. Methods Standardized national survey data collected from adults (50 years and older) participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analysed. The weighted sample (n = 30, 146) comprised respondents in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, South Africa and the Russian Federation. Multivariable regressions describe factors associated with back pain prevalence and intensity, and back pain as a determinant of disability. Results Prevalence was highest in the Russian Federation (56%) and lowest in China (22%). In the pooled multi-country analyses, female sex, lower education, lower wealth and multiple chronic morbidities were significant in association with past-month back pain (p<0.01). About 8% of respondents reported that they experienced intense back pain in the previous month. Conclusions Evidence on back pain and its impact on disability is needed in developing countries so that governments can invest in cost-effective education and rehabilitation to reduce the growing social and economic burden imposed by this disabling condition. PMID:26042785

  13. The Math Master Level 2. Ages 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for ages 6-8, is the second in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned skills,…

  14. The Math Master Level 1. Preschool-Age 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for preschool through age 6, is the first in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned…

  15. The Math Master Level 3. Ages 8-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for ages 8-10, is the third in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned skills,…

  16. The Math Master Level 4. Ages 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for ages 10-12, is the fourth in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned skills,…

  17. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which observed associations at the population level between income inequality and mortality are statistical artifacts. Data from the 1990 census for the 50 American states plus the District of Columbia were used for population distributions by age, sex, state and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results revealed that hypothetical mortality, while correlated with inequality, displayed a weaker association with state's levels of income inequality than the observed mortality. The associations seen in the US at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual level relation between income and mortality. There is still a significant association between income inequality and mortality at state level over and above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This finding reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health. PMID:10514157

  18. Securing support for eye health policy in low- and middle-income countries: identifying stakeholders through a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Morone, Piergiuseppe; Camacho Cuena, Eva; Kocur, Ivo; Banatvala, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    This article empirically evaluates advocacy in low- and middle-income countries as a key tool for raising policy priority and securing high-level decision maker support in eye health. We used a unique data set based on a survey conducted by World Health Organization in 2011 on eye care and prevention of blindness in 82 low- and middle-income countries. The theoretical framework derives from the idea that a plethora of stakeholders at local and global level pressure national governments, acting in economic and the political spheres. Previously, eye care has not been investigated in such a framework. We found structural differences across countries with different income levels and proposed policy recommendations to secure high-level decision makers' support for promoting eye health. Three case studies suggest that, in order to secure more support and resources for eye health, domestic and international stakeholders must strengthen their engagement with ministries of health at political and above all economic levels. PMID:24107790

  19. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions. PMID:27101765

  20. "Low Income"--Levels in the Jewish Population; The "Jewish Poor" in Los Angeles. A Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massarik, Fred

    The concept "Jewish Poor" is defined simply as Jewish households (viz. households containing one or more persons defined as Jewish) whose total household cash income (1969, comparable to U.S. Census) was under 4000 dollars. The data were obtained from four sources: (1) analysis of "Jewish Poor" drawn from Los Angeles phase of National Jewish…

  1. 12 CFR 1282.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bedrooms 90 3 bedrooms or more * *104% plus (12% multiplied by the number of bedrooms in excess of 3). (b... Efficiency 56 1 bedroom 60 2 bedrooms 72 3 bedrooms or more * *83.2% plus (9.6% multiplied by the number of... of area median income Efficiency 42 1 bedroom 45 2 bedrooms 54 3 bedrooms or more * *62.4% plus...

  2. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  3. Influence of Municipality-Level Mean Income on Access to Aortic Valve Surgery: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study under Japan's Universal Health-Care Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seitetsu L.; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kohro, Takahide; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Koide, Daisuke; Komuro, Issei; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Background Universal health-care coverage has attracted the interest of policy makers as a way of achieving health equity. However, previous reports have shown that despite universal coverage, socioeconomic disparity persists in access to high-tech invasive care, such as cardiac treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and care of aortic stenosis in the context of Japan's health-care system, which is mainly publicly funded. Methods We chose aortic stenosis in older people as a target because such patients are likely to be affected by socioeconomic disparity. Using a large Japanese claim-based inpatient database, we identified 12,893 isolated aortic stenosis patients aged over 65 years who were hospitalized between July 2010 and March 2012. Municipality socioeconomic status was represented by the mean household income of the patients' residential municipality, categorized into quartiles. The likelihood of undergoing aortic valve surgery and in-hospital mortality was regressed against socioeconomic status level with adjustments for hospital volume, regional number of cardiac surgeons per 1 million population, and patients' clinical status. Results We found no significant differences between the highest and lowest quartile groups in surgical indication (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.69–1.03) or in-hospital mortality (1.00; 0.68–1.48). Hospital volume was significantly associated with lower postoperative mortality (odds ratio of the highest volume tertile to the lowest, 0.49; 0.34–0.71). Conclusions Under Japan's current universal health-care coverage, municipality socioeconomic status did not appear to have a systematic relationship with either treatment decision for surgical intervention or postoperative survival following aortic valve surgery among older patients. Our results imply that universal health-care coverage with high publicly funded coverage offers equal access to high

  4. [Poor dad, poor child? An investigation of intergenerational income mobility in the 1982 Birth Cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Carraro, André; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Barros, Fernando Celso; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2015-06-01

    Brazil is one of the countries with the lowest intergenerational income mobility. This article aimed to analyze intergenerational income mobility in the 1982 Birth Cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. Two methods were used, intergenerational income elasticity and quantile regressions, in order to measure heterogeneity in income mobility as a function of different levels of parents' past income. The results show relatively high income mobility for Brazilian standards. The main explanation is that the data cover the children's income at a younger age (about 23 years). Quantile regressions show higher social mobility in the intermediary social stratum. The results reinforce the notion of two opposite "traps", poverty and wealth. PMID:26200370

  5. A matter of perception: exploring the role of income satisfaction in the income-mortality relationship in German survey data 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Individual- and community-level income has been shown to be linked to social inequalities in health and mortality. On the individual level, social comparisons and relative deprivation resulting from them have been identified as relevant mechanisms involved in the relationship between income and health, but it is mainly income-based measures of relative deprivation that have been considered in previous studies. Using income satisfaction, this study employs a perception-based indicator of relative deprivation. The study, covering the period between 1995 and 2010, utilized the German Socio-Economic Panel. The follow-up included 11,056 men and 11,512 women at employment age 25-64. Discrete-time survival analysis with Cox regression was performed to estimate the effects of relative income position and income satisfaction on all-cause mortality. The univariate analysis revealed an income gradient on mortality and further showed a strong association between income satisfaction and survival. After education and employment status were adjusted for, the effect of discontent with income on mortality was still present in the female sample, whereas in the male sample only the income gradient prevailed. When self-rated health was controlled for, the hazard ratios of income satisfaction attenuated and turned non-significant for both men and women while the effects of income position remained stable. In conclusion, the findings suggest that income satisfaction and income position measure different aspects of income inequality and complement one another. Income satisfaction appeared to be a possible contributing component to the causal pathway between income and mortality. PMID:24355473

  6. Impact of Wind Development on County-Level Income and Employment: A Review of Methods and an Empirical Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    To gain an understanding of the long-term county-level impacts from a large sample of wind power projects and to understand the potential significance of methodological criticisms, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and NREL recently joined efforts to complete a first-of-its-kind study that quantifies the annual impact on county-level personal income resulting from wind power installations in nearly 130 counties across 12 states. The results of this study, as well as a comparison with the prior county-level estimates generated from input-output models, are summarized here.

  7. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  8. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  9. Does Level of Social Capital Predict Perceived Health in a Community?—A Study of Adult Residents of Low-income Areas of Francistown, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and describes the relationships among neighbourhood characteristics, social capital, and health outcomes among low-income urban residents in Francistown, Botswana. Using an explanatory correlational research design to explore the relationships among the study variables, data were collected from 388 low-income urban residents in Francistown, Botswana. The study further examined the role of social capital on the environmental quality for the overall health and quality of life and the psychological, physical and level of independence domains of health. Several studies have explored these relationships but currently no study has explored this relationship in Africa and Botswana in particular. Selected concepts from social capital theory and stress theory were used as a conceptual framework. Using linear and multiple regression models, results of the study showed that social capital did not correlate with the overall health and quality of life and the level of independence domain of health but positively correlated with psychological well-being. Social capital negatively predicted physical health. Hierarchical moderated multiple-regression analyses were conducted to examine the moderating role of social capital. To the contrary, social capital did not moderate the effects of chronic community stressors on all health outcomes. Social capital, however, moderated the effects of the poor environmental quality on level of independence and physical health outcomes but not on the psychological and overall health and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of considering the role of social capital, especially in low-income communities. PMID:19761081

  10. Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…

  11. 20 CFR 416.1110 - What is earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is earned income. 416.1110 Section 416.1110 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1110 What is earned income. Earned income may be in cash or in kind. We may include more of your...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1121 - Types of unearned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Types of unearned income. 416.1121 Section 416.1121 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Unearned Income § 416.1121 Types of unearned income. Some types of unearned income are— (a) Annuities, pensions, and...

  13. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone treatment on hormone levels and antioxidant parameters in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, F J; Kang, J; Han, N N; Ma, H T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of chronic dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration on steroid hormones and antioxidant parameters in aged rats. To this end, three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were compared: young (3 months of age) untreated; aged (19 months old) untreated; and aged rats treated with 20 mg/kg DHEA for 8 weeks. Major organs of aged rats in the untreated group demonstrated physiological atrophy, compared to those of young rats; this effect appeared to have been partially reversed by DHEA treatment. Testosterone and estradiol contents were significantly decreased and aldosterone significantly increased in aged untreated, compared to young untreated rats. Steroid hormone levels were obviously reversed, however, in aged rats treated with DHEA. Additionally, superoxide dismutase activity in serum, brain, heart, and liver was decreased, and maleic dialdehyde content in heart was markedly increased in untreated aged, compared to young, rats. Importantly, these changes in brain and heart of aged rats were reversed by DHEA treatment. Heme oxygenase mRNA levels were increased and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels decreased in aged, compared to young, rats; DHEA treatment appeared to reverse these changes. These results indicate that chronic DHEA administration may have effects on steroid hormone levels and antioxidant parameters in aged rats and result in postponement of the aging process. PMID:26400361

  14. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  15. From wealth to health: modelling the distribution of income per capita at the sub-national level using night-time light imagery.

    PubMed

    Ebener, Steeve; Murray, Christopher; Tandon, Ajay; Elvidge, Christopher C

    2005-02-10

    BACKGROUND: Sub-national figures providing information about the wealth of the population are useful in defining the spatial distribution of both economic activity and poverty within any given country. Furthermore, since several health indicators such as life expectancy are highly correlated with household welfare, sub-national figures allow for the estimation of the distribution of these health indicators within countries when direct measurement is difficult.We have developed methods that utilize spatially distributed information, including night-time light imagery and population to model the distribution of income per capita, as a proxy for wealth, at the country and sub-national level to support the estimation of the distribution of correlated health indicators. RESULTS: A first set of analysis are performed in order to propose a new global model for the prediction of income per capita at the country level. A second set of analysis is then confirming the possibility to transfer the country level approach to the sub-national level on a country by country basis before underlining the difficulties to create a global or regional models for the extrapolation of sub-national figures when no country data set exists. CONCLUSIONS: The methods described provide promising results for the extrapolation of national and sub-national income per capita figures. These results are then discussed in order to evaluate if the proposed methods could not represent an alternative approach for the generation of consistent country specific and/or global poverty maps disaggregated to some sub-national level. PMID:15705196

  16. From wealth to health: modelling the distribution of income per capita at the sub-national level using night-time light imagery

    PubMed Central

    Ebener, Steeve; Murray, Christopher; Tandon, Ajay; Elvidge, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Background Sub-national figures providing information about the wealth of the population are useful in defining the spatial distribution of both economic activity and poverty within any given country. Furthermore, since several health indicators such as life expectancy are highly correlated with household welfare, sub-national figures allow for the estimation of the distribution of these health indicators within countries when direct measurement is difficult. We have developed methods that utilize spatially distributed information, including night-time light imagery and population to model the distribution of income per capita, as a proxy for wealth, at the country and sub-national level to support the estimation of the distribution of correlated health indicators. Results A first set of analysis are performed in order to propose a new global model for the prediction of income per capita at the country level. A second set of analysis is then confirming the possibility to transfer the country level approach to the sub-national level on a country by country basis before underlining the difficulties to create a global or regional models for the extrapolation of sub-national figures when no country data set exists. Conclusions The methods described provide promising results for the extrapolation of national and sub-national income per capita figures. These results are then discussed in order to evaluate if the proposed methods could not represent an alternative approach for the generation of consistent country specific and/or global poverty maps disaggregated to some sub-national level. PMID:15705196

  17. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Lee, Sun Eun; Donahue Angel, Moira; Adair, Linda S; Arifeen, Shams E; Ashorn, Per; Barros, Fernando C; Fall, Caroline HD; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Hao, Wei; Hu, Gang; Humphrey, Jean H; Huybregts, Lieven; Joglekar, Charu V; Kariuki, Simon K; Kolsteren, Patrick; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Liu, Enqing; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Ake; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Richter, Linda; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Tielsch, James; Victora, Cesar G; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30–40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting involves both prenatal and postnatal growth failure, the extent to which FGR contributes to stunting and other indicators of nutritional status is uncertain. Methods Using extant longitudinal birth cohorts (n = 19) with data on birthweight, gestational age and child anthropometry (12–60 months), we estimated study-specific and pooled risk estimates of stunting, wasting and underweight by small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth. Results We grouped children according to four combinations of SGA and gestational age: adequate size-for-gestational age (AGA) and preterm; SGA and term; SGA and preterm; and AGA and term (the reference group). Relative to AGA and term, the OR (95% confidence interval) for stunting associated with AGA and preterm, SGA and term, and SGA and preterm was 1.93 (1.71, 2.18), 2.43 (2.22, 2.66) and 4.51 (3.42, 5.93), respectively. A similar magnitude of risk was also observed for wasting and underweight. Low birthweight was associated with 2.5–3.5-fold higher odds of wasting, stunting and underweight. The population attributable risk for overall SGA for outcomes of childhood stunting and wasting was 20% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions This analysis estimates that childhood undernutrition may have its origins in the foetal period, suggesting a need to intervene early, ideally during pregnancy, with interventions known to reduce FGR and preterm birth. PMID:23920141

  18. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks. PMID:26689891

  19. 75 FR 7552 - Exclusion of Certain Military Pay From Deemed Income and Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background The SSI program provides a minimum income level for aged, blind... portions of paragraph (b)(1). Public Comments In the notice of proposed rulemaking we published at 74 FR... that, for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) purposes, we do not consider any combat-related...

  20. Assessment of Low-Income Adults' Access to Technology: Implications for Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…

  1. Decreased plasma cholesterol levels during aging in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wirths, Oliver; Thelen, Karin; Breyhan, Henning; Luzón-Toro, Berta; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Falkai, Peter; Lütjohann, Dieter; Bayer, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    A large number of studies deals with the association of cholesterol and Abeta levels, however, the results are so far controversial. Whereas some studies report on increased cholesterol levels, other authors refer to an association of decreased peripheral cholesterol and the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. It is also questionable whether plasma cholesterol levels could be used as a predictive biomarker for the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. In the present report, we studied the relationship between these two parameters during aging in different transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, expressing both mutant human amyloid precursor protein and mutant human presenilin-1. Measurements of plasma cholesterol levels revealed a significant reduction in aged APP/PS1 and APP/PS1ki mice, whereas plasma levels in young and aged control mice remained almost unchanged. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between plasma cholesterol and brain Abeta42 levels during aging in the mice expressing both APP and PS1. PMID:16307858

  2. A multilevel analysis of the effects of neighbourhood income inequality on individual self-rated health in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Irene O L; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lo, Su-Vui; Leung, Gabriel M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect on self-rated health of neighbourhood-level income inequality in Hong Kong, which has a high and growing Gini coefficient. Data were derived from two population household surveys in 2002 and 2005 of 25,623 and 24,610 non-institutional residents aged 15 or over. We estimated neighbourhood-level Gini coefficients in each of 287 Government Planning Department Tertiary Planning Units. We used multilevel regression analysis to assess the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual self-perceived health status. After adjustment for both individual- and household-level predictors, there was no association between neighbourhood income inequality, median household income or household-level income and self-rated health. We tested for but did not find any statistical interaction between these three income-related exposures. These findings suggest that neighbourhood income inequality is not an important predictor of individual health status in Hong Kong. PMID:18995943

  3. Optimal speech level for speech transmission in a noisy environment for young adults and aged persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.

  4. Pattern and levels of spending allocated to HIV prevention programs in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background AIDS continues to spread at an estimated 2.6 new million infections per year, making the prevention of HIV transmission a critical public health issue. The dramatic growth in global resources for AIDS has produced a steady scale-up in treatment and care that has not been equally matched by preventive services. This paper is a detailed analysis of how countries are choosing to spend these more limited prevention funds. Methods We analyzed prevention spending in 69 low- and middle-income countries with a variety of epidemic types, using data from national domestic spending reports. Spending information was from public and international sources and was analyzed based on the National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) methods and classifications. Results Overall, prevention received 21% of HIV resources compared to 53% of funding allocated to treatment and care. Prevention relies primarily on international donors, who accounted for 65% of all prevention resources and 93% of funding in low-income countries. For the subset of 53 countries that provided detailed spending information, we found that 60% of prevention resources were spent in five areas: communication for social and behavioral change (16%), voluntary counselling and testing (14%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (13%), blood safety (10%) and condom programs (7%). Only 7% of funding was spent on most-at-risk populations and less than 1% on male circumcision. Spending patterns did not consistently reflect current evidence and the HIV specific transmission context of each country. Conclusions Despite recognition of its importance, countries are not allocating resources in ways that are likely to achieve the greatest impact on prevention across all epidemic types. Within prevention spending itself, a greater share of resources need to be matched with interventions that approximate the specific needs and drivers of each country's epidemic. PMID:22436141

  5. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  6. Midlife Women: Policy Proposals on Their Problems. A Summary of Papers Submitted to the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    Highlights of 18 papers on problems of midlife women are provided by 29 experts invited to testify before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the U.S. House of Representatives' Select Committee on Aging. The papers address the following areas of concern: (1) work and education, (2) displaced homemakers, (3) economic inequality,…

  7. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  8. West Virginia Adolescents' Health Risk Behaviors: Differences by Gender, Age, Grade Level, and Level of Rurality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; And Others

    In 1990, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by a random sample of 1,448 West Virginia public-school students in grades 9-12. The sample was 51 percent male and 89 percent white. About 71 percent of subjects were aged 15-17; 39 percent were in the ninth grade. The YRBS covered behaviors producing vehicle-related or other injuries,…

  9. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; p<0.001) of aged rats compared to young rats, however no significant differences were detected in synaptic levels in the PFC region. Double immunogold labeling indicated that agmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26548412

  10. Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A; Pamuk, E R; Cohen, R D; Heck, K E; Balfour, J L; Yen, I H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality between metropolitan areas with high and low income inequality ranged from 64.7 to 95.8 deaths per 100,000 depending on the inequality measure. In age-specific analyses, income inequality was most evident for infant mortality and for mortality between ages 15 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels. Areas with high income inequality and low average income had excess mortality of 139.8 deaths per 100,000 compared with areas with low inequality and high income. The magnitude of this mortality difference is comparable to the combined loss of life from lung cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle crashes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, suicide, and homicide in 1995. Given the mortality burden associated with income inequality, public and private sector initiatives to reduce economic inequalities should be a high priority. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9663157

  11. 20 CFR 416.1100 - Income and SSI eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income General § 416.1100 Income and SSI eligibility. You are eligible for supplemental security income (SSI) benefits if you are an aged, blind, or disabled person who meets...

  12. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  13. Age-related dynamics of constitutive cytokine transcription levels of feline monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Baptiste, K; Meli, M L; Barth, A; Knietsch, M; Reinacher, M; Lutz, H

    2005-03-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are central mediators of inflammation and immunity and therefore of major interest in the study of immunosenescence. In healthy adult cats, monocytes have been shown to constitutively transcribe pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, in order to characterize the effect of age, feline monocyte functions were examined for changes in cytokine transcription levels in early stages of immunosenescence. For this purpose, isolated, short-term cultured monocytes from barrier-maintained adult cats of different ages (15 mo to 10 yr) were examined for transcription of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40 and TNF-alpha by real-time PCR. Transcription levels of cytokines varied and were generally highest for IL-1 beta. For IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-12 p40, both young and old cats exhibited highest levels. The age association was significant. TNF-alpha appeared to be transcribed at similar levels over the examination period, whereas IL-10 tended to decline with age but without any statistical significant differences. The observed age association of the constitutive transcription of some cytokines indicates a drop in monocyte activities from youth to middle age, which is then followed by a (progressive) increase with increasing age. This provides evidence that monocytes are in part responsible for the pro-inflammatory status observed with ageing. PMID:15763402

  14. Circulating Growth Differentiation Factor 11/8 Levels Decline With Age

    PubMed Central

    Poggioli, Tommaso; Vujic, Ana; Yang, Peiguo; Macias-Trevino, Claudio; Uygur, Aysu; Loffredo, Francesco S.; Pancoast, James R.; Cho, Miook; Goldstein, Jill; Tandias, Rachel M.; Gonzalez, Emilia; Walker, Ryan G.; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wagers, Amy J.; Fong, Yick W.; Lee, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and GDF8 are members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily sharing 89% protein sequence homology. We have previously shown that circulating GDF11 levels decrease with age in mice. However, a recent study by Egerman et al reported that GDF11/8 levels increase with age in mouse serum. Objective Here, we clarify the direction of change of circulating GDF11/8 levels with age and investigate the effects of GDF11 administration on the murine heart. Methods and Results We validated our previous finding that circulating levels of GDF11/8 decline with age in mice, rats, horses, and sheep. Furthermore, we showed by Western analysis that the apparent age-dependent increase in GDF11 levels, as reported by Egerman et al, is attributable to cross-reactivity of the anti-GDF11 antibody with immunoglobulin, which is known to increase with age. GDF11 administration in mice rapidly activated SMAD2 and SMAD3 signaling in myocardium in vivo and decreased cardiac mass in both young (2-month-old) and old (22-month-old) mice in a dose-dependent manner after only 9 days. Conclusions Our study confirms an age-dependent decline in serum GDF11/8 levels in multiple mammalian species and that exogenous GDF11 rapidly activates SMAD signaling and reduces cardiomyocyte size. Unraveling the molecular basis for the age-dependent decline in GDF11/8 could yield insight into age-dependent cardiac pathologies. PMID:26489925

  15. Effects of age, signal level, and signal rate on the auditory middle latency response.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D A; Ruth, R A

    1996-04-01

    The effects of age, signal rate, and signal level on the maturing auditory middle latency response (AMLR) were evaluated in 50 normal-hearing subjects ranging in age from 2 days to 35 years. Ipsilateral and contralateral AMLR waveforms were recorded in newborns (n = 10), children (n = 10), preteens (n = 10), teens (n = 10), and adults (n = 10). The AMLR Pa waveform was obtained in 70 to 100 percent of all subjects. The variables of age, signal level, and site of recording significantly affected Pa peak amplitude and absolute latency. However, stimulus rate did not significantly affect the response. PMID:8652873

  16. Perceptions of Aging across 26 Cultures and their Culture-Level Associates

    PubMed Central

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Fruyt, Filip; Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Juri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana. V.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Benet-Martinez, Veronica; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Lima, Margarida P.; Ficková, Emília; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Martin, Thomas. A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Pramila, V.S.; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Jerome; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Smith, Peter B.; Szmigielska, Barbara; Wang, Lei; Yamaguchi, Mami; Yik, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    College students (N = 3,435) in 26 cultures reported their perceptions of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional areas of functioning and rated societal views of aging within their culture. There was widespread cross-cultural consensus regarding the expected direction of aging trajectories with (1) perceived declines in societal views of aging, physical attractiveness, the ability to perform everyday tasks, and new learning, (2) perceived increases in wisdom, knowledge, and received respect, and (3) perceived stability in family authority and life satisfaction. Cross-cultural variations in aging perceptions were associated with culture-level indicators of population aging, education levels, values, and national character stereotypes. These associations were stronger for societal views on aging and perceptions of socioemotional changes than for perceptions of physical and cognitive changes. A consideration of culture-level variables also suggested that previously reported differences in aging perceptions between Asian and Western countries may be related to differences in population structure. PMID:20025408

  17. Perceptions of aging across 26 cultures and their culture-level associates.

    PubMed

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; De Fruyt, Filip; Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Juri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Benet-Martinez, Veronica; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Cain, Thomas R; Crawford, Jarret T; Lima, Margarida P; Ficková, Emília; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hrebícková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knezević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Martin, Thomas A; Marusić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Miramontez, Daniel R; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Pramila, V S; Realo, Anu; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Jerome; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Smith, Peter B; Szmigielska, Barbara; Wang, Lei; Yamaguchi, Mami; Yik, Michelle

    2009-12-01

    College students (N=3,435) in 26 cultures reported their perceptions of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional areas of functioning and rated societal views of aging within their culture. There was widespread cross-cultural consensus regarding the expected direction of aging trajectories with (a) perceived declines in societal views of aging, physical attractiveness, the ability to perform everyday tasks, and new learning; (b) perceived increases in wisdom, knowledge, and received respect; and (c) perceived stability in family authority and life satisfaction. Cross-cultural variations in aging perceptions were associated with culture-level indicators of population aging, education levels, values, and national character stereotypes. These associations were stronger for societal views on aging and perceptions of socioemotional changes than for perceptions of physical and cognitive changes. A consideration of culture-level variables also suggested that previously reported differences in aging perceptions between Asian and Western countries may be related to differences in population structure. PMID:20025408

  18. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1111 - How we count earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How we count earned income. 416.1111 Section 416.1111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1111 How we count earned income. (a) Wages. We...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1160 - What is deeming of income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is deeming of income? 416.1160 Section 416.1160 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1160 What is deeming of income? (a) General. We use the term deeming to identify the process...

