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Sample records for age matched controls

  1. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  2. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  3. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  4. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  5. A Comparison of Measures of Endothelial Function in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Age and Gender Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Richard B.; Vun, Simon V.; Spark, J. Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study compared flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral artery tonometry (PAT), and serum nitric oxide (NO) measures of endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) against age/gender matched controls. 25 patients (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) with established PAD and an age/gender matched group of 25 healthy controls (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) were studied. Endothelial function was measured using the % FMD, reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using PAT and serum NO (μmol). Difference for each method between PAD and control patients and correlation between the methods were investigated. FMD and RHI were lower in patients with PAD (median FMD for PAD = 2.16% versus control = 3.77%, p = 0.034 and median RHI in PAD = 1.64 versus control = 1.92, p = 0.005). NO levels were not significantly different between the groups (PAD median = 7.70 μmol, control median = 13.05 μmol, p = 0.662). These results were obtained in elderly patients and cannot be extrapolated to younger individuals. FMD and PAT both demonstrated a lower hyperaemic response in patients with PAD; however, FMD results in PAD patients were unequivocally reduced whereas half the PAD patients had RHI values above the established threshold for endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that FMD is a more appropriate method for the measurement of NO-mediated endothelial function. PMID:26942010

  6. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  7. Adverse anthropometric risk profile in biochemically controlled acromegalic patients: comparison with an age- and gender-matched primary care population

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, C.; Wittchen, H. U.; Pieper, L.; Klotsche, J.; Roemmler, J.; Schopohl, J.; Schneider, H. J.; Stalla, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    GH and IGF-1 play an important role in the regulation of metabolism and body composition. In patients with uncontrolled acromegaly, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased but are supposed to be normalised after biochemical control is achieved. We aimed at comparing body composition and the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with controlled acromegaly and controls. A cross-sectional study. We evaluated anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to height ratio) and, additionally, cardiovascular risk biomarkers (fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and lipoprotein (a), in 81 acromegalic patients (58% cured) compared to 320 age- and gender-matched controls (ratio 1:4), sampled from the primary care patient cohort DETECT. The whole group of 81 acromegalic patients presented with significantly higher anthropometric parameters, such as weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, but with more favourable cardiovascular risk biomarkers, such as fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL levels, in comparison to their respective controls. Biochemically controlled acromegalic patients again showed significantly higher measurements of obesity, mainly visceral adiposity, than age- and gender-matched control patients (BMI 29.5 ± 5.9 vs. 27.3 ± 5.8 kg/m2; P = 0.020; waist circumference 100.9 ± 16.8 vs. 94.8 ± 15.5 cm; P = 0.031; hip circumference 110.7 ± 9.9 vs. 105.0 ± 11.7 cm; P = 0.001). No differences in the classical cardiovascular biomarkers were detected except for fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides. This effect could not be attributed to a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the acromegalic patient group, since stratified analyses between the subgroup of patients with acromegaly and controls, both with type 2 diabetes mellitus, revealed that there were no significant differences in the

  8. Age-related increases in motivation among children with mental retardation and MA- and CA-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Blair, C; Greenberg, M; Crnic, K

    2001-11-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to a series of cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by a 12-month interval in children with mild mental retardation and MA- and CA-matched controls (age range 1 to 5 years). At the first assessment, children with mild mental retardation exhibited mastery behavior appropriate for MA but not CA. At the second assessment, the goal-directed behavior of children with mild mental retardation was no different from that of both the MA and CA controls. Correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental retardation and typically developing children. Implications for the developmental study of children with mild mental retardation are discussed. PMID:11708937

  9. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  10. Prognosis of Pregnancy-Associated Gastric Cancer: An Age-, Sex-, and Stage-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min Jeong; Park, Young Soo; Song, Ho June; Park, Se Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Byung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer is a rare condition. This case-control study was performed to identify the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer. Methods All consecutive patients who presented to our tertiary referral hospital with pregnancy-associated gastric cancer from 1991 to 2012 were identified. Two age-, sex-, and stage-matched controls for each case were also identified from the records. Clinicopathological, gynecological, and oncological outcomes were recorded. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor, and E-cadherin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Results The median overall survival rates of the pregnancy-associated gastric cancer and control groups were 7.0 months and 15.0 months, respectively (p=0.189). Poor prognostic factors included advanced stage and tumor location in the corpus or the entire stomach but not pregnancy status or loss of E-cadherin. Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer was associated with a longer time from diagnosis to treatment (21 days vs 7 days, p=0.021). The two groups did not differ in the expression of the receptors or E-cadherin. Conclusions The dismal prognosis of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer may related to the tumor stage and location rather than to pregnancy itself. PMID:27114414

  11. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  12. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  13. Kinematic Movement Strategies in Primary School Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls during Visuo-Manual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the mechanism subserving the production of kinematic patterns in 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 age- and IQ-matched control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) when performing a visuo-manual…

  14. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  15. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  16. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  17. Semiquantitative proteomic analysis of human hippocampal tissues from Alzheimer’s disease and age-matched control brains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting people over 65 years of age. The hallmarks of AD are the extracellular deposits known as amyloid β plaques and the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, both of which are the principal players involved in synaptic loss and neuronal cell death. Tau protein and Aβ fragment 1–42 have been investigated so far in cerebrospinal fluid as a potential AD biomarkers. However, an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers which will capture disease in the early stages and with better specificity remains. High-throughput proteomic and pathway analysis of hippocampal tissue provides a valuable source of disease-related proteins and biomarker candidates, since it represents one of the earliest affected brain regions in AD. Results In this study 2954 proteins were identified (with at least 2 peptides for 1203 proteins) from both control and AD brain tissues. Overall, 204 proteins were exclusively detected in AD and 600 proteins in control samples. Comparing AD and control exclusive proteins with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) literature-based proteome, 40 out of 204 AD related proteins and 106 out of 600 control related proteins were also present in CSF. As most of these proteins were extracellular/secretory origin, we consider them as a potential source of candidate biomarkers that need to be further studied and verified in CSF samples. Conclusions Our semiquantitative proteomic analysis provides one of the largest human hippocampal proteome databases. The lists of AD and control related proteins represent a panel of proteins potentially involved in AD pathogenesis and could also serve as prospective AD diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:23635041

  18. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  19. Comparison of younger and older breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls on specific and overall QoL domains

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Victoria L.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Daggy, Joanne; Smith, Lisa; Cohee, Andrea; Ziner, Kim W.; Haase, Joan E.; Miller, Kathy; Pradhan, Kamnesh; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Sledge, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Younger survivors (YS) of breast cancer often report more survivorship symptoms such as fatigue, depression, sexual difficulty, and cognitive problems than older survivors (OS). We sought to determine the effect of breast cancer and age at diagnosis on Quality of Life (QoL) by comparing 3 groups: 1) YS diagnosed at age 45 or before, 2) OS diagnosed between 55 and 70, and, 3) for the YS, age-matched controls (AC) of women not diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Using a large Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) data base, we recruited 505 YS who were ages 45 or younger when diagnosed and 622 OS diagnosed at 55 to 70. YS, OS, and AC were compared on physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and overall QoL variables. Results Compared to both AC and to OS, YS reported more depressive symptoms (p=.005) and fatigue (p<.001), poorer self-reported attention function (p<.001), and poorer sexual function (p<.001) than either comparison group. However, YS also reported a greater sense of personal growth (p<.001) and perceived less social constraint (p<.001) from their partner than AC. Conclusions YS reported worse functioning than AC relative to depression, fatigue, attention, sexual function, and spirituality. Perhaps even more important, YS fared worse than both AC and OS on body image, anxiety, sleep, marital satisfaction, and fear of recurrence, indicating that YS are at greater risk for long term QoL problems than survivors diagnosed at a later age. PMID:24891116

  20. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  1. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia. PMID:26056611

  2. Sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma: a comparison with age-matched controls and correlation with disease variables.

    PubMed

    Wangkaew, Suparaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Sivasomboon, Chate; Wichainun, Ramjai; Sukitawut, Waraporn; Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms in Thai patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and scleroderma (Scl). The ocular symptoms and sign (the Schirmer's 1 test) and the oral sicca symptoms and sign (the Saxon's test) in each of 50 RA, SLE and Scl patients were compared with their age-matched controls. The correlation between the presence of sicca symptoms and signs with their clinical activity was also determined. Ocular sicca symptoms were found more common in patients with RA (38% vs 18%, p < 0.05), SLE (36% vs 14%, p < 0.05) and Scl (54% vs 16%, p < 0.01), and oral sicca symptoms were found more common in SLE (22% vs 0%, p < 0.01), and Scl (16% vs 4%, p < 0.05) than their controls. However, only RA patients had a significantly higher proportion of positive Schimer-1 test compared with their controls (p < 0.01). There was no strong correlation between sicca symptoms or signs and other clinical or laboratory variables (age, disease duration, disease activity, disease severity, and antibody to Ro and La antigens) in these three groups. In conclusion, sicca symptoms were seen significantly more common in Thai patients with connective tissue diseases, but the symptoms did not show a good correlation with the clinical and laboratory variables.

  3. Comparison of the Association of Excess Weight on Health Related Quality of Life of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Age- and BMI-Matched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shishehgar, Farnaz; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajian, Sepideh; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background It is assumed that obesity adversely affects the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), not only due to the excess weight, but also due to several other obesity induced metabolic and reproductive consequences. We aimed to compare the effects of excess body weight on the HRQOL between women with PCOS and controls. Methods This is a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 age- and BMI- matched controls. The Iranian version of short form health survey 36 (SF 36) was used to assess HRQOL. Domains of SF 36 were compared in women with PCOS and controls using multivariate analysis of covariance. The Pearson correlation was used to assess the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and domain scores of SF 36, and the differences between two correlations in cases and controls, using Fisher’s Z test. Results Women with PCOS had significantly lower scores for both, the physical and the mental component summary scales, compared to controls. In the cases, a significant negative correlations were observed for BMI with physical function (r = - 0.301, P<0.001), bodily pain (r = - 0.23, P = 0.006), and physical summary score (r = -0.3, P = 0.007). In controls, significant correlation was seen for BMI with bodily pain (r = - 0.3, P<0.001) and physical summary score (r = - 0.27, P = 0.001). The differences between correlations of physical function with BMI in PCOS and controls were statistically significant (Z = -2.41, P = 0.008). Conclusion Although the physical aspects of HRQOL are adversely affected by overweight in both PCOS and controls, these impaired effects are greater in women with PCOS. PMID:27736861

  4. Risk Factors of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia in First-Degree Relatives of Gastric Cancer Patients Compared with Age-Sex Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sooyeon; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Hyuk; Choi, Yun Jin; Lee, Ju Yup; Park, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Hee Jin; Kang, Kyu Keun; Oh, Dong Hyun; Seo, A Young; Lee, Jae Woo; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Oh, Jane C.; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background: To identify whether first-degree relatives (FDRs) of gastric cancer (GC) patients have increased risk for atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) in relation to other risk factors of GC. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 224 pairs of age-sex matched controls and FDRs. AG and IM in the gastric mucosa were scored histologically using the updated Sydney classification. Risk of having AG and IM was studied by comparing FDRs to controls. Impacts of age, H. pylori infection, smoking, dietary and socioeconomic factors on the presence of AG and IM were studied. Results: In multivariate regression analysis, FDRs had adjusted OR of 2.69 (95% CI 1.06–6.80, P=0.037) for antral IM in male population. Adjusted OR for antral AG and IM were 9.28 (95% CI 4.73–18.18, P<0.001) and 7.81 (95% CI 3.72–16.40, P<0.001) for the H. pylori infected subjects in total population. Getting old by 5 years increased the ORs of having AG and IM by approximately 1.25 fold (P<0.001). Spicy food increased the OR of antral IM by 2.28 fold (95% CI 1.36–3.84, P=0.002). Conclusions: Family history of GC was an independent risk factor for antral IM in male in our study, which could be one reason for the increase of gastric cancer in the family member of gastric cancer. It could be an evidence for the necessity of frequent endoscopy in the presence of family history of GC compared to general population in male. PMID:25337541

  5. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  6. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  7. A case–control study of self-reported health, quality-of-life and general functioning among recent immigrants and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born controls

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblad, Andreas; Wiklund, Tony; Bennström, Halina; Leppert, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether new immigrants had inferior quality-of-life, well-being and general functioning compared with Swedish age- and sex-matched controls. Methods: A prospective case–control study was designed including immigrants from non-European countries, 18–65 years of age, with recent Permanent Permits to Stay (PPS) in Sweden, and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born (SB) persons from the general population in Västmanland County, Sweden. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Scale and the General Activity Functioning Assessment Scale (GAF) from DSM-IV were posted (SB), or applied in personal interviews (PPS) with interpreters. Differences between the PPS and SB groups were measured using McNemar’s test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test conducted separately for observations at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results: There were 93 pairs (mean age 36 years). Persons from Somalia (67%) and Iraq (27%) dominated the PPS group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant for all time points for the Psychological health and Social relationship domains of WHOQOL-BREF, and for the baseline and 6-month follow-up time points of GHQ-12 where the PPS-group had a higher degree of well-being, health and quality-of-life than the SB. This tendency applied for both sexes in the immigrant group. Conclusions: These new immigrants did not have inferior physical or psychological health, quality-of-life, well-being or social functioning compared with their age- and sex-matched Swedish born pairs during a 1-year follow-up. Thus, there is reason to advocate immigrants’ fast integration into society. PMID:25249583

  8. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  9. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  10. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  11. Case-control association studies with matching and genomic controlling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2004-07-01

    Family-based association studies have gained in popularity for mapping disease-susceptibility gene(s) of complex diseases. However, recruiting family controls is often more difficult than recruiting unrelated controls. The author proposes a case-control study, where the possible biases due to population stratification are controlled by matching in the design stage and by genomic controlling in the data-analytic stage. The matching is based on a set of "stratum-delineating variables," such as, race, ethnicity, nationality, ancestry, and birthplace; and the genomic controlling is based on typing a number of null markers across the genome and applying the principle of multiplicative scaling of chi-square distribution. It pays to match carefully to have a higher proportion of correctly matched sets, as computer simulation showed that this would increase the power of the study. If matching is crude, one loses power but still has the correct type I error rate after genomic controlling. Power studies showed that the numbers of affected subjects required for the pair-matched study are comparable to those required by the case-parents design, if the study was conducted in a homogeneous population. As the (control-to-case) matching ratio increases, the number of affected subjects required decreases. With matching ratio tending toward infinity, the number required shrinks roughly by half. The case-control study with matching and genomic controlling frees us from family bondage, and the genetic problem as complicated as mapping genes can now be studied using simple epidemiologic methods. PMID:15185398