  3. Age-related changes in thyroid hormone levels of bonobos and chimpanzees indicate heterochrony in development.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias; Murtagh, Róisín; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    We present information on age related changes of thyroid hormone levels in bonobos (N = 96) and chimpanzees (N = 100) ranging between one and 56 years of age. Fresh urine samples were used for hormone measurements with a commercial competitive total triiodothyronine (T3) ELISA. In both species, immature individuals had higher TT3 levels than adults and there was a marked decrease in TT3 levels between age classes. The two species differed in terms of the timing of TT3 level changes, with chimpanzees experiencing a significant decline in TT3 levels after 10 years of age and bonobos after 20 years of age. The decline of TT3 in chimpanzees appears to coincide with the time when somatic growth terminates while TT3 values in bonobos decrease much later. This temporal asymmetry in urinary thyroid hormone levels indicates heterochrony in the ontogenetic changes of the two sister species and developmental delay in bonobos. The prolongation of high TT3 levels in bonobos, which is characteristic of immatures of both Pan species may affect the behavior of bonobos; namely, the low intensity of aggression they display. Given that developmental studies are often based on post-mortem analyses of skeletons, measures of urinary thyroid hormones offer a non-invasive tool for exploring ontogenetic changes in living wild and captive hominoids. PMID:24275194

  4. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X William

    2016-07-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=-0.41, p=5.5×10-8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945

  5. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F.; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L.M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X. William

    2016-01-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=−0.41, p=5.5×10−8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945

  6. IODP Expedition 325: Great Barrier Reefs Reveals Past Sea-Level, Climate and Environmental Changes Since the Last Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Webster, J. M.; Cotterill, C.; Braga, J. C.; Jovane, L.; Mills, H.; Morgan, S.; Suzuki, A.; IODP Expedition 325 Scientists, the

    2011-09-01

    The timing and courses of deglaciations are key components in understanding the global climate system. Cyclic changes in global climate have occurred, with growth and decay of high latitude ice sheets, for the last two million years. It is believed that these fluctuations are mainly controlled by periodic changes to incoming solar radiation due to the changes in Earth's orbit around the sun. However, not all climate variations can be explained by this process, and there is the growing awareness of the important role of internal climate feedback mechanisms. Understanding the nature of these feedbacks with regard to the timing of abrupt global sea-level and climate changes is of prime importance. The tropical ocean is one of the major components of the feedback system, and hence reconstructions of temporal variations in sea-surface conditions will greatly improve our understanding of the climate system. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 drilled 34 holes across 17 sites in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia to recover fossil coral reef deposits. The main aim of the expedition was to understand the environmental changes that occurred during the last ice age and subsequent deglaciation, and more specifically (1) establish the course of sea-level change, (2) reconstruct the oceanographic conditions, and (3) determine the response of the reef to these changes. We recovered coral reef deposits from water depths down to 126 m that ranged in age from 9,000 years to older than 30,000 years ago. Given that the interval of the dated materials covers several paleoclimatologically important events, including the Last Glacial Maximum, we expect that ongoing scientific analyses will fulfill the objectives of the expedition. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.12.04.2011

  7. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  8. Towards people-centred health systems: a multi-level framework for analysing primary health care governance in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Abimbola, Seye; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence that non-government health system actors can individually or collectively develop practical strategies to address primary health care (PHC) challenges in the community, existing frameworks for analysing health system governance largely focus on the role of governments, and do not sufficiently account for the broad range of contribution to PHC governance. This is important because of the tendency for weak governments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We present a multi-level governance framework for use as a thinking guide in analysing PHC governance in LMICs. This framework has previously been used to analyse the governance of common-pool resources such as community fisheries and irrigation systems. We apply the framework to PHC because, like common-pool resources, PHC facilities in LMICs tend to be commonly owned by the community such that individual and collective action is often required to avoid the 'tragedy of the commons'-destruction and degradation of the resource resulting from lack of concern for its continuous supply. In the multi-level framework, PHC governance is conceptualized at three levels, depending on who influences the supply and demand of PHC services in a community and how: operational governance (individuals and providers within the local health market), collective governance (community coalitions) and constitutional governance (governments at different levels and other distant but influential actors). Using the example of PHC governance in Nigeria, we illustrate how the multi-level governance framework offers a people-centred lens on the governance of PHC in LMICs, with a focus on relations among health system actors within and between levels of governance. We demonstrate the potential impact of health system actors functioning at different levels of governance on PHC delivery, and how governance failure at one level can be assuaged by governance at another level. PMID:25274638

  9. Towards people-centred health systems: a multi-level framework for analysing primary health care governance in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Abimbola, Seye; Negin, Joel; Jan, Stephen; Martiniuk, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Although there is evidence that non-government health system actors can individually or collectively develop practical strategies to address primary health care (PHC) challenges in the community, existing frameworks for analysing health system governance largely focus on the role of governments, and do not sufficiently account for the broad range of contribution to PHC governance. This is important because of the tendency for weak governments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We present a multi-level governance framework for use as a thinking guide in analysing PHC governance in LMICs. This framework has previously been used to analyse the governance of common-pool resources such as community fisheries and irrigation systems. We apply the framework to PHC because, like common-pool resources, PHC facilities in LMICs tend to be commonly owned by the community such that individual and collective action is often required to avoid the ‘tragedy of the commons’—destruction and degradation of the resource resulting from lack of concern for its continuous supply. In the multi-level framework, PHC governance is conceptualized at three levels, depending on who influences the supply and demand of PHC services in a community and how: operational governance (individuals and providers within the local health market), collective governance (community coalitions) and constitutional governance (governments at different levels and other distant but influential actors). Using the example of PHC governance in Nigeria, we illustrate how the multi-level governance framework offers a people-centred lens on the governance of PHC in LMICs, with a focus on relations among health system actors within and between levels of governance. We demonstrate the potential impact of health system actors functioning at different levels of governance on PHC delivery, and how governance failure at one level can be assuaged by governance at another level. PMID:25274638

  10. Who Moves to Mixed-Income Neighborhoods?*

    PubMed Central

    McKinnish, Terra; White, T. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study the income dispersion of recent cohorts of migrants to mixed-income neighborhoods. We investigate whether neighborhoods with high levels of income dispersion attract economically diverse in-migrants. If recent in-migrants to mixed-income neighborhoods exhibit high levels of income dispersion, this is consistent with stable mixed-income neighborhoods. If, however, mixed-income neighborhoods are comprised of homogenous low-income (high-income) cohorts of long-term residents combined with homogenous high-income (low-income) cohorts of recent arrivals, this is consistent with neighborhood transition. Our results indicate that neighborhoods with high levels of income dispersion do in fact attract a much more heterogeneous set of in-migrants, particularly from the tails of the income distribution. Our results also suggest that the residents of mixed-income neighborhoods may be less heterogeneous with respect to lifetime income. PMID:21479114

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Implementing Integrated Mental Health Care: A District Level Situation Analysis from Five Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Charlotte; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Kathree, Tasneem; Murhar, Vaibhav; Shrivasta, Sanjay; Medhin, Girmay; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Fekadu, Abebaw; Shidhaye, Rahul; Petersen, Inge; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Thornicroft, Graham; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Lund, Crick; Breuer, Erica; De Silva, Mary; Prince, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about how to tailor implementation of mental health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to the diverse settings encountered within and between countries. In this paper we compare the baseline context, challenges and opportunities in districts in five LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda) participating in the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME). The purpose was to inform development and implementation of a comprehensive district plan to integrate mental health into primary care. Methods A situation analysis tool was developed for the study, drawing on existing tools and expert consensus. Cross-sectional information obtained was largely in the public domain in all five districts. Results The PRIME study districts face substantial contextual and health system challenges many of which are common across sites. Reliable information on existing treatment coverage for mental disorders was unavailable. Particularly in the low-income countries, many health service organisational requirements for mental health care were absent, including specialist mental health professionals to support the service and reliable supplies of medication. Across all sites, community mental health literacy was low and there were no models of multi-sectoral working or collaborations with traditional or religious healers. Nonetheless health system opportunities were apparent. In each district there was potential to apply existing models of care for tuberculosis and HIV or non-communicable disorders, which have established mechanisms for detection of drop-out from care, outreach and adherence support. The extensive networks of community-based health workers and volunteers in most districts provide further opportunities to expand mental health care. Conclusions The low level of baseline health system preparedness across sites underlines that interventions at the levels of health care organisation, health facility and

  12. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of High Homocysteine Levels Among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Its Implications for Preventive Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuxia; Pang, Hongrui; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Yan, Yizhong; Niu, Qiang; Muratbek; Rui, Dongsheng; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Liu, Jiaming; Ding, Yusong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a relevant biomarker of vascular disease: serum Hcy concentrations will increase the risk of systolic hypertension, whereas hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has a synergistic effect with hypertension and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, information has primarily been gathered from high-income and urban settings, and little is known regarding low-income rural settings. This study focused on a low-income rural and nomadic minority residing in far western China. Hcy levels were tested, and the prevalences of HHcy and H-type hypertension were investigated in this population. Methods: This study used a stratified cluster random sampling method, selecting 2,180 individuals as subjects from Kazakh and Uyghur inhabitants (≥25 years old) of 18 villages in Xinjiang, China, which is approximately 4407 km from the capital, Beijing. Hcy levels were determined using a double reagent enzymatic cycling method. HHcy (Hcy > 10 μmol/L) was defined by the criteria of the American Heart Association. Results: The Kazakh geometrical mean of Hcy was 13.34 μmol/L, and the Uyghur mean was 13.75 μmol/L; the mean values were higher in males than in females of both ethnicities (15.99 μmol/L vs. 11.63 μmol/L; 15.71 μmol/L vs. 11.91 μmol/L, respectively, p < 0.01). The serum levels of Hcy increased with increasing age in both ethnicities, and except for Kazakh individuals >65 years old, Hcy serum levels were higher in males than in females in all age groups of both ethnicities, with a p value less than 0.01. The Kazakh prevalence of HHcy was 80.0%, and the Uyghur prevalence was 78.2%; the male prevalence was higher than that in females for both ethnicities (93.5% vs. 69.6%; 90.8% vs. 64.6%, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the Kazakh, the prevalence of hypertension was 35.1%, and the prevalence was higher in males than in females (44.3% vs. 28.1%, p < 0.001); 87.6% of the Kazakh individuals had H-type hypertension, and the prevalence was

  13. Structural architecture supports functional organization in the human aging brain at a regionwise and network level.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Joelle; Ritter, Petra; Shen, Kelly; Rothmeier, Simon; Schirner, Michael; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-07-01

    Functional interactions in the brain are constrained by the underlying anatomical architecture, and structural and functional networks share network features such as modularity. Accordingly, age-related changes of structural connectivity (SC) may be paralleled by changes in functional connectivity (FC). We provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of the SC-FC coupling in human aging as inferred from resting-state blood oxygen-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging in a sample of 47 adults with an age range of 18-82. We revealed that SC and FC decrease with age across most parts of the brain and there is a distinct age-dependency of regionwise SC-FC coupling and network-level SC-FC relations. A specific pattern of SC-FC coupling predicts age more reliably than does regionwise SC or FC alone (r = 0.73, 95% CI = [0.7093, 0.8522]). Hence, our data propose that regionwise SC-FC coupling can be used to characterize brain changes in aging. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2645-2661, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27041212

  14. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  15. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  16. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  17. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  18. Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988–2009

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Tsao, Hui-shien

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988–2009 Current Population Survey to examine changes in overall family income and the proportion of income coming from employment, property/assets, and transfers across five different levels of family income for white-, black, and Hispanic-headed families. We find that at all income levels above the 25th percentile, employment income is by far the largest contributor to family income for all racial/ethnic groups. Employment income trended upward over the period in both real dollars and as a percentage of total family income. In this respect, white, black and Hispanic families are remarkably similar. The racial gap in total family income has remained fairly stable over the period, but this trend conceals a narrowing of racial differences in property income, mostly as a function of the decline in property income among whites, a widening of racial differences in transfer income among the bottom 25%, and a widening of racial differences in employment income, particularly at the top of the family income distribution. Income accrued from wealth is a very small component of overall family income for all three racial groups, even for the highest-income families (top 1%). PMID:26180265

  19. [PHARMACOLOGICAL CORRECTION OF APOPTOSIS LEVEL OF CORTICAL NEURONS IN AGED HER2/NEU TRANSGENIC MICE].

    PubMed

    Bazhanova, E D; Kozlova, Yu O; Anisimov, V N; Sukhanov, D S; Teply, D L

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative changes and neuronal death are the basis for development of the nervous system aging. We investigated the mechanism of apoptosis of the sensorimotor cortex neurons of transgenic mice HER2/neu during aging, changes in the cortex function and the participation of exogenous neurometabolites (cytoflavin, piracetam) in regulation of neuronal death and locomotor and psycho-emotional status of mice. The level of apoptosis and expression of apoptosis markers (TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting) in HER2/neu transgenic mice as compared to wild type mice (FBV line) were determined. In aging FBV mice the basal activity was shown to decrease and anxiety to increase correlating with the high level of neuronal apoptosis. We identified behavioral characteristics of transgenic HER2/neu mice and found that their low basal activity does not change with aging. Previously we have shown that in this strain of mice the apoptosis level is low, without any age-related changes, due to the suppression, first of all, of the p53-dependent pathway by HER2 (tyrosine kinase receptor) overexpression. Cytoflavin and piracetam were revealed to possess a marked neuroprotective effect, preserving and restoring functions of the nervous system (improving locomotion and psychological status) in both strains of mice. The effect of neurometabolites studied on neuronal apoptosis is ambiguous. In case of its low level it is a moderate stumulation of apoptosis via the external p53-dependent pathways with activation of caspase-3 in transgenic HER2/neu mice with high carcinogenesis level that can possibly prevent tumor development. On the contrary, in old wild-type animals we observed a significant decrease of age-dependent apoptosis level (by stimulating expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1), which prevents neurodegeneration. PMID:27220241

  20. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  1. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  2. Alterations in nocturnal serum melatonin levels in humans with growth and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldhauser, F; Weiszenbacher, G; Tatzer, E; Gisinger, B; Waldhauser, M; Schemper, M; Frisch, H

    1988-03-01

    The available data on potential alterations in serum melatonin (MLT) levels during a human lifetime are fragmentary and inconsistent. We, therefore, measured day- and nighttime serum MLT concentrations in 367 subjects (210 males and 157 females), aged 3 days to 90 yr. Blood samples were collected between 0730 and 1000 h and between 2300 and 0100 h. Serum MLT levels were measured by RIA. The mean nighttime serum MLT concentration was low during the first 6 months of life, i.e. 27.3 +/- 5.4 (+/- SE) pg/mL (0.12 +/- 0.02 nmol/L). It then increased to a peak value at 1-3 yr of age [329.5 +/- 42.0 pg/mL; (1.43 +/- 0.18 nmol/L)], and it was considerably lower [62.5 +/- 9.0 pg/mL; (0.27 +/- 0.04 nmol/L)] in individuals aged 15-20 yr. During the following decades serum MLT declined moderately until old age (70-90 yr of age), i.e. 29.2 +/- 6.1 pg/mL (0.13 +/- 0.03 nmol/L). This biphasic MLT decline follows 2 exponential functions with different slopes (from age 1-20 yr: r = -0.56; P less than 0.001; y = 278.7 X e -0.09x; from age 20-90 yr: r = -0.44; P less than 0.001; y = 84.8 X e -0.017x). The decrease in nocturnal serum MLT in children and adolescents (1-20 yr) correlated with the increase in body weight (r = -0.54; P less than 0.001) and body surface area (r = -0.71; P less than 0.001). At a later age (20-90 yr) there was no correlation among these variables. Daytime serum MLT levels were low and no age-related alterations were found. This study revealed major age-related alterations in nocturnal serum MLT levels. The negative correlation between serum MLT and body weight in childhood and adolescence is evidence that expansion of body size is responsible for the huge MLT decrease during that period. The moderate decline at older ages must derive from other factors. PMID:3350912

  3. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Multi-level femoral morphology and mechanical properties of rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Ma, Renshi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yobo

    2015-07-01

    A macro-micro-nano-multi-level study was conducted to explore age-related structural and mechanical properties of bone, as well as the effects of aging on bone properties. A total of 70 male Wistar rats were used, ranging in the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 months (n = 7/age group). After micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning, longitudinal cortical bone specimens with a length of 5mm were cut along the femoral shaft axis from left femur shafts for mechanical testing, and the cross-sectional areas were measured. The macro-mechanical properties obtained in mechanical testing and microarchitecture parameters measured by micro-CT were significantly correlated with the animal age (r(2) = 0.96, p < 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy was used for detecting the microarchitecture features of the fractured surfaces, which exhibited age-related plate-fibrous-mixed fibrous-plate texture, resulting in changes in macro-mechanical properties (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.001). The mineral phase of the left femoral shaft and head was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Longitudinal and transverse trabecular bone tissues, as well as longitudinal cortical bone tissue, were used for nanoindentation test, and the chemical composition was evaluated by quantitative chemical analyses. The correlations between mineral content and bone material properties (i.e., elastic properties of the bone tissue and size and roughness of bone mineral grains) were highly significant (r > 0.95, p < 0.001). Multi-level femur morphology, mechanical property, and mineral content were significantly correlated with the animal age. The correlations between bone mineral content and bone material morphological and mechanical properties may partly explain the increase in bone fragility with aging, which will provide a theoretical basis for the investigation of age-related bone properties in clinics. PMID:25857690

  5. DNA methylation levels of α-synuclein intron 1 in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    de Boni, Laura; Riedel, Linda; Schmitt, Ina; Kraus, Theo F J; Kaut, Oliver; Piston, Dominik; Akbarian, Schahram; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2015-12-01

    DNA methylation patterns change with age, and aging itself is a major confounding risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Duplication and triplication, that is, increased expression of the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene, cause familial PD, and demethylation of SNCA intron 1 has been shown to result in increased expression of SNCA. We thus hypothesized that age-related alterations of SNCA methylation might underly the increased susceptibility toward PD in later life. The present study sought to determine (1) whether alterations of SNCA intron 1 methylation occurred during aging, (2) whether the methylation pattern differed between men and women, and (3) whether purified neurons compared with non-neuronal cells exhibited different methylation patterns. The analysis of DNA from brain tissue and fluorescence activated cell sorting-sorted purified neurons of 41 individuals revealed only a minor increase of SNCA intron 1 DNA methylation levels in presumably healthy individuals during aging but no significant difference between men and women. Interestingly enough, methylation of SNCA intron 1 was higher in neurons compared with non-neuronal cells, although non-neuronal cells express lower levels of SNCA. Therefore, the normal pattern of SNCA methylation during aging should not result in increased expression of α-synuclein protein. It is thus likely that additional, yet not identified, mechanisms contribute to the tissue specificity of SNCA expression and the presumed dysregulation in PD. PMID:26422361

  6. Health sector priority setting at meso-level in lower and middle income countries: lessons learned, available options and suggested steps.

    PubMed

    Hipgrave, David B; Alderman, Katarzyna Bolsewicz; Anderson, Ian; Soto, Eliana Jimenez

    2014-02-01

    Setting priority for health programming and budget allocation is an important issue, but there is little consensus on related processes. It is particularly relevant in low resource settings and at province- and district- or "meso-level", where contextual influences may be greater, information scarce and capacity lower. Although recent changes in disease epidemiology and health financing suggest even greater need to allocate resources effectively, the literature is relatively silent on evidence-based priority-setting in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We conducted a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on health resource priority-setting in LMICs, focussing on meso-level and the evidence-based priority-setting processes (PSPs) piloted or suggested there. Our objective was to assess PSPs according to whether they have influenced resource allocation and impacted the outcome indicators prioritised. An exhaustive search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature published in the last decade yielded 57 background articles and 75 reports related to priority-setting at meso-level in LMICs. Although proponents of certain PSPs still advocate their use, other experts instead suggest broader elements to guide priority-setting. We conclude that currently no process can be confidently recommended for such settings. We also assessed the common reasons for failure at all levels of priority-setting and concluded further that local authorities should additionally consider contextual and systems limitations likely to prevent a satisfactory process and outcomes, particularly at meso-level. Recent literature proposes a list of related attributes and warning signs, and facilitated our preparation of a simple decision-tree or roadmap to help determine whether or not health systems issues should be improved in parallel to support for needed priority-setting; what elements of the PSP need improving; monitoring, and evaluation. Health priority-setting at

  7. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  8. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W.; Trivedi, Malav S.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  9. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    PubMed Central

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  10. Splenic Stromal Cells from Aged Mice Produce Higher Levels of IL-6 Compared to Young Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihyun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Shiokawa, Aya; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Inflamm-aging indicates the chronic inflammatory state resulting from increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators such as IL-6 in the elderly. Our principle objective was to identify cell types that were affected with aging concerning IL-6 secretion in the murine model. We compared IL-6 production in spleen cells from both young and aged mice and isolated several types of cells from spleen and investigated IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production. IL-6 protein productions in cultured stromal cells from aged mice spleen were significantly high compared to young mice upon LPS stimulation. IL-6 mRNA expression level of freshly isolated stromal cells from aged mice was high compared to young mice. Furthermore, stromal cells of aged mice highly expressed IL-6 mRNA after LPS injection in vivo. These results suggest that stromal cells play a role in producing IL-6 in aged mice and imply that they contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in the elderly. PMID:24729663

  11. The effects of age and gender on plasma levels of 63 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age. PMID:26080062

  12. Age-dependent dichotomous effect of superoxide dismutase Ala16Val polymorphism on oxidized LDL levels

    PubMed Central

    Kanoni, Stavroula; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Louizou, Eirini; Grigoriou, Efi; Chrysohoou, Christina; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association between superoxide dismutase (SOD) Ala16Val polymorphism and the levels of oxidized LDL lipoprotein-C (ox-LDL-C) in two age-different Greek cohorts. Four hundred fifteen middle-aged (n = 147 females: 43.2 ± 13 years, n = 268 males: 43.3 ± 14 years) Caucasian Greek subjects consisted the middle aged cohort. One hundred seventy five elderly (n = 88 females: 79.9 ± 4 years; n = 87 males: 80.6 ± 4 years) were selected from the elderly cohort. Genotype data were obtained for all of them. Multiple linear regression analysis, stratified by gender and adjusted for age, smoking habits and body mass index as covariates, showed higher ox-LDL-C levels for the middle aged men with the Val/Val genotype, compared to the other allele (Ala/Ala and Ala/Val) carriers (65.9 ± 25.7 vs. 55.7 ± 20.5 mg/dl; standardized β coefficient = 0.192, P = 0.012). On the contrary, elderly women with the Val/Val genotype occurred with lower ox-LDL-C levels compared to the Ala/Ala or Ala/Val genotype (74.2 ± 22.1 vs. 86.5 ± 26.6 mg/dl; standardized β coefficient = -0.269, P = 0.015). The same trend was also recorded in elderly men, however without reaching statistical significance (standardized β coefficient = -0.187, P = 0.077). Moreover, elderly men and women with the Ala/Ala or Ala/Val genotype presented higher triglycerides levels compared to Val/Val (women: 145.2 ± 68.7 vs. 114.3 ± 34.3 mg/dl, P = 0.027; men: 147.8 ± 72.4 vs. 103.7 ± 38.0 mg/dl, P = 0.002). Additionally, middle aged men with the Val/Val genotype had higher HDL-C levels compared to the Ala allele carriers. The results suggest that SOD Ala16Val polymorphism is an age-dependent modulator of ox-LDL-C levels in middle-aged men and elderly women. PMID:18305395

  13. Age-specific profiles of tissue-level composition and mechanical properties in murine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that bone composition and tissue-level mechanical properties are significant determinants of skeletal integrity. In the current study, Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation testing were co-localized to analyze tissue-level compositional and mechanical properties in skeletally mature young (4 or 5 months) and old (19 months) murine femora at similar spatial scales. Standard multivariate linear regression analysis revealed age-dependent patterns in the relationships between mechanical and compositional properties at the tissue scale. However, changes in bone material properties with age are often complex and nonlinear, and can be missed with linear regression and correlation-based methods. A retrospective data mining approach was implemented using non-linear multidimensional visualization and classification to identify spectroscopic and nanoindentation metrics that best discriminated bone specimens of different age-classes. The ability to classify the specimens into the correct age group increased by using combinations of Raman and nanoindentation variables (86–96% accuracy) as compared to using individual measures (59–79% accuracy). Metrics that best classified 4 or 5 month and 19 month specimens (2-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus and plasticity index. Metrics that best distinguished between 4, 5 and 19 month specimens (3-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus, hardness, cross-linking, carbonate to phosphate ratio, creep displacement and creep viscosity. These findings attest to the complexity of mechanisms underlying bone tissue properties and draw attention to the importance of considering non-linear interactions between tissue-level composition and mechanics that may work together to influence material properties with age. The results demonstrate that a few non-linearly combined compositional and mechanical metrics provide better discriminatory information than a single