  12. A Matched Filter Hypothesis for Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex exerts top-down influences on several aspects of higher-order cognition by functioning as a filtering mechanism that biases bottom-up sensory information toward a response that is optimal in context. However, research also indicates that not all aspects of complex cognition benefit from prefrontal regulation. Here we review and synthesize this research with an emphasis on the domains of learning and creative cognition, and outline how the appropriate level of cognitive control in a given situation can vary depending on the organism's goals and the characteristics of the given task. We offer a Matched Filter Hypothesis for cognitive control, which proposes that the optimal level of cognitive control is task-dependent, with high levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are explicit, rule-based, verbal or abstract, and can be accomplished given the capacity limits of working memory and with low levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are implicit, reward-based, non-verbal or intuitive, and which can be accomplished irrespective of working memory limitations. Our approach promotes a view of cognitive control as a tool adapted to a subset of common challenges, rather than an all-purpose optimization system suited to every problem the organism might encounter. PMID:24200920

  13. Impact of stimulus integrity on age differences in letter matching.

    PubMed

    Groth, Karen E; Gilmore, Grover C; Thomas, Cecil W

    2003-01-01

    Young and older adults were tested in both a letter-identification and a letter-matching task in which the integrity of the letter stimuli was manipulated through contrast reduction and low-pass spatial frequency filtering. The use of the contrast and filtering manipulations was an attempt to increase encoding difficulty in an effort to examine whether stimulus integrity impacts more than just the initial encoding of the letter pairs in a letter-matching task, namely the comparison process as indexed by fast-same and false-different effects. Of interest in terms of aging is whether a decline in information-processing performance often reported in the aging literature is related to the known encoding deficits of older adults. In the letter-identification task, both contrast reduction and filtering slowed letter-identification speed for both groups, with the effect being larger for the older adults. In the letter-matching task, decreased processing efficiency produced by the contrast-reduction and low-pass-filtering manipulations led to an overall increase in reaction time and errors, but it did not interact with the magnitude of the fast-same effect or false-different effects for either subject group. These findings suggest that the stimulus integrity manipulations only impact the encoding of the letter pairs in the matching task and not the comparison process. The results of the present study support a dual-process model of the matching task consisting of separate encoding and comparison processes. The finding of a larger fast-same effect for older adults suggests that the age effect is occurring at the comparison stage, but it is not impacted by the stimulus integrity manipulations. The findings are described within a generalized slowing framework.

  14. Youth Suicide in Norway, 1990-1992: A Comparison between Children and Adolescents Completing Suicide and Age- and Gender-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes all residents in Norway, ages 19 and younger, who committed suicide from 1990 to 1992 so as to describe characteristics of young suicide victims. Results indicate that depression, disruption disorders, and previous suicidal behavior were main risk factors for suicide. Of the group, 74% had mental disorders, but few had received treatment.…

  15. Age-related changes in matching novel objects across viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Yaroslav; Vuong, Quoc C.; Bennett, Patrick J.; Sekuler, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Object recognition is an important visual process. We are not only required to recognize objects across a variety of lighting conditions and variations in size, but also across changes in viewpoint. It has been shown that reaction times in object matching increase as a function of increasing angular disparity between two views of the same object, and it is thought that this is related to the time it takes to mentally rotate an object. Recent studies have shown that object rotations for familiar objects affect older subjects differently than younger subjects. To investigate the general normalization effects for recognizing objects across different viewpoints regardless of visual experience with an object, in the current study we used novel 3D stimuli. Older and younger subjects matched objects across a variety of viewpoints along both in-depth and picture-plane rotations. Response times (RTs) for in-depth rotations were generally slower than for picture plane rotations and older subjects, overall, responded slower than younger subjects. However, a male RT advantage was only found for objects that differed by large, in-depth rotations. Compared to younger subjects, older subjects were not only slower but also less accurate at matching objects across both rotation axes. The age effect was primarily due to older male subjects performing worse than younger male subjects, whereas there was no significant age difference for female subjects. In addition, older males performed even worse than older females, which argues against a general male advantage in mental rotations tasks. PMID:21784094

  16. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  17. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  18. Cardiovascular reactivity in Black and White siblings versus matched controls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D K; Holmes, S D; Arheart, K; Alpert, B S

    1995-09-01

    Elevated cardiovascular (CV) reactivity may be a marker or mechanism for the early development of essential hypertension (EH) and may contribute to the greater prevalence of EH observed in Black adults. Previous research has demonstrated that Black children show greater CV reactivity than White children to psychological stressors, however, the role of heritability in understanding these racial differences is still unknown. Evidence which supports a genetic influence on CV reactivity comes from animal studies, research on family history of EH, and from twin and sibling studies. The present study expands on previous findings by examining racial differences in CV reactivity in 15 pairs of Black siblings, 15 pairs of age-and sex-matched unrelated Black control subjects, 17 pairs of White siblings, and 17 pairs of age-and sex-matched unrelated White control subjects. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) measurements were obtained at rest and during a stress task (competitive video game). Black siblings demonstrated a significantly higher intraclass correlation for DBP reactivity than Black controls or White siblings (r=0.73, versus 0.16, 0.14, respectively). Additionally, Black siblings demonstrated a steeper rise and then a plateau in DBP and HR reactivity to the video game task, while White siblings showed a more gradual increase in these measures over the course of playing three video games. The results for DBP and HR reactivity, however, were not consistent among either of the matched control groups. These results expand on previous research by suggesting a stronger genetic influence of CV reactivity in Black than in White children. PMID:24203531

  19. Cardiovascular reactivity in Black and White siblings versus matched controls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D K; Holmes, S D; Arheart, K; Alpert, B S

    1995-09-01

    Elevated cardiovascular (CV) reactivity may be a marker or mechanism for the early development of essential hypertension (EH) and may contribute to the greater prevalence of EH observed in Black adults. Previous research has demonstrated that Black children show greater CV reactivity than White children to psychological stressors, however, the role of heritability in understanding these racial differences is still unknown. Evidence which supports a genetic influence on CV reactivity comes from animal studies, research on family history of EH, and from twin and sibling studies. The present study expands on previous findings by examining racial differences in CV reactivity in 15 pairs of Black siblings, 15 pairs of age-and sex-matched unrelated Black control subjects, 17 pairs of White siblings, and 17 pairs of age-and sex-matched unrelated White control subjects. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) measurements were obtained at rest and during a stress task (competitive video game). Black siblings demonstrated a significantly higher intraclass correlation for DBP reactivity than Black controls or White siblings (r=0.73, versus 0.16, 0.14, respectively). Additionally, Black siblings demonstrated a steeper rise and then a plateau in DBP and HR reactivity to the video game task, while White siblings showed a more gradual increase in these measures over the course of playing three video games. The results for DBP and HR reactivity, however, were not consistent among either of the matched control groups. These results expand on previous research by suggesting a stronger genetic influence of CV reactivity in Black than in White children.

  20. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA matching shapes metabolism and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Pellicer, Ana; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Calvo, Enrique; Aix, Esther; González-Guerra, Andrés; Logan, Angela; Bernad-Miana, María Luisa; Romanos, Eduardo; Cruz, Raquel; Cogliati, Sara; Sobrino, Beatriz; Carracedo, Ángel; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Ruíz-Cabello, Jesús; Murphy, Michael P; Flores, Ignacio; Vázquez, Jesús; Enríquez, José Antonio

    2016-07-28

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) shows extensive within population sequence variability. Many studies suggest that mtDNA variants may be associated with ageing or diseases, although mechanistic evidence at the molecular level is lacking. Mitochondrial replacement has the potential to prevent transmission of disease-causing oocyte mtDNA. However, extension of this technology requires a comprehensive understanding of the physiological relevance of mtDNA sequence variability and its match with the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Studies in conplastic animals allow comparison of individuals with the same nuclear genome but different mtDNA variants, and have provided both supporting and refuting evidence that mtDNA variation influences organismal physiology. However, most of these studies did not confirm the conplastic status, focused on younger animals, and did not investigate the full range of physiological and phenotypic variability likely to be influenced by mitochondria. Here we systematically characterized conplastic mice throughout their lifespan using transcriptomic, proteomic,metabolomic, biochemical, physiological and phenotyping studies. We show that mtDNA haplotype profoundly influences mitochondrial proteostasis and reactive oxygen species generation,insulin signalling, obesity, and ageing parameters including telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in profound differences in health longevity between conplastic strains. PMID:27383793

  1. Matching with Multiple Control Groups with Adjustment for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    When estimating causal effects from observational data, it is desirable to approximate a randomized experiment as closely as possible. This goal can often be achieved by choosing a subsample from the original control group that matches the treatment group on the distribution of the observed covariates. However, sometimes the original control group…

  2. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  3. Matching trajectory optimization and nonlinear tracking control for HALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangjong; Jang, Jieun; Ryu, Hyeok; Lee, Kyun Ho

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns optimal trajectory generation and nonlinear tracking control for stratospheric airship platform of VIA-200. To compensate for the mismatch between the point-mass model of optimal trajectory and the 6-DOF model of the nonlinear tracking problem, a new matching trajectory optimization approach is proposed. The proposed idea reduces the dissimilarity of both problems and reduces the uncertainties in the nonlinear equations of motion for stratospheric airship. In addition, its refined optimal trajectories yield better results under jet stream conditions during flight. The resultant optimal trajectories of VIA-200 are full three-dimensional ascent flight trajectories reflecting the realistic constraints of flight conditions and airship performance with and without a jet stream. Finally, 6-DOF nonlinear equations of motion are derived, including a moving wind field, and the vectorial backstepping approach is applied. The desirable tracking performance is demonstrated that application of the proposed matching optimization method enables the smooth linkage of trajectory optimization to tracking control problems.

  4. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-6 in patients with dysthymic disorder: comparison with age- and sex-matched major depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Katsuki, Asuka; Hayashi, Kenji; Atake, Kiyokazu; Nakamura, Jun

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the serum BDNF levels and plasma IL-6 levels in patients with dysthymic disorder, major depressive disorder and control subjects. Eighteen patients who met the DSM-IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) for dysthymic disorder (male/female: 5/13; age: 36 ± 9 year) and 20 patients (male/female: 7/13; age: 38 ± 10 year) who met the criteria for major depressive disorder were enrolled. The serum BDNF levels in patients with dysthymic and major depressive disorder were significantly lower than those in the control subjects. However, no difference was found between the dysthymic group and major depression group. The plasma IL-6 levels in the dysthymic group and major depression group were significantly higher than those in the control group. No difference was observed in the plasma IL-6 levels between the dysthymic group and major depression group. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of dysthymic disorder and major depression might be similar in terms of the blood levels of BDNF and IL-6.

  5. Use of smell test identification in Parkinson's disease in Mexico: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Lees, Andrew J; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Corona, Teresa; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Smell tests can be useful in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) but are affected by cultural factors. Currently there is no smell test tailored for the Mexican population but the brief smell identification test (B-SIT) was created as a cross-cultural SIT. We have created a translation of this test into Spanish adapted to the Mexican population and have applied it to 70 PD patients and 70 age- and gender-matched controls. The B-SIT differentiated PD and controls with 71.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity, when subjects were divided into two age groups.

  6. Match explosionproof motors with variable-frequency controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Petro, D.; Basso, D.

    1995-10-01

    The correct application of variable-frequency drive controllers to AC induction motors can be difficult, even for relatively simple applications. When using a variable-frequency controller (inverter), the non-pure sine-wave power output cases additional motor heating, primarily because of harmonics and below-base-speed operation. Add to that a hazardous environment requiring an explosion proof (XP) motor and the selection of a suitable, as well as efficient, motor and variable-frequency controller combination, and selection becomes even more complicated. Hazardous locations are found in a wide range of chemical process industries (CPI) plants, including chemical, petrochemical textile, rubber-making,, agriculture, food-processing, and metalworking facilities. Because standard constant-speed XP motors are not designed of use with variable-frequency controllers in these potentially explosive applications, it is necessary to understand how drive controllers affect motor performance. The multitude of motors and controllers--which can be purchased separately--and the numerous hazardous-application restrictions make it difficult to select the right XP motor/controller combination. The paper discusses how variable frequency affects motors, hazardous environments as found in UL 674 and UL 1836, matching XP motors with variable-frequency controllers, preventing motor overheating, motor and controller packaging, and non-thermostat applications in the CPI.

  7. Age-related deficit in a bimanual joint position matching task is amplitude dependent

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive load associated with joint position sense increases with age but does not necessarily result in impaired performance in a joint position matching task. It is still unclear which factors interact with age to predict matching performance. To test whether movement amplitude and direction are part of such predictors, young and older adults performed a bimanual wrist joint position matching task. Results revealed an age-related deficit when the target limb was positioned far from (25°) the neutral position, but not when close to (15°, 5°) the neutral joint position, irrespective of the direction. These results suggest that the difficulty associated with the comparison of two musculoskeletal states increases towards extreme joint amplitude and that older adults are more vulnerable to this increased difficulty. PMID:26347649

  8. Indirect Estimates of Jaw Muscle Tension in Children with Suspected Hypertonia, Children with Suspected Hypotonia, and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared indirect estimates of jaw-muscle tension in children with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities with age- and gender-matched controls. Method: Jaw movement and muscle activation were measured in children (ages 3 years, 11 months, to 10 years) with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities (Down syndrome or…

  9. Structural controllability of complex networks based on preferential matching.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xizhe; Lv, Tianyang; Yang, XueYing; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Minimum driver node sets (MDSs) play an important role in studying the structural controllability of complex networks. Recent research has shown that MDSs tend to avoid high-degree nodes. However, this observation is based on the analysis of a small number of MDSs, because enumerating all of the MDSs of a network is a #P problem. Therefore, past research has not been sufficient to arrive at a convincing conclusion. In this paper, first, we propose a preferential matching algorithm to find MDSs that have a specific degree property. Then, we show that the MDSs obtained by preferential matching can be composed of high- and medium-degree nodes. Moreover, the experimental results also show that the average degree of the MDSs of some networks tends to be greater than that of the overall network, even when the MDSs are obtained using previous research method. Further analysis shows that whether the driver nodes tend to be high-degree nodes or not is closely related to the edge direction of the network.