  14. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent. PMID:26757065

  15. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject…

  16. Comparisons of Levels and Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool-aged children: socialisation, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialisation, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved…

  17. Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

    Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

  18. Effects of Child Age and Level of Developmental Delay on Family Practice Physicians' Diagnostic Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Susan; Kroeker, Rose

    1995-01-01

    This study of the effects of child age (20 and 40 months) and level of developmental delay (mild and severe) on identification of developmental disorders by 155 family practice physicians provided evidence that identification of developmental delay was generally high across conditions, with mild delay being less likely to be detected. (Author/JDD)

  19. Probiotic Microbes Sustain Youthful Serum Testosterone Levels and Testicular Size in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Qi, Peimin; Varian, Bernard J.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals. PMID:24392159

  20. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-01-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  1. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    PubMed

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-08-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  2. Advanced age and the mechanics of uphill walking: a joint-level, inverse dynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Jason R.; Kram, Rodger

    2013-01-01

    We sought to gain insight into age-related muscular limitations that may restrict the uphill walking ability of old adults. We hypothesized that: 1) old adults would exhibit smaller peak ankle joint kinetics and larger peak hip joint kinetics than young adults during both level and uphill walking and 2) these age-related differences in ankle and hip joint kinetics would be greatest during uphill vs. level walking. We quantified the sagittal plane ankle, knee, and hip joint kinetics of 10 old adults (mean ± SD, age: 72 ± 5 yrs) and 8 young adults (age: 27 ± 5 yrs) walking at 1.25 m/s on a dual-belt, force-measuring treadmill at four grades (0°, +3°, +6°, +9°). As hypothesized, old adults walked with smaller peak ankle joint kinetics (e.g., power generation: −18% at +9°) and larger peak hip joint kinetics (e.g., power generation: +119% at +9°) than young adults, most evident during the late stance phase of both level and uphill conditions. Old adults performed two to three times more single support positive work than young adults via muscles crossing the knee. In partial support of our second hypothesis, the age-related reduction in peak ankle joint moments was greater during uphill (−0.41 Nm/kg) vs. level (−0.30 Nm/kg) walking. However, old adults that exhibited reduced propulsive ankle function during level walking could perform 44% more trailing leg positive ankle joint work to walk uphill. Our findings indicate that maintaining ankle power generation and trailing leg propulsive function should be the primary focus of “prehabilitation” strategies for old adults to preserve their uphill walking ability. PMID:23850328

  3. An exploratory multilevel analysis of income, income inequality and self-rated health of the elderly in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Wenfei Winnie; Jones, Kelvyn; Li, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades, China has experienced rapid economic development and growing economic inequality, such that economic disparities between rural and urban areas, as well as coastal and interior areas have deepened. Since the late 1990s China has also experienced an ageing population which has attracted attention to the wellbeing of the rapidly growing number of elderly. This research aims to characterise province differences in health and to explore the effects of individual income and economic disparity in the form of income inequality on health outcomes of the elderly. The study is based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data collected in 2008 for 23 provinces. Multilevel logistic models are employed to investigate the relationship between income, income inequality and self-rated health for the elderly using both individual and province-level variables. Results are presented as relative odds ratios, and for province differentials as Median Odds Ratios. The analysis is deliberately exploratory so as to find evidence of income effects if they exist and particular attention is placed on how province-level inequality (contemporaneous and lagged) may moderate individual relationships. The results show that the health of the elderly is not only affected by individual income (the odds of poor health are 3 times greater for the elderly with the lowest income compared to those at the upper quartile) but also by a small main effect for province-level income inequality (odds ratio of 1.019). There are significant cross-level interactions such that where inequality is high there are greater differences between those with and without formal education, and between men and women with the latter experiencing poorer health. PMID:23063218

  4. Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy. Influence of age, sex and dose.

    PubMed

    Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, M I; Serrano, J S

    1988-05-01

    Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio (L/D) has been studied in 536 outpatients distributed in groups according to age, sex and drug dosage. Samples were obtained prior to the first morning dose. Plasma levels that correspond to the steady-state phase were determined by homogeneous enzymatic immunoassay (EMITR). From the results it must be pointed out: 1) An increase of L/D as the age increases within each group; 2) A decrease of L/D as the dose of phenobarbital increases in the overall sample; 3) Sex does not affect L/D in any of the subgroups studied; 4) For a given dose higher blood levels are reached in children 7 to 15 years old in our sample than in other comparable studies in Spain. PMID:3398650

  5. An event-level investigation of hangovers' relationship to age and drinking.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Geoffrey; Treloar, Hayley; Blanchard, Alexander; Monti, Peter M; Carey, Kate B; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Miranda, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Animal and human data suggest that adolescents experience hangover effects that are distinct from adults. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods to examine the temporal relationships between drinking and hangovers, and how this varied by age and sex. We hypothesized that alcohol's dose-dependent effects on hangover severity are more pronounced among adolescents and young adults than older drinkers. We also explored whether greater hangover severity would lead to a lower likelihood and volume of alcohol use later the same day. Data were pooled from 4 studies of drinkers (N = 274; ages 15 to 66 years) who completed a 4- to 14-day (M = 7.46, SD = 1.13) EMA monitoring period. Each morning, participants recorded how much alcohol they consumed the day before and rated their hangover severity. Participants who consumed a greater quantity of alcohol the prior day reported more severe hangover symptoms; however, there was an interaction between drinking volume and age, such that hangover was more severe among younger drinkers, especially at higher drinking levels. More severe hangover symptoms did not predict the likelihood of drinking later that day; however, on drinking days, more severe hangover symptoms predicted lower quantities of alcohol use later that day. This event-level effect did not vary as a function of age. Study outcomes did not vary by sex. Our findings suggest that younger drinkers experience more severe hangovers, and that greater hangover results in lighter drinking later that same day regardless of age. PMID:26280593

  6. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  7. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  8. Reference Data for the Ruff Figural Fluency Test Stratified by Age and Educational Level

    PubMed Central

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Joosten, Hanneke; Koerts, Janneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Slaets, Joris P.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) was developed to avoid the difficulties that were encountered in earlier tests of figural fluency. Although the test characteristics of the RFFT seem to be good and it is a valuable addition to neuropsychological assessments, reference data are still scarce. To this aim, we required 2,404 community dwelling persons in Groningen, the Netherlands to perform the RFFT. All 1,651 persons with a complete RFFT and known educational level formed the reference sample. Their age ranged from 35 to 82 years and their educational level from primary school to university grade. Ninety-six percent of the persons were of Western European descent. All tests were analyzed by two independent examiners and subsequently three measures were calculated: number of unique designs, number of perseverative errors and error ratio. The main finding was that performance on the RFFT was dependent on age and educational level. This was not only observed in older persons but also in young and middle-aged persons. Reference data for the three RFFT measures are presented in groups of five years of age ranging from 35–39 years to 75 years or older. PMID:21347325

  9. Alpha-Synuclein Levels in Blood Plasma Decline with Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Niklas K. U.; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens. PMID:25844871

  10. Age-related differences in plasma BDNF levels after prolonged bed rest.

    PubMed

    Soavi, Cecilia; Marušič, Uroš; Sanz, Juana Maria; Morieri, Mario Luca; Dalla Nora, Edoardo; Šimunič, Bostjan; Pišot, Rado; Zuliani, Giovanni; Passaro, Angelina

    2016-05-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the family of neurotrophins and has been implicated in brain resistance to insults. Murine studies have demonstrated increased hippocampal concentration after acute immobilization and decreased concentration after chronic immobilization. In humans, chronic stress and sedentary lifestyle result in decreased plasma BDNF levels, but there no data exist regarding acute immobilization. The aim of our study was to evaluate age-related responses [comparing 7 younger subjects (age 23 ± 3 yr) and 8 older subjects (age 60 ± 4 yr)] of plasma BDNF before (baseline data collection, BDC) and after 14 days (BR14) of horizontal bed rest (BR). At BDC, BDNF levels were not different between the two groups (P = 0.101), although at BR14, BDNF levels were higher in older subjects (62.02 ± 18.31) than in younger subjects (34.36 ± 15.24 pg/ml) (P = 0.002). A general linear model for repeated measures showed a significant effect of BR on BDNF (P = 0.002). The BDC BDNF levels correlated with fat-free mass in both populations (ALL) (R = 0.628, P = 0.012), (older, R = 0.753, P = 0.031; younger, R = 0.772, P = 0.042), and with total cholesterol in ALL (R = 0.647, P = 0.009) and older study subjects (R = 0.805, P = 0.016). At BR14, BDNF correlated with total cholesterol (R = 0.579, P = 0.024) and age (R = 0.647, P = 0.009) in ALL. With an increase in age, the brain could become naturally less resistant to acute stressors, including the detrimental effects of prolonged bed rest, and thus the increase in BDNF in the older study group might reflect a protective overshooting of the brain to counteract the negative effects in such conditions. PMID:26940658

  11. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... income for persons over the age of 23 with dependent children. For purposes of this paragraph, “financial... include the following: (1) Income from employment of children (including foster children) under the age of... excess of $480 per adopted child; (13) (14) Deferred periodic amounts from supplemental security...

  12. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Maudsley, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional "keystone" role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  13. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-na; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional “keystone” role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  14. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  15. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  16. Sea-level responses to sediment transport over the last ice age cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Sea-level changes over the last ice age cycle were instrumental in steering Earth's topographic evolution. These sea-level variations were driven by changes in surface mass loads, including not only ice and ocean mass variations but also the transfer of rock from eroding mountains to sedimentary deposits. Here we use an extended numerical model of ice age sea level (Dalca et al., 2013) to explore how sediment erosion and deposition affected global sea-level variations over the last ice age cycle. The model takes histories of ice and sediment loads as inputs, and it computes gravitationally self-consistent sea level responses by accounting for the deformational, gravitational, and rotational perturbations in the Earth's viscoelastic form. In these model simulations, we use published estimates of erosion rates, sedimentation rates, and ice sheet variations to constrain sediment and ice loading since the Last Interglacial. We explore sea-level responses to several erosional and depositional scenarios, and in each we quantify the relative contributions of crustal deformation and gravitational perturbation to the computed sea-level change. We also present a case study to illustrate the effects that sediment transfer can have on sea level at the regional scale. In particular, we focus on the region surrounding the Indus River, where fluvial sediment fluxes are among the highest on Earth. Preliminary model results suggest that sediment fluxes from Asia to the ocean are large enough to produce a significant response in sea level along the northeastern coast of the Arabian Sea. Moreover, they suggest that modeled sea-level histories are sensitive to the timing and spatial distribution of sediment erosion and deposition. For instance, sediment deposition along the continental shelf - which may have been the primary site of Indus River sediment deposition during the Holocene - produces a different sea-level response than sediment deposition on the deep-sea Indus Fan, where

  17. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi Mi; Kim, Jin Wook; Jin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess serum testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages. Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups: a control group (cage and platform), 3-day SD, 5-day SD, 7-day SD, 1-day SR, 3-day SR and 5-day SR groups. For PSD, the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed. Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=−0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=−0.840). The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD. Upon SR after 3 days of PSD, the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013), whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group. PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent. The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear. PMID:22157981

  18. Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):−0.33,−0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

  19. Contribution of income to self-management and health outcomes in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Whittemore, Robin; Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Low income has been established as a risk factor for poorer outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes; however, the effect of moderate income has not been studied. The purpose of this secondary analysis of baseline data from a multi-site study was to compare glycemic control, self-management, and psychosocial outcomes [depression, stress, and quality of life (QOL)] at different income levels in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Youth (n = 320, mean age = 12.3 + 1.1, 55% female, 64% white, mean A1C = 8.3 ± 1.4) completed established self-management and psychosocial measures. A1C levels were collected from medical records. Caregivers reported annual family income, categorized as high (>$80K), moderate ($40-80K), or low (<$40K). Youth from high-income families had significantly lower A1C (mean = 7.9 ± 1.2) than those from the moderate-income group (8.6 ± 1.7, p < 0.001) or the low-income group (mean A1C = 8.6 ± 1.5, p = 0.003). Youth from the high-income group reported significantly better diabetes problem solving and more self-management goals than those from the moderate- or low-income groups (both p < 0.01). Youth from the high-income group also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression, lower levels of perceived stress, and better QOL than those in the moderate or low-income groups (all p < 0.05). Multivariate linear regression models were used to test psychological and behavioral predictors of A1C and QOL. Parents' education status (p < 0.05) and self-management activities (p < 0.01) were significant predictors of hemoglobin A1c, while income (p < 0.01) and self-management activities (p < 0.05) were significant predictors of QOL. PMID:25545117

  20. Partial reversal of skeletal muscle aging by restoration of normal NAD⁺ levels.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2014-02-01

    That some aging-associated phenotypes may be reversible is an emerging theme in contemporary aging research. Gomes et al. report that age-associated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects in murine skeletal muscle are biphasic. In the first phase, OXPHOS is decreased because of reduced expression of mitochondrially encoded genes. Treatment of moderately old mice (first-phase OXPHOS defects) with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) for 1 week restores oxidative phosphorylation activity and other markers of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. However, muscle strength is not restored. In very old animals (second-phase OXPHOS defects), expression of OXPHOS genes from both the nucleus and mitochondria is reduced and mitochondrial DNA integrity is diminished. Gomes et al. propose a model linking decreased NAD⁺ to loss of nuclear SIRT1 activity to stabilization of the hypoxia-associated transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1a). HIF-1a promotes an hypoxic-like (Warburg effect) state in the cell. The HIF-1a protein interacts with c-Myc, decreasing c-Myc-regulated transcription of the key mitochondrial regulator mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Low levels of TFAM lead to first-phase OXPHOS dysfunction. The transition to irreversible phase 2 dysfunction remains to be characterized, but may be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This model suggests that intervention in mitochondrial aging may be possible using appropriate NAD⁺ precursors such as nicotinamide riboside. Restoring NAD⁺ levels may be beneficial throughout the organism. For example, aging-associated disturbances in circadian rhythm are linked to diminished SIRT1 activity, and loss of hematopoietic stem cell function to reduced SIRT3. Work to elucidate other biphasic aging mechanisms is strongly encouraged. PMID:24410488

  1. Age-related changes in human oestrogen receptor alpha function and levels in osteoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Ankrom, M A; Patterson, J A; d'Avis, P Y; Vetter, U K; Blackman, M R; Sponseller, P D; Tayback, M; Robey, P G; Shapiro, J R; Fedarko, N S

    1998-01-01

    Oestrogen receptors (ERs) are present in human osteoblasts and mediate anti-resorptive effects on bone. Human osteoblast-like cells derived from different aged healthy female donors not on hormone replacement therapy were utilized under well-defined conditions in vitro to investigate ER function and levels. Treatment with 0.1 nM oestradiol-17beta of cell strains derived from eight young women (less than 50 years of age) increased hydroxyproline levels significantly [an average (2.2+/-0.1 S.E.M.)-fold increase], whereas cells derived from nine older women (more than 50 years of age) were not significantly affected. Similarly, cell strains, derived from younger women, transfected with a consensus oestrogen-responsive element linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase exhibited a greater response to oestrogen than strains derived from older women. When basal ERalpha levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and normalized on a per cell basis, osteoblast-like strains derived from younger women (n=24) had a mean value of 2.54+/-0.16 fmol of ERalpha per 10(6) cells. In contrast, strains derived from older women (n=20) had a mean value of 5.44+/-0.48 fmol of ERalpha per 10(6) cells. An age-related increase in ERalpha number was also observed in human skin-derived fibroblasts and directly in dermal biopsies from women not on hormone replacement therapy. The results demonstrate ligand concentration-dependent ERalpha induction and indicate a loss of receptor regulation and diminution of ligand-receptor signal transduction with increasing donor age. PMID:9677341

  2. 20 CFR 416.1100 - Income and SSI eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income and SSI eligibility. 416.1100 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Income General § 416.1100 Income and SSI eligibility. You are eligible for supplemental security income (SSI) benefits if you are an aged, blind, or disabled person who meets...

  3. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dong; Zhang, Xuefei; Rong, Shengzhong; Sha, Qian; Liu, Peipei; Han, Tao; Pan, Hongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), conjugated diene (CD), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyl (PC), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P < 0.05). The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P < 0.01). And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis. PMID:23781296

  4. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  5. Fitness level moderates executive control disruption during exercise regardless of age.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Smilovitch, Mark; Bherer, Louis

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise intensity, age, and fitness levels on executive and nonexecutive cognitive tasks during exercise. Participants completed a computerized modified-Stroop task (including denomination, inhibition, and switching conditions) while pedaling on a cycle ergometer at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak power output (PPO). We showed that a bout of moderate-intensity (60% PPO) to high-intensity (80% PPO) exercise was associated with deleterious performance in the executive component of the computerized modified-Stroop task (i.e., switching condition), especially in lower-fit individuals (p < .01). Age did not have an effect on the relationship between acute cardiovascular exercise and cognition. Acute exercise can momentarily impair executive control equivalently in younger and older adults, but individual's fitness level moderates this relation. PMID:24918309

  6. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (P<0.001). In addition, our results showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (P<0. 01). In this study, data were analyzed using SPSS 16 (ANOVA test). To the best of our knowledge, it seems that UA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging. PMID:27470332

  7. Value of health, incidence of depression, and level of self-esteem in low-income mothers of pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Burns, E I; Doremus, P C; Potter, M B

    1990-01-01

    Nurses are continually promoting health and healthy lifestyles. This contribution requires that nurses understand client values and priorities. Traditionally, women have had responsibility for their own and their families' health. Nurses must recognize and understand the complex influences shaping the value women place on health. The literature indicates that women want to participate actively in their own health care by assuming more responsibility for their health and well-being. This research evolved as a result of nursing student and faculty interactions with mothers of pre-school children enrolled in a Headstart program. During these experiences, observations related to the needs of the mothers included poor health practices (smoking, being overweight), lack of motivation, statements of feeling depressed, difficulty making decisions, feelings of being overwhelmed by parenting demands, powerlessness, and disenfranchisement. This descriptive, correlational study was designed to determine the value of health, incidence of depression, and characteristics of self-esteem among low-income mothers of pre-school children. This sample of convenience was comprised of 133 low-income mothers who responded to a mailed survey. Three instruments were used in the study: the Wallston and Wallston Health Values Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Data were analyzed by collection of frequency of response, which was then converted to a percentage. To determine if differences existed in respect to demographic variables, ANOVA (self-esteem and depression) and Chi Square (health) measures were used. Participation in activities outside the home accounted for a significant difference in self-esteem. Mothers involved in activities reported higher self-esteem. The findings suggest that participation in activities may increase self-esteem and lower depression. Over three-quarters (85%) of mothers placed a high value on

  8. Tear Lacritin Levels by Age, Sex, and Time of Day in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Kyle; Gandia, Natasha C.; Wilburn, Jennifer K.; Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Deaton, Michael L.; Still, Katherine M.; Vassilev, Veronica C.; Laurie, Gordon W.; McKown, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Several small proteomic studies suggest that the prosecretory tear protein lacritin may be selectively downregulated in dry eye syndrome and in blepharitis, yet little information is available about normal baseline levels. This study assessed lacritin levels in tears from healthy individuals and addressed whether they differ according to sex, age, or time of day. Methods. Rabbit antibodies against lacritin N-terminal peptide EDASSDSTGADPAQEAGTS (Pep Lac N-Term) were generated and characterized against human recombinant lacritin and N-65 truncation mutant. Basal tears were collected from 66 healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 52 years, and at four times during one 24-hour period from 34 other individuals. Lacritin levels were then analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. Results. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term bound lacritin, but not truncation mutant N-65 that lacks the N-terminal antigenic site. Tear lacritin levels followed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.2 ± 1.17 ng/100 ng total tear protein. Levels differed little by age or sex, and decreased slightly between 4 and 8 hours in a 24-hour cycle. Tear-blocking effects were minimal, as suggested by spiking of tears with recombinant lacritin. Conclusions. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term–detectable lacritin comprises ∼4.2 ng/100 ng total tear protein in healthy individuals, with no significant differences between males and females or among individuals between 18 and 52 years old. Levels decrease slightly in the late afternoon. These findings provide a baseline for future immunodiagnostic studies of lacritin in dry eye and other ocular diseases. PMID:22918641

  9. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  10. Contingent Repayment Education Loans Related to Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Gerard M.

    This paper explores some questions about the use of income for determining repayment of educational loans. The plans generally call for a level of repayment to cover the initial advances, plus interest for a college graduate with average income, but would require less than full repayment for the students with low income, and over full repayment…

  11. The influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing strategy during a 100-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing during a 100-km ultramarathon. Results of a 100-km race incorporating the World Masters Championships were used to identify differences in relative speeds in each 10-km segment between participants finishing in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of overall positions (Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Similar analyses were performed between the top and bottom 50% of finishers in each age category, as well as within male and female categories. Pacing varied between athletes achieving different absolute performance levels. Group 1 ran at significantly lower relative speeds than all other groups in the first three 10-km segments (all P < 0.01), and significantly higher relative speeds than Group 4 in the 6th and 10th (both P < 0.01), and Group 2 in the 8th (P = 0.04). Group 4 displayed significantly higher relative speeds than Group 2 and 3 in the first three segments (all P < 0.01). Overall strategies remained consistent across age categories, although a similar phenomenon was observed within each category whereby 'top' competitors displayed lower relative speeds than 'bottom' competitors in the early stages, but higher relative speeds in the later stages. Females showed lower relative starting speeds and higher finishing speeds than males. 'Top' and 'bottom' finishing males displayed differing strategies, but this was not the case within females. Although pacing remained consistent across age categories, it differed with level of performance within each, possibly suggesting strategies are anchored on direct competitors. Strategy differs between genders and differs depending on performance level achieved in males but not females. PMID:26034882

  12. How Does It Look? Level 2 Perspective-Taking at 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that children engage in Level 2 visual perspective-taking, that is, the understanding that others may see things in a different way, between 4 and 5 years of age (e.g., J. H. Flavell, B. A. Everett, K. Croft, & E. R. Flavell, 1981). This ability was reexamined in 36-month-olds using color filters. In Experiment 1 (N =…

  13. Telomere protein RAP1 levels are affected by cellular aging and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark J.; Baribault, Michelle E.; Israel, Joanna N.; Bae, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are important for maintaining the integrity of the genome through the action of the shelterin complex. Previous studies indicted that the length of the telomere did not have an effect on the amount of the shelterin subunits; however, those experiments were performed using immortalized cells with stable telomere lengths. The interest of the present study was to observe how decreasing telomere lengths over successive generations would affect the shelterin subunits. As neonatal human dermal fibroblasts aged and their telomeres became shorter, the levels of the telomere-binding protein telomeric repeat factor 2 (TRF2) decreased significantly. By contrast, the levels of one of its binding partners, repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1), decreased to a lesser extent than would be expected from the decrease in TRF2. Other subunits, TERF1-interacting nuclear factor 2 and protection of telomeres protein 1, remained stable. The decrease in RAP1 in the older cells occurred in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress was used as an artificial means of aging in the cells, and this resulted in RAP1 levels decreasing, but the effect was only observed in the nuclear portion. Similar results were obtained using U251 glioblastoma cells treated with H2O2 or grown in serum-depleted medium. The present findings indicate that TRF2 and RAP1 levels decrease as fibroblasts naturally age. RAP1 remains more stable compared to TRF2. RAP1 also responds to oxidative stress, but the response is different to that observed in aging. PMID:27446538

  14. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  15. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks

    PubMed Central

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Green, Cara L.; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J.; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  16. Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William G; Goldstein, Steven L

    2005-04-15

    Sea level is a sensitive index of global climate that has been linked to Earth's orbital variations, with a minimum periodicity of about 21,000 years. Although there is ample evidence for climate oscillations that are too frequent to be explained by orbital forcing, suborbital-frequency sea-level change has been difficult to resolve, primarily because of problems with uranium/thorium coral dating. Here we use a new approach that corrects coral ages for the frequently observed open-system behavior of uranium-series nuclides, substantially improving the resolution of sea-level reconstruction. This curve reveals persistent sea-level oscillations that are too frequent to be explained exclusively by orbital forcing. PMID:15831756

  17. Open-System Coral Ages Reveal Persistent Suborbital Sea-Level Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, William G.; Goldstein, Steven L.

    2005-04-01

    Sea level is a sensitive index of global climate that has been linked to Earth's orbital variations, with a minimum periodicity of about 21,000 years. Although there is ample evidence for climate oscillations that are too frequent to be explained by orbital forcing, suborbital-frequency sea-level change has been difficult to resolve, primarily because of problems with uranium/thorium coral dating. Here we use a new approach that corrects coral ages for the frequently observed open-system behavior of uranium-series nuclides, substantially improving the resolution of sea-level reconstruction. This curve reveals persistent sea-level oscillations that are too frequent to be explained exclusively by orbital forcing.