  10. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  11. ACL-Injured Subjects Have Smaller ACLs Than Matched Controls: An MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.; Zelman, Eric A.; Flanigan, David C.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Nagaraja, Haikady N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Very few studies examining the predisposing anatomical factors leading to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have examined the ACL itself, and none of these directly examined the difference in ACL properties between injured and matched control subjects. Hypothesis ACL total volume of people who have experienced a non-contact ACL injury is smaller than that of matched controls. Methods Contours of the ACL were manually identified in sagittal MR images and volumes were calculated for 27 contralateral, healthy knees of individuals after non-contact ACL injury and for 27 control subjects matched for gender, height, age, and weight. Validation of this method was performed on 5 porcine knees. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the difference in ACL volume between injured and control subjects while considering gender, height, weight, and age as potential covariates. Results Contralateral ACL volume for injured subjects was significantly smaller than non-injured subjects (p=0.0208) by 231 mm3 after adjusting for weight, which was also a significant contributor to ACL volume (p<0.0001). At the average body mass of 72.7kg, subjects with a non-contact ACL injury had an average contralateral ACL volume of 1921 mm3, while the corresponding control group had an average volume of 2151 mm3. Gender, height, and age were not significant when weight was included in the regression model. Conclusions This study shows that there are anthropometric differences between the knees of subjects with a non-contact ACL injury and those without an ACL injury, suggesting that ACL volume may play a direct role in non-contact ACL injury. PMID:19307330

  12. Uterine anomalies. A retrospective, matched-control study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Rafael, Z; Seidman, D S; Recabi, K; Bider, D; Mashiach, S

    1991-10-01

    The obstetric risk associated with congenital uterine malformations was studied in a group of 67 women who had undergone hysterosalpingography (HSG) during an eight-year period. HSG was performed to investigate primary (21% of the cases) and secondary (19%) infertility (group 1) or recurrent early fetal loss (60%) (group 2). The study group was compared with a random control group of 130 patients with HSG-proven normal uteri, matched for the presenting symptom. Prematurity and intrauterine fetal death were found to be significantly more common (P less than .05) for women in group 1 with uterine anomalies. The mean birth weight for preterm infants (less than 37 weeks) was significantly lower (P less than .01) for women with malformed uteri. The incidence of antepartum bleeding during pregnancy (P less than .01), breech presentation and cesarean section (P less than .001) was significantly higher for the study group. Premature rupture of the membranes was diagnosed more frequently (P less than .05) only in group 1. Patients with congenital uterine anomalies are a high-risk obstetric group. Primary infertility may be a more common presenting complaint in women with uterine anomalies than previously recognized.

  13. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  14. Risk factors for conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Tulvatana, W; Bhattarakosol, P; Sansopha, L; Sipiyarak, W; Kowitdamrong, E; Paisuntornsug, T; Karnsawai, S

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To identify roles of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and solar elastosis as the risk factors for conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia (CSCN). Methods: 30 consecutive pathological specimens, ranging from conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, carcinoma in situ, to invasive squamous cell carcinoma were retrieved from tissue archives. 30 controls were disease free conjunctiva from age and sex matched patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction. Two masked pathologists studied haematoxylin and eosin stains on paraffin embedded conjunctival tissues. Elastic stain for solar elastosis was blindly interpreted in comparison with negative and positive controls. HPV infection was studied by polymerase chain reaction and dot hybridisation. Results: The mean age of CSCN patients was 54.9 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Solar elastosis was seen in 53.3% of CSCN and in 3.3% of controls with an odds ratio of 16.0 (95% CI, 2.49 to 670.96; p value = 0.0003). HPV DNA were not detected in any of the specimens. Conclusion: Solar elastosis is much more frequently found in CSCN cases than in their matched controls and is a risk factor for CSCN. These data are insufficient to conclude that HPV infection is a risk factor for CSCN. PMID:12642297

  15. A breed-matched case-control study of potential risk-factors for canine pyometra.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Hedhammar, Åke; Egenvall, Agneta

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate plausible risk-factors for pyometra, a common disease affecting almost 25% of all (unspayed) female dogs before 10 years of age. Because of the strong breed-predilection, an age- and breed-matched case-control study was undertaken on 87 pairs (pyometra-cases and healthy controls) from five breeds (Rottweiler (n = 13), Collie (n = 8), Golden retriever (n = 24), Labrador retriever (n = 16) and German shepherd dog (n = 26)). The mean age was 7.9 y (range 0.8-13.8 y). Variables analyzed included pseudopregnancy, age at first oestrus, length of and regularity of the interoestrus interval, hormone treatments, nulliparity, number of parities, age at first whelping, previous urinary tract infections and mammary tumours. Data were modelled multivariably using matched-pair conditional logistic regression. Analysing interactions with breed, previous pregnancy was statistically associated with pyometra. When amalgamated, in three breeds previous pregnancy was protective (Rottweiler, Collie, Labrador retriever) and in one breed statistically intermediate (German shepherd dog) when compared to the baseline (Golden retriever). Previous pregnancy was a statistically significant factor that had a protective effect against pyometra in some breeds but not in the Golden retriever breed. These findings indicate that protective- and risk-factors may vary between different breeds. The obvious problem with low power and limited possibility for extrapolation, using few dogs in few breeds, is acknowledged. However, it is suggested that failure to control for the confounding effect of breed, especially in epidemiological studies on dog diseases, may lead to potentially erroneous conclusions.

  16. A breed-matched case-control study of potential risk-factors for canine pyometra.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Hedhammar, Åke; Egenvall, Agneta

    2011-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate plausible risk-factors for pyometra, a common disease affecting almost 25% of all (unspayed) female dogs before 10 years of age. Because of the strong breed-predilection, an age- and breed-matched case-control study was undertaken on 87 pairs (pyometra-cases and healthy controls) from five breeds (Rottweiler (n = 13), Collie (n = 8), Golden retriever (n = 24), Labrador retriever (n = 16) and German shepherd dog (n = 26)). The mean age was 7.9 y (range 0.8-13.8 y). Variables analyzed included pseudopregnancy, age at first oestrus, length of and regularity of the interoestrus interval, hormone treatments, nulliparity, number of parities, age at first whelping, previous urinary tract infections and mammary tumours. Data were modelled multivariably using matched-pair conditional logistic regression. Analysing interactions with breed, previous pregnancy was statistically associated with pyometra. When amalgamated, in three breeds previous pregnancy was protective (Rottweiler, Collie, Labrador retriever) and in one breed statistically intermediate (German shepherd dog) when compared to the baseline (Golden retriever). Previous pregnancy was a statistically significant factor that had a protective effect against pyometra in some breeds but not in the Golden retriever breed. These findings indicate that protective- and risk-factors may vary between different breeds. The obvious problem with low power and limited possibility for extrapolation, using few dogs in few breeds, is acknowledged. However, it is suggested that failure to control for the confounding effect of breed, especially in epidemiological studies on dog diseases, may lead to potentially erroneous conclusions. PMID:21196041

  17. Age-related differences in enhancement and suppression of neural activity underlying selective attention in matched young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Haring, A E; Zhuravleva, T Y; Alperin, B R; Rentz, D M; Holcomb, P J; Daffner, K R

    2013-03-01

    Selective attention reflects the top-down control of sensory processing that is mediated by enhancement or inhibition of neural activity. ERPs were used to investigate age-related differences in neural activity in an experiment examining selective attention to color under Attend and Ignore conditions, as well as under a Neutral condition in which color was task-irrelevant. We sought to determine whether differences in neural activity between old and young adult subjects were due to differences in age rather than executive capacity. Old subjects were matched to two groups of young subjects on the basis of neuropsychological test performance: one using age-appropriate norms and the other using test scores not adjusted for age. We found that old and young subject groups did not differ in the overall modulation of selective attention between Attend and Ignore conditions, as indexed by the size of the anterior Selection Positivity. However, in contrast to either young adult group, old subjects did not exhibit reduced neural activity under the Ignore relative to Neutral condition, but showed enhanced activity under the Attend condition. The onset and peak of the Selection Positivity occurred later for old than young subjects. In summary, older adults execute selective attention less efficiently than matched younger subjects, with slowed processing and failed suppression under Ignore. Increased enhancement under Attend may serve as a compensatory mechanism.

  18. Risk Factors for Primary Pulmonary TB in Almaty Region, Kazakhstan: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHUSSUPOV, Baurzhan; HERMOSILLA, Sabrina; TERLIKBAYEVA, Assel; AIFAH, Angela; MA, Xin; ZHUMADILOV, Zhaxybay; ABILDAYEV, Tleukhan; DARISHEVA, Meruyert; BERIKKHANOVA, Kulzhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between incident pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and social and behavioral characteristics in Almaty Oblast, Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2013. Methods: We used a matched case-control design to estimate the role of factors for acquiring pulmonary TB. Totally 324 individuals were recruited from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Participants included 110 TB index cases with newly detected pulmonary TB. Each case was matched with one household and one community control. A total of 107 household and 107 community controls were included to the study. Adjusted odds ratios measuring associations between TB and risk factors were calculated by using a conditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: TB cases were more likely to be younger, recent smokers and have diabetes, when compared to household controls. Between TB cases and community controls, TB was significantly associated with age, non-married family status, living in a rented home, recent smoker, and having diabetes. Comparing TB cases with community controls, we found that foreign birth was marginally associated with incident TB case status. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the role of modifiable risk factors for TB in Kazakhstan; highlighting the importance of developing interventions addressing social determinants and proximate risk factors for high TB burden regions. PMID:27252913

  19. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  20. Crater Retention Ages from (4) Vesta Matching Independent Ar-Ar Ages of HED Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Kneissl, Thomas; Ivanov, Boris A.; Michael, Gregory G.; Neukum, Gerhard; Nathues, Andreas; Sierks, Holger; Wagner, Roland; Krohn, Katrin; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-04-01

    In July 2012 the Dawn spacecraft completed its mapping task of the Main Belt asteroid Vesta with a second high altitude mapping orbit. Dawn is now on its way to the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, where it will perform a similar mapping campaign like that at Vesta [1]. The Main Belt is the source region of most impactors in the inner solar system [2,3,4], making it a key region for understanding the early history of our Solar System. In order to determine absolute surface ages from Vesta we derived a crater production function and a chronology function for Vesta. We derived these functions from the respective lunar functions [2] and scaled [5] them to the impact conditions on Vesta [6]. In general we find good agreement between the derived crater production function and the measured crater distribution. However, we also find disagreement between 8 and 15 km crater size, on areas older ~2.2 Ga. Older areas show a steep (~-6 cumulative) slope, which we link to a decaying influence of the vestan collisional family (Vestoids). The lower boundary of 8 km crater size may be explained by fast ejected small spalls and/or a more efficient Yarkovsky effect [7]. This influence is not observed for instance inside the large Rheasilvia basin, which we date with ~2.2 Ga. Since the formation of this basin is believed to be a major source of replenishment of the Vestoids, it's currently observed cratering record is not indicative for the basin formation age in contrast to [8]. The young interior of the Rheasilvia basin is likely a result of repeated resets of the crater retention age due to mass wasting processes on the basin walls. We use topographic heights, which are less affected by mass wasting such as the top of the central peak of the basin as well as proximal ejecta blankets outside the basin to date the formation age of Rheasilvia. For the central peak we derive a surface age of 3.59 (+0.079/-0.18) Ga. The proximal ejecta blanket at the Oppia crater is dated with 3.62 (+0

  1. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  2. An epigenetic clock controls aging.

    PubMed

    Mitteldorf, Josh

    2016-02-01

    We are accustomed to treating aging as a set of things that go wrong with the body. But for more than twenty years, there has been accumulating evidence that much of the process takes place under genetic control. We have seen that signaling chemistry can make dramatic differences in life span, and that single molecules can significantly affect longevity. We are frequently confronted with puzzling choices the body makes which benefit neither present health nor fertility nor long-term survival. If we permit ourselves a shift of reference frame and regard aging as a programmed biological function like growth and development, then these observations fall into place and make sense. This perspective suggests that aging proceeds under control of a master clock, or several redundant clocks. If this is so, we may learn to reset the clocks with biochemical interventions and make an old body behave like a young body, including repair of many of the modes of damage that we are accustomed to regard as independent symptoms of the senescent phenotype, and for which we have assumed that the body has no remedy.

  3. An epigenetic clock controls aging.

    PubMed

    Mitteldorf, Josh

    2016-02-01

    We are accustomed to treating aging as a set of things that go wrong with the body. But for more than twenty years, there has been accumulating evidence that much of the process takes place under genetic control. We have seen that signaling chemistry can make dramatic differences in life span, and that single molecules can significantly affect longevity. We are frequently confronted with puzzling choices the body makes which benefit neither present health nor fertility nor long-term survival. If we permit ourselves a shift of reference frame and regard aging as a programmed biological function like growth and development, then these observations fall into place and make sense. This perspective suggests that aging proceeds under control of a master clock, or several redundant clocks. If this is so, we may learn to reset the clocks with biochemical interventions and make an old body behave like a young body, including repair of many of the modes of damage that we are accustomed to regard as independent symptoms of the senescent phenotype, and for which we have assumed that the body has no remedy. PMID:26608516

  4. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  5. Microfracture in the hip: a matched-control study with average 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, Parth; Gui, Chengcheng; Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S. Pavan; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding microfracture surgery in the hip. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy predominantly for labral tears with focal full thickness chondral damage on the acetabulum or femoral head treated with microfracture and a matched control group that did not have focal full thickness chondral damage. A prospective matched-control study was performed examining four patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), non-arthritic hip score, Hip Outcome Score—Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and Hip Outcome Score—Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) at minimum 2 years post-operatively between 35 patients undergoing microfracture for chondral defects during hip arthroscopy and 70 patients in a control group that did not have chondral defects. The patients were matched based on gender, age within 7 years, Workman’s compensation claim, labral treatment and acetabular crossover percentage less than or greater than 20. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in PRO scores preoperatively between the groups. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.05) in all post-operative PRO scores at all time points. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in post-operative PRO scores between the microfracture and control groups, except for HOS-ADL and the visual analog scale (VAS) score, both of which were superior in the control group (P < 0.05). Patient satisfaction was 6.9 for the microfracture group and 7.7 for the control group (P > 0.05). Arthroscopic microfracture of the hip during treatment of labral tears results in favorable outcomes that are similar to the results arthroscopic treatment of labral tears in patients without full thickness chondral damage. PMID:27011867

  6. 2009 H1N1: risk factors for hospitalization in a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Launes, Cristian; García-García, Juan-José; Martínez-Planas, Aina; Moraga, Fernando; Astigarraga, Itziar; Arístegui, Javier; Korta, Javier; Salado, Concepción; Quintana, José M; Soldevila, Núria; Domínguez, Angela

    2012-07-01

    In order to compare sociodemographical data and preexisting risk medical conditions in patients requiring hospital admission for 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection and those managed on an outpatient basis, a prospective observational, matched case-control study in 36 hospitals of the Spanish National Health Service was conducted from July 2009 to February 2010. Cases were patients aged 6 months to 18 years hospitalized for influenza syndrome, in whom 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection was confirmed using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Controls were patients aged 6 months to 18 years with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection managed on an outpatient basis. There were 195 cases and 184 controls. In a multivariate model, hospitalization was more frequent in children aged <2 years (odds ratio (OR), 13.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-106.4), those with neurological and/or neuromuscular diseases (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.2), and those whose parents had less than a secondary educational level (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.2). Children aged <2 years, children with neurological diseases, and children from families with a lower educational status had a higher risk of hospitalization due to influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection.