  18. Effect of Childhood Victimization on Occupational Prestige and Income Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Cristina A.; Christ, Sharon L.; LeBlanc, William G.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Dietz, Noella A.; McCollister, Kathyrn E.; Fleming, Lora E.; Muntaner, Carles; Muennig, Peter; Lee, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent’s educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood. Methods A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18–28 surveyed between 1999–2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999–2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models. Results Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims. Conclusions Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the

  19. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  20. Income incongruity, relative household income, and preterm birth in the Black Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ghasi S; Wise, Lauren A; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Stampfer, Meir J; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Relative income may be a better predictor of health outcomes than absolute income. We examined two measures of relative income—income incongruity and relative household income—in relation to preterm birth in a study of U.S. Black women. Income incongruity is a measure that compares the median household income of an individual’s residential area with that of others who have the same level of marital status and education, but who may live in different areas. Relative household income is a measure that compares an individual’s household income with the median household income of her residential area. We used data collected biennially (1997–2003) from participants in the Black Women’s Health Study: 6,257 singleton births were included in the income incongruity analyses and 5,182 in the relative household income analyses; 15% of the births were preterm. After adjusting for confounders, we found no overall association of income incongruity or relative household income with preterm birth. For relative household income, but not for income incongruity, there was suggestive evidence that neighborhood composition modified the association with preterm birth: higher relative household income was associated with higher risk of preterm birth in neighborhoods with a high percentage of Black residents, and higher relative household income was associated with lower risk in neighborhoods with a low percentage of Black residents. PMID:19394740

  1. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  2. Relation between income inequality and mortality in Canada and in the United States: cross sectional assessment using census data and vital statistics

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nancy A; Wolfson, Michael C; Dunn, James R; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Kaplan, George A; Lynch, John W

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the relation between mortality and income inequality in Canada with that in the United States. Design The degree of income inequality, defined as the percentage of total household income received by the less well off 50% of households, was calculated and these measures were examined in relation to all cause mortality, grouped by and adjusted for age. Setting The 10 Canadian provinces, the 50 US states, and 53 Canadian and 282 US metropolitan areas. Results Canadian provinces and metropolitan areas generally had both lower income inequality and lower mortality than US states and metropolitan areas. In age grouped regression models that combined Canadian and US metropolitan areas, income inequality was a significant explanatory variable for all age groupings except for elderly people. The effect was largest for working age populations, in which a hypothetical 1% increase in the share of income to the poorer half of households would reduce mortality by 21 deaths per 100 000. Within Canada, however, income inequality was not significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions Canada seems to counter the increasingly noted association at the societal level between income inequality and mortality. The lack of a significant association between income inequality and mortality in Canada may indicate that the effects of income inequality on health are not automatic and may be blunted by the different ways in which social and economic resources are distributed in Canada and in the United States. PMID:10741994

  3. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  4. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  5. Serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongmei; Yin, Quhua; Yan, Xiaoli; Song, Huaidong; Gao, Guanqi; Liang, Jun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). Methods: We screened 1607 euthyroid subjects aged 35-65 years old. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups (i.e., TPOAb-positive group, n=205; TPOAb-negative group, n=1402) according to the level of TPOAb. The subjects were then subgrouped according to serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; those with a TSH level of 0.3-0.99 mIU/L, 1.0-1.89 mIU/L, and 1.9-4.80 mIU/L were classified into the low-normal, mid-range, and high-normal TSH subgroups, respectively). Each TSH group further subdivided into TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative subgroup. Data regarding the subjects’ height, body weight, blood pressure, and levels of serum TSH, TPOAb, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were collected. Results: Compared with TPOAb-negative subjects, TPOAb-positive patients had higher levels of TSH, TC, and HDL-C (P=0.001, P=0.012, and P=0.049 respectively) with a tendency for increased LDL-C levels (P=0.053). In the low-normal TSH subgroup, subjects with and without TPOAb had similar levels of TSH, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C (P>0.05). In mid-range TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher HDL-C levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P=0.008) and a tendency for increased TC levels (P=0.121). In the high-normal TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher TSH and TC levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P<0.001 and P=0.046 respectively). Conclusions: High TPOAb levels above the normal range appears in euthyroid population, dyslipidemia have begun. PMID:26885115

  6. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in babies of different gestational ages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sitao; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Ping; Gao, Ping Ming; Xiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We measured cord blood and urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels in babies of different gestational ages to determine lipid peroxidation status. Methods: Babies at gestational ages of 28-43 weeks were divided into group A (28-32 weeks), group B (33-36 weeks), group C (37-41 weeks), and group D (42-43 weeks). 8-iso-PGF2α in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth and urine at 6 hours after birth was and tested by ELISA. Results: UCB and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group C were 130.09 ± 31.73 pg/ml and 27.14 ± 6.73 pg/ml, respectively. UCB 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group A and B were 188.42 ± 59.34 pg/ml and 189.37 ± 68.46 pg/ml, and urine 8-iso-PGF2α were 32.14 ± 7.32 pg/ml and 30.46 ± 8.83 pg/ml, respectively. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group D (post-term) were 252.01 ± 46.42 pg/ml and 44.00 ± 8.50 pg/ml. For all babies, UCB and urine iso-PGF2α levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). Conclusions: We established blood and urine iso-PGF2α levels in normal full-term babies. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels may reflect the extent of lipid peroxidation in babies. In pre-term and post-term babies, there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:25664058

  7. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and adropin levels in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal; Aydin, Süleyman; Yilmaz, Musa; Ölmez, Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and adropin in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. METHODS Ninety-eight AMD patients were included in the study. Seventy-eight age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. Fundus florescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were performed to assess the posterior segment details. Serum VEGFR-2 and adropin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and compared between the study groups. RESULTS AMD group had significantly increased foveal retinal thickness, serum LDL and HDL levels and significantly decreased subfoveal choroidal thickness (P =0.01, 0.047, 0.025 and <0.001, respectively). Serum VEGFR-2 level revealed a significant decrease in AMD patients compared to controls (26.48±6.44 vs 30.42±7.92 ng/mL, P<0.001). There was an insignificant increase in serum adropin level in AMD patients (6.17±3.19 vs 5.79±2.71 ng/mL, P=0.4). Serum level of VEGFR-2 in AMD patients had a significant negative correlation with foveal retinal thickness (r=-0.226, P=0.025) and a significant positive correlation with subfoveal choroidal thickness (r=0.2, P=0.048). CONCLUSION The current study demonstrated that the decreased serum VEGFR-2 level may be considered in the development of AMD. Adropin does not seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:27162728

  8. Serum levels of lipid metabolites in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Orban, Tivadar; Johnson, William M; Dong, Zhiqian; Maeda, Tadao; Maeda, Akiko; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mieyal, John J; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice that display light-induced retinal degeneration indicates that 11-cis-retinal and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were significantly decreased as compared with the eyes of control dark-adapted C57BL/6J mice. In addition, exposure to intense light correlated with higher levels of prostaglandin G2 in the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. Intense light exposure also lowered DHA levels in the eyes of wild-type C57BL/6J mice without discernible retinal degeneration. Analysis of human serum from patients with AMD recapitulated these dysregulated DHA levels and revealed dysregulation of arachidonic acid (AA) levels as well (∼32% increase in patients with AMD compared with average levels in healthy individuals). From these observations, we then built a statistical model that included levels of DHA and AA from human serum. This model had a 74% probability of correctly identifying patients with AMD from controls. Addition of a genetic analysis for one of the most prevalent amino acid substitutions in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene linked to AMD, Ala(69)→Ser, did not improve the statistical model. Thus, we have characterized a reliable method with the potential to detect AMD without a genetic component, paving the way for a larger-scale clinical evaluation. Our studies on mouse models along with the analysis of human serum suggest that our small molecule-based model may serve as an effective tool to estimate the risk of developing AMD. PMID:26187344

  9. The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Subramanian, S V; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence from longitudinal studies on the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in older age on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is limited. We aimed to investigate the prospective association of neighbourhood-level deprivation in later life with CVD mortality, and assess the underlying role of established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A socially representative cohort of 3924 men, aged 60–79 years in 1998–2000, from 24 British towns, was followed up until 2012 for CVD mortality. Quintiles of the national Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), a composite score of neighbourhood-level factors (including income, employment, education, housing and living environment) were used. Multilevel logistic regression with discrete-time models (stratifying follow-up time into months) were used. Results Over 12 years, 1545 deaths occurred, including 580 from CVD. The risk of CVD mortality showed a graded increase from IMD quintile 1 (least deprived) to 5 (most deprived). Compared to quintile 1, the age-adjusted odds of CVD mortality in quintile 5 were 1.71 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.21), and 1.62 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.13) on further adjustment for individual social class, which was attenuated slightly to 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.89), but remained statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity and use of alcohol. Further adjustment for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prevalent diabetes made little difference. Conclusions Neighbourhood-level deprivation was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality in older people independent of individual-level social class and cardiovascular risk factors. The role of other specific neighbourhood-level factors merits further research. PMID:26285580

  10. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60–79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble Aβ. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD. PMID:19428144

  11. Perceptual information for the age level of faces as a higher order invariant of growth.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, J B; Shaw, R E; Mark, L S

    1979-08-01

    Previous work supports the hypothesis that cardioidal strain, a nonlinear topological transformation, offers a plausible mathematical model for the perceived global changes in human craniofacial morphology due to growth. Experiment 1 examined the generality of the effect of this growth transformation on relative age judgments by applying it to profiles of a dog, bird, and monkey. Experiment 2 investigated the abstractness of this transformation by looking at its effect on perceived age level of a Volkswagen "Beetle." In both experiments, cardioidal strain resulted in changes in the perceived age of the nonhuman profiles that were similar to those produced on human faces in earlier work. A second transformation, affine shear, failed to produce as significant an effect on perceived age as cardioidal strain when applied to the same structures. Because cardioidal strain produces changes in structures that do not share an isomorphism of rigid (Euclidian) local features or rigid feature configurations, this transformation seems both sufficiently general and abstract to specify what J.J. Gibson has called a "higher-order invariant of perceptual information. PMID:528953

  12. A Systems Level Analysis of Transcriptional Changes in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeremy A.; Oldham, Michael C.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of elderly individuals worldwide. Advances in the genetics of AD have led to new levels of understanding and treatment opportunities. Here, we used a systems biology approach based on weighted gene coexpression network analysis to determine transcriptional networks in AD. This method permits a higher order depiction of gene expression relationships and identifies modules of coexpressed genes that are functionally related, rather than producing massive gene lists. Using this framework, we characterized the transcriptional network in AD, identifying 12 distinct modules related to synaptic and metabolic processes, immune response, and white matter, nine of which were related to disease progression. We further examined the association of gene expression changes with progression of AD and normal aging, and were able to compare functional modules of genes defined in both conditions. Two biologically relevant modules were conserved between AD and aging, one related to mitochondrial processes such as energy metabolism, and the other related to synaptic plasticity. We also identified several genes that were central, or hub, genes in both aging and AD, including the highly abundant signaling molecule 14.3.3 ζ (YWHAZ), whose role in AD and aging is uncharacterized. Finally, we found that presenilin 1 (PSEN1) is highly coexpressed with canonical myelin proteins, suggesting a role for PSEN1 in aspects of glial-neuronal interactions related to neurodegenerative processes. PMID:18256261

  13. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions. PMID:26769915

  14. Prospective Study of Plasma Homocysteine Level and Risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Women

    PubMed Central

    Christen, William G.; Cook, Nancy R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective data to examine the association of homocysteine and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are limited. We examined the prospective relation of plasma homocysteine level and AMD in a large cohort of apparently healthy women. Methods We evaluated the relationship between baseline levels of plasma homocysteine and incident AMD among 27,479 female health professionals aged 40 years or older. Main outcome measures were total AMD, defined as a self-report documented by medical record evidence of an initial diagnosis after randomization, and visually significant AMD, defined as confirmed incident AMD with visual acuity of 20/30 or worse attributable to this condition. Results During an average of 10 years of follow-up, a total of 452 cases of AMD, including 182 cases of visually-significant AMD, were documented. Women in the highest versus lowest quartile of plasma homocysteine had modestly, but statistically non-significant, increased risks of total (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95–1.63; p for trend, 0.07) and visually-significant AMD (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.92–2.17; p for trend, 0.052) in age- and treatment-adjusted analyses. Conclusions These prospective data from a large cohort of apparently-healthy women do not support a strong role for homocysteine in AMD occurrence. PMID:25777307

  15. Long-term high-level exercise promotes muscle reinnervation with age.

    PubMed

    Mosole, Simone; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Loefler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Vogelauer, Michael; Burggraf, Samantha; Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Hamar, Dusan; Cvecka, Jan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sarabon, Nejc; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Protasi, Feliciano; Nori, Alessandra; Pond, Amber; Zampieri, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    The histologic features of aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to atrophy, that immobility accelerates the process, and that routine exercise may protect against loss of motor units and muscle tissue. Here, we compared muscle biopsies from sedentary and physically active seniors and found that seniors with a long history of high-level recreational activity up to the time of muscle biopsy had 1) lower loss of muscle strength versus young men (32% loss in physically active vs 51% loss in sedentary seniors); 2) fewer small angulated (denervated) myofibers; 3) a higher percentage of fiber-type groups (reinnervated muscle fibers) that were almost exclusive of the slow type; and 4) sparse normal-size muscle fibers coexpressing fast and slow myosin heavy chains, which is not compatible with exercise-driven muscle-type transformation. The biopsies from the old physically active seniors varied from sparse fiber-type groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, suggesting that coexpressing fibers appear to fill gaps. Altogether, the data show that long-term physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers and suggest that decades of high-level exercise allow the body to adapt to age-related denervation by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through selective recruitment to slow motor units. These effects on size and structure of myofibers may delay functional decline in late aging. PMID:24607961

  16. Estimating Risks of Heat Strain by Age and Sex: A Population-Level Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Dear, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan’s man model “MANMO”) to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions. PMID:25993102

  17. Age and hypertension strongly induce aortic stiffening in rats at basal and matched blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, George; Ragonnet, Christophe; Chimenti, Stefano; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Age and hypertension are major causes of large artery remodeling and stiffening, a cardiovascular risk factor for heart and kidney damage. The aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model is recognized for human cardiovascular pathology, but discrepancies appeared in studies of arterial stiffness. We performed experiments using a robust analysis via echo tracking in 20-week adult (n = 8) and 80-week-old SHR (n = 7), with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 6;6) at basal and matched levels of blood pressure (BP). After anesthesia with pentobarbital, abdominal aortic diameter and pressure were recorded and BP was decreased by clonidine i.v. At basal BP, aortic pulse distension, compliance, and distensibility (AD) were reduced and stiffness index increased with age and hypertension and further altered with age + hypertension. When BP was adjusted in SHR to that of normotensive rats (130 mmHg), there was no difference between 20-week-old SHR and WKY Importantly, the age effect was maintained in both WKY and SHR and accentuated by hypertension in old rats. At 130 mmHg, with similar pulse pressure in the four groups, AD (kPa(-3)) = 24.2 ± 1 in 20 weeks WKY, 19.7 ± 1.4 in 20 weeks SHR, 12.4 ± 1.3 in 80 weeks WKY and 6.6 ± 0.6 in 80 weeks SHR; distension = 7.6 ± 0.4%, 6.7 ± 0.6%, 3.7 ± 0.3%, and 1.8 ± 0.2% in the same groups. In conclusion, reduced distensibility, that is, stiffening due to age is clearly shown here in both WKY and SHR as well as a synergistic effect of age and hypertension. This technique will allow new studies on the mechanisms responsible and drug intervention. PMID:27233301

  18. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27138834

  19. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  20. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  1. DNA methylation levels at individual age-associated CpG sites can be indicative for life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Weidner, Carola I.; Costa, Ivan G.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Deary, Ian J.; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    DNA-methylation (DNAm) levels at age-associated CpG sites can be combined into epigenetic aging signatures to estimate donor age. It has been demonstrated that the difference between such epigenetic age-predictions and chronological age is indicative for of all-cause mortality in later life. In this study, we tested alternative epigenetic signatures and followed the hypothesis that even individual age-associated CpG sites might be indicative for life-expectancy. Using a 99-CpG aging model, a five-year higher age-prediction was associated with 11% greater mortality risk in DNAm profiles of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 study. However, models based on three CpGs, or even individual CpGs, generally revealed very high offsets in age-predictions if applied to independent microarray datasets. On the other hand, we demonstrate that DNAm levels at several individual age-associated CpGs seem to be associated with life expectancy – e.g., at CpGs associated with the genes PDE4C and CLCN6. Our results support the notion that small aging signatures should rather be analysed by more quantitative methods, such as site-specific pyrosequencing, as the precision of age-predictions is rather low on independent microarray datasets. Nevertheless, the results hold the perspective that simple epigenetic biomarkers, based on few or individual age-associated CpGs, could assist the estimation of biological age. PMID:26928272

  2. Physical Performance of Brazilian Rugby Players From Different Age Categories and Competitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Moraes, José E; Coelho, Maurício; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-09-01

    Kobal, R, Nakamura, FY, Moraes, JE, Coelho, M, Kitamura, K, Cal Abad, CC, Pereira, LA, and Loturco, I. Physical performance of Brazilian rugby players from different age categories and competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2433-2439, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities (vertical jumping, speed, agility, and endurance abilities) among different age categories of Brazilian rugby players from the same high-level club and to compare their respective data with those obtained from the national team players. Eighty-eight men Brazilian rugby players from 4 different age categories were divided into 4 different groups (i.e., under-15 [U-15], under-17 [U-17], under-19 [U-19], and professional senior team [PRO]) and a group composed of players from the Brazilian national team (NAT). Anthropometric measures (i.e., height and body mass), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests , 2 agility tests (change of direction [COD] and proagility), 40-m sprinting, and the Yo-Yo endurance test (level 1) were compared among the groups using an analysis of covariance (multivariable multivariate analysis of covariance) with the body mass as a covariate. The NAT group demonstrated significantly greater performances in all variables compared with the U-15, U-17, U-19, and PRO groups (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the PRO group demonstrated better performances in vertical jumping assessments (i.e., SJs and CMJs) and agility tests (i.e., COD and proagility) than the younger categories (p ≤ 0.05). Finally, except for the U-15 group, no significant differences were found between the young age-categories in sprint and endurance capacities. These findings show that, throughout the maturation process, rugby players improve their muscle power and agility abilities without presenting significant increases in endurance and sprinting capacities. Importantly, this does not hold true for players from the NAT group, who

  3. Relative sea-level change in the central Cyclades (Greece) since the Early Bronze Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Aegean is a focus of important cultural achievements in Europe since the Neolithic period. The resulting abundance of archaeological remains, many of them below sea-level represent an advantageous area for the study of local relative sea-level change. We have carried out detailed mapping of Despotiko Island (SW of Antiparos) and its surrounding. Despotiko is situated almost exactly in the center of the Cyclades (as defined nowadays), more so than Delos, and therefore is very well suited for sea-level studies of the Cyclades. This beneficial location, combined with a spacious and protected bay, additionally may explain its former importance as stepping-stone in the Aegean Sea. The island is uninhabited at present, but Early Bronze Age settlement sites and graveyards as well as a large Archaic sanctuary proof its former importance. The sanctuary is situated on a gently northeast dipping slope in the northeast part of Despotiko, in range of sight of the Órmos Despotiko. Since 1997 large parts of this important sanctuary have been excavated during several excavation campaigns. Tectonically, Despotiko, Antiparos and Paros, belong to the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline of the Central Hellenides, a stack of metamorphic tectonic nappes, mainly comprising variable types of gneiss, schist, marble and amphibolite, and tectonic slices of unmetamorphosed sediments on top, separated by low-angle normal faults from the metamorphic units below. Submerged archaeological structures at the sea bottom of the Órmos Despotiko, a Classical marble inscription from the sanctuary and partly submerged agriculture trenches at the east coast Despotiko, indicate that the relative sea-level in this area was some 3 m lower during the Early Bronze Age and still more than 1 m lower during Classical time. These values of relative sea-level rise indicate a subsidence component additional to the global sea-level rise in the investigated time period. Neglecting possible vertical tectonic movements and

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United ... of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, 42.2% of youth ...

  5. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated. PMID:20413888

  6. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  7. Mechanical properties of human lumbar spine motion segments. Influence of age, sex, disc level, and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Nachemson, A L; Schultz, A B; Berkson, M H

    1979-01-01

    The influences of age, sex, disc level, and degree of degenration on the mechanical behavior of 42 fresh cadaver lumbar motion segments are reported. The motions and intradiscal pressure changes that result from the application of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments; compression; and anterior, posterior, and lateral shears are described. The authors find that the mean behaviors of the different segment classes sometimes differ, but these differences are seldom pronounced. Scatter in the behavior of individual motion segments is pronounced, and very often overshadows any class differences. PMID:432710

  8. Low Level Light Therapy with Light-Emitting Diodes for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    Calderhead, R Glen; Vasily, David B

    2016-07-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is emerging from the mists of black magic as a solid medico-scientific modality, with a substantial buildup of corroborative bodies of evidence for its efficacy and elucidation of the modes of action. Reports are appearing from many different specialties; however, of particular interest to plastic surgeons treating the aging face is the proven action of LED-LLLT on skin cells in both the epidermis and dermis and enhanced blood flow. Thus, LED-LLLT is a safe and effective stand-alone therapy for patients who are prepared to wait until the final effect is perceived. PMID:27363768

  9. Flavonoid Chrysin prevents age-related cognitive decline via attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of BDNF levels in aged mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Antunes, Michelle Silva; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del Fabbro, Lucian; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Goes, André Tiago Rossito; Donato, Franciele; Prigol, Marina; Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Jesse, Cristiano R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), an important member of the flavonoid family, on memory impairment, oxidative stress and BDNF reduction generated by aging in mice were investigated. Young and aged mice were treated daily per 60days with Chrysin (1 and 10mg/kg; per oral, p.o.) or veichle (10ml/kg; p.o.). Mice were trained and tested in Morris Water Maze task. After the behavioural test, the levels of reactive species (RS), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as the activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) of mice. Results demonstrated that the age-related memory decline was partially protected by Chrysin at a dose of 1mg/kg, and normalized at the dose of 10mg/kg (p<0.001). Treatment with Chrysin significantly attenuated the increase of RS levels and the inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activities of aged mice. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in PFC and HP of aged mice was also attenuated by Chrysin treatment. Moreover, Chrysin marked mitigated the decrease of BDNF levels in the PFC and HC of aged mice. These results demonstrated that flavonoid Chrysin, an antioxidant compound, was able to prevent age-associated memory probably by their free radical scavenger action and modulation of BDNF production. Thus, this study indicates that Chrysin may represent a new pharmacological approach to alleviate the age-related declines during normal age, acting as an anti-aging agent. PMID:25931267

  10. Age-dependent changes in the protein expression levels of Redd1 and mTOR in the gerbil hippocampus during normal aging

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, HEE-SOO; AHN, JI HYEON; PARK, JOON HA; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, CHOONG-HYUN

    2016-01-01

    Redd1, also known as RTP801/Dig2/DDIT4, is a stress-induced protein and a negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Redd1 is also closely associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage. In the present study, age-related changes in the protein expression levels of mTOR and Redd1 were investigated using immunohistochemistry and western blot in the gerbil hippocampus at postnatal month (PM) 3, 6, 12 and 24. No significant differences were identified in the levels of mTOR among the experimental groups, whereas, the levels of phosphorylated mTOR decreased with age. The protein expression levels of Redd1 were observed to gradually increase with age; in the PM 24 group, the level was significantly increased (~189.2%), compared with the PM 3 group. In addition, Redd1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the hippocampal principal neurons of the PM 24 group, including the pyramidal cells in the hippocampus proper and granule cells in the dentate gyrus, compared with the other experimental groups. These results demonstrated that the protein expression of Redd1 in the hippocampus was markedly increased during normal aging, indicating that the age-related increase in the expression of Redd1 may be closely associated with age-related hippocampal change. PMID:26846432

  11. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  12. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  13. Household income and health problems during a period of labour-market change and widening income inequalities - a study among the Finnish population between 1987 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Income inequalities widened considerably from 1987 to 2007 in Finland. We compared the association between household income and health problems across three periods and in several different ways of modelling the dependence. Our aim was to find out whether the change in the distribution of income might have led to wider income-related inequalities in health problems. The data represent an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population, and we restricted the analysed sample to those between 18 and 67 years of age and not in receipt of any pension in each of the three six-year periods examined (n between 280,106 and 291,198). The health outcome was sickness-allowance days compensated. Household-equivalent taxable income was applied with two different scale transformations: firstly, as real income adjusted for price level and secondly, as rank position on the income distribution. We used negative binomial regression models, with and without zero inflation, as well as decomposition analysis. We found that sickness-allowance days decreased with increasing income, while differences in the shape and magnitude of the association were found between the scales and the periods. During the study period the association strengthened considerably at both the lowest fifth and the top fifth of the rank scale, while the observed per-unit effect of real income changed less. Decomposition analysis suggested that slightly less than half of the observed increase in concentration of health problems at lower end of the rank scale could be accounted for by the change in real income distribution. The results indicate that widening differences in household consumption potential may have contributed to an intensified impact of household income on inequalities in health problems. Explaining the change only in terms of consumption potential, however, was problematic, and changes in the interdependence of labour-market advantage and health problems are likely to contribute as well. PMID

  14. Triiodothyronine Levels Are Independently Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Euthyroid Middle-Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an association between thyroid hormone levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among euthyroid individuals; however, there have been some inconsistencies between studies. Here, we evaluated the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and MetS in euthyroid middle-aged subjects in a large cohort. Methods A retrospective analysis of 13,496 euthyroid middle-aged subjects who participated in comprehensive health examinations was performed. Subjects were grouped according to thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), and T3-to-T4 ratio quartile categories. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for MetS according to thyroid hormone quartiles using logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Of the study patients, 12% (n=1,664) had MetS. A higher T3 level and T3-to-T4 ratio were associated with unfavourable metabolic profiles, such as higher body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The proportion of participants with MetS increased across the T3 quartile categories (P for trend <0.001) and the T3-to-T4 ratio quartile categories (P for trend <0.001). The multi-variate-adjusted OR (95% confidence interval) for MetS in the highest T3 quartile group was 1.249 (1.020 to 1.529) compared to the lowest T3 quartile group, and that in the highest T3-to-T4 ratio quartile group was 1.458 (1.141 to 1.863) compared to the lowest T3-to-T4 ratio quartile group, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion Serum T3 levels and T3-to-T4 ratio are independently associated with MetS in euthyroid middle-aged subjects. Longitudinal studies are needed to define this association and its potential health implications. PMID:27184017

  15. Ergothioneine levels in an elderly population decrease with age and incidence of cognitive decline; a risk factor for neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Feng, Lei; Tang, Richard M Y; Lim, Keith H C; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Ergothioneine (ET), a naturally occurring thione, can accumulate in the human body at high concentrations from diet. Following absorption via a specific transporter, OCTN1, ET may accumulate preferentially in tissues predisposed to higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Given its potential cytoprotective effects, we examined how ET levels change with age. We found that whole blood ET levels in elderly individuals decline significantly beyond 60 years of age. Additionally, a subset of these subjects with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower plasma ET levels compared with age-matched subjects. This decline suggests that deficiency in ET may be a risk factor, predisposing individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27444382

  16. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  17. Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill level

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Robert M; Ribeiro, Basil; Aroso, João; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill. Subjects The sample included 69 male players aged 13.2–15.1 years from clubs that competed in the highest division for their age group. Methods Height and body mass of players were measured and stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed at clinical examination. Years of experience in football were obtained at interview. Three tests of functional capacity were administered: dash, vertical jump and endurance shuttle run. Performances on six soccer‐specific tests were converted to a composite score which was used to classify players into quintiles of skill. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for age, was used to test differences among skill groups in experience, growth status and functional capacity, whereas multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, years of training in soccer, stage of PH, height, body mass, the height×weight interaction and functional capacities to the composite skill score. Results The skill groups differed significantly in the intermittent endurance run (p<0.05) but not in the other variables. Only the difference between the highest and lowest skill groups in the endurance shuttle run was significant. Most players in the highest (12 of 14) and high (11 of 14) skill groups were in stages PH 4 and PH 5. Pubertal status and height accounted for 21% of the variance in the skill score; adding aerobic resistance to the regression increased the variance in skill accounted for to 29%. In both regressions, the coefficient for height was negative. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill. Stage of puberty and aerobic resistance (positive coefficients) and height (negative coefficient) are significant

  18. Age-related deficits in low-level inhibitory motor control.

    PubMed

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Birak, Kulbir S; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2011-12-01

    Inhibitory control functions in old age were investigated with the "masked prime" paradigm in which participants executed speeded manual choice responses to simple visual targets. These were preceded--either immediately or at some earlier time--by a backward-masked prime. Young adults produced positive compatibility effects (PCEs)--faster and more accurate responses for matching than for nonmatching prime-target pairs--when prime and target immediately followed each other, and the reverse effect (negative compatibility effect, NCE) for targets that followed the prime after a short interval. Older adults produced similar PCEs to young adults, indicating intact low-level motor activation, but failed to produce normal NCEs even with longer delays (Experiment 1), increased opportunity for prime processing (Experiment 2), and prolonged learning (Experiment 3). However, a fine-grained analysis of each individual's time course of masked priming effects revealed NCEs in the majority of older adults, of the same magnitude as those of young adults. These were significantly delayed (even more than expected on the basis of general slowing), indicating a disproportionate impairment of low-level inhibitory motor control in old age. PMID:21604886

  19. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  20. Peripheral Levels of AGEs and Astrocyte Alterations in the Hippocampus of STZ-Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nardin, Patrícia; Zanotto, Caroline; Hansen, Fernanda; Batassini, Cristiane; Gasparin, Manuela Sangalli; Sesterheim, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic patients and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) models exhibit signals of brain dysfunction, evidenced by neuronal damage and memory impairment. Astrocytes surrounding capillaries and synapses modulate many brain activities that are connected to neuronal function, such as nutrient flux and glutamatergic neurotransmission. As such, cognitive changes observed in diabetic patients and experimental models could be related to astroglial alterations. Herein, we investigate specific astrocyte changes in the rat hippocampus in a model of DM induced by STZ, particularly looking at glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100B protein and glutamate uptake, as well as the content of advanced glycated end products (AGEs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a consequence of elevated hyperglycemia and the content of receptor for AGEs in the hippocampus. We found clear peripheral alterations, including hyperglycemia, low levels of proinsulin C-peptide, elevated levels of AGEs in serum and CSF, as well as an increase in RAGE in hippocampal tissue. We found specific astroglial abnormalities in this brain region, such as reduced S100B content, reduced glutamate uptake and increased S100B secretion, which were not accompanied by changes in GFAP. We also observed an increase in the glucose transporter, GLUT-1. All these changes may result from RAGE-induced inflammation; these astroglial alterations together with the reduced content of GluN1, a subunit of the NMDA receptor, in the hippocampus may be associated with the impairment of glutamatergic communication in diabetic rats. These findings contribute to understanding the cognitive deficits in diabetic patients and experimental models. PMID:27084774

  1. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  2. Magnitude of income-related disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess and compare multiple measurements of socioeconomic position (SEP) in order to determine the relationship with adverse perinatal outcomes across various contexts. Methods A birth registry, the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, was confidentially linked to income tax and related information for the year in which delivery occurred. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios between multiple indicators of SEP and multiple adverse perinatal outcomes in 117734 singleton births between 1988 and 2003. Models for after tax family income were also adjusted for neighborhood deprivation to gauge the relative magnitude of effects related to SEP at both levels. Effects of SEP were stratified by single- versus multiple-parent family composition, and by urban versus rural location of residence. Results The risk of small for gestational age and spontaneous preterm birth was higher across all the indicators of lower SEP, while risk for large for gestational age was lower across indicators of lower SEP. Higher risk of postneonatal death was demonstrated for several measures of lower SEP. Higher material deprivation in the neighborhood of residence was associated with increased risk for perinatal death, small for gestational age birth, and iatrogenic and spontaneous preterm birth. Family composition and urbanicity were shown to modify the association between income and some perinatal outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of understanding the definitions of SEP and the mechanisms that lead to the association between income and poor perinatal outcomes, and broadening the types of SEP measures used in some cases. PMID:24589212

  3. North Carolina Rural Adjustment Studies. A Study of Farm Families and Their Level of Living-Income Patterns in Watauga County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Glenn C.

    The purposes of this 1961 study were to identify attitudes and goals of farm people in low income areas and to relate these factors and selected social and personal factors to patterns of adjustment to economic and situational conditions. The sample for the study consisted of 296 farm families in Watauga County, North Carolina. Results of the…

  4. What is the relationship between gestational age and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels?

    PubMed

    Baack, Michelle L; Puumala, Susan E; Messier, Stephen E; Pritchett, Deborah K; Harris, William S

    2015-09-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. PMID:26205427

  5. Health-income inequality: the effects of the Icelandic economic collapse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health-income inequality has been the focus of many studies. The relationship between economic conditions and health has also been widely studied. However, not much is known about how changes in aggregate economic conditions relate to health-income inequality. Nevertheless, such knowledge would have both scientific and practical value as substantial public expenditures are used to decrease such inequalities and opportunities to do so may differ over the business cycle. For this reason we examine the effect of the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 on health-income inequality. Methods The data used come from a health and lifestyle survey carried out by the Public Health Institute of Iceland in 2007 and 2009. A stratified random sample of 9,807 individuals 18–79 years old received questionnaires and a total of 42.1% answered in both years. As measures of health-income inequality, health-income concentration indices are calculated and decomposed into individual-level determinants. Self-assessed health is used as the health measure in the analyses, but three different measures of income are used: individual income, household income, and equivalized household income. Results In both years there is evidence of health-income inequality favoring the better off. However, changes are apparent between years. For males health-income inequality increases after the crisis while it remains fairly stable for females or slightly decreases. The decomposition analyses show that income itself and disability constitute the most substantial determinants of inequality. The largest increases in contributions between years for males come from being a student, having low education and being obese, as well as age and income but those changes are sensitive to the income measure used. Conclusions Changes in health and income over the business cycle can differ across socioeconomic strata, resulting in cyclicality of income-related health distributions. As substantial fiscal

  6. Age-dependent changes in the protein expression levels of Redd1 and mTOR in the gerbil hippocampus during normal aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Soo; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Choong-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Redd1, also known as RTP801/Dig2/DDIT4, is a stress-induced protein and a negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Redd1 is also closely associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage. In the present study, age‑related changes in the protein expression levels of mTOR and Redd1 were investigated using immunohistochemistry and western blot in the gerbil hippocampus at postnatal month (PM) 3, 6, 12 and 24. No significant differences were identified in the levels of mTOR among the experimental groups, whereas, the levels of phosphorylated mTOR decreased with age. The protein expression levels of Redd1 were observed to gradually increase with age; in the PM 24 group, the level was significantly increased (~189.2%), compared with the PM 3 group. In addition, Redd1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the hippocampal principal neurons of the PM 24 group, including the pyramidal cells in the hippocampus proper and granule cells in the dentate gyrus, compared with the other experimental groups. These results demonstrated that the protein expression of Redd1 in the hippocampus was markedly increased during normal aging, indicating that the age-related increase in the expression of Redd1 may be closely associated with age-related hippocampal change. PMID:26846432

  7. Hippocampal Extracellular Matrix Levels and Stochasticity in Synaptic Protein Expression Increase with Age and Are Associated with Age-dependent Cognitive Decline*

    PubMed Central

    Végh, Marlene J.; Rausell, Antonio; Loos, Maarten; Heldring, Céline M.; Jurkowski, Wiktor; van Nierop, Pim; Paliukhovich, Iryna; Li, Ka Wan; del Sol, Antonio; Smit, August B.; Spijker, Sabine; van Kesteren, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a serious health concern in our aging society. Decreased cognitive function observed during healthy brain aging is most likely caused by changes in brain connectivity and synaptic dysfunction in particular brain regions. Here we show that aged C57BL/6J wild-type mice have hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairments. To identify the molecular mechanisms that are relevant to these memory deficits, we investigated the temporal profile of mouse hippocampal synaptic proteome changes at 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 weeks of age. Extracellular matrix proteins were the only group of proteins that showed robust and progressive up-regulation over time. This was confirmed by immunoblotting and histochemical analysis, which indicated that the increased levels of hippocampal extracellular matrix might limit synaptic plasticity as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. In addition, we observed that stochasticity in synaptic protein expression increased with age, in particular for proteins that were previously linked with various neurodegenerative diseases, whereas low variance in expression was observed for proteins that play a basal role in neuronal function and synaptic neurotransmission. Together, our findings show that both specific changes and increased variance in synaptic protein expression are associated with aging and may underlie reduced synaptic plasticity and impaired cognitive performance in old age. PMID:25044018

  8. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  9. Multiple-Micronutrient Fortified Non-Dairy Beverage Interventions Reduce the Risk of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in School-Aged Children in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (i–iv)

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J.; Dror, Daphna K.; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) fortification of beverages may be an effective option to deliver micronutrients to vulnerable populations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the nutritional impacts of MMN fortified beverages in the context of low-middle income countries. A systematic search of published literature yielded 1022 citations, of which 10 randomized controlled trials (nine in school-aged children and one in pregnant women) met inclusion criteria. Results of school-aged children were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to iso-caloric controls, children who received MMN fortified beverages for 8 weeks to 6 months showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (+2.76 g/L, 95% CI [1.19, 4.33], p = 0.004; 8 studies) and serum ferritin (+15.42 pmol/L, [5.73, 25.12], p = 0.007; 8 studies); and reduced risk of anemia (RR 0.58 [0.29, 0.88], p = 0.005; 6 studies), iron deficiency (RR 0.34 [0.21, 0.55], p = 0.002; 7 studies), and iron deficiency anemia (RR 0.17 [0.06, 0.53], p = 0.02; 3 studies). MMN fortified beverage interventions could have major programmatic implications for reducing the burden of anemia and iron deficiency in school-aged children in low-middle income countries. Additional research is needed to investigate effects on other biochemical outcomes and population subgroups. PMID:26007336

  10. Multiple-Micronutrient Fortified Non-Dairy Beverage Interventions Reduce the Risk of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in School-Aged Children in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (i-iv).

    PubMed

    Aaron, Grant J; Dror, Daphna K; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) fortification of beverages may be an effective option to deliver micronutrients to vulnerable populations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the nutritional impacts of MMN fortified beverages in the context of low-middle income countries. A systematic search of published literature yielded 1022 citations, of which 10 randomized controlled trials (nine in school-aged children and one in pregnant women) met inclusion criteria. Results of school-aged children were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to iso-caloric controls, children who received MMN fortified beverages for 8 weeks to 6 months showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (+2.76 g/L, 95% CI [1.19, 4.33], p = 0.004; 8 studies) and serum ferritin (+15.42 pmol/L, [5.73, 25.12], p = 0.007; 8 studies); and reduced risk of anemia (RR 0.58 [0.29, 0.88], p = 0.005; 6 studies), iron deficiency (RR 0.34 [0.21, 0.55], p = 0.002; 7 studies), and iron deficiency anemia (RR 0.17 [0.06, 0.53], p = 0.02; 3 studies). MMN fortified beverage interventions could have major programmatic implications for reducing the burden of anemia and iron deficiency in school-aged children in low-middle income countries. Additional research is needed to investigate effects on other biochemical outcomes and population subgroups. PMID:26007336

  11. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  12. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Young; Choi, Chang Won; Yang, Sei Won; Kim, Beyong Il; Shin, Choong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA). Methods Subjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA<34 weeks. Data on blood glucose levels, GA, body weight, glucose infusion rate, and other contributing factors in the first 7 days after birth were analyzed. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of <40 mg/dL up to 24 hours after birth and as <50 mg/dL thereafter. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level >180 mg/dL. Results During the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6%) and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8%) neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8%) exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4%) developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4%) neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA) were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045) and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006), and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005). Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia). Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia). Conclusion Careful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia. PMID:26817008

  13. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation

  14. Use of Medication Prescribed for Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties among Children Aged 6-17 Years in the United ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... months for emotional or behavioral difficulties varied by poverty level. Among children aged 6–17 years, a ... in families having income below 100% of the poverty level (9.2%) used prescribed medication for emotional ...

  15. Eight Common Genetic Variants Associated with Serum DHEAS Levels Suggest a Key Role in Ageing Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jordana T.; Bhasin, Shalender; Eriksson, Joel; Eriksson, Anna; Ernst, Florian; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Glass, Daniel; Grundberg, Elin; Haring, Robin; Hedman, Åsa K.; Hofman, Albert; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Liu, Yongmei; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Maggio, Marcello; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mangino, Massimo; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nica, Alexandra; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Small, Kerrin S.; Soranzo, Nicole; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Wilson, Scott G.; Xi, Li; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Harris, Tamara B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Ohlsson, Claes; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Spector, Tim D.; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2011-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is the most abundant circulating steroid secreted by adrenal glands—yet its function is unknown. Its serum concentration declines significantly with increasing age, which has led to speculation that a relative DHEAS deficiency may contribute to the development of common age-related diseases or diminished longevity. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data with 14,846 individuals and identified eight independent common SNPs associated with serum DHEAS concentrations. Genes at or near the identified loci include ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528; p = 3.15×10−36), SULT2A1 (rs2637125; p = 2.61×10−19), ARPC1A (rs740160; p = 1.56×10−16), TRIM4 (rs17277546; p = 4.50×10−11), BMF (rs7181230; p = 5.44×10−11), HHEX (rs2497306; p = 4.64×10−9), BCL2L11 (rs6738028; p = 1.72×10−8), and CYP2C9 (rs2185570; p = 2.29×10−8). These genes are associated with type 2 diabetes, lymphoma, actin filament assembly, drug and xenobiotic metabolism, and zinc finger proteins. Several SNPs were associated with changes in gene expression levels, and the related genes are connected to biological pathways linking DHEAS with ageing. This study provides much needed insight into the function of DHEAS. PMID:21533175

  16. The effects of aging on compressive strength of low-level radioactive waste form samples

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose ion-exchange resins. Compressive tests were performed periodically over a 12-year period as part of the Technical Position testing. Results of that compressive testing are presented and discussed. During the study, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested. This testing was designed to examine the effects of aging caused by self-irradiation on the compressive strength of the waste forms. Also presented is a brief summary of the results of waste form characterization, which has been conducted in 1986, using tests recommended in the Technical Position on Waste Form. The aging test results are compared to the results of those earlier tests. 14 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Aging mechanisms for steel components of high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.

    1995-05-01

    High level storage tanks in service at the present time were fabricated from either carbon steel or low-carbon stainless steel, in each case surrounded by a concrete vault. A variety of potential degradation mechanisms may affect these steel tanks, including corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, fatigue, radiation, erosion, and hydrogen embrittlement. Historically, some of the non-stress-relieved carbon steel tanks have leaked; in the only failure analysis performed to date, stress corrosion cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the weld was identified as the cause. Potentially significant aging mechanisms include general corrosion, pitting and/or crevice corrosion stress-corrosion cracking, microbiologically-induced corrosion, concentration cell attack, and corrosion of external tank surfaces by in-leakage of ground water. Aging mechanisms which are deemed non-significant include thermal and radiation embrittlement, creep and stress relaxation, fatigue, erosion and erosion/corrosion wear, and hydrogen embrittlement. Justification for the potential significance or non-significance for each mechanism is provided, based on the current understanding of these processes and the environments to which the tanks are exposed.

  18. Brain-reactive autoantibody levels in the sera of ageing autoimmune mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, S A; Arbogast, D N; Ford, P M; Shucard, D W; Harbeck, R J

    1987-01-01

    Brain-reactive autoantibodies are thought to play an important role in mediating central nervous system (CNS) disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this paper the developmental occurrence of these antibodies in the sera of autoimmune mice, i.e. NZB, NZB/W, MRL/l and BXSB mice were examined. All murine strains tested, whether autoimmune or not, showed some degree of serum reactivity toward brain antigens. Autoimmune mice, however, displayed higher levels of serum brain-reactive antibodies, and at earlier ages, than non-autoimmune mice. Immunofluorescence assays against brain sections and adsorption assays, with both neural and non-neural tissue, indicated a heterogeneity in the specificity of the populations of brain-reactive antibodies present. These studies provide an important step in characterizing the appearance and diversity of brain-reactive autoantibodies, with the goal of better understanding their significance and potential role in mediating CNS dysfunction in SLE. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3319304

  19. Aging mechanisms for concrete components of High-Level Waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kassir, M.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-05-01

    The age-related degradation mechanisms which affect the concrete and the reinforcing steel in the high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks art evaluated with respect to their potential significance to the continued performance of the concrete, and am classified into non-significant and potentially significant. The identified potentially significant degradation mechanisms include the effects of elevated temperature, freezing and thawing, leaching of calcium hydroxide, aggressive chemical attack, and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. To the extent that available knowledge permits, these mechanisms are generically evaluated and quantified so that site-specific plans may be developed to verify whether significant degradation has occurred in the concrete, and, if so, to formulate mitigating measures to avoid further deterioration and possibly repair the degradation or pursue other management options.

  20. Engaging Graduate-Level Distance Learners in Research: A Collaborative Investigation of Rural Aging.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Melissa L; Fuller-Iglesias, Heather; Bishop, Alexander J; Doll, Gayle; Killian, Timothy; Margrett, Jennifer; Pearson-Scott, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Online educational programs pose challenges to nonresidential graduate students for whom research is a key professional development experience. In this article, the authors share their pedagogical approach to engaging graduate-level online distance learners in research. Five students enrolled in an online master's degree program participated in a directed research course designed to facilitate a semester-long, collaborative, hands-on research experience in gerontology. As such, students recruited participants and conducted phone interviews for a multisite study examining aging in place in rural areas. Several strategies were used to facilitate student engagement and learning, including: regular meetings with faculty mentors, creation of a research team across institutions, interactive training, and technological tools to aid in communication. The authors discuss the process of implementing the project, challenges that arose, strategies for dealing with these issues, and a pedagogical framework that could be used to guide future endeavors of this type. PMID:26865026

  1. Highway crash costs in the United States by driver age, blood alcohol level, victim age, and restraint use.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Lestina, D C; Spicer, R S

    1998-03-01

    This paper estimates 1993 U.S. highway crash incidence and costs by driver age, alcohol use, victim age, occupant status, and restraint use. Notable findings are: (1) crash costs of novice drivers are high enough to yield preliminary benefit-cost ratios around 4-8 for a provisional licensing system that restricts driving after midnight and 11 for zero alcohol tolerance for young drivers with violators receiving a 6-month suspension; (2) the costs to people other than the intoxicated driver per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099% exceed the value of driver mobility; (3) the safety costs of drunk driving appear to exceed $5.80 per mile, compared with $2.50 per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099%, and $0.11 per mile driven sober; (4) highway crashes cause an estimated 3.2% of U.S. medical spending, including more than 14% of medical spending for ages 15-24; (5) ignoring crash-involved occupants whose restraint use is unknown, the 13% of occupants who police reported were traveling unrestrained accounted for an estimated 42% of the crash costs; and (6) if these unrestrained occupants buckled up, the medical costs of crashes would decline by an estimated 18% (almost $4 billion annually) and the comprehensive costs by 24%. PMID:9450118

  2. Quantification of global mitochondrial DNA methylation levels and inverse correlation with age at two CpG sites

    PubMed Central

    Mawlood, Shakhawan K.; Dennany, Lynn; Watson, Nigel; Dempster, John; Pickard, Benjamin S.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian ageing features biological attrition evident at cellular, genetic and epigenetic levels. Mutation of mitochondrial DNA, and nuclear DNA methylation changes are well established correlates of ageing. The methylation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a new and incompletely described phenomenon with unknown biological control and significance. Here we describe the bisulphite sequencing of mtDNA from 82 individuals aged 18‐91 years. We detected low and variable levels of mtDNA methylation at 54 of 133 CpG sites interrogated. Regression analysis of methylation levels at two CpG sites (M1215 and M1313) located within the 12S ribosomal RNA gene showed an inverse correlation with subject age suggesting their utility as epigenetic markers of ageing. PMID:26887692

  3. The Equivalence of the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5 across Parent Race/Ethnicity, Income Level, and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Young, Michael; Ridge, Alison; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Richardson, Reginald; Sivan, Abigail

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the equivalence of the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5 (CBCL/1 1/2-5) in 682 parents of 2- to 4-year-old children stratified by parent race/ethnicity (African American, Latino, and non-Latino White), family income (low vs. middle-upper), and language version (Spanish vs. English). Externalizing Scale means differed by income…

  4. Diastolic Dysfunction of Aging Is Independent of Myocardial Structure but Associated with Plasma Advanced Glycation End-Product Levels

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Duncan J.; Somaratne, Jithendra B.; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Prior, David L.; Yii, Michael; Kenny, James F.; Newcomb, Andrew E.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Black, Mary Jane; Kelly, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart failure is associated with abnormalities of myocardial structure, and plasma levels of the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) correlate with the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Aging is associated with diastolic dysfunction and increased risk of heart failure, and we investigated the hypothesis that diastolic dysfunction of aging humans is associated with altered myocardial structure and plasma AGE levels. Methods We performed histological analysis of non-ischemic left ventricular myocardial biopsies and measured plasma levels of the AGEs CML and low molecular weight fluorophores (LMWFs) in 26 men undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery who had transthoracic echocardiography before surgery. None had previous cardiac surgery, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure. Results The patients were aged 43–78 years and increasing age was associated with echocardiographic indices of diastolic dysfunction, with higher mitral Doppler flow velocity A wave (r = 0.50, P = 0.02), lower mitral E/A wave ratio (r = 0.64, P = 0.001), longer mitral valve deceleration time (r = 0.42, P = 0.03) and lower early diastolic peak velocity of the mitral septal annulus, e’ (r = 0.55, P = 0.008). However, neither mitral E/A ratio nor mitral septal e’ was correlated with myocardial total, interstitial or perivascular fibrosis (picrosirius red), immunostaining for collagens I and III, CML, and receptor for AGEs (RAGE), cardiomyocyte width, capillary length density, diffusion radius or arteriolar dimensions. Plasma AGE levels were not associated with age. However, plasma CML levels were associated with E/A ratio (r = 0.44, P = 0.04) and e’ (r = 0.51, P = 0.02) and LMWF levels were associated with E/A ratio (r = 0.49, P = 0.02). Moreover, the mitral E/A ratio remained correlated with plasma LMWF levels in all patients (P = 0.04) and the mitral

  5. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  6. Maternal and Early Childhood Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Low-Income Predominantly Black Children at Age Five Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Mahmood, Bushra; Islam, M. Aminul; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify maternal and early childhood risk factors for obesity and overweight among children at age 5 in the state of Alabama. Methods. We recruited 740 mothers during early pregnancy from University of Alabama Prenatal Clinics in a prospective cohort study and followed them throughout pregnancy. We followed their children from birth until 5 years of age. The main outcome measure was obesity (BMI for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile) at 5 years of age. We used poisson regression with robust variance estimation to compute risk ratio (RR). Results. At the 5th year of followup, 71 (9.6%) of the children were obese and 85 (11.5%) were overweight (BMI ≥ 85th–<95th percentile). In multivariable analysis, maternal prepregnancy overweight (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.29–4.11) and obesity (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.49–4.31), and child's birth weight >85th percentile (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.68) were associated with childhood obesity. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, birth weight, and maternal smoking were associated with the child being overweight 1–12 cigarettes/day versus 0 cigarettes/day (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02–1.91). Conclusion. Children of overweight and obese mothers, and children with higher birth weight, are more likely to be obese and overweight at age 5. Maternal smoking 1–12 cigarettes per day is associated with the child being overweight. PMID:23056928

  7. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI) over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI) from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002) that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the pathways between income

  8. Children'S experience of three types of cartoon at two age levels.

    PubMed

    Björkqvist, K; Lagerspetz, K

    1985-01-01

    Three cartoons were shown to 87 children at two age levels: 5-6 years, and 9 years. The children's experience was assessed in interviews. The younger children experienced the cartoons in a fragmentary manner and not as a continuous story, understood less of the cartoons, and tended to base their moral judgements of a character's behaviour on whether or not they identified with that character. Six months later, the younger children remembered best those scenes that had made them the most anxious earlier. A subgroup of children with abundant aggressive fantasies had a lower level of moral reasoning than the other children, preferred violent scenes, became less anxious while watching them and tended to give illogical explanations for the behaviour of the cartoon characters. The degree of anxiety provoked by a cartoon depended not on the amount of explicit violence shown but on the way the violence was presented. One cartoon, which contained no explicit violence, was considered the most frightening one due to its sound effects. PMID:25825063

  9. Analysis of Lower Body Kinematic and Kinetic: Differences Between Age and Handicap in Golfers of Various Ages and Skill Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilensky, Alexander

    The purpose of this thesis was to provide a preliminary analysis of lower body golf swing biomechanics. Fourteen golfers of various ages and handicaps performed 10 swings off a tee with their driver. This study focused on a number of dependent variables including lead knee joint flexion angles, internal/external rotations, valgus/varus angles, as well as ground reaction forces normalized to body weight (%BW), X-Factor angle and club head velocity. Dependent variables were analyzed at four specifically defined events (start, initiation of downswing, contact and swing termination). Simple linear regressions were performed using age and handicap as independent variables to see if patterns could be determined at any of the events. No significant trends or results were reported within our sample. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then used to examine the effect of event on specific dependent variables. A number of differences were reported within each of the variables across the four events. This study hoped to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the movement patterns occurring at the lower body with special focus on the lead knee.