  7. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  8. Tongue Stiffness is Lower in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Wakefulness Compared with Matched Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether tongue stiffness (shear modulus) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is different for controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on stiffness. Design: Controlled experimental study. Setting: Medical research institute. Participants: Patients with OSA and age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Measurements: Magnetic resonance elastography was performed in nine patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15 events/h) and seven controls (AHI < 10 events/h) matched for age, sex, and BMI. Six of these OSA subjects were also scanned while 10 cmH2O CPAP was applied. Mean isotropic shear modulus and anisotropic shear moduli parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fascicles in the tongue were calculated. Results: Tongue shear modulus in patients with OSA was lower than that in matched controls (2.68 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard deviation) kPa versus 2.98 ± 0.44 kPa, P < 0.001). Shear modulus decreased with increasing AHI (R = −0.496, P = 0.043), but not age, BMI, or percentage tongue fat. Anisotropic analysis revealed that reduction in stiffness was greatest parallel to the muscle fibers. CPAP had no significant effect on tongue shear modulus. Conclusions: In awake subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, the tongue is less stiff than in similar healthy subjects and this difference occurs in the muscle fiber direction. CPAP did not significantly reduce tongue stiffness. Thus, any change in neural drive to genioglossus during wakefulness is insufficient to restore normal tongue stiffness. Citation: Brown EC, Cheng S, McKenzie DK, Butler JE, Gandevia SC, Bilston LE. Tongue stiffness is lower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness compared with matched control subjects. SLEEP 2015;38(4):537–544. PMID:25409103

  9. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  10. Age and hypertension strongly induce aortic stiffening in rats at basal and matched blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, George; Ragonnet, Christophe; Chimenti, Stefano; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Age and hypertension are major causes of large artery remodeling and stiffening, a cardiovascular risk factor for heart and kidney damage. The aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model is recognized for human cardiovascular pathology, but discrepancies appeared in studies of arterial stiffness. We performed experiments using a robust analysis via echo tracking in 20-week adult (n = 8) and 80-week-old SHR (n = 7), with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 6;6) at basal and matched levels of blood pressure (BP). After anesthesia with pentobarbital, abdominal aortic diameter and pressure were recorded and BP was decreased by clonidine i.v. At basal BP, aortic pulse distension, compliance, and distensibility (AD) were reduced and stiffness index increased with age and hypertension and further altered with age + hypertension. When BP was adjusted in SHR to that of normotensive rats (130 mmHg), there was no difference between 20-week-old SHR and WKY Importantly, the age effect was maintained in both WKY and SHR and accentuated by hypertension in old rats. At 130 mmHg, with similar pulse pressure in the four groups, AD (kPa(-3)) = 24.2 ± 1 in 20 weeks WKY, 19.7 ± 1.4 in 20 weeks SHR, 12.4 ± 1.3 in 80 weeks WKY and 6.6 ± 0.6 in 80 weeks SHR; distension = 7.6 ± 0.4%, 6.7 ± 0.6%, 3.7 ± 0.3%, and 1.8 ± 0.2% in the same groups. In conclusion, reduced distensibility, that is, stiffening due to age is clearly shown here in both WKY and SHR as well as a synergistic effect of age and hypertension. This technique will allow new studies on the mechanisms responsible and drug intervention. PMID:27233301

  11. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  12. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  13. Five-year self-management of weight using meal replacements: comparison with matched controls in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Quinn Rothacker, D

    2000-05-01

    We compared 5-y weight changes of subjects after a self-managed meal-replacement weight-control program (MR) with that of matched control subjects in rural Wisconsin. Healthy but overweight females (n = 108) and males (n = 50) received free products and weighed in twice a year from 1992 through 1997. Weights from three area clinics were obtained from 1992 records for 528 healthy males and females, whose weights were again obtained in late 1997. In addition, 1997 weights were obtained on 378 area males and females who reported their 1992 weight by questionnaire. Three control subjects were then selected for each MR participant, matched for age (within 5 y), body mass index (within 2 kg/m(2)), sex, and race. After 5 y, 141 MR participants weighed in, 2 died, and 19 were excluded primarily because of pregnancy. The 50 males were -5.8+/-5.4 kg and the 84 females were -4.2+/-6.9 kg from their 1992 weights. Conversely, 142 matched male controls gained 6.7+/-10.2 kg and 247 female controls gained 6.5+/- 10.7 kg. In conclusion, success determinations of MR and other long-term weight-control programs should be made by comparing changes with matched controls as the background rate of weight gain becomes increasingly more significant the longer the study is run.

  14. The prediction and control of behavior revisited: a review of the matching law.

    PubMed

    Plaud, J J

    1992-03-01

    Experimental research conducted over the past 3 decades in relation to behavioral allocation and choice, collectively known as matching law research, is analyzed in this paper. The importance of the matching law for areas ranging from experimental to clinical psychology and psychiatry is discussed in relation to empirical findings that bear upon the validity and utility of the matching law for both the prediction and control of human behavior as well as for psychological and scientific inquiry in general.

  15. A demographic and social profile of age- and sex-matched vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, J H; Greninger, S A; Young, R K

    1986-07-01

    A demographic and social profile was compiled for 150 vegetarians and 150 nonvegetarians who were matched for age and sex. A 328-item questionnaire containing both closed- and open-ended questions was administered. Information collected included personal and demographic data, personal habits, social activities, and possible influences of vegetarianism. No differences were observed in the cultural, ethnic, or familial background of the groups. Vegetarians were less influenced by parents and traditional religions, were slightly less well educated, and were employed in less-skilled occupations. However, vegetarians socialized more than nonvegetarians, as evidenced by their greater frequency of entertaining, going out with friends, and joining organizations. The commitment to vegetarianism was strong and appeared to be reinforced by an extensive network of family and friends who were also vegetarians. This strong support network was particularly evident for those who practiced the more restrictive forms of vegetarianism, the only major difference observed within the types of vegetarians studied.

  16. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  17. Physical assessment of 30 chronic cannabis users and 30 matched controls.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, E K

    1976-01-01

    Ganja is used extensively in the working-class population of Jamaica, particularly in certain agricultural and fishing communities. Ganja, smoking is illegal but can be accepted as part of the culture in these areas. Sixty male subjects were chosen for assessment, 30 chronic smokers and 30 controls from comparable social, economic, and cultural backgrounds, and were matched for height and age. A chronic smoker had somked a minimum of three spliffs per day for a minimum of 10 years. The subjects were admitted to the hospital for 1 week for psychologic and physical assessment. The physical assessment included a detailed medical history and examination, heart and lung radiography, electrocardiograms, respiratory, liver, and renal function tests, hematology, treponemal serology, and chromosomal studies. No significant physical abnormalities were found, except in two smokers, and there was no reason to suspect that these disabilities were related to ganja. No significant differences between the two groups were demonstrated in the wide range of tests administered.

  18. Communication Skills of Young Children Implanted Prior to Four Years of Age Compared to Typically Hearing Matched Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Judith Anne Lakawicz

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the conversational language skills and interactions of four children who are d/hh and who received cochlear implants (CI) prior to the age of four years with four typically hearing peers matched for age, gender, teacher perceived language ability and race. This exploratory, descriptive study was…

  19. Using balance statistics to determine the optimal number of controls in matching studies.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Samuels, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    When a randomized controlled trial is not feasible, investigators typically turn to matching techniques as an alternative approach to evaluate the effectiveness of health care interventions. Matching studies are designed to minimize imbalances on measured pre-intervention characteristics, thereby reducing bias in estimates of treatment effects. Generally, a matching ratio up to 4:1 (control to treatment) elicits the lowest bias. However, when matching techniques are used in prospective studies, investigators try to maximize the number of controls matched to each treated individual to increase the likelihood that a sufficient sample size will remain after attrition. In this paper, we describe a systematic approach to managing the trade-off between minimizing bias and maximizing matched sample size. Our approach includes the following three steps: (1) run the desired matching algorithm, starting with 1:1 (one control to one treated individual) matching and iterating until the maximum desired number of potential controls per treated subject is reached; (2) for each iteration, test for covariate balance; and (3) generate numeric summaries and graphical plots of the balance statistics across all iterations in order to determine the optimal solution. We demonstrate the implementation of this approach with data from a medical home pilot programme and with a simulation study of populations of 100,000 in which 1000 individuals receive the intervention. We advocate undertaking this methodical approach in matching studies to ensure that the optimal matching solution is identified. Doing so will raise the overall quality of the literature and increase the likelihood of identifying effective interventions.

  20. Eating disorders and biochemical composition of saliva: a retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical composition of saliva from patients with eating disorders (EDs) with saliva from control subjects with no ED. All patients who initiated outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of the 65 patients who started treatment during the period, 54 (50 female patients/four male patients; mean age: 21.5 yr) agreed to participate. The controls were 54 sex- and age-matched patients from a dental health clinic. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations, including laboratory analyses of saliva. The proportion of subjects with unstimulated salivary hyposalivation was lower in the ED group and not correlated with intake of xerogenic drugs. Significant differences in the biochemical composition of saliva were found almost exclusively in the unstimulated state, with albumin, inorganic phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), chloride, magnesium, and total protein all being significantly higher in the ED group. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher ASAT and total protein concentrations were relatively good predictors of ED, with sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated salivary concentrations of ASAT and total protein may serve as indicators of ED as well as of disease severity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these initial findings.

  1. Land-Jump Performance in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A Comparison to Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Melson, Paula G.; Darnell, Shannon C.; Brunner, Hermine I.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine if high functioning children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) with minimal disease activity have different biomechanics during high loading tasks compared to controls. Patients were included if they had minimal inflammation documented in one or both knees. Methods. The subject groups consisted of eleven patients with JIA and eleven sex, age, height, and weight matched controls. Sagittal plane kinematic and kinetics were calculated during a drop vertical jump maneuver. The Child Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) was collected on each patient with JIA. Results. The subjects with JIA had increased knee (P = .011) and hip flexion (P < .001) compared to control subjects. Subjects with JIA also demonstrated decreased knee extensor moments during take-off (P = .028) and ankle plantar flexor moments during landing (P = .024) and take-off (P = .004). In the JIA group, increased hip extensor moments were predictive of increased disability (R2 = .477, SEE = .131). Conclusions. Patients with JIA may demonstrate underlying biomechanical deviations compared to controls. In addition, biomechanical assessment of hip extensor mechanics during dynamic tasks may provide an objective assessment tool to determine overall function in patients with JIA. PMID:20148070

  2. Eating disorders and oral health: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to compare the oral health status of patients with eating disorders (EDs), with sex- and age-matched controls, with a view to identify self-reported and clinical parameters that might alert the dental healthcare professional to the possibility of EDs. All patients who entered outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of 65 ED patients who started psychiatric/medical treatment, 54 agreed to participate. Eating disorder patients and controls answered a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations. Multivariate analysis identified significantly higher ORs for ED patients to present dental problems (OR = 4.1), burning tongue (OR = 14.2), dry/cracked lips (OR = 9.6), dental erosion (OR = 8.5), and less gingival bleeding (OR = 1.1) compared with healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity for the correct classification of ED patients and controls using the five variables was 83% and 79%, respectively. The ED patients with vomiting/binge eating behaviors reported worse perceived oral health (OR = 6.0) and had more dental erosion (OR = 5.5) than those without such behavior. In ED patients with longer duration of the disease, dental erosion was significantly more common. In conclusion, oral health problems frequently affect ED patients, and this needs to be considered in patient assessment and treatment decisions.

  3. Application of odor identification test in Parkinson's disease in China: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuai; Kang, Wen-Yan; Li, Bo; Xu, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Qin; Liu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Gang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2012-05-15

    As one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), hyposmia is of great importance in establishing the early diagnosis of PD. To date, there are still no studies on the application of the 16-item odor identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS-16) in Chinese patients with PD. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of SS-16 in Chinese PD patients (n=110) compared with age and gender matched controls (n=110), and to explore the associated factors with olfactory function in PD patients. The 16 odors in the original odor identification test were retained but some alternative descriptions were developed before applications. Mean identification scores in patients were significantly lower than in controls (7.3 ± 2.8 VS. 11.6 ± 2.0 P<0.01), with 66.4% of patients had an impairment of odor identification as evaluated by 95% confidential interval of the identification score of the control group. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed 86% sensitivity and 81% specificity in separating PD and healthy controls with a cut-off value of 9.5. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that autonomic dysfunction was a significant influential factor of odor identification scores in patients with PD. In conclusion, SS-16 provides a valid instrument for olfactory assessment in Chinese PD patients, and hyposmia may correlate with autonomic dysfunction in patients with PD. PMID:22364958

  4. Matched case-control study of adjusted versus nonadjusted gentamicin dosing in perforated and gangrenous appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gill, M A; Cheetham, T C; Chenella, F C; Heseltine, P N; Yellin, A E; Appleman, M D; Berne, T V

    1986-01-01

    A matched case-control study of the efficacy of gentamicin dosage adjustment through the use of pharmacokinetic analysis of serum drug concentrations in patients treated by appendectomy for perforated or gangrenous appendicitis was performed. Two groups of patients were compared. In one group gentamicin was initiated preoperatively at 1.5 mg/kg Intravenous Piggy Back (IVPB) every 8 h. Postoperatively, serum levels were obtained to maintain peak concentrations within a range of 6-8 micrograms/ml. The comparison group was given gentamicin without measurement of drug levels. Both groups received clindamycin 600 mg IVPB every six h. Matched cases and control subjects were compared, controlling for pathologic state of the appendicitis, age, and sex. The patients were predominantly young men with normal renal function. More patients in the nonadjusted group had infectious complications than in the dose-adjusted group. There were seven failures (11.3%) in the nonadjusted group compared with only one failure (1.6%) in the dose-adjusted group, a significant difference (p = 0.03). Among the nonadjusted group, the complications were four abdominal abscesses, two wound infections, and one persistent high fever. There was no evidence of nephrotoxicity in either group. Our recommendations are that patients who are to undergo appendectomy for perforated/gangrenous appendicitis should be treated with clindamycin and gentamicin at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg. With normal renal function, an interval of 8 h is appropriate. Serum gentamicin levels should be obtained and the dose adjusted to maintain peak concentrations of 6-8 micrograms/ml.

  5. Integrated ODP Metrology Matching To Reference Metrology For Lithography Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Patrick; Uchida, Junichi; Weichert, Heiko; Likhachev, Dmitriy; Hetzer, David; Fleischer, Göran

    2009-09-01

    Advanced DRAM manufacturing demands rigorous and tight process control using high measurement precision, accurate, traceable and high throughput metrology solutions. Scatterometry is one of the advanced metrology techniques which satisfies all of these requirements. Scatterometry has been implemented in semiconductor manufacturing for monitoring and controlling critical dimensions and other important structural parameters. One of the major contributing factors to the acceptance and implementation of scatterometry systems is the ability to match to reference metrology. Failure to understand the optimum matching conditions, can lead to wrong conclusions with respect to hardware stability and/or incorrect analysis of production data. This paper shows the use of the integrated scatterometry system to control the lithography processes in a real production environment. In the control system, the scatterometry Optical Digital Profilometry (ODP™) data is referenced to sampled CD-SEM data. A significant improvement in matching between the two metrology systems was achieved following the implementation of a new ODP-function. The results also reveal a clearer roadmap for the implementation of an integrated scatterometry based control loop system. The results also pointed to how to achieve a reduced setup time as well as a deeper understanding of the relationship between test data and production data. It has been clearly shown that to achieve the desired sub-nanometer matching in scatterometry measurements for advanced process control, we need to pay scrupulous attention to matching data not only from test wafers but from production data in order to derive functions that will produce the optimum matching conditions.

  6. Examining the Relationships Between Bone Tissue Composition, Compositional Heterogeneity, and Fragility Fracture: A Matched Case-Controlled FTIRI Study.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele L; Donnelly, Eve; Boskey, Elizabeth; Spevak, Lyudmila; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert R

    2016-05-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) provides information on spatial distribution of the chemical composition of thin tissue specimens at ∼7 µm spatial resolution. This study of 120 age- and bone mineral density (BMD)-matched patients was designed to investigate the association of FTIRI variables, measured in iliac crest biopsies, with fragility fractures at any site. An earlier study of 54 women found hip BMD to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture risk for cortical bone but not for cancellous bone. In the current study, where age and BMD were controlled through matching, no such association was observed, validating the pairing scheme. Our first study of unmatched iliac crest biopsies found increases in collagen maturity (cancellous and cortical bone) and mineral crystal size (cortical bone only) to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture when combined with other covariates. The ratio for collagen maturity has been correlated to the amount of enzymatic collagen cross-links. To assess the impact of other FTIRI variables (acid phosphate substitution, carbonate-to-phosphate ratio, and the pixel distribution [heterogeneity] of all relevant FTIRI variables), we examined biopsies from a matched case-controlled study, in which 60 women with fractures were each paired with an age- and BMD-matched female control. With the matched data set of 120 women, conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that significant explanatory variables of fracture were decreased carbonate-to-phosphate ratio in both cancellous (odds ratio [OR] = 0.580, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.909, p = 0.0176) and cortical bone (OR = 0.519, 95% CI 0.325-0.829, p = 0.0061), and increased heterogeneity (broadened pixel distribution) of collagen maturity for cancellous bone (OR = 1.549, 95% CI 1.002-2.396, p = 0.0491). The observation that collagen maturity was no longer linked to fracture in age- and BMD-matched samples suggests that age

  7. Retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemic damage than age-matched pigmented animals.

    PubMed

    Safa, R; Osborne, N N

    2000-04-17

    Age- and sex-matched pigmented (Lister Hooded) and albino (Wistar) rats were used in this study. The retinas of the animals were subjected to pressure-induced ischaemia (35 min, 120 mmHg) and reperfusion (3 days) in precisely the same way. The b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the pigmented animals recovered to normal levels while those of the albino rats were reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity associated with a sub-set of amacrine cells was almost completely obliterated in the retinas from the albino rats but unaffected in the retinas of the pigmented rats. Also, in certain areas of the retina from albino rats there was a suggestion that the calretinin-immunoreactivity was affected. This was never seen in the retinas of the pigmented animals. The GABA-immunoreactivity in the retina of both albino and pigmented rats appeared to be unaffected by ischaemia/reperfusion. The data presented show that retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemia/reperfusion than retinas from pigmented animals. The results also show that reduction of the b-wave of the ERG and changes in the nature of the ChAT immunoreactivity represent sensitive markers to detect the effect of ischaemia/reperfusion to the retina.

  8. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  9. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; p<.05) and perceived stress (4.18±.41 vs. 5.56±.30; p<.01), as well as a smaller neurogenic inflammatory response (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  10. Risk factors for cervical cancer in rural areas of Wuhan China: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Ai-Fen; Zhu, Chang-Cai; Zhang, Ling; Xiang, Bing; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Qi; Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Yi-Ming; Xiong, Chao-Du; Du, Yu-Kai; Shi, Yu-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem in developing countries. We investigated possible risk factors for cervical cancer in rural areas of Wuhan China using a matched case-control study with 33 women diagnosed with cervical cancer and 132 healthy women selected from the same area as matched controls. A questionnaire, which included questions about general demography conditions, environmental and genetic factors, the first sexual intercourse, first marriage age, age at first pregnancy, pregnancy first child's age, female personal health history, social psychological factors, dietary habits, smoking and alcohol status and other living habits was presented to all participants. At the same time, HPV infection of every participant was examined in laboratory testing. Results showed HPV infection (P<0.000, OR=23.4) and pregnancy first child's age (P<0.000, OR=13.1) to be risk factors for cervical cancer. Menopause (P=0.003, OR=0.073) was a protective factor against cervical cancer. However, there was no indication of associations of environmental (drinking water, insecticide, disinfectant) genetic (cancer family history), or life-style factors (smoking status, alcohol status, physical training, sleep quality), including dietary habits (intake of fruit and vegetable, meat, fried food, bean products and pickled food) or social psychological factors with cervical cancer. The results suggest that the risk of cervical cancer in Chinese rural women may be associated with HPV infection, menopause and the pregnancy first child's age.

  11. Age peculiarities of human motor control in aging.

    PubMed

    Mankovsky, N B; Mints, A Y; Lisenyuk, V P

    1982-01-01

    A clinicophysiological investigation of motor control was carried out in 199 apparently healthy, socially active elderly (aged 60-69 years) and long-living (90 years and over) subjects in order to establish the peculiarities of the motor sphere specific to age-related changes of the nervous system. Analyzing the experimentally induced state of readiness (intention) before a spontaneous movement, we found an increase with age in the latent period of the muscle intentional activity (IA) parallel to an increase in the latent period of the spontaneous movement, a decrease in IA amplitude with more frequent structural deviations of the EMG in the prestarting period and a reduction of the required IA selectiveness. The described changes in the organization of readiness for a spontaneous movement seemed to be related with age impairment of supraspinal (mainly corticospinal) influences and may be used for an explanation of a number of clinical peculiarities of human motor control in late ontogenesis.

  12. Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Opioid Dependence: Comparison of Family Characteristics and Type and Severity of Child Maltreatment with a Matched Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Mattick, Richard P.; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage. Method: The study employed a case-control design. Cases had a history of opioid pharmacotherapy. Controls were frequency matched to cases with regard to age, sex…

  13. Stratigraphy and wiggle-matching-based age-depth model of late Holocene marine sediments in Beppu Bay, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwae, Michinobu; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ikehara, Ken; Irino, Tomohisa; Takemura, Keiji; Sagawa, Takuya; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Takeoka, Hidetaka

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed the lithology, magnetic susceptibility, bulk density, and X-ray radiographs of 14 sediment cores (1-9 m long) from Beppu Bay in the western Seto Inland Sea, Japan, to establish the late Holocene stratigraphy in the deepest part of the bay and to develop an age-depth model for the sediments there. The cores contained 18 thick (major event) high-density layers (16 turbidites and two volcanic ash; >1 cm thick), and both lithological observations and density variations in the hemipelagic mud that is dominant in the cores revealed a further 55 thin (minor event) high-density layers (<1 cm thick). Analyses of color properties and opal and sand contents of the hemipelagic mud defined nine lithological units. After stratigraphic correlation of the event layers among cores, we projected 14C dates onto a single composite core. Forty-two AMS 14C dates from bivalve mollusk shells were used to construct a wiggle-matching-based age-depth model for the late Holocene sequence and to determine the local reservoir effect (ΔR). The age-depth model showed a sedimentation rate of 0.23-0.30 cm/yr for a 7.8 m-long composite core and an age of ˜2800 cal yr BP at the base. Wiggle-matching provided ΔR values of 115-155 yr for late Holocene bivalve samples from Beppu Bay, which is consistent with previous estimates reported from coastal areas near the Kuroshio Front. Comparison of wiggle-matching-derived ages of thick turbidites with the ages of historical earthquakes showed differences within ±25 yr. Our study demonstrated that wiggle matching with optimal fitting based on either the weighted least-squares or maximum likelihood method can minimize the effect of scatter of age data due to reworking and burrowing of bivalves and thus improve the accuracy of age-depth models.

  14. Common Mental Disorders Associated with Tuberculosis: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Gleide Santos; Pereira, Susan Martins; dos Santos, Darci Neves; Marinho, Jamocyr Moura; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the availability of treatment and a vaccine, tuberculosis continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Mental disorders might contribute to the burden of the disease. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted. The study population included symptomatic respiratory patients who attended three referral hospitals and six community clinics in the city of Salvador, Brazil. A doctor’s diagnosis defined potential cases and controls. Cases were newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases, and controls were symptomatic respiratory patients for whom tuberculosis was excluded as a diagnosis by the attending physician. Cases and controls were ascertained in the same clinic. Data collection occurred between August 2008 and April 2010. The study instruments included a structured interview, a self-reporting questionnaire for the identification of common mental disorders, and a questionnaire for alcoholism. An univariate analysis included descriptive procedures (with chi-square statistics), and a multivariate analysis used conditional logistic regression. Results The mean age of the cases was 38 years, and 61% of the cases were males. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of tuberculosis were significantly higher in patients dignosed with a common mental disorder (OR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.05–1.70). Conclusion There appears to be a positive and independent association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis; further epidemiological studies are required to increase our understanding of the possible biological and social mechanisms responsible for this association. Independent of the direction of the association, this finding has implications for the provision of care for mental disorders and for tuberculosis. PMID:24937319

  15. Blood Pressure Profile and Hypertensive Organ Damage in COPD Patients and Matched Controls. The RETAPOC Study

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, Rafael; Mateos-Colino, Alfonso; Pena-Seijo, Marta; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Martín-Vázquez, Francisco J.; Pose-Reino, Antonio; Domínguez-Pin, Nuria; Garnacho-Gayarre, Nuria; Pérez-de-Llano, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that there is a pathogenic link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, increased sympathetic tone has been described in several respiratory diseases. Our objective was to determine whether hypertension mediated by sympathetic overactivity is a mechanism that explains the association between COPD and cardiovascular diseases. Methods Prospective nested case-control observational study; 67 COPD patients were matched 1:1 by sex and age to controls with smoking history. 24 hour-blood pressure monitoring, urinary catecholamines and their metabolites measurement, echocardiography, carotid ultrasound examination, nocturnal oximetry and retinography were performed. Findings classic cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities were similarly distributed between cases and controls. No significant differences for blood pressure variables (difference for mean systolic blood pressure: -0·13 mmHg; 95% CI: -4·48,4·20; p = 0·94; similar results for all blood presssure variables) or catecholamines values were found between both groups. There was a tendency for lower left ventricle ejection fraction in the COPD cases, that approached statistical significance (64·8 ± 7·4 vs 67·1 ± 6·2, p = 0·05). There were no differences in the retinal arteriovenous ratio, the carotid intima-media thickness, or the number of carotid plaques, between cases and controls. Fibrinogen values were higher in the COPD group (378·4 ± 69·6 vs 352·2 ± 45·6 mg/dL, p = 0·01) and mean nocturnal oxygen saturation values were lower for COPD patients (89·0 ± 4·07 vs 92·3 ± 2·2%, p < 0·0001). Interpretation Hypertension induced by sympathetic overactivity does not seem to be a mechanism that could explain the association between COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27362479

  16. Indoor solid fuel use and tuberculosis in China: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background China ranks second among the 22 high burden countries for tuberculosis. A modeling exercise showed that reduction of indoor air pollution could help advance tuberculosis control in China. However, the association between indoor air pollution and tuberculosis is not yet well established. A case control study was conducted in Anhui, China to investigate whether use of solid fuel is associated with tuberculosis. Methods Cases were new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients. Two controls were selected from the neighborhood of each case matched by age and sex using a pre-determined procedure. A questionnaire containing demographic information, smoking habits and use of solid fuel for cooking or heating was used for interview. Solid fuel (coal and biomass) included coal/lignite, charcoal, wood, straw/shrubs/grass, animal dung, and agricultural crop residue. A household that used solid fuel either for cooking and (/or) heating was classified as exposure to combustion of solid fuel (indoor air pollution). Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence limits for categorical variables were determined by Mantel-Haenszel estimate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results There were 202 new smear positive tuberculosis cases and 404 neighborhood controls enrolled in this study. The proportion of participants who used solid fuels for cooking was high (73.8% among cases and 72.5% among controls). The majority reported using a griddle stove (85.2% among cases and 86.7% among controls), had smoke removed by a hood or chimney (92.0% among cases and 92.8% among controls), and cooked in a separate room (24.8% among cases and 28.0% among controls) or a separate building (67.8% among cases and 67.6% among controls). Neither using solid fuel for cooking (odds ratio (OR) 1.08, 95% CI 0.62-1.87) nor using solid fuel for heating (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54-2.02) was significantly associated with tuberculosis. Determinants significantly associated with

  17. Random-digit dialing for control selection in childhood cancer studies: the geographic proximity and demographics within matched sets.