  10. Risk Factors for Mortality from Acute Lower Respiratory Infections (ALRI) in Children under Five Years of Age in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sonego, Michela; Pellegrin, Maria Chiara; Becker, Genevieve; Lazzerini, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate risk factors for death from acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children in low- and middle-income countries. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Study selection Observational studies reporting on risk factors for death from ALRI in children below five years in low- and middle income countries. Data sources Medline, Embase, Global Health Library, Lilacs, and Web of Science to January 2014 Risk of bias assessment Quality In Prognosis Studies tool with minor adaptations to assess the risk of bias; funnel plots and Egger's test to evaluate publication bias. Results Out of 10655 papers retrieved, 77 studies from 39 countries (198359 children) met the inclusion criteria. Host and disease characteristics more strongly associated with ALRI mortality were: diagnosis of very severe pneumonia as per WHO definition (odds ratio 9.42, 95% confidence interval 6.37‒13.92); age below two months (5.22, 1.70‒16.03); diagnosis of Pneumocystis Carinii (4.79, 2.67 ‒ 8.61), chronic underlying diseases (4.76, 3.27‒ 6.93); HIV/AIDS (4.68, 3.72‒5.90); and severe malnutrition (OR 4.27, 3.47‒5.25). Socio-economic and environmental factors significantly associated with increased odds of death from ALRI were: young maternal age (1.84, 1.03‒3.31); low maternal education (1.43, 1.13‒1.82); low socio-economic status (1.62, 1.32‒2.00); second-hand smoke exposure (1.52, 1.20 to 1.93); indoor air pollution (3.02, 2.11‒4.31). Immunisation (0.46, 0.36‒0.58) and good antenatal practices (0.50, 0.31‒0.81) were associated with decreased odds of death. Conclusions Host and disease characteristics as well as socio-economic and environmental determinants affect the risk of death from ALRI in children. Together with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, interventions to modify underlying risk factors such as poverty, lack of female education, and poor environmental conditions, should be considered among the strategies to reduce ALRI

  11. CREB-binding protein (CBP) levels in the rat hippocampus fail to predict chronological or cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Inês Tomás; Coletta, Christopher E.; Perez, Evelyn V.; Kim, David H.; Gallagher, Michela; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Rapp, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Normal cognitive aging is associated with deficits in memory processes dependent on the hippocampus, along with large-scale changes in the hippocampal expression of many genes. Histone acetylation can broadly influence gene expression and has been recently linked to learning and memory. We hypothesized that cAMP response element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), a key histone acetyltransferase, may contribute to memory decline in normal aging. Here, we quantified CBP protein levels in the hippocampus of young, aged unimpaired and aged impaired rats, classified on the basis of spatial memory capacity documented in the Morris water maze. First, CBP-immunofluorescence was quantified across the principal cell layers of the hippocampus using both low and high resolution laser scanning imaging approaches. Second, digital images of CBP immunostaining were analyzed by a multi-purpose classifier algorithm (WND-CHARM) with validated sensitivity across many types of input materials. Finally, CBP protein levels in the principal subfields of the hippocampus were quantified by quantitative western blotting. CBP levels were equivalent as a function of age and cognitive status in all analyses. The sensitivity of the techniques used was substantial, sufficient to reveal differences across the principal cell fields of the hippocampus, and to correctly classify images from young and aged animals independent of CBP-immunoreactivity. The results are discussed in the context of recent evidence suggesting that CBP decreases may be most relevant in conditions of aging that, unlike normal cognitive aging, involve significant neuron loss. PMID:22884549

  12. The impact of graded levels of daylength on turkey productivity to eighteen weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Vermette, C; Schwean-Lardner, K; Gomis, S; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L

    2016-05-01

    The impact of graded levels of day-length on the productivity of hens and toms was studied in two trials. Daylength treatments (trts) were 14 (14L), 17 (17L), 20 (20L), and 23 (23L) h and were started at 10 d of age. Turkeys (720 hens and 480 toms) were randomly allocated to 8 rooms (2 rooms per lighting trt) with six pens (3 hen--30 per pen and 3 tom--20 per pen) per room in each trial. Body weight (BW) was assessed at 0, 10, 21, 42, 63, 84, and 126 d of age; feed consumption (FC) was measured for the time periods between body weight determinations and feed efficiency (G:F; g of gain/g of feed) was calculated from BW and FC values. Birds were checked daily for mortality and culls, and affected birds were sent for necropsy. Data were analyzed according to a completely randomized block design with trial as the block and rooms nested within lighting trts. Regression analysis was used to study the relationship between dependent variables and daylength. Significance was declared at P≤ 0.05 and trends at P≤ 0.10. At both 21 and 42 d, body weight increased linearly with increasing daylength. At 84 d weights of toms decreased in a quadratic fashion and hen weights were unaffected. At 126 d, both tom and hen weights decreased linearly as daylength increased, with the magnitude of response gender dependent. Feed consumption corresponded with body weight changes, increasing for d 10 to 21, and 21 to 42 and decreasing for d 63 to 84, 84 to 105, and 105 to 126 with increasing daylength. Feed efficiency (G:F) was not affected by daylength for 10 to 84, 10 to 105 and 10 to 126 d periods. The incidence of mortality and culling was not affected by daylength for the 10 to 84 d period, but increased in a quadratic manner with increasing daylength for the 10 to 105 and 10 to 126 d periods. To conclude, daylength affects the growth and feed intake of turkeys in an age and gender-specific manner, and mortality and culling increase with longer daylength. PMID:26976908

  13. Aging induced loss of complexity and dedifferentiation: consequences for coordination dynamics within and between brain, muscular and behavioral levels

    PubMed Central

    Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Hong, S. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that aging not only leads to structural and functional alterations of individual components of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system (NMSS) but also results in a systemic re-organization of interactions within and between the different levels and functional domains. Understanding the principles that drive the dynamics of these re-organizations is an important challenge for aging research. The present Hypothesis and Theory paper is a contribution in this direction. We propose that age-related declines in brain and behavior that have been characterized in the literature as dedifferentiation and the loss of complexity (LOC) are: (i) synonymous; and (ii) integrated. We argue that a causal link between the aforementioned phenomena exists, evident in the dynamic changes occurring in the aging NMSS. Through models and methods provided by a dynamical systems approach to coordination processes in complex living systems, we: (i) formalize operational hypotheses about the general principles of changes in cross-level and cross-domain interactions during aging; and (ii) develop a theory of the aging NMSS based on the combination of the frameworks of coordination dynamics (CD), dedifferentiation, and LOC. Finally, we provide operational predictions in the study of aging at neural, muscular, and behavioral levels, which lead to testable hypotheses and an experimental agenda to explore the link between CD, LOC and dedifferentiation within and between these different levels. PMID:25018731

  14. Predicting self-reported total, aggressive, and income offending with the youth version of the psychopathy checklist: gender- and factor-level interactions.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender moderates the interaction between Factor 1 (F1: core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy) and Factor 2 (F2: social deviance and disinhibition) of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) in predicting future offending. A group of 806 (679 boys, 127 girls) adjudicated delinquents from the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013) completed the PCL:YV and were followed for 7 years. When gender and the PCL:YV factor scores were entered into the 1st step of a hierarchical regression analysis, only gender and Factor 2 successfully predicted total, aggressive, and income offending. The 2-way (F1 × F2, F1 × Gender, F2 × Gender) and 3-way (F1 × F2 × Gender) interactions entered at Steps 2 and 3, respectively, failed to achieve significance. Because several of the interactions involving gender approached statistical significance, male and female data were analyzed separately. A significant interaction between Factors 1 and 2 for income offending in the female subsample surfaced, but contrary to previous research, Factor 2 predicted income offending in youth scoring low, rather than high, on Factor 1. Overall, these results indicate that Factor 2 is the component responsible for the bulk of predictive efficacy observed with the PCL:YV in males as well as in females and that if Factor 1 moderates Factor 2 in females it does so in a manner opposite to what has been proposed by advocates of the PCL F1 × F2 interaction hypothesis. PMID:24188150

  15. Household after-tax income: 1985.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1987-06-01

    This report is the 6th in a series presenting estimates of household after-tax income and taxes paid by households. Data from the 1983 Annual Housing Survey, the Income Survey Development Program, and the Internal Revenue Service were combined with the March 1986 Current Population Survey data to derive the estimates shown in this report. Highlights of the data follow. 1) Mean household income after taxes was $22,650 in 1985, up by .9% over the 1984 figure after accounting for the 3.6% rise in consumer prices. The mean after-tax incomes of both white households ($23,480) and black households ($15,790) increased from 1984 to 1985. Hispanic household income ($17,920) showed no signicant change. 2) Mean after-tax income is highest in the West ($24,350); households in the Northeast had the largest increase in mean after-tax income for the period 1980-1985 (10.9%). 3) Mean after-tax incomes increased from 1984-1985 for married-couple family households with children to $28,390 and for female-maintained family households with no husband present to $13,090. There was no significant change among married-couple family households without children ($27,710). 4) Mean household income before taxes ($29,070) increased between 1984 and 1985 by 1.3% after adjusting for inflation. 5) Household paid an average of $6950 in taxes in 1985, $170 higher than the average taxes paid in 1984 after adjusting for price changes. 6) In 1985, 65% of households with incomes below the poverty level paid 1 or more of the types of taxes covered in this study. Taxes paid by poverty households amounted to 8% of the total money income received. 7) The average % of income paid in taxes ranged from 11% for households with incomes $10,000 to 29% for households with incomes of $50,000+. PMID:12268943

  16. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  17. Powertrain Component Inspection from Mid-Level Blends Vehicle Aging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shoffner, Brent; Johnson, Ryan; Heimrich, Martin J.; Lochte, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls on the nation to significantly increase its use of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law expands the renewable fuel standard to require use of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Given that ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the U.S. market, ethanol will likely make up a significant portion of the 36-billion-gallon requirement. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10-gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85 - a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). Consumption of E85 is at present limited by both the size of the FFV fleet and the number of E85 fueling stations. Gasoline consumption in the United States is currently about 140 billion gallons per year; thus the maximum use of ethanol as E10 is only about 14 billion gallons. While the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market represented less than 1% of the ethanol consumed in 2010 and will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Because of these factors, DOE and others have been assessing the viability of using mid-level ethanol blends (E15 or E20) as a way to accommodate growing volumes of ethanol. The DOE Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program has been under way since 2007, supported jointly by the Office of the Biomass Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program. One of the larger projects, the Catalyst Durability Study, or Vehicle Aging Study, will be completed early in calendar year 2011. The following report describes a subproject of the Vehicle Aging Study in which powertrain components from 18 of the vehicles were examined at Southwest Research Institute under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  18. Parents’ Incomes and Children's Outcomes: A Quasi-Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Akee, Randall K.Q.; Copeland, William E.; Keeler, Gordon; Angold, Adrian; Costello, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the role that an exogenous increase in household income due to a government transfer unrelated to household characteristics plays in children's long run outcomes. Children in affected households have higher levels of education in their young adulthood and a lower incidence of criminality for minor offenses. Effects differ by initial household poverty status. An additional $4000 per year for the poorest households increases educational attainment by one year at age 21 and reduces having ever committed a minor crime by 22% at ages 16−17. Our evidence suggests that improved parental quality is a likely mechanism for the change. PMID:20582231

  19. LPS alters pattern of sickness behavior but does not affect glutathione level in aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral symptoms of sickness, such as fever and motor activity are a coordinated set of changes that develop during infection. The aim of study was to compare the sickness behaviour (SB) in healthy old and young rats treated with pyrogenic dose of endotoxin and to check their glutathione level. Before experimentation male Wistar rats were selected according to standard body mass, motor activity, and white blood cells count. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli was used to provoke SB. The level of liver glutathione, interleukin (IL) -6, deep body temperature (Tb) and motor activity were measured. Glutathione level in old and young rats did not differ significantly. In both young and old rats LPS administration provoked fever (the mean value of Tb was 38.06 ± 0.01 °C in old rats, and 38.19 ± 0.06 °C in young rats). LPS injection affected night-time activity in both groups (12 h averages were 1.56 ± 0.40 counts in old LPS-treated rats vs 2.74 ± 0.53 counts in not-treated old rats and 3.44 ± 0.60 counts for young LPS-treated vs 4.28 ± 0.57 counts for young not-treated rats). The injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated groups of animals to 6322.82 ± 537.00 pg/mL in old LPS-treated rats and 7415.62 ± 451.88 pg/mL in young LPS-treated rats). Based on these data, we conclude that good health of aged rats prevents decrease in the glutathione level. Old rats are still able to develop SB in response to pyrogenic dose of LPS, although its components have changed pattern compared to young animals. PMID:26829940

  20. Income, race, and surgery in Maryland.

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, A M; Halpern, J; Sanchez, R L

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. We describe common surgical and medical hospital admission rates for Maryland residents, exploring systematic effects of race and income. METHODS. The data comprise Maryland hospital discharges and population estimates for 1985 to 1987. Patient income is the race-specific median family income of residence zip code. Logistic regression is used to measure incidence by race, income, and residence for surgical and medical reasons for admission. RESULTS. Population rates for discretionary orthopedic, vascular, and laryngologic surgery tend to increase with community income levels. Coronary and carotid artery surgery rates are two to three times higher among Whites. The more discretionary the procedure, the lower is the relative incidence among Blacks. By contrast, admission rates for most medical reasons decline with increasing income levels and are elevated among Blacks. The affluent receive coronary artery procedures whereas the poor are hospitalized for coronary artery disease. CONCLUSIONS. Blacks and the poor appear to have higher illness burdens requiring hospital care. Discretionary surgeries have a White predominance and increase with income; medical admissions have a Black predominance and decline with income. Race and community income level are important factors in differential hospital utilization rates. PMID:1951800

  1. IL-15 Fosters Age-Driven Regulatory T Cell Accrual in the Face of Declining IL-2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Jana; Sholl, Allyson; Plas, David R.; Bouillet, Philippe; Chougnet, Claire A.; Hildeman, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We and others have shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) accumulate dramatically with age in both humans and mice. Such Treg accrual contributes to age-related immunosenescence as they reduce the response to tumors and parasite infection. While we reported earlier that aged Treg have decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bim and germline deletion of Bim promoted earlier accumulation of Treg, it remains unclear whether the effects of Bim are: (i) Treg intrinsic and (ii) dominant to other BH3-only pro-apoptotic molecules. Further, the mechanism(s) controlling Bim expression in aged Treg remain unclear. Here we show that Treg-specific loss of Bim is sufficient to drive Treg accrual with age and that additional loss of the downstream apoptotic effectors Bax and Bak did not exacerbate Treg accumulation. Further, our results demonstrate that a subpopulation of Treg expands with age and is characterized by lower expression of CD25 (IL-2Rα) and Bim. Mechanistically, we found that IL-2 levels decline with age and likely explain the emergence of CD25loBimlo Treg because Treg in IL-2−/− mice are almost entirely comprised of CD25loBimlo cells, and IL-2 neutralization increases CD25loBimlo Treg in both young and middle-aged mice. Interestingly, the Treg population in aged mice had increased expression of CD122 (IL-2/IL-15Rβ) and neutralization or genetic loss of IL-15 led to less Treg accrual with age. Further, the decreased Treg accrual in middle-aged IL-15−/− mice was restored by the additional loss of Bim (IL-15−/−Bim−/−). Together, our data show that aging favors the accrual of CD25lo Treg whose homeostasis is supported by IL-15 as IL-2 levels become limiting. These data have implications for manipulating Treg to improve immune responses in the elderly. PMID:23805138

  2. Reduced Adolescent-Age Spatial Learning Ability Associated with Elevated Juvenile-Age Superoxide Levels in Complex I Mouse Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Falko; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanss, Christian; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert; Kunz, Manfred; Tiedge, Markus; Ibrahim, Saleh; Fuellen, Georg; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale, heteroplasmic and generally pathogenic mtDNA defects (as induced by defective mitochondrial DNA polymerase, clonal mutations or DNA deletions) are known to negatively impact on life span and can result in apoptosis and tissue loss in, e.g., skeletal muscle or reduce learning abilities. The functional impact of homoplasmic specific mtDNA point mutations, e.g., in genes coding for the electron transport chain, however, remains a matter of debate. The present study contributes to this discussion and provides evidence that a single point mutation in complex I of the respiratory chain is associated with impairment of spatial navigation in adolescent (6-month-old) mice, i.e., reduced performance in the Morris Water Maze, which goes along with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in juvenile mice (3 months) but not at the age of phenotype expression. A point mutation in complex III goes along with only a mild and non-significant negative effect on cognitive performance and no significant changes in ROS production. These findings suggest to also consider the ontogenetic development of phenotypes when studying mtDNA mutations and highlights a possible impact of complex I dysfunction on the emergence of neurological deficits. PMID:25853418

  3. The effect of private tubewells on income and income inequality in rural Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyu; Huang, Qiuqiong; Giordano, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of private tubewells in rural Pakistan, farmers have increasingly used groundwater to supplement canal water for irrigation and improve the reliability of the water supply. Farmers obtain groundwater either from their own tubewells or from other well owners. This paper examines the effect of private tubewells on rural income, both in terms of income level and income distribution since it may differ across farmers with different irrigation status (only canal water, canal water and groundwater from own tubewell, and canal water and purchased groundwater). The results show that private tubewells work to enhance rural income and reduce income inequality in rural Pakistan.

  4. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  5. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  6. Pteridine levels and head weights are correlated with age and colony task in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Margotta, Joseph W; Pittman, Jean M; Ottea, James A; Healy, Kristen B

    2016-01-01

    Background. The age of an insect strongly influences many aspects of behavior and reproduction. The interaction of age and behavior is epitomized in the temporal polyethism of honey bees in which young adult bees perform nurse and maintenance duties within the colony, while older bees forage for nectar and pollen. Task transition is dynamic and driven by colony needs. However, an abundance of precocious foragers or overage nurses may have detrimental effects on the colony. Additionally, honey bee age affects insecticide sensitivity. Therefore, determining the age of a set of individual honey bees would be an important measurement of colony health. Pteridines are purine-based pigment molecules found in many insect body parts. Pteridine levels correlate well with age, and wild caught insects may be accurately aged by measuring pteridine levels. The relationship between pteridines and age varies with a number of internal and external factors among many species. Thus far, no studies have investigated the relationship of pteridines with age in honey bees. Methods. We established single-cohort colonies to obtain age-matched nurse and forager bees. Bees of known ages were also sampled from colonies with normal demographics. Nurses and foragers were collected every 3-5 days for up to 42 days. Heads were removed and weighed before pteridines were purified and analyzed using previously established fluorometric methods. Results. Our analysis showed that pteridine levels significantly increased with age in a linear manner in both single cohort colonies and colonies with normal demography. Pteridine levels were higher in foragers than nurses of the same age in bees from single cohort colonies. Head weight significantly increased with age until approximately 28-days of age and then declined for both nurse and forager bees in single cohort colonies. A similar pattern of head weight in bees from colonies with normal demography was observed but head weight was highest in 8-day old

  7. Pteridine levels and head weights are correlated with age and colony task in the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Rinkevich, Frank D.; Margotta, Joseph W.; Pittman, Jean M.; Ottea, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The age of an insect strongly influences many aspects of behavior and reproduction. The interaction of age and behavior is epitomized in the temporal polyethism of honey bees in which young adult bees perform nurse and maintenance duties within the colony, while older bees forage for nectar and pollen. Task transition is dynamic and driven by colony needs. However, an abundance of precocious foragers or overage nurses may have detrimental effects on the colony. Additionally, honey bee age affects insecticide sensitivity. Therefore, determining the age of a set of individual honey bees would be an important measurement of colony health. Pteridines are purine-based pigment molecules found in many insect body parts. Pteridine levels correlate well with age, and wild caught insects may be accurately aged by measuring pteridine levels. The relationship between pteridines and age varies with a number of internal and external factors among many species. Thus far, no studies have investigated the relationship of pteridines with age in honey bees. Methods. We established single-cohort colonies to obtain age-matched nurse and forager bees. Bees of known ages were also sampled from colonies with normal demographics. Nurses and foragers were collected every 3–5 days for up to 42 days. Heads were removed and weighed before pteridines were purified and analyzed using previously established fluorometric methods. Results. Our analysis showed that pteridine levels significantly increased with age in a linear manner in both single cohort colonies and colonies with normal demography. Pteridine levels were higher in foragers than nurses of the same age in bees from single cohort colonies. Head weight significantly increased with age until approximately 28-days of age and then declined for both nurse and forager bees in single cohort colonies. A similar pattern of head weight in bees from colonies with normal demography was observed but head weight was highest in 8-day

  8. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age <21 years, who had survived ≥5 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. Siblings were used as a comparison group. We asked questions about education, profession and income and retrieved clinical data from the SCCR. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with income. Results We analyzed data from 1’506 survivors and 598 siblings. Survivors were less likely than siblings to have a high monthly income (>4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  9. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  10. Relationships between active school transport and adiposity indicators in school-age children from low-, middle- and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, O L; Lemoine, P; Gonzalez, S A; Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Larouche, R; Onywera, V; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Within the global context of the nutrition and physical activity transition it is important to determine the relationship between adiposity and active school transport (AST) across different environmental and socio-cultural settings. The present study assessed the association between adiposity (that is, body mass index z-score (BMIz), obesity, percentage body fat (PBF), waist circumference) and AST in 12 country sites, in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: The analytical sample included 6797 children aged 9–11 years. Adiposity indicators included, BMIz calculated using reference data from the World Health Organization, obesity (BMIz ⩾+2 s.d.), PBF measured using bioelectrical impedance and waist circumference. School travel mode was assessed by questionnaire and categorized as active travel versus motorized travel. Multilevel linear and non-linear models were used to estimate the magnitude of the associations between adiposity indicators and AST by country site and sex. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, parental education and motorized vehicle availability, children who reported AST were less likely to be obese (odds ratio=0.72, 95% confidence interval (0.60–0.87), P<0.001) and had a lower BMIz (−0.09, s.e.m.=0.04, P=0.013), PBF (least square means (LSM) 20.57 versus 21.23% difference −0.66, s.e.m.=0.22, P=0.002) and waist circumference (LSM 63.73 cm versus 64.63 cm difference −0.90, s.e.m.=0.26, P=0.001) compared with those who reported motorized travel. Overall, associations between obesity and AST did not differ by country (P=0.279) or by sex (P=0.571). Conclusions: AST was associated with lower measures of adiposity in this multinational sample of children. Such findings could inform global efforts to prevent obesity among school-age children. PMID:27152178

  11. Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environm...