    PubMed Central

    Sakkinen, P A; Severson, R K; Ross, J A; Robison, L L

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the degree of matching in 95 individually matched pairs from a case-control study of childhood leukemia that used random-digit dialing to select control subjects. Both geographic proximity (of each case subject to his or her matched control subject) and differences in socioeconomic status were evaluated. The median distance between matched pairs was 3.2 km. There were no significant differences in distance between matched pairs by urban/rural status and geographic location. For studies of childhood cancer drawn from pediatric referral centers, random-digit dialing appears to provide a suitable control group. PMID:7702122

  18. Quality Control Systems in Cardiac Aging

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, Ellen K; Dai, Dao-Fu; Tocchi, Autumn; Basisty, Nathan; Gitari, Lemuel; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac aging is an intrinsic process that results in impaired cardiac function, along with cellular and molecular changes. These degenerative changes are intimately associated with quality control mechanisms. This review provides a general overview of the clinical and cellular changes which manifest in cardiac aging, and the quality control mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis and retarding aging. These mechanisms include autophagy, ubiquitin-mediated turnover, apoptosis, mitochondrial quality control and cardiac matrix homeostasis. Finally, we discuss aging interventions that have been observed to impact cardiac health outcomes. These include caloric restriction, rapamycin, resveratrol, GDF11, mitochondrial antioxidants and cardiolipin-targeted therapeutics. A greater understanding of the quality control mechanisms that promote cardiac homeostasis will help to understand the benefits of these interventions, and hopefully lead to further improved therapeutic modalities. PMID:25702865

  19. Hormonal, functional and genetic biomarkers in controlled ovarian stimulation: tools for matching patients and protocols

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Variability in the subfertile patient population excludes the possibility of a single approach to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) covering all the requirements of a patient. Modern technology has led to the development of new drugs, treatment options and quantitative methods that can identify single patient characteristics. These could potentially be used to match patients with the right treatment options to optimise efficacy, safety and tolerability during COS. Currently, age and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level remain the most commonly used single patient characteristics in clinical practice. These variables only provide a basic prognosis for success and indications for standard COS treatment based on gross patient categorisation. In contrast, the anti-Müllerian hormone level appears to be an accurate predictor of ovarian reserve and response to COS, and could be used successfully to guide COS. The antral follicle count is a functional biomarker that could be useful in determining the dose of FSH necessary during stimulation and the success of treatment. Finally, in the future, genetic screening may allow an individual patient's response to stimulation during COS to be predicted based on genotype. Unfortunately, despite the predictive power of these measures, no single biomarker can stand alone as a guide to determine the best treatment option. In the future, hormonal, functional and genetic biomarkers will be used together to personalise COS. PMID:22309877

  20. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  1. An alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Bálint; Sedyó, Inez; Rohonczy, János

    2015-10-01

    Tuning and matching of NMR probes is necessary for many fields of NMR application including temperature dependent NMR, thermoporometry and cryoporometry, or when significantly different types of samples are measured in automation using sample changers. Mismatch of the probe is an especially critical issue in the case of high magnetic fields, polar or ionic solvents, or extreme thermal conditions. Careful tuning is particularly important for quantitative NMR measurements. Manual tuning and matching of the NMR probe is not possible in the case of automated or remotely controlled measurements. Spectrometer manufacturers offer modern probes equipped with automatic tuning/matching mechanics, like Bruker ATM™, suitable for these experiments. The disadvantages of probes with built-in ATM™ are the significantly higher price, and the non-detachable and non-portable construction. Computer controlled tuning and matching is highly desirrable in solid state NMR since no industrial solution has been developed yet for MAS NMR probes. We present an alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing Bruker probes. Building costs are significantly lower, since only commercially available components and ICs are used.

  2. An alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Bálint; Sedyó, Inez; Rohonczy, János

    2015-10-01

    Tuning and matching of NMR probes is necessary for many fields of NMR application including temperature dependent NMR, thermoporometry and cryoporometry, or when significantly different types of samples are measured in automation using sample changers. Mismatch of the probe is an especially critical issue in the case of high magnetic fields, polar or ionic solvents, or extreme thermal conditions. Careful tuning is particularly important for quantitative NMR measurements. Manual tuning and matching of the NMR probe is not possible in the case of automated or remotely controlled measurements. Spectrometer manufacturers offer modern probes equipped with automatic tuning/matching mechanics, like Bruker ATM™, suitable for these experiments. The disadvantages of probes with built-in ATM™ are the significantly higher price, and the non-detachable and non-portable construction. Computer controlled tuning and matching is highly desirrable in solid state NMR since no industrial solution has been developed yet for MAS NMR probes. We present an alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing Bruker probes. Building costs are significantly lower, since only commercially available components and ICs are used. PMID:26363581

  3. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self-rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36-3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20-0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources. PMID:27529704

  4. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case–control study in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990–2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. Objective This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. Design A matched case–control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Results Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0–7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. Conclusion The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service

  5. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  6. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on the results of total knee arthroplasty: a matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, Tom M; Bakker, Wouter; Reijman, Max; Verhaar, Jan AN

    2007-01-01

    Background We performed a matched case control study to assess the effect of prior high tibia valgus producing osteotomy on results and complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods From 1996 until 2003 356 patients underwent all cemented primary total knee replacement in our institution. Twelve patients with a history of 14 HTO were identified and matched to a control group of 12 patients with 14 primary TKA without previous HTO. The match was made for gender, age, date of surgery, body mass index, aetiology and type of prosthesis. Clinical and radiographic outcome were evaluated after a median duration of follow-up of 3.7 years (minimum, 2.3 years). The SPSS program was used for statistical analyses. Results The index group had more perioperative blood loss and exposure difficulties with one tibial tuberosity osteotomy and three patients with lateral retinacular releases. No such procedures were needed in the control group. Mid-term HSS, KSS and WOMAC scores were less favourable for the index group, but these differences were not significant. The tibial slope of patients with prior HTO was significantly decreased after this procedure. The tibial posterior inclination angle was corrected during knee replacement but posterior inclination was significantly less compared to the control group. No deep infection or knee component loosening were seen in the group with prior HTO. Conclusion We conclude that TKA after HTO seems to be technically more demanding than a primary knee arthroplasty, but clinical outcome was almost identical to a matched group that had no HTO previously. PMID:17683549

  7. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  8. Varieties of Stimulus Control in Matching-to-Sample: A Kernel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Garruto, Michelle; Watanabe, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Conditional discrimination or matching-to-sample procedures have been used to study a wide range of complex psychological phenomena with infrahuman and human subjects. In most studies, the percentage of trials in which a subject selects the comparison stimulus that is related to the sample stimulus is used to index the control exerted by the…

  9. Steering simulation performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and matched control subjects.

    PubMed

    Juniper, M; Hack, M A; George, C F; Davies, R J; Stradling, J R

    2000-03-01

    Patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OSA) have an increased rate of driving accidents, perhaps due to poor vigilance or impaired cognitive skills that influence their driving ability. The authors have assessed whether patients with OSA perform differently to control subjects on a steering simulator which allows the separate assessment of the two visual tasks required for steering a car, immediate positioning on road with reference to the road edges, and assessment of the curve of the oncoming road which allows faster driving. Twelve patients with OSA and 12 control subjects, matched for age, sex and driving experience, performed three 30-min drives with either all the oncoming road visible, only the near part of the road visible, or only the distant part of the road visible. Steering was assessed by measuring the SD around the theoretical perfect path (steering error) and the number of times the driver went "off road". Subjects identified the appearance of target numbers at the four corners of the screen as quickly as possible, thus making the test a divided attention task. Patients with OSA performed significantly less well on the three different road fields as measured by steering error (p<0.001), time to detect the target number (p<0.03), and off road events (p<0.03). The patients appeared to be particularly impaired on the two drives when only part of the road ahead was available to guide steering. This steering simulator, with its more realistic view of the road ahead, identifies impaired performance in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. In addition it suggests that patients with obstructive sleep apnoea may be more disadvantaged compared to normal subjects when the view of the road ahead is limited (such as in fog).

  10. NMR analysis of the human saliva metabolome distinguishes dementia patients from matched controls.

    PubMed

    Figueira, João; Jonsson, Pär; Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nyberg, Lars; Öhman, Anders

    2016-07-19

    Saliva is a biofluid that is sensitive to metabolic changes and is straightforward to collect in a non-invasive manner, but it is seldom used for metabolite analysis when studying neurodegenerative disorders. We present a procedure for both an untargeted and targeted analysis of the saliva metabolome in which nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used in combination with multivariate data analysis. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated on saliva samples selected from the 25 year prospective Betula study, including samples from dementia subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia at the time of sampling or who developed it by the next sampling/assessment occasion five years later, and age-, gender-, and education-matched control individuals without dementia. Statistically significant multivariate models were obtained that separated patients with dementia from controls and revealed seven discriminatory metabolites. Dementia patients showed significantly increased concentrations of acetic acid (fold change (fc) = 1.25, p = 2 × 10(-5)), histamine (fc = 1.26, p = 0.019), and propionate (fc = 1.35, p = 0.002), while significantly decreased levels were observed for dimethyl sulfone (fc = 0.81, p = 0.005), glycerol (fc = 0.79, p = 0.04), taurine (fc = 0.70, p = 0.007), and succinate (fc = 0.62, p = 0.008). Histamine, succinate, and taurine are known to be important in AD, and acetic acid and glycerol are involved in related pathways. Dimethyl sulfone and propionate originate from the diet and bacterial flora and might reflect poorer periodontal status in the dementia patients. For these seven metabolites, a weak but statistically significant pre-diagnostic value was observed. Taken together, we present a robust and general NMR analysis approach for studying the saliva metabolome that has potential use for screening and early detection of dementia. PMID:27265744

  11. Self-injury among trans individuals and matched controls: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Davey, Amanda; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline; Bouman, Walter Pierre

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence rate of current non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among trans individuals, in comparison with a control sample of non-trans adults. It also aims to compare those with current NSSI and those with no history of NSSI in terms of psychological well-being, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social support and demographic factors. Participants were 97 adults, diagnosed with transsexualism (ICD-10, F64.0), attending a national gender clinic in the United Kingdom, and a matched control group. Clinical participants were all engaged on the treatment pathway. Participants completed the following self-report measures: Self-Injury Questionnaire - Treatment Related (SIQ-TR), Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The results showed that the trans participants had a significantly higher prevalence of current NSSI behaviour than the non-trans group, with 19% currently engaging in NSSI. Current NSSI was also significantly more prevalent among trans men than trans women. Compared with both trans and non-trans participants with no history of NSSI, trans participants with current NSSI had significantly higher scores on SCL; significantly lower scores on RSE, HBDS and MSPSS; and were younger in age. The study concludes that trans men, specifically, are more at risk of NSSI than trans women and the general population, even when on the treatment pathway. Those who currently self-injure have greater psychopathology, lower body satisfaction, lower self-esteem, lower social support and tend to be younger, than those who do not engage in NSSI. PMID:25929212

  12. Risk factors for deaths during the 2009 heat wave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case-control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2016-05-01

    The extreme heat wave in Australia in 2009 resulted in significantly increased number of daily deaths. The circumstances that lead to deaths during extreme heat have not been explored before in Australia. This study aims to identify the individual and community risk factors for deaths during this extreme heat wave in Adelaide. A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were those who died in the Adelaide metropolitan area during the heat wave period. For each case, two community controls were randomly selected, matched by age and gender. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted to collect data of demographic information, living environment, social support, health status and behavioural changes during the heat wave. Descriptive analysis, as well as simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. In total, 82 deaths and 164 matched community controls were included in the analysis, with a median age of 77.5 (range 26.6-100.7). The multiple logistic regression model indicated that, compared with controls, the risk of death during the heat wave was significantly increased for people living alone (AOR = 42.31, 95 % CI 2.3, 792.8) or having existing chronic heart disease (AOR = 22.4, 95 % CI 1.7, 303.0). In addition, having air conditioning in bedrooms (AOR = 0.004, 95 % CI 0.00006, 0.28) and participating in social activities more than once a week (AOR = 0.011, 95 % CI 0.0004, 0.29) indicated significant protective effects. We have identified factors that could significantly impact on the likelihood of deaths during heat waves. Our findings could assist in the development of future intervention programs and policies to reduce mortality associated with a warmer climate.

  13. Matching Job and Worker Characteristics: Work Supplement for the Aged. Rehabilitation Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Center, Albertson, NY.

    Project Senior Abilities (PSA) demonstrated and evaluated the concept that the needs and talents of older workers (over 55) can be matched with specific job requirements. An industrial advisory board identified occupational categories in the local economy which met the criteria of being temporary in nature with limited career opportunities and…

  14. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile.

  15. Motion Analysis of Match Play in New Zealand U13 to U15 Age-Group Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Atan, Siti A; Foskett, Andrew; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Atan, SA, Foskett, A, and Ali, A. Motion analysis of match play in New Zealand U13 to U15 age-group soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2416-2423, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate motion analysis in 85 players (U13-U15 years) from Auckland's Metropolitan League during 2 competitive soccer matches. Five-Hz global positioning system (with interpolated 10-Hz output) units were used to measure total distance (absolute and relative) and time spent in standing, walking, low-intensity running, medium-intensity running, high-intensity running, and sprinting. Speed thresholds for each match activity were determined through mean 10-m flying sprint peak speed for each age group. Under 15 years (U15, 6600 ± 1480 m) covered more absolute distance because of longer playing time than under 14 years (U14, 5385 ± 1296 m, p = 0.001) and under 13 years (U13, 4516 ± 702.6 m, p = 0.001). However, there were no differences in relative distances covered (U15, 94.5 ± 11.2 m·min, U14, 96.1 ± 11.9 m·min, U15, 97.3 ± 17.6 m·min, p = 0.685). Maximum speed attained during the match was faster for U15 (26.5 ± 1.68 km·h) than U14 (25.4 ± 1.93 km·h, p = 0.022) and U13 (23.5 ± 1.74 km·h, p = 0.001); there were no differences in average distance per sprint, with all age groups covering ∼16 m per sprint (p = 0.603). The current findings provide useful information for developing specific training programs for young soccer players and a framework for developing age-specific soccer simulation protocols. PMID:26808854

  16. Error Control with Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer Treatments for Computational Aeroacoustics with Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show by means of numerical experiments that the error introduced in a numerical domain because of a Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer boundary treatment can be controlled. These experimental demonstrations are for acoustic propagation with the Linearized Euler Equations with both uniform and steady jet flows. The propagating signal is driven by a time harmonic pressure source. Combinations of Perfectly Matched and Damping Layers are used with different damping profiles. These layer and profile combinations allow the relative error introduced by a layer to be kept as small as desired, in principle. Tradeoffs between error and cost are explored.

  17. Comparison of information on death certificates and matching 1960 census records: age, marital status, race, nativity and country of origin.

    PubMed

    Hambright, T Z

    1969-11-01

    A sample of death certificates matched with 1960 Census records permitted comparison of response data for items asked on both records. Estimates of bias in death rates which are based on information from the two records are derived from the comparison data. Most of the comparisons yielded small discrepancies of inconsequential effect on the mortality rates. Some large inconsistencies, however, of potentially serious impact on the death rates were observed. The comparisons are examined and the implications of the results for the relevant mortality rates are discussed. In addition, age-specific death rates "corrected" for the disparities found in the age information on the two records are presented.

  18. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  19. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  20. High-accuracy stereo matching based on adaptive ground control points.

    PubMed

    Chenbo Shi; Guijin Wang; Xuanwu Yin; Xiaokang Pei; Bei He; Xinggang Lin

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel high-accuracy stereo matching scheme based on adaptive ground control points (AdaptGCP). Different from traditional fixed GCP-based methods, we consider color dissimilarity, spatial relation, and the pixel-matching reliability to select GCP adaptively in each local support window. To minimize the global energy, we propose a practical solution, named as alternating updating scheme of disparity and confidence map, which can effectively eliminate the redundant and interfering information of unreliable pixels. The disparity values of those unreliable pixels are reassigned with the information provided by local plane model, which is fitted with GCPs. Then, the confidence map is updated according to the disparity reassignment and the left-right consistency. Finally, the disparity map is refined by multistep filers. Quantitative evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness of our AdaptGCP scheme for regularizing the ill-posed matching problem. The top ranks on Middlebury benchmark with different error thresholds show that our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance among the latest stereo matching algorithms. This paper provides a new insight toward high-accuracy stereo matching. PMID:25608303

  1. Social inappropriateness, executive control, and aging.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Baynes, Kate

    2009-03-01

    Age-related deficits in executive control might lead to socially inappropriate behavior if they compromise the ability to withhold inappropriate responses. Consistent with this possibility, older adults in the current study showed greater social inappropriateness than younger adults--as rated by their peers--and this effect was mediated by deficits in executive control as well as deficits in general cognitive ability. Older adults also responded with greater social inappropriateness to a provocative event in the laboratory, but this effect was unrelated to executive functioning or general cognitive ability. These findings suggest that changes in both social and cognitive factors are important in understanding age-related changes in social behavior.

  2. Risk Factors for Tube Shunt Exposure: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Koval, Michael S.; El Sayyad, Fouad F.; Bell, Nicholas P.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Lee, David A.; Hypes, Stephen M.; Grover, Davinder S.; Baker, Laura A.; Huddleston, Stephen M.; Budenz, Donald L.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate potential risk factors for developing tube shunt exposure in glaucoma patients. Patients and Methods. Forty-one cases from 41 patients that had tube shunt exposure from 1996 to 2005 were identified from the Robert Cizik Eye Clinic and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Each case was matched with 2 controls of the same gender and with tube shunts implanted within 6 months of the index case. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk factors. Results. The study cohort includes a total of 121 eyes from 121 patients. The mean age was 63.6 ± 19.7 years, ranging from 1 to 96 years. The average time to exposure was 19.29 ± 23.75 months (range 0.36–85.74 months). Risk factors associated with tube exposure were Hispanic ethnicity (P = 0.0115; OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–9.7), neovascular glaucoma (P = 0.0064; OR = 28.5; 95% CI, 2.6–316.9), previous trabeculectomy (P = 0.0070; OR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6–17.7), and combined surgery (P = 0.0381; OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1–12.7). Conclusions. Hispanic ethnicity, neovascular glaucoma, previous trabeculectomy, and combined surgery were identified as potential risk factors for tube shunt exposure. These potential risk factors should be considered when determining the indication for performing tube shunt implantation and the frequency of long-term followup. PMID:23970955

  3. Comparisons of six different intrafield control paradigms in an advanced mix-and-match environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Joseph C.

    1997-07-01

    The introduction of DUV step-and-scan exposure tools into a mix-and-match manufacturing environment with traditional i- line step-and-repeat systems has presented many unique challenges to lithographic process engineers. One of these challenges has been the development and selection of reliable methods for controlling intrafield patten overlay registration. We examined a spectrum of overlay control methods and compared the benefits and costs of each. We analyzed six different intrafield overly control approaches including: (1) traditional static tuning to a fixed archive wafer; (2) dedicated stepper routing; (3) static LEMSYS matching; (4) static cluster sorting; (5) global feedforward control, and; (6) combined cluster sorting with feed-forward control. In traditional static tuning, each stepper is calibrated to an arbitrary fixed reference and wafers are allowed to flow freely within the entire stepper population. Dedicated stepper routing imposes a restriction that wafers must return to the same stepper during critical layer processing. With static LEMSYS matching each stepper is calibrated to an ideal reference that is generated to minimize higher order intrafield errors. Static cluster sorting uses LEMSYS data to divide steppers into clusters then critical layer exposures for a given wafer are kept within a local cluster. Feedforward control attempts to aggressively adapt magnification offsets based upon the known lens signatures of steppers used to print previous layers. Our comparisons were based upon data from 12 actual exposure systems. The result showed that significant gains in overlay control can be achieved with incremental costs in dollars and complexity. Cost-benefits analysis showed that the more aggressive control techniques, involving feed- forward control, were best suited to large fabs operating near the physical limits of their steppers.

  4. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  5. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  6. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called “super recognisers” (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the “Glasgow Face Matching Test”, and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the “Models Face Matching Test”. Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  7. Evaluation of a disease management program for COPD using propensity matched control group

    PubMed Central

    George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang; Abisheganaden, John; Ng, Alan Wei Keong; Lim, Fong Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease management programs (DMPs) have proliferated recently as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care for patients with chronic illness. These programs include education about disease, optimization of evidence-based medications, information and support from case managers, and institution of self-management principles. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Singapore and worldwide. DMP aims to reduce mortality, hospitalizations, and average length of stay in such patients. This study assesses the outcomes of the DMP, comparing the propensity score matched DMP patients with controls. Methods DMP patients were compared with the controls, who were COPD patients fulfilling the DMP’s inclusion criteria but not included in the program. Control patients were identified from Operations Data Store (ODS) database. The outcomes of interest were average length of stay, number of days admitted to hospital per 100 person days, readmission, and mortality rates per person year. The risk of death and readmission was estimated using Cox, and competing risk regression respectively. Propensity score was estimated to identify the predictors of DMP enrolment. DMP patients and controls were matched on their propensity score. Results There were 170 matched DMP patients and control patients having 287 and 207 hospitalizations respectively. Program patient had lower mortality than the controls (0.12 vs. 0.27 per person year); cumulative 1-year survival was 91% among program patient and 76% among the control patients. Readmission, and hospital days per 100 person-days was higher for the program patients (0.36 vs. 0.17 per person year), and (2.19 vs. 1.88 per person year) respectively. Conclusions Participation in “DMP” was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to the controls. This survival gain in the program patients was paradoxically associated with an increase in readmission rate and

  8. Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Euclides; Shalem, Guy; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute an attractive set of materials with a potential for replacing standard bulky optical elements. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on their nonlinear optical properties, particularly in the context of second and third harmonic generation and beam steering by phase gratings. Here, we harness the full phase control enabled by subwavelength plasmonic elements to demonstrate a unique metasurface phase matching that is required for efficient nonlinear processes. We discuss the difference between scattering by a grating and by subwavelength phase-gradient elements. We show that for such interfaces an anomalous phase-matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analogue of the generalized Snell's law. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities paves the way for the design of ultrathin, flat nonlinear optical elements. We demonstrate nonlinear metasurface lenses, which act both as generators and as manipulators of the frequency-converted signal.

  9. Bayes and empirical Bayes methods for reduced rank regression models in matched case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Langseth, Hilde; Engel, Lawrence S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Matched case-control studies are popular designs used in epidemiology for assessing the effects of exposures on binary traits. Modern studies increasingly enjoy the ability to examine a large number of exposures in a comprehensive manner. However, several risk factors often tend to be related in a non-trivial way, undermining efforts to identify the risk factors using standard analytic methods due to inflated type I errors and possible masking of effects. Epidemiologists often use data reduction techniques by grouping the prognostic factors using a thematic approach, with themes deriving from biological considerations. We propose shrinkage type estimators based on Bayesian penalization methods to estimate the effects of the risk factors using these themes. The properties of the estimators are examined using extensive simulations. The methodology is illustrated using data from a matched case-control study of polychlorinflated biphenyls in relation to the etiology of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:26575519

  10. Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Euclides; Shalem, Guy; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute an attractive set of materials with a potential for replacing standard bulky optical elements. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on their nonlinear optical properties, particularly in the context of second and third harmonic generation and beam steering by phase gratings. Here, we harness the full phase control enabled by subwavelength plasmonic elements to demonstrate a unique metasurface phase matching that is required for efficient nonlinear processes. We discuss the difference between scattering by a grating and by subwavelength phase-gradient elements. We show that for such interfaces an anomalous phase-matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analogue of the generalized Snell's law. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities paves the way for the design of ultrathin, flat nonlinear optical elements. We demonstrate nonlinear metasurface lenses, which act both as generators and as manipulators of the frequency-converted signal. PMID:26797164

  11. Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Euclides; Shalem, Guy; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute an attractive set of materials with a potential for replacing standard bulky optical elements. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on their nonlinear optical properties, particularly in the context of second and third harmonic generation and beam steering by phase gratings. Here, we harness the full phase control enabled by subwavelength plasmonic elements to demonstrate a unique metasurface phase matching that is required for efficient nonlinear processes. We discuss the difference between scattering by a grating and by subwavelength phase-gradient elements. We show that for such interfaces an anomalous phase-matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analogue of the generalized Snell's law. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities paves the way for the design of ultrathin, flat nonlinear optical elements. We demonstrate nonlinear metasurface lenses, which act both as generators and as manipulators of the frequency-converted signal. PMID:26797164

  12. Handling Missing Data in Matched Case-Control Studies Using Multiple Imputation

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, Shaun R.; Keogh, Ruth H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Analysis of matched case-control studies is often complicated by missing data on covariates. Analysis can be restricted to individuals with complete data, but this is inefficient and may be biased. Multiple imputation (MI) is an efficient and flexible alternative. We describe two MI approaches. The first uses a model for the data on an individual and includes matching variables; the second uses a model for the data on a whole matched set and avoids the need to model the matching variables. Within each approach, we consider three methods: full-conditional specification (FCS), joint model MI using a normal model, and joint model MI using a latent normal model. We show that FCS MI is asymptotically equivalent to joint model MI using a restricted general location model that is compatible with the conditional logistic regression analysis model. The normal and latent normal imputation models are not compatible with this analysis model. All methods allow for multiple partially-observed covariates, non-monotone missingness, and multiple controls per case. They can be easily applied in standard statistical software and valid variance estimates obtained using Rubin’s Rules. We compare the methods in a simulation study. The approach of including the matching variables is most efficient. Within each approach, the FCS MI method generally yields the least-biased odds ratio estimates, but normal or latent normal joint model MI is sometimes more efficient. All methods have good confidence interval coverage. Data on colorectal cancer and fibre intake from the EPIC-Norfolk study are used to illustrate the methods, in particular showing how efficiency is gained relative to just using individuals with complete data. PMID:26237003

  13. Test of Continental Drift by Comparison of Radiometric Ages: A pre-drift reconstruction shows matching geologic age provinces in West Africa and Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P M; Rand, J R; Pinson, W H; Fairbairn, H W; de Almeida, F F; Melcher, G C; Cordani, U G; Kawashita, K; Vandoros, P

    1967-08-01

    1) The distribution of age values obtained by potassium-argon determinations and whole-rock rubidium-strontium determinations appears to be almost identical for West African rocks of the pervasive Eburnean Orogenic Cycle and basement rocks at opposite locations in South America. 2) There is also a close correlation, with respect to potassium-argon age determinations on micas, rubidium-strontium determinations on total-rock samples, and the extent to which these two sets of values differ, between rocks of the Pan-African Orogenic Cycle and rocks of the Caririan Orogenic Cycle in Brazil, where these two groups of rocks lie opposite each other in the two continents. 3) When Africa and South America are "fitted together," the sharply defined boundary between the Eburnean and the Pan-African age provinces in West Africa strikes directly toward the corresponding age boundary in northeast Brazil. 4) The transition from the 550-million-year Pan-African age province to the 2000-million-year age province in the Congo Craton in Cameroun-Gabon is matched in the rocks near the corresponding part of the east coast of Brazil. However the geological and age data are insufficient to do more than suggest the possibility of another age-boundary correlation here. 5) The evidence reported here supports the hypothesis of continental drift.

  14. Right Ventricular Sex Differences in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Characterised by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Pair-Matched Case Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Andrew J.; Capener, Dave; Hammerton, Charlotte; Thomas, Steven M.; Elliot, Charlie; Condliffe, Robin; Wild, Jim M.; Kiely, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sex differences exist in both the prevalence and survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Men are less frequently affected by the condition but have worse outcome as compared to females. We sought to characterise the sex related differences in right ventricular remodelling in age matched male and female patients with IPAH using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods A case controlled pair-matched study was conducted with patients matched by age and sex. Steady state free precession (SSFP) MRI of the heart was performed at 1.5T. Cardiac volume, function and mass measurements were corrected for age, sex and BSA according to reference data. Results 40 age and sex matched patients with IPAH were identified. The mean age was 57 (SD 17) in both male and female cohorts. Men had proportionally lower right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction, RV stroke volume and LV stroke volume than females, p=0.028, p=0.007 and p=0.013, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in RV mass or haemodynamic indices of mPAP and PVR between males and females. Conclusion Male patients with IPAH have proportionally worse RV function despite similar afterload. We hypothesise that adaptive remodelling of the RV in response to increased afterload in IPAH is more effective in females. PMID:25996939

  15. A dynamic model of the marriage market-part 1: matching algorithm based on age preference and availability.

    PubMed

    Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L

    2013-09-01

    The matching algorithm in a dynamic marriage market model is described in this first of two companion papers. Iterative Proportional Fitting is used to find a marriage function (an age distribution of new marriages for both sexes), in a stable reference population, that is consistent with the one-sex age distributions of new marriages, and includes age preference. The one-sex age distributions (which are the marginals of the two-sex distribution) are based on the Picrate model, and age preference on a normal distribution, both of which may be adjusted by choice of parameter values. For a population that is perturbed from the reference state, the total number of new marriages is found as the harmonic mean of target totals for men and women obtained by applying reference population marriage rates to the perturbed population. The marriage function uses the age preference function, assumed to be the same for the reference and the perturbed populations, to distribute the total number of new marriages. The marriage function also has an availability factor that varies as the population changes with time, where availability depends on the supply of unmarried men and women. To simplify exposition, only first marriage is treated, and the algorithm is illustrated by application to Zambia. In the second paper, remarriage and dissolution are included.