  12. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  13. The Association of Levels of and Decline in Grip Strength in Old Age with Trajectories of Life Course Occupational Position

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of the influence of life course occupational position (OP) on health in old age demands analysis of time patterns in both OP and health. We study associations between life course time patterns of OP and decline in grip strength in old age. Methods We analyze 5 waves from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 5108, ages 65–90). We use a pattern-mixture latent growth model to predict the level and decline in grip strength in old age by trajectory of life course OP. We extend and generalize the structured regression approach to establish the explanatory power of different life course models for both the level and decline of grip strength. Results Grip strength declined linearly by 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.74;-0.66) for men and 0.42 kg (95% CI -0.45;-0.39) for women per year. The level of men’s grip strength can best be explained by a critical period during midlife, with those exposed to low OP during this period having 1.67 kg (95% CI -2.33;-1.00) less grip strength. These differences remain constant over age. For women, no association between OP and levels of or decline in grip strength was found. Conclusions Men’s OP in midlife seems to be a critical period for the level of grip strength in old age. Inequalities remain constant over age. The integration of the structured regression approach and latent growth modelling offers new possibilities for life course epidemiology. PMID:27232696

  14. Glutamate presynaptic vesicular transporter and postsynaptic receptor levels correlate with spatial memory status in aging rat models.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Caroline; Quirion, Rémi; Vigneault, Erika; Bouchard, Sylvain; Ferland, Guylaine; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gaudreau, Pierrette

    2015-03-01

    In humans, memory capacities are generally affected with aging, even without any reported neurologic disorders. The mechanisms behind cognitive decline are not well understood. We studied here whether postsynaptic glutamate receptor and presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) levels may change in the course of aging and be related to cognitive abilities using various age-impaired (AI) or age-unimpaired rat strains. Twenty-four-month-old Long-Evans (LE) rats with intact spatial memory maintained postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptor levels in the hippocampal-adjacent cortex similar to those of young animals. In contrast, AI rats showed significantly reduced expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2, NR2A and NR2B subunits. In AI LE rats, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 levels were increased and negatively correlated with receptor levels as shown by principal component analysis and correlation matrices. We also investigated whether glutamatergic receptors and VGLUT levels were altered in the obesity-resistant LOU/C/Jall (LOU) rat strain which is characterized by intact memory despite aging. No difference was observed between 24-month-old LOU rats and their young counterparts. Taken together, the unaltered spatial memory performance of 24-month-old age-unimpaired LE and LOU rats suggests that intact coordination of the presynaptic and postsynaptic hippocampal-adjacent cortex glutamatergic networks may be important for successful cognitive aging. Accordingly, altered expression of presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamatergic components, such as in AI LE rats, could be considered a marker of age-related cognitive deficits. PMID:25556161

  15. [Economic potential of the elderly: changes in wealth, income, and expenditures].

    PubMed

    Fachinger, U

    2012-10-01

    Changes of wealth, income, and expenditure under the aspect of the economic potential of the elderly are considered in this article. Overall, it is shown that it is necessary to take a skeptical view regarding the conclusions about an on-going positive development of the economic potential. On the one hand, the reduction of the statutory pension level will lead to a reduction of the household income because pensions from the statutory old age pension systems will continue be the main component of household income after retirement. On the other hand, the inequality of the old age income distribution will rise because of the different adjustments of old age income. The expenditures will change both the amount and the structure compared to today. Due to the reduction of the pension level and therewith the purchasing power, the amount of expenditures will decrease overall and the demand for luxuries will be lower. However, statements about the structural changes of consumption are hampered by the fact that not only material resources and the price of goods and services but other factors also influence demand. For example, the human capital of the elderly of the future will be different and cohort effects will potentially account for different demand behavior. PMID:23052282

  16. Serum Adiponectin Levels, Neuroimaging, and Cognition in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, Alexandra M. V.; Gustafson, Deborah; Hagen, Clinton E.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David; Jack, Clifford; Petersen, Ronald C.; Mielke, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adiponectin, a protein involved in inflammatory pathways, may impact the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin levels have been associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD; however, its association with Alzheimer-associated neuroimaging and cognitive outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVE Determine the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin and neuroimaging and cognitive outcomes in an older population-based sample. METHODS Multivariable adjusted regression models were used to investigate the association between plasma adiponectin and hippocampal volume (HVa), PiB-PET, FDG PET, cortical thickness, MCI diagnosis, and neuropsychological test performance. Analyses included 535 non-demented participants aged 70 and older enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. RESULTS Women had higher adiponectin than men (12,631 ng/mL vs. 8,908 ng/mL, P < .001). Among women, higher adiponectin was associated with smaller HVa (B=−0.595; 95% CI −1.19, −0.005), poorer performance in language (B−0.676; 95% CI −1.23, −0.121) and global cognition (B=−0.459; 95% CI −0.915, −0.002), and greater odds of a MCI diagnosis (OR=6.23; 95% CI 1.20, 32.43). In analyses stratified by sex and elevated amyloid (PiB-PET SUVR>1.4), among women with elevated amyloid, higher adiponectin was associated with smaller HVa (B=−0.723; 95% CI −1.43, −0.014), poorer performance in memory (B=−1.02; 95% CI −1.73, −0.312), language (B=−0.896; 95% CI −1.58, −0.212), and global (B=−0.650; 95% CI −1.18, −0.116) cognition, and greater odds of MCI (OR=19.34; 95% CI 2.72, 137.34). CONCLUSION Higher plasma adiponectin was associated with neuroimaging and cognitive outcomes among women. Longitudinal analyses are necessary to determine whether higher adiponectin predicts neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. PMID:27163809

  17. Income inequality in today’s China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53–0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China’s high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China’s high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role. PMID:24778237

  18. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P < 0.05). KNC meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P < 0.05). However, bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat. PMID:26049798

  19. Health inequalities by wage income in Sweden: the role of work environment.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2005-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden. PMID:15899322

  20. Can Education Expenditures Reduce Income Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether devoting more resources to education can positively affect the distribution of income within a country. Finds that public-education expenditures appear to be associated with a subsequent decrease in the level of income inequality. Finding is robust to the inclusion of various control variables and appears to be larger in…

  1. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income.

    PubMed

    Cramm, J M; Møller, V; Nieboer, A P

    2012-02-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level differences in socioeconomic status determined individual-level subjective well-being. Crime experience, health status, social capital, and demographic variables were assessed at the individual level. The indicators of subjective well-being were estimated with a two-level random-intercepts and fixed slopes model. Social capital, health and marital status (all p < .001), followed by income level (p < .01) and the Townsend score (p < .05) were significantly related to individual-level subjective well-being outcomes. Our findings showed that individual-level subjective well-being is influenced by neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as measured by the Townsend deprivation score. Individuals reported higher levels of subjective well-being in less deprived neighbourhoods. Here we wish to highlight the role of context for subjective well-being, and to suggest that subjective well-being outcomes may also be defined in ecological terms. We hope the findings are useful for implementing programs and interventions designed to achieve greater subjective well-being for people living in deprived areas. PMID:22247584

  2. Personality traits in old age: measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change.

    PubMed

    Mõttus, René; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts. Almost no mean-level change was observed in the younger cohort, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect declined significantly in the older cohort. The older cohort scored higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. In these cohorts, individual differences in personality traits continued to be stable even in very old age, mean-level changes accelerated. PMID:21604884

  3. A quasi-experimental analysis of the association between family income and offspring conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2010-01-01

    The study presents a quasi-experimental analysis of data on 9,194 offspring (ages 4–11 years old) of women from a nationally representative U.S. sample of households to test the causal hypotheses about the association between family income and childhood conduct problems (CPs). Comparison of unrelated individuals in the sample indicated a robust inverse association, with the relation being larger at higher levels of income and for male offspring, even when statistical covariates were included to account for measured confounds that distinguish different families. Offspring also were compared to their siblings and cousins who were exposed to different levels of family income in childhood to rule out unmeasured environmental and genetic factors confounded with family income as explanations for the association. In these within-family analyses, boys exposed to lower family income still exhibited significantly higher levels of CPs. When considered in the context of previous studies using different designs, these results support the inference that family income influences CPs, particularly in males, through causal environmental processes specifically related to earnings within the nuclear family. PMID:19023655

  4. Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, F. Roy; Sprenkle, Preston C.; Walter, Louise C.; Rawson, Lori; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Morrell, Christopher H.; Kattan, Michael W.; Nawaf, Cayce B.; Neville, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50–89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50–59 years, through 80–89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan–Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7–10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50–59 years to 51% for age 80–89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study. PMID:27446803

  5. Relationship of lead in drinking water to bone lead levels twenty years later in Boston men: the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Potula, V; Serrano, J; Sparrow, D; Hu, H

    1999-05-01

    Tap water in a city like Boston, which has old houses containing lead plumbing, is known to be a significant source of potential lead exposure. Bone lead levels integrate exposure over many years, and in vivo bone lead measurements have recently become possible with the advent of K x-ray fluorescence instruments. Thus we examined the relationship between first morning tap-water lead levels measured in homes in the 1970s and levels of lead in bone measured in the 1990s among middle-aged to elderly men who lived in those homes. We studied 129 participants in the Normative Aging Study who had lead measured in their homes' tap water in 1976 and 1977 by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. From 1991 to 1995, the same subjects had blood lead levels measured by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy and tibia and patella bone lead levels measured by K x-ray fluorescence. We ran multivariate linear regression models predicting bone lead levels that adjusted for factors which had previously been linked with this outcome in the Normative Aging Study (age, pack-years of smoking, and educational level). Among subjects who lived in houses with > or = 50 micrograms lead/liter of first morning tap water representing water that had been standing overnight in the plumbing in 1976 and 1977, those who reported medium or high levels of tap-water ingestion (> or = 1 glass/day) had progressively higher patella lead levels than did those with low levels of ingestion (< 1 glass/day). No such relationship was found among subjects who lived in houses with < 50 micrograms lead/liter of first morning tap water in 1976 and 1977. We conclude that ingestion of lead-contaminated tap water is an important predictor of elevated bone lead levels later in life. PMID:10337604

  6. The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Raj; Stepner, Michael; Abraham, Sarah; Lin, Shelby; Scuderi, Benjamin; Turner, Nicholas; Bergeron, Augustin; Cutler, David

    2016-01-01

    Importance The relationship between income and mortality is well established but remains poorly understood. Objectives To measure the level, temporal trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy, and identify factors related to small area variation in this association. Design and Setting Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion de-identified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Relationship between income and life expectancy; trends in life expectancy by income group; geographic variation in life expectancy levels and trends by income group; and factors associated with differences in life expectancy across areas. Results The sample consisted of 1 408 287 218 person-year observations (mean age at which individuals were analyzed, 53.0 years; median household earnings among working individuals, $61 175 per year [mean, $97 725 per year]). Among those aged 40 to 76 years, there were 4 114 380 deaths among men (mortality rate, 596.3 per 100 000) and 2 694 808 deaths among women (mortality rate, 375.1 per 100 000). The analysis yielded four results. First, higher income was associated with greater longevity throughout the income distribution. The gap in life expectancy between the richest 1% and poorest 1% of individuals was 14.6 years (95% CI, 14.4 to 14.8 years) for men and 10.1 years (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.3 years) for women. Second, inequality in life expectancy increased over time. Between 2001 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 2.34 years for men and 2.91 years for women in the top 5% of the income distribution, but increased by only 0.32 years for men and 0.04 years for

  7. Memory Recall and Participation Levels in the Elderly: A Study of Golden Age Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Pamela R.; Whittemore, Margaret P.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve women (mean age 90) in a nursing home listened to Golden Age radio programs and answered trivia questions. Reactions to musical programs showed they encouraged reminiscence; trivia stimulated recall of historical and life events. In contrast, comedy programs evoked little response. (SK)

  8. Maternal employment and income affect dietary calorie adequacy in households in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Ishara M; Weerahewa, Jeevika

    2005-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies among children and mothers in lower-income households in Sri Lanka continue to be a major obstacle to the country's social and economic development. This study investigates the factors affecting dietary caloric adequacy in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to maternal income. An econometric analysis was performed using a household data set collected from a sample of 183 low-income households in the urban, rural, and estate sectors. The results showed that on average, mothers and children in the sample did not consume adequate levels of calories according to the recommendations of the Medical Research Institute of Sri Lanka. The mother's income and educational status, the number of children and adults in the family, and the ages, sexes, and birth orders of the children significantly influenced household and individual caloric adequacy. Specifically, the mother's income had a significant positive effect on the total caloric intake (CI) and caloric adequacy ratio (CAR) of the household, mother, and children and a significant negative effect on the relative caloric allocation (RCA) of the children. The results imply that when maternal employment generates extra income, the CIs of all individuals increase, yet the allocation of calories to the children of the household is reduced. Thus, provision of employment opportunities for mothers, along with adequate child-care facilities and nutritional educational programs, is a possible strategy to improve caloric adequacy among low-income households in Sri Lanka. PMID:16060223

  9. Thorium-230 ages of corals and duration of the last interglacial sea-level high stand on Oahu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, B.J.; Ludwig, K.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.

    1994-10-07

    Thorium-230 ages of emergent marine deposits on Oahu, Hawaii, have a uniform distribution of ages from {approximately}114,000 to {approximately}131,000 years, indicating a duration for the last interglacial sea-level high stand of {approximately}17,000 years, in contrast to a duration of {approximately}8000 years inferred from the orbitally tuned marine oxygen isotope record. Sea level on Oahu rose to {>=}1 to 2 meters higher than present by 131,000 years ago or {approximately}6000 years earlier than inferred from the marine record. Although the latter record suggests a shift back to glacial conditions beginning at {approximately}119,000 years ago, the Oahu coral ages indicate a near present sea level until {approximately}114,000 years ago.

  10. History, haldanes and health inequities: exploring phenotypic changes in body size by generation and income level in the US-born White and Black non-Hispanic populations 1959–1962 to 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Kosheleva, Anna; Beckfield, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Most public health literature on trends in population health and health inequities pertains to observed or targeted changes in rates or proportions per year or decade. We explore, in novel analyses, whether additional insight can be gained by using the ‘haldane’, a metric developed by evolutionary biologists to measure change in traits in standard deviations per generation, thereby enabling meaningful comparisons across species and time periods. Methods We analysed the phenotypic embodied traits of body height, weight and body mass index of US-born White and Black non-Hispanic adults ages 20 to 44 as measured in six large nationally representative population samples spanning from the 1959–1962 National Health Examination Survey I to the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Setting the former as baseline, we computed the haldane for each outcome for each racial/ethnic group for each survey, overall and stratified by family income quintile. Results For height, high rates of phenotypic change (haldane ≥ 0.3) occurred chiefly between 1960 and 1980, especially for the Black population in the higher income quintiles. By contrast, for weight, high rates of phenotypic change became evident for both the White and Black populations in the late 1980s and increased thereafter; for body mass index, the shift to high rates of change started in both groups in the late 1990s, especially in the middle income quintiles. Conclusions Our results support use of the haldane as a supplemental metric to place changes in population health and health inequities in a larger biological and historical context. PMID:23220719

  11. Blood homocysteine and vitamin B levels are not associated with cognitive skills in healthy normally ageing subjects.

    PubMed

    Ravaglia, G; Forti, P; Maioli, F; Zanardi, V; Dalmonte, E; Grossi, G; Cucinotta, D; Macini, P; Caldarera, M

    2000-01-01

    Increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are a known risk factor for vascular disease and have been reported in association with cognitive impairment of old age. Alternatively, however, increased tHcy levels may simply be an indicator of B vitamin deficiency. We evaluated the relationship between plasma tHcy levels, serum vitamin B12 and folate levels, and the scores at a battery of neuropsychological tests in 54 healthy cognitively normal subjects aged 65 years and over. Hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence (plasma tHcy>15 micromol/L) was about 24%. In univariate analysis, vitamin B12 levels were associated with both verbal memory and visuo-spatial skills, whereas no association was found between psychometric test scores and folate levels or tHcy levels. However, none of the univariate associations of neuropsychological test scores and serum B12 vitamin levels was confirmed when adjusting for age, education and other confounding variables. In conclusion, although a relationship between homocysteine, B vitamins and poor cognitive skills in the elderly is plausible, this study does not suggests that such relationship is biologically important. PMID:11115804

  12. Social network analysis - centrality parameters and individual network positions of agonistic behavior in pigs over three different age levels.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Kathrin; Scheffler, Katharina; Czycholl, Irena; Krieter, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the network structure of agonistic interactions helps to understand the formation and the development of aggressive behavior. Therefore, video observation data of 149 pigs over three different age levels were investigated for 2 days each directly after mixing (65 groups in the rearing area, 24 groups in the growing stable and 12 groups in the breeding stable). The aim of the study was to use network analysis to investigate the development of individual network positions of specific animals and to determine whether centrality parameters in previous mixing situations have an impact on the future behavior of the animals. The results of the weighted degree centrality indicated that weaned pigs had a higher fighting intensity directly after mixing compared to growing pigs and gilts. Also, the number of different opponents (degree centrality) was higher compared to the older age groups. The betweenness centrality showed relatively small values and no significant differences between the different age levels, whereas the closeness centrality showed high values at all observed age levels. Experiences gained in previous agonistic interactions had an impact on the centrality parameters in subsequent mixing situations. It was shown that the position of individual animals in agonistic interaction networks can be characterized using social network analysis and that changes over different age levels can be detected. Therefore, social network analysis provides insights into the formation and evolution of behavioral patterns which could be of particular interest for the identification of key factors with regard to abnormal behavior (e.g. tail biting). PMID:25932371

  13. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  14. 20 CFR 416.1112 - Earned income we do not count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1112 Earned income we do not count. (a) General... receive it. (3) If you are under age 22 and a student who is regularly attending school as described in... not blind) and under age 65 or you are disabled (but not blind) and received SSI as a...

  15. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality. PMID:26177800

  16. Aging Veterans and Health Care Issues. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (Toms River, NJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains the text of a Congressional hearing called to examine the status of aging veterans and health care issues. Opening statements are given by Congressmen Jim Saxton, Thomas J. Tauke, and Christopher H. Smith, and testimonies are presented from 20 witnesses. Members of veterans' associations testifying include representatives…

  17. Antecedents and outcomes of level and rates of change in perceived control: The moderating role of age.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Frank J; Okun, Morris A

    2015-10-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and emotional support as antecedents of level and rates of change in perceived control and whether level and rates of change in perceived control buffer the relations between high functional limitations and depressive symptoms and lack of emotional support and mortality risk. In addition, age was investigated as a moderator of these associations. To do so, we used 16-year longitudinal data from participants in the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study who were at least 40 years old at Wave 1 (N = 2,540; mean age = 62.85, SD = 12.15; 65% women). With respect to the antecedents of perceived control, results indicated that more functional limitations and depressive symptoms, as well as having less emotional support, were each associated with lower levels of and stronger declines in perceived control over time. Additionally, more functional limitations and less emotional support were more detrimental to levels of perceived control in midlife compared to old age. Focusing on outcomes of perceived control, more positive rates of change in perceived control protected against mortality risk for those with fewer functional limitations and depressive symptoms and more emotional support, and this was more pronounced for functional limitations and depressive symptoms in old age as compared to midlife. Our discussion focuses on the complex interplay among perceived control, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and emotional support; how they vary with age; and the implications of our findings for interventions. PMID:26214226

  18. Short Communication: Do Cytomegalovirus Antibody Levels Associate with Age-Related Syndromes in HIV Patients Stable on Antiretroviral Therapy?

    PubMed

    Brunt, Samantha J; Cysique, Lucette A; Lee, Silvia; Burrows, Sally; Brew, Bruce J; Price, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    HIV(+) persons stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) face early onset of age-related diseases. This may arise from a high burden of cytomegalovirus (CMV). To address the role of CMV, we investigated univariate and multivariate associations between markers of systemic and endothelial inflammation, vascular damage, insulin resistance (IR), neurocognitive decline, and antibodies reactive with CMV. In this study, HIV(+) participants (n = 91) aged >45 years with <50 copies HIV RNA/ml plasma after >2 years on ART were assessed for cardiovascular risk (the D:A:D algorithm), type II diabetes (the HOMA-IR index), and neurocognitive performance. Blood samples were assayed for lipids, T cells, insulin, glucose, C-reactive protein, CX3CL1, sTNF-R1, total immunoglobulin G (IgG), and antibodies reactive with CMV lysate, glycoprotein B, or immediate-early-1. Levels of antibodies detected with the three antigens were tightly correlated. Levels of CMV lysate antibody were higher in patients than in age-matched healthy controls and reflected their nadir CD4 T-cell count (p = .001), total IgG (p = .02), and age (p = .08). Levels of CMV lysate antibody correlated with D:A:D score (p = .04), neurocognitive performance (p = .045), and fasting insulin (p = .02). In multivariable analyses, some associations reflected the effect of age, but CMV lysate antibody and CD8 T-cell counts were significant predictors of the HOMA-IR index (R(2) = 0.09, p = .01) independent of age. We conclude that associations between levels of CMV antibodies, cardiovascular risk, and neurocognitive health in HIV(+) patients stable on ART are moderated by age-associated increases in response to CMV, while CMV antibodies may be independently linked with IR. PMID:26876416

  19. Effects of Hearing and Aging on Sentence-Level Time-Gated Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Molis, Michelle R.; Kampel, Sean D.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Dann, Serena M.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aging is known to influence temporal processing, but its relationship to speech perception has not been clearly defined. To examine listeners’ use of contextual and phonetic information, the Revised Speech Perception in Noise test (R-SPIN) was used to develop a time-gated word (TGW) task Method In Experiment 1, R-SPIN sentence lists were matched on context, target-word length, and median word segment length necessary for target recognition. In Experiment 2, TGW recognition was assessed in quiet and in noise among adults of various ages with normal hearing to moderate hearing loss. Linear regression models of the minimum word duration necessary for correct identification and identification failure rates were developed. Age and hearing thresholds were modeled as continuous predictors with corrections for correlations among multiple measurements of the same participants. Results While aging and hearing loss both had significant impacts on task performance in the most adverse listening condition (low context, in noise), for most conditions, performance was limited primarily by hearing loss. Conclusion Whereas hearing loss was strongly related to target-word recognition, the effect of aging was only weakly related to task performance. These results have implications for the design and evaluation of studies of hearing and aging. PMID:25815688

  20. Age-related changes in functional network connectivity associated with high levels of verbal fluency performance.

    PubMed

    Marsolais, Yannick; Perlbarg, Vincent; Benali, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2014-09-01

    The relative preservation of receptive language abilities in older adults has been associated with adaptive changes in cerebral activation patterns, which have been suggested to be task-load dependent. However, the effects of aging and task demands on the functional integration of neural networks contributing to speech production abilities remain largely unexplored. In the present functional neuroimaging study, data-driven spatial independent component analysis and hierarchical measures of integration were used to explore age-related changes in functional connectivity among cortical areas contributing to semantic, orthographic, and automated word fluency tasks in healthy young and older adults, as well as to assess the effect of age and task demands on the functional integration of a verbal fluency network. The results showed that the functional integration of speech production networks decreases with age, while at the same time this has a marginal effect on behavioral outcomes in high-performing older adults. Moreover, a significant task demand/age interaction was found in functional connectivity within the anterior and posterior subnetworks of the verbal fluency network. These results suggest that local changes in functional integration among cortical areas supporting lexical speech production are modulated by age and task demands. PMID:25014614

  1. Longitudinal Effects of Group Music Instruction on Literacy Skills in Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L.; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6–9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  2. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  3. An analysis of changes in Chinese migrants' income.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1990-01-01

    Migration in China is analyzed in terms of migration income, the effect of changes in income on migratory behavior before and after economic reforms, and a comparison of migrants' income by city size (metropolis; large, medium, or small city; and town). Data were obtained from the 1986 sample survey of 74 cities and towns and population migration. Migration is defined as crossing over an administrative urban area from an original place of residence for more than 1 year, regardless of whether the residence permit was changes or not. Monthly income/capita in 1978 and 1986 is the income measure. Correlations between income and migration generated by the Q index reveal that there is a positive correlation between migratory behavior and individual income in the urban population such that migrants income is higher than nonmigrants. The correlation becomes stronger over time, such that migrants' income is higher in 1986 than nonmigrants' in 1986. Correlation in 1978 was .191 and .341 in 1986, which indicates a weak relationship. The interpretation is that migrants move to increase income level, which is supported by research in the US and the USSR. The cultural and age composition of the migrant population also suggests that those with stronger capabilities are migrants. There is also regional disparity in workers' salaries, and the permit system before 1978 was restrictive. The stronger correlation in 1986 is attributed to policy changes and an increased level of socioeconomic development and ownership structure. The generally weak correlation is attributed to the state of developing economy where there does not yet exist full scale freedom of mobility, a full scale open labor market, or full scale competition for employment. There are 2 categories of population employment: salaried employees and gross national product i.e., one sector is protected by state economic and social welfare policies and another sector which is under restrictions. This phenomena is explicated

  4. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-11-01

    Abstract: Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCC’s fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  5. Correlations between Income Inequality and Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study’s hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Data collection and analysis Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Results Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). Conclusion As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae

  6. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  7. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  8. Influence of age on the effectiveness of PCV2 vaccination in piglets with high levels of maternally derived antibodies.

    PubMed

    Haake, Michael; Palzer, Andreas; Rist, Beate; Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Fachinger, Vicky; Eggen, Alex; Ritzmann, Mathias; Eddicks, Matthias

    2014-01-31

    Two field studies were conducted to investigate the influence of age on the efficacy of vaccination against Porcine Circovirus Diseases (PCVD) in animals with high levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). A total of 416 piglets (Study 1) and 600 piglets (Study 2) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Two groups in each study received a single dose of a PCV2 subunit vaccine, one group at 1 week old and the other at 3 weeks of age. The third group was left untreated. Animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed a significantly higher average daily weight gain and significantly reduced viraemia following PCV2 infection than the respective control groups. This difference was not observed in pigs vaccinated at 1 week of age. Furthermore, only animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed an increased serological response and a higher frequency of IgM-positive animals compared with controls. The data indicated that PCV2 vaccination in the presence of high MDA levels is efficacious when used in 3-week old but not in 1-week old pigs. As the range of MDA titres of pigs vaccinated at both 1 and 3 weeks of age were comparable, the data suggest that PCV2 vaccine efficacy was independent of the level of MDA. It appears that other age-related factors affecting the active and passive transfer of immunity may perhaps have interfered with the efficacy of the vaccine in 1-week old piglets. These findings have implications for future PCV2 vaccine testing and administration strategies. PMID:24315042

  9. The Impact of Retrieval Processes, Age, General Achievement Level, and Test Scoring Scheme for Children's Metacognitive Monitoring and Controlling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Saskia Susanne; Roebers, Claudia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This multi-phase study examined the influence of retrieval processes on children's metacognitive processes in relation to and in interaction with achievement level and age. First, N = 150 9/10- and 11/12-year old high and low achievers watched an educational film and predicted their test performance. Children then solved a cloze test regarding the…

  10. Ageing management program for the Spanish low and intermediate level waste disposal and spent fuel and high-level waste centralised storage facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuloaga, P.; Ordoñez, M.; Andrade, C.; Castellote, M.

    2011-04-01

    The generic design of the centralised spent fuel storage facility was approved by the Spanish Safety Authority in 2006. The planned operational life is 60 years, while the design service life is 100 years. Durability studies and surveillance of the behaviour have been considered from the initial design steps, taking into account the accessibility limitations and temperatures involved. The paper presents an overview of the ageing management program set in support of the Performance Assessment and Safety Review of El Cabril low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility. Based on the experience gained for LILW, ENRESA has developed a preliminary definition of the Ageing Management Plan for the Centralised Interim Storage Facility of spent Fuel and High Level Waste (HLW), which addresses the behaviour of spent fuel, its retrievability, the confinement system and the reinforced concrete structure. It includes tests plans and surveillance design considerations, based on the El Cabril LILW disposal facility.

  11. Levels of the serum amyloid A protein (SAA) in normal persons of different age groups.

    PubMed Central

    Hijmans, W; Sipe, J D

    1979-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) has been implicated by three independent studies to increase in concentration with ageing. The present study measured SAA concentration in 395 samples from 302 healthy individuals ranging in age from 21 to 100 years. The average SAA concentration was 20 microgram/ml, with only five serum samples falling below 5 microgram/ml. SAA concentrations are expressed in terms of cross-reactivity of purified, denatured SAA with anti-AA antibodies, rather than the purified, denatured amyloid fibril protein AA from tissues, which has been used in the past. No age-related increase in SAA concentration was observed in the present study. The average SAA concentration in these normal, healthy individuals was almost a hundred-fold less than values measured in acute phase human serum in a separate study with the same reagents. PMID:428149

  12. Income distribution, public services expenditures, and all cause mortality in US states

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, J.; Burgess, B.; Ross, N.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this paper is to investigate the relation between state and local government expenditures on public services and all cause mortality in 48 US states in 1987, and determine if the relation between income inequality and mortality is conditioned on levels of public services available in these jurisdictions. Methods: Per capita public expenditures and a needs adjusted index of public services were examined for their association with age and sex specific mortality rates. OLS regression models estimated the contribution of public services to mortality, controlling for median income and income inequality. Results: Total per capita expenditures on public services were significantly associated with all mortality measures, as were expenditures for primary and secondary education, higher education, and environment and housing. A hypothetical increase of $100 per capita spent on higher education, for example, was associated with 65.6 fewer deaths per 100 000 for working age men (p<0.01). The positive relation between income inequality and mortality was partly attenuated by controls for public services. Discussion: Public service expenditures by state and local governments (especially for education) are strongly related to all cause mortality. Only part of the relation between income inequality and mortality may be attributable to public service levels. PMID:16100315

  13. Correlation of patient's mental attitude with age, sex, and educational level: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shweta; Kumar, Ajit; Arora, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine any relationship, if exists, between the patient's mental attitude with age, sex, or educational qualification. Methods: A total of 200 patients who attended the outpatient department during a span of 1 year, for the fabrication of new complete dentures, were chosen for the study. After completing a routine case history and examination, a questionnaire was filled by the clinician as answered by the patient. Participants were evaluated and categorized based on the questionnaire and clinical experience during treatment according to a predefined classification of determining mental attitudes. Outcomes from the survey were correlated with participant gender, age, and educational status. Results: The male to female ratio was 83:117, out of the 200 enrolled participants. The results from the questionnaire showed that females were found to be more exacting (P = 0.007) in nature, while males, on the other hand, revealed more indifferent attitude (P = 0.02); both differences being statistically significant. Of the three age group categories: Participants in the age group of 45–54 years revealed a significant inclination toward an exacting attitude when compared with other age groups (P < 0.001). In regards to educational status, an illiterate or minimally educated group significantly outnumbered the college graduates in the indifferent attitude group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it could be said that the mental attitudes of patients could vary according to gender, age, and educational status, which could affect patient cooperation and satisfaction with oral rehabilitation, eventually manipulating the overall success of the treatment rendered. PMID:27011735

  14. Physiological levels of thrombospondin-1 decrease NO-dependent vasodilation in coronary microvessels from aged rats.

    PubMed

    Nevitt, Chris; McKenzie, Grant; Christian, Katelyn; Austin, Jeff; Hencke, Sarah; Hoying, James; LeBlanc, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    Aging and cardiovascular disease are associated with the loss of nitric oxide (NO) signaling and a decline in the ability to increase coronary blood flow reserve (CFR). Thrombospondin-1 (Thbs-1), through binding of CD47, has been shown to limit NO-dependent vasodilation in peripheral vascular beds via formation of superoxide (O2 (-)). The present study tests the hypothesis that, similar to the peripheral vasculature, blocking CD47 will improve NO-mediated vasoreactivity in coronary arterioles from aged individuals, resulting in improved CFR. Isolated coronary arterioles from young (4 mo) or old (24 mo) female Fischer 344 rats were challenged with the NO donor, DEA-NONO-ate (1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-4) M), and vessel relaxation and O2 (-) production was measured before and after Thbs-1, αCD47, and/or Tempol and catalase exposure. In vivo CFR was determined in anesthetized rats (1-3% isoflurane-balance O2) via injected microspheres following control IgG or αCD47 treatment (45 min). Isolated coronary arterioles from young and old rats relax similarly to exogenous NO, but addition of 2.2 nM Thbs-1 inhibited NO-mediated vasodilation by 24% in old rats, whereas young vessels were unaffected. Thbs-1 increased O2 (-) production in coronary arterioles from rats of both ages, but this was exaggerated in old rats. The addition of CD47 blocking antibody completely restored NO-dependent vasodilation in isolated arterioles from aged rats and attenuated O2 (-) production. Furthermore, αCD47 treatment increased CFR from 9.6 ± 9.3 (IgG) to 84.0 ± 23% in the left ventricle in intact, aged animals. These findings suggest that the influence of Thbs-1 and CD47 on coronary perfusion increases with aging and may be therapeutically targeted to reverse coronary microvascular dysfunction. PMID:27199114

  15. European Bronze Age Sheet Metal Objects: 3,000 Years of High-Level Bronze Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mödlinger, Marianne; El Morr, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the manufacture and usage of selected sheet metal objects from helmets, a vessel, and two shields from the European Bronze Age and Early Iron Age, which date from the thirteenth to seventh centuries BC. Manufacturing traces on the surface, as well as metallographic investigations and the analyses of the alloy composition with scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, provided an insight into the manufacturing techniques and the production of valuable, high-status objects, and highlighted the potential changes in manufacturing techniques and alloys used during different time periods.

  16. Comparison of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels between mothers with small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age newborns in Kerman

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Amiri Moghadam, Tayebeh; Arasteh, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes but its relationship with fetal growth is unknown. Objective: We compared the 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels between mothers and their small for gestational age (SGA) newborns with mothers and their appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns. Materials and Methods: The study population included pregnant women that referred to Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman from 2012 to 2013. The case and control group consisted of 40 pregnant mothers with SGA and AGA newborns, respectively. The maternal and infants 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in the two groups. Results: 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was statistically higher in women with SGA newborns in comparison to women with AGA newborns (p=0.003).Vitamin D deficiency was higher among the SGA newborns in comparison to AGA newborns (25% vs. 17.5%), although this finding was not statistically meaningful (p=0.379). The relationship of vitamin D deficiency levels between mothers and infants in both the SGA group and the AGA group was significant. Conclusion: Our study reveals a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in women with SGA infants in comparison to women with AGA children. In addition, maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with its deficiency in newborns. PMID:26131008

  17. 7-ketocholesterol accumulates in ocular tissues as a consequence of aging and is present in high levels in drusen

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Ignacio R.; Clark, Mark E.; Lee, Jung Wha; Curcio, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed by LCMS lipid extracts of lens, retina (MNR) and RPE/Choroid (MPEC) from macaque monkeys 2–25 yr in age to determine their content of 7-ketocholesterol (7KCh) as function of age. In addition we also analyzed drusen capped with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE, and neural retina from human donors age 72–95 yr. The lowest 7KCh levels were found in monkey lens (<0.5 to 3.5 pmol 7KCh per nmol Ch), the second highest in MNR (1–15 pmol/nmol), and the highest in MPEC (1 to > 60 pmol/nmol). Despite individual variability all three tissues demonstrated a strong age-related increase. In older human donors 7KCh levels were significantly higher. The levels in human neural retina ranged from 8–20 pmol/nmol, similar to the oldest monkeys, but 7-KCh levels in RPE ranged from 200–17,000 pmol/nmol, and in RPE-capped drusen from 200–2,000 pmol/nmol, levels that would be lethal in most cultured cell systems. Most of the 7KCh is sequestered and not readily available to the surrounding tissue, based on published histochemical evidence that extracellular cholesterol (Ch) and cholesteryl fatty acid esters (CEs) are highly concentrated in Bruch’s membrane and drusen. However, adjacent tissues, especially RPE but also choriocapillaris endothelium, could be chronically inflamed and in peril of receiving a lethal exposure. Implications for initiation and progression of age-related macular degeneration are discussed. PMID:25261634

  18. Follow-up of infants given measles vaccine at 6 months of age: antibody and CMI responses to MMRII at 15 months of age and antibody levels at 27 months of age.

    PubMed

    Carson, Mary M; Spady, Donald W; Beeler, Judith A; Krezolek, Margaret P; Audet, Susette; Pabst, Henry F

    2005-05-01

    The worldwide elimination of measles is an important target. In developed countries, to control measles outbreaks, immunization from 6 months of age is recommended. In this study, infants (n = 290) who were (1) born to mothers with natural immunity or to vaccinated mothers and (2) previously immunized with Connaught (CLL) or AIK-C measles vaccine at 6 months of age, were evaluated for measles immunity before and after measles-mumps-rubella (MMRII at 15 months of age. Eight weeks after MMRII, 98.9% of infants were seropositive by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and 70% demonstrated measles specific cellular immunity by blast transformation (BT) of lymphocytes. At 27 months of age, 98.4% of infants had protective antibody levels by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) test. These results suggest that AIK-C and CLL vaccines elicit durable protective immunity in young infants when used in early immunization programs. PMID:15837229

  19. Age- and glycemia-related miR-126-3p levels in plasma and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Spazzafumo, Liana; Gobbi, Mirko; Prattichizzo, Francesco; Recchioni, Rina; Marcheselli, Fiorella; Sala, Lucia La; Galeazzi, Roberta; Rippo, Maria Rita; Fulgenzi, Gianluca; Angelini, Sabrina; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Brugè, Francesca; Tiano, Luca; Genovese, Stefano; Ceriello, Antonio; Boemi, Massimo; Franceschi, Claudio; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Testa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Circulating miR-126-3p levels were determined in 136 healthy subjects (CTRs) aged 20-90 years and 193 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DMs) aged 40-80 years, to explore the combined effect of age and glycemic state on miR-126-3p expression. Moreover, intra/extracellular miR-126-3p levels were measured in human endothelial cells (HUVECs) undergoing senescence under normo/hyper-glycemic conditions. Plasma miR-126-3p was significantly higher in the oldest compared with the youngest CTRs (<45 vs. >75 years; relative expression: 0.27±0.29 vs. 0.48±0.39, p=0.047). Age-based comparison between CTRs and T2DM demonstrated significantly different miR-126-3p levels only in the oldest (0.48±0.39 vs. 0.22±0.23, p<0.005). After multiple adjustments, miR-126-3p levels were seen to be lower in patients with poor glycemic control, compared with age-matched CTRs. The age-related increase in plasma miR-126-3p found in CTRs was paralleled by a 5/6-fold increase in intra/extracellular miR-126-3p in in vitro-cultured HUVECs undergoing senescence. Notably, significant down-regulation of SPRED-1 protein, a validated miR-126-3p target, was found in senescent HUVECs. Moreover, miR-126-3p expression was down-regulated in intermediate-age HUVECs grown in high-glucose medium until senescence. Aging/senescence-associated miR-126-3p up-regulation is likely a senescence-associated compensatory mechanism that is blunted when endothelial cells are exposed to high glucose levels, a phenomenon that probably occurs in vivo in T2DM patients. PMID:25324472

  20. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  1. HUMAN SUBJECT AGE AND ACTIVITY LEVEL: FACTORS ADDRESSED IN A BIOMATHEMATICAL DEPOSITION PROGRAM FOR EXTRAPOLATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic aerosol deposition model, previously validated by data from adult inhalation exposure experiments, is used to study factors affecting particle behavior within the developing human lung. ere, an age dependent lung morphology is presented in which the number of trac...

  2. Effects of Hearing and Aging on Sentence-Level Time-Gated Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molis, Michelle R.; Kampel, Sean D.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Dann, Serena M.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Aging is known to influence temporal processing, but its relationship to speech perception has not been clearly defined. To examine listeners' use of contextual and phonetic information, the Revised Speech Perception in Noise test (R-SPIN) was used to develop a time-gated word (TGW) task. Method: In Experiment 1, R-SPIN sentence lists…

  3. The Cross-Age Mentoring Program: A Developmental Intervention for Promoting Students' Connectedness across Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    In cross-age peer mentoring programs, high school students mentor younger students. Prior research demonstrates the positive effects for mentees as well as for mentors. This context-based, strengths-promoting intervention is designed to help school counselors foster high school students' leadership and collaboration skills while simultaneously…

  4. Perceptual Information for the Age Level of Faces as a Higher Order Invariant of Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, John B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Previous work supports the hypothesis that cardioidal strain offers a plausible mathematical model for the perceived changes in human craniofacial morphology due to growth. In two experiments, cardioidal strain caused changes in the perceived age of nonhuman profiles similar to those produced on human faces in earlier work. (Author/MH)

  5. Maternal Rigidity in Infancy and Level of Intelligence at School Age in Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Phillipa R.; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J.; Hegemann, Nicole; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Schoemaker, Marina M.; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Oetomo, Siddartho Bambang

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor development. At 7.5 years, intelligence was measured…

  6. Access to Resources in Different Age-Cohorts: Implications for Activity Level, Loneliness, and Life Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Bo

    This thesis uses a resource theoretical approach to study and analyze social psychological phenomena in different age-cohorts. Resources are seen as any asset the person has access to in a certain situation. Access to resources are crucial to meet the demands of the surrounding environment. When the resources are sufficient to cope with the…

  7. Household income and health care expenditures in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Parker, S W; Wong, R

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of household health expenditures in Mexico. Our analysis involves the estimation of household monetary health care expenditures, using the economic and demographic characteristics of the household as covariates. We pay particular attention to the impact of household income on health expenditures, estimating the elasticity of health care expenditures with respect to income for different income groups and according to health insurance status. For the empirical analysis, we use the Mexican National Survey of Income and Expenditures of 1989. Our principle findings show that monetary health expenditures by Mexican households are sensitive to changes in household income levels and that the group which is most responsive to changes in income levels in the lower-income uninsured group. This suggests that in times of economic crisis, these households reduce cash expenditures on health care by proportionately more than higher-income and insured households. PMID:10168755

  8. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly. PMID:24651652

  9. Inverse Associations between Obesity Indicators and Thymic T-Cell Production Levels in Aging Atomic-Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly. PMID:24651652

  10. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-09-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36-39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  11. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36–39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  12. Income Inequality and U.S. Tax Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret S.; Marri, Anand R.; Wylie, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Many social scientists have recently commented on the high levels of income inequality in the United States. Indeed, the last time income inequality was as great as it is today was 1928, the year before the stock market crash ushered in the Great Depression. In this article, the authors offer a historical look at income inequality and taxation in…

  13. Income Satisfaction and Relative Deprivation: An Empirical Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ambrosio, Conchita; Frick, Joachim R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between two well-established concepts of measuring individual well-being: the concept of "happiness," i.e. self-reported level of satisfaction with income, and "relative deprivation," i.e. the gaps between the individual's income and the incomes of all individuals richer than him. Operationalizing both concepts…

  14. Impact of Education on the Income of Different Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…

  15. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  16. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22-54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ-related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm's fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  17. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    An, S H; Kim, D W; An, B K

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry. PMID:26954217

  18. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  19. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  20. Price and Income Elasticities of Iranian Exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atrkar Roshan, Sedigheh

    This study investigates the export demand elasticities at the aggregate and disaggregated levels over the period 1977 to 2001 for Iran. By utilizing an export demand model and using time series techniques that account for the nonstationarity in the data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated by commodity class. As the elasticities of demand for various categories of exports are different, while they are crucial for policy determination. Based upon the estimated results, price and income elasticities are almost similar to those obtained in earlier studies in the case of developing countries. The main findings of this paper demonstrate that, price elasticities are smaller than -1 for all exports categories, whereas the income elasticities are found to be greater than one. The results also suggested, the income elasticities of industrial goods are higher compared to other export categories, while the lower elasticities are found in primary exports. The price and income elasticity estimates have also good statistical properties.

  1. Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50–65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993–1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI  =  1.1–7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear. PMID:23441227

  2. Intake of seafood in the U.S. varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health, however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. Objective: The purposes of ...

  3. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  4. Annual Income Tax Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Sandra C.

    1992-01-01

    This annual guide to income tax for parents of children with disabilities covers organizing records; avoiding audits; deducting medical expenses; and considering the impact of recent changes in medical expenses, Social Security numbers for children, child care, earned income credit, and deduction for dependents. (DB)

  5. The Resume Characteristics Determining Job Interviews for Middle-Aged Women Seeking Entry-Level Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emily; Lahey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining an entry-level job can be critically important for women with little education, particularly those who have taken time out of the labor force. This article uses archival data from a field experiment, called a resume audit study, to examine the characteristics of entry-level resumes that are important to potential employers. In accordance…

  6. Prolonged exposure to low levels of aluminum leads to changes associated with brain aging and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum is one of the most common metal elements in the earth's crust. It is not an essential element for life and has commonly been thought of as a rather inert and insoluble mineral. Therefore, it has often been regarded as not posing a significant health hazard. In consequence, aluminum-containing agents been used in many food processing steps and also in removal by flocculation of particulate organic matter from water. In recent years, acid rain has tended to mobilize aluminum-containing minerals into a more soluble form, ionic Al(3+), which has found their way into many reservoirs that constitute residential drinking water resources. As a result, the human body burden of aluminum has increased. Epidemiological studies suggest that aluminum may not be as innocuous as was previously thought and that aluminum may actively promote the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological data is strengthened by experimental evidence of aluminum exposure leading to excess inflammatory activity within the brain. Such apparently irrelevant immune activity unprovoked by an exogenous infectious agent characterizes the aging brain and is even more pronounced in several neurodegenerative diseases. The causation of most of these age-related neurological disorders is not understood but since they are generally not genetic, one must assume that their development is underlain by unknown environmental factors. There is an increasing and coherent body of evidence that implicates aluminum as being one such significant factor. Evidence is outlined supporting the concept of aluminum's involvement in hastening brain aging. This acceleration would then inevitably lead to increased incidence of specific age-related neurological diseases. PMID:24189189

  7. Age dependent increase in the levels of osteopontin inhibits skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Preeti; Pishesha, Novalia; Wijaya, Denny; Conboy, Irina M

    2012-08-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration following injury is accompanied by rapid infiltration of macrophages, which play a positive role in muscle repair. Increased chronic inflammation inhibits the regeneration of dystrophic muscle, but the properties of inflammatory cells are not well understood in the context of normal muscle aging. This work uncovers pronounced age-specific changes in the expression of osteopontin (OPN) in CD11b+ macrophages present in the injured old muscle as well as in the blood serum of old injured mice and in the basement membrane surrounding old injured muscle fibers. Furthermore, young CD11b+ macrophages enhance regenerative capacity of old muscle stem cells even when old myofibers and old sera are present; and neutralization of OPN similarly rejuvenates the myogenic responses of old satellite cells in vitro and notably, in vivo. This study highlights potential mechanisms by which age related inflammatory responses become counter-productive for muscle regeneration and suggests new strategies for enhancing muscle repair in the old. PMID:22915705

  8. Longitudinal changes in blood lead level in children and their relationship to season, age, and exposure to paint or plaster.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J

    1979-01-01

    Children screened for lead poisoning in the Brownsville district of New York City in either summer or winter were followed with blood lead tests for approximately six months to one year from screening to measure longitudinal changes in blood lead level and to identify some determinants of the changes. Only minimal evidence was found of the hypothesized summer rise in blood lead level, while the predominant trend seemed to be for blood lead levels to display statistical regression to the mean. In children found to have low to intermediate blood lead levels (less than 55 microgram/100ml) at screening, variables which were found to predict a rise in blood lead level of 10 microgram/100ml or greater from winter to summer were under age three and/or exposure to paint or plaster. PMID:426160

  9. Chronic exposures to low levels of estradiol and their effects on the ovaries and reproductive hormones: Comparison with aging

    PubMed Central

    Gilbreath, Ebony T.; MohanKumar, Sheba M.J.; Balasubramanian, Priya; Agnew, Dalen W.; MohanKumar, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aging in female rats is characterized by a state called “constant estrous” in which rats are unable to ovulate, have polycystic ovaries and moderately elevated estrogen levels. We hypothesized that chronic exposure of young animals to low levels of E2 can produce reproductive changes similar to that seen in aging animals. Adult female rats were sham-implanted (control) or implanted with slow-release E2 (20 ng/day) pellets for 30, 60, or 90 days. Old constant estrous (OCE) rats were used for comparison. Estrous cyclicity was monitored periodically. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed, trunk blood was collected for hormone measurements and ovaries for immunohistochemistry. Young animals became acyclic with increasing duration of E2 exposure while OCE rats were in a state of acyclicity. Ovaries became increasingly more cystic with E2 exposure, and were comparable to OCE rats; however, there was a marked reduction in interstitial tissue with exogenous E2 treatment. Exogenous E2 also decreased Mullerian inhibiting substance expression, increased infiltration of macrophages without much impact on apoptosis in the ovaries. Serum testosterone levels decreased in E2-treated young animals, while it increased significantly in OCE rats. There was a marked reduction in LH but not FSH levels with E2 exposure in both young and old animals. These results indicate that even very low doses of E2 are capable of inducing aging-like changes in young animals. PMID:26779558

  10. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and testosterone deficiency in middle-aged Korean men: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tak, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Kim, Yun Jin; Park, Nam Cheol; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Sangyeoup; Cho, Byung Mann; Kong, Eun Hee; Jung, Dong Wook; Yi, Yu Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that male hypogonadism is associated with a low level of vitamin D. However, no reports have investigated the effects of vitamin D on testosterone levels in Korean men. Our aim was to investigate whether testosterone levels are associated with serum vitamin D levels and whether seasonal variation exists. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) in 652 Korean men over 40 years of age who had undergone a comprehensive medical examination. The average age of the subjects was 56.7 ± 7.9 years, and the mean serum 25(OH)D, TT and FT levels were 21.23 ± 7.9 ng ml-1 , 4.70 ± 1.6 ng ml-1 , and 8.12 ± 3.3 pg ml-1 , respectively. In the multiple linear regression model, 25(OH)D showed positive association with TT (β =0.137, P< 0.001) and FT (β =0.103, P= 0.008). 25(OH)D and FT showed similar seasonal or monthly variation after adjustment for age. A vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng ml-1 ] was associated with an increased risk of deficiencies of TT (<2.30 ng ml-1 ) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-5.78, P= 0.014) and FT (<6.50 pg ml-1 ) (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.01-2.06 P= 0.048) after adjusting for age, season, body mass index, body composition, chronic disease, smoking, and alcohol use. In conclusion, we demonstrated a positive correlation between 25(OH)D and testosterone, which showed similar seasonal variation in Korean men. PMID:25532570