  16. A dynamic model of the marriage market-part 1: matching algorithm based on age preference and availability.

    PubMed

    Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L

    2013-09-01

    The matching algorithm in a dynamic marriage market model is described in this first of two companion papers. Iterative Proportional Fitting is used to find a marriage function (an age distribution of new marriages for both sexes), in a stable reference population, that is consistent with the one-sex age distributions of new marriages, and includes age preference. The one-sex age distributions (which are the marginals of the two-sex distribution) are based on the Picrate model, and age preference on a normal distribution, both of which may be adjusted by choice of parameter values. For a population that is perturbed from the reference state, the total number of new marriages is found as the harmonic mean of target totals for men and women obtained by applying reference population marriage rates to the perturbed population. The marriage function uses the age preference function, assumed to be the same for the reference and the perturbed populations, to distribute the total number of new marriages. The marriage function also has an availability factor that varies as the population changes with time, where availability depends on the supply of unmarried men and women. To simplify exposition, only first marriage is treated, and the algorithm is illustrated by application to Zambia. In the second paper, remarriage and dissolution are included. PMID:23357512

  17. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects. PMID:27027323

  18. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects.

  19. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  20. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD. PMID:26713424

  1. Adult Age Differences in Speed and Accuracy of Matching Verbal and Pictorial Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergler, Nancy L.; Zandi, Taher

    1983-01-01

    Assessed age differences in speed of processing verbal and pictorial stimuli in young (N=20) and old (N=20) adults responding to traffic signs. Results showed young adults responded more quickly and all subjects responded more quickly to a verbal standard sign than to a pictorial standard. (Author/JAC)

  2. New power sharing control for inverter-dominated microgrid based on impedance match concept.

    PubMed

    Gu, Herong; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Power flow control is one of the most important issues for operating the inverter-dominated autonomous microgrid. A technical challenge is how to achieve the accurate active/reactive power sharing of inverters. P-F and Q-V droop control schemes have been widely used for power sharing in the past decades. But they suffer from the poor power sharing in the presence of unequal line impedance. In order to solve the problem, a comprehensive analysis of the power droop control is presented, and a new droop control based on the impedance match concept is proposed in this paper. In addition, the design guidelines of control coefficients and virtual impedance are provided. Finally, the performance evaluation is carried out, and the evaluation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24453910

  3. Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.

  4. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  5. A new approach for automatic matching of ground control points in urban areas from heterogeneous images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Chao; Liu, Dingsheng; Zhao, Lingjun

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses a new method for the automatic matching of ground control points (GCPs) between satellite remote sensing Image and digital raster graphic (DRG) in urban areas. The key of this method is to automatically extract tie point pairs according to geographic characters from such heterogeneous images. Since there are big differences between such heterogeneous images respect to texture and corner features, more detail analyzations are performed to find similarities and differences between high resolution remote sensing Image and (DRG). Furthermore a new algorithms based on the fuzzy-c means (FCM) method is proposed to extract linear feature in remote sensing Image. Based on linear feature, crossings and corners extracted from these features are chosen as GCPs. On the other hand, similar method was used to find same features from DRGs. Finally, Hausdorff Distance was adopted to pick matching GCPs from above two GCP groups. Experiences shown the method can extract GCPs from such images with a reasonable RMS error.

  6. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88–0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23–0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25–0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self–rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36–3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23–3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20–0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources. PMID:27529704

  7. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  8. The role of age and comorbidities in postoperative outcome of mitral valve repair: A propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Vincent; Boisselier, Clément; Saplacan, Vladimir; Belin, Annette; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Fischer, Marc-Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The average age of patients undergoing mitral valve repair is increasing each year. This retrospective study aimed to compare postoperative complications of mitral valve repair (known to be especially high-risk) between 2 age groups: under and over the age of 80.Patients who underwent mitral valve repair were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (<80 years old) and group 2 (≥80 years old). Baseline characteristics, pre- and postoperative hemodynamic data, surgical characteristics, and postoperative follow-up data until hospital discharge were collected.A total of 308 patients were included: 264 in group 1 (age 63 ± 13 years) and 44 in group 2 (age 83 ± 2 years). Older patients had more comorbidities (atrial fibrillation, history of cardiac decompensation, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic kidney disease) and they presented more postoperative complications (50.0% vs 33.7%; P = 0.043), with a longer hospital stay (8.9 ± 6.9 vs 6.6 ± 4.6 days; P = 0.005). To assess the burden of age, a propensity score was awarded to postoperative complications. Active smoking, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, associated ischemic heart disease, obesity, and cardio pulmonary by-pass duration were described as independent risk factors. When matched on this propensity score, there was no difference in morbidity or mortality between group 1 and group 2.Older patients suffered more postoperative complications, which were related to their comorbidities and not only to their age. PMID:27336886

  9. Associations between Dietary Allium Vegetables and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-Based Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pourzand, Ali; Tajaddini, Aynaz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Samadi, Nasser; Ostadrahimi, Ali-Reza; Sanaat, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The protective effect of Allium vegetables against carcinogenesis has been reported in experimental studies particularly focusing on the gut. Therefore, we conducted a hospital-based matched case-control study to explore the association between dietary Allium consumption and risk of breast cancer among Iranian women in northwest Iran. Methods A validated, quantitative, food frequency questionnaire was completed in 285 women (aged 25–65 years old) newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer (grade II, III or clinical stage II, III) in Tabriz, northwest Iran, and the completed questionnaires were included in an age- and regional-matched hospital based-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results Multivariate analysis showed that there was a negative association between the consumption of raw onion and risk of breast cancer after adjustment for covariates (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40–1.00); however, this association was insignificant. On the other hand, there was a positive association between consumption of cooked onion and risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for covariates (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02–2.32). However, reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with higher consumption of garlic and leek with adjusted ORs of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.20–0.83) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15–0.51), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that high consumption of certain Allium vegetables, in particular garlic and leek, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of cooked onion may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27721879

  10. Teaching arbitrary matching via sample stimulus-control shaping to young children and mentally retarded individuals: a methodological note.

    PubMed Central

    Zygmont, D M; Lazar, R M; Dube, W V; McIlvane, W J

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrated the efficacy of sample stimulus-control shaping programs for teaching arbitrary matching to 4 subjects who did not acquire the performances via standard methods (i.e., differential reinforcement and, in two cases, comparison intensity fading). All 4 had previously demonstrated identity matching with two-dimensional forms. Identity matching performances were then transformed into arbitrary matching by gradually changing the sample stimuli until they no longer resembled the comparison stimuli. Where applicable, these methods may have advantages over others that have been used after the failure of standard techniques. PMID:1548446

  11. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    PubMed

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Dolutegravir in HIV-Seronegative Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy H; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul M; Chen, Shuguang; Patel, Parul; Wajima, Toshihiro; Peppercorn, Amanda F; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dolutegravir pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to matched, healthy controls. In this open-label, parallel-group study, eight adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score 7–9) and eight healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and body mass index received a single dolutegravir 50-mg dose. Following dosing, 72-hour PK sampling was performed to determine total and unbound dolutegravir concentrations. PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric least squares mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) in subjects with hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects were generated by analysis of variance. Results showed that PK parameters of total plasma dolutegravir were similar between subject groups. The unbound fraction was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than in healthy subjects with GMR (90% CI) of 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) for unbound fraction at 3 hours post-dose and 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) for unbound fraction at 24 hours post-dose; this correlated with lower serum albumin concentrations and was not considered clinically significant. Dolutegravir was well tolerated in both groups; all adverse events were reported as minor. Although free fraction was increased, no dose adjustment is required for patients treated with dolutegravir who have mild to moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26097786

  13. The relationship between computerized physician order entry and pediatric adverse drug events: a nested matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feliciano; Salas, Maribel; Kim, Young-Il; Menachemi, Nir

    2009-08-01

    This study assesses the impact of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) implementation in pediatric hospitals on reported adverse drug events. Using a nested matched case-control design; we linked CPOE implementation information from the health information management systems society analytics database with reported adverse drug event (ADE) from the national association of children's hospitals and related institutions case mix comparative data program. Differences were examined using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses. Patients from CPOE hospitals were more frequently seen in larger hospitals have more co-morbidities than those from non-CPOE hospitals. When matched by admitting diagnosis, age, gender and race, ADE cases were associated with more reported co-morbidities, and were reported less frequently in hospitals with CPOE. Patients from hospitals without CPOE were 42% more likely to experience reportable ADE after adjusting for the presence of co-morbidities. In conclusion, we found significant beneficial associations between reportable ADE and CPOE adoption in a representative sample of pediatric hospitals.

  14. Children's identity matching and oddity: assessing control by specific and general sample-comparison relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Stromer, J B

    1989-01-01

    After children in Experiments 1 and 2 learned identity matching or oddity, control by sample-comparison relations was assessed. Tests for generalized control displayed novel samples and two comparison stimuli, one identical to the sample. Specific relations were tested with identical or nonidentical sample-comparison stimuli from one set of stimuli and substitute comparisons from either the other training set or from a novel set. When tests displayed identical stimuli, patterns of comparison selection suggested control by generalized identity and oddity. However, selection patterns varied when stimuli were nonidentical and familiar or novel substitute comparisons were used. Therefore, control by specific relations is not a precondition for generalized identity and oddity. One set of training stimuli was used in Experiment 3, and generalized performances occurred again. Moreover, control by specific relations was shown by the oddity subjects and 2 of 6 identity subjects. Generalized and specific control may therefore exist simultaneously. In Experiment 4, selections were irregular on tests displaying substitute comparisons and samples and familiar comparison stimuli; this finding supported the relational account of specific sample-comparison control found in Experiment 3. PMID:2921587

  15. Autonomic control of the aging heart.

    PubMed

    Kaye, David M; Esler, Murray D

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure continue to account for the majority of deaths in the developed world. Whilst the incidence of these clinical disorders does increase with age, outcomes in affected patients tend to be disproportionately adverse with advancing years. In this context it is important to understand the various compensatory processes which become activated in cardiovascular disease. In particular, the autonomic nervous system is known to play a key pathogenic role in the cause and response to many of these conditions. The normal aging process is accompanied by a complex series of changes in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system, favoring heightened cardiac sympathetic tone with parasympathetic withdrawal and blunted cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity. Together these changes have the potential to further magnify the effects of concomitant cardiovascular disease. Attention to the mechanisms of these changes and the development of appropriate therapies may serve to reduce the added influence of age on outcome in patients experiencing cardiovascular disease.

  16. SOLID FUEL USE IS A MAJOR RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES AMONG RURAL WOMEN: A MATCHED CASE CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Fatmi, Z.; Coggon, D.; Kazi, A.; Naeem, I.; Azam, I.; Kadir, M.M.; Sathiakumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Almost half of the world’s population uses solid fuel for cooking, exposing women to high levels of particulate pollution in indoor air. We assessed the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among rural women, according to their use of solid fuel. Study design Matched case control study. Methods Data were collected at a public tertiary care hospital in a rural district of Pakistan. Seventy-three women with ACS were compared with controls, individually matched for sex and age (±5years), who were admitted to hospital for other reasons. Fuels used for cooking and exposures to potentially confounding variables were ascertained through a questionnaire administered at interview and measurement of height and weight. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results After adjustment for potential confounding factors, current use of solid fuel was strongly associated with ACS ( OR 4.8, 95% CI: 1.5 to 14.8), and risk was lowest in women who had last used solid fuel more than 15 years earlier. The population attributable fraction for ACS in relation to current use of solid fuel was 49.0% (95% CI: 41.3% - 57.4%). Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that indoor air pollution from use of solid fuel is an important cause of ACS. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of case-control studies in rural populations of women to address this question, and is an encouragement to larger and statistically more powerful investigations. PMID:24342134

  17. Age-group differences in speech identification despite matched audiometrically normal hearing: contributions from auditory temporal processing and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C. J.; Stone, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss with increasing age adversely affects the ability to understand speech, an effect that results partly from reduced audibility. The aims of this study were to establish whether aging reduces speech intelligibility for listeners with normal audiograms, and, if so, to assess the relative contributions of auditory temporal and cognitive processing. Twenty-one older normal-hearing (ONH; 60–79 years) participants with bilateral audiometric thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL at 0.125–6 kHz were matched to nine young (YNH; 18–27 years) participants in terms of mean audiograms, years of education, and performance IQ. Measures included: (1) identification of consonants in quiet and in noise that was unmodulated or modulated at 5 or 80 Hz; (2) identification of sentences in quiet and in co-located or spatially separated two-talker babble; (3) detection of modulation of the temporal envelope (TE) at frequencies 5–180 Hz; (4) monaural and binaural sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS); (5) various cognitive tests. Speech identification was worse for ONH than YNH participants in all types of background. This deficit was not reflected in self-ratings of hearing ability. Modulation masking release (the improvement in speech identification obtained by amplitude modulating a noise background) and spatial masking release (the benefit obtained from spatially separating masker and target speech) were not affected by age. Sensitivity to TE and TFS was lower for ONH than YNH participants, and was correlated positively with speech-in-noise (SiN) identification. Many cognitive abilities were lower for ONH than YNH participants, and generally were correlated positively with SiN identification scores. The best predictors of the intelligibility of SiN were composite measures of cognition and TFS sensitivity. These results suggest that declines in speech perception in older persons are partly caused by cognitive and perceptual changes separate from age-related changes in

  18. Endemic diphtheria in Ho Chi Minh City; Viet Nam: a matched case-control study to identify risk factors of incidence.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hitoshi; Phuong, Nguyen M; Thang, Ho V; Chau, Nguyen V; Giao, Pham N; Tho, Nguyen D

    2010-11-29

    From 1999 to 2004, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vie Nam reported 401 clinically suspected and 90 laboratory-confirmed diphtheria. To identify risk factors, a matched case-control study was conducted during 2005 and 2006. In total, 88 cases that occurred in 2003 and 2004 and 352 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. No DPT/DT immunisation (odds ratio, 9.9 [95% CI, 1.9-52.3]) and bathing only once a day or less (OR 1.7 [95% CI, 1.0-2.9]) were associated with diphtheria incidence. Estimated vaccine efficacy of three or more DPT/DT doses was 88%. Immunising children with zero-dose status of diphtheria toxoid inoculation, rather than the introduction of booster doses, and the promotion of skin hygiene were considered to be the priority interventions in controlling the endemic diphtheria in HCMC.

  19. Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Is a Risk Factor for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A 1:2 Matched Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wen-Ze; Tian, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Cao, Ka-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes has been identified as an adverse prognostic variable which associated with an increased mortality in various cancers, including colorectal, lung, and breast cancers. However, previous studies provided inconsistent results on the association between diabetes and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between diabetes mellitus and the survival of NPC patients. Methods This study was designed as a 1:2 matched case–control study. Cases were patients who met the criteria for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) below. Controls, matched 1:2, were patients who were normoglycemic (NDM). The survival rates were assessed by Kaplan–Meier analysis, and the survival curves were compared using a log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results Both locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the NDM group were higher than that in the DM group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.033). Additionally, subset analyses revealed that the differences in OS, LRRFS, and DFS were all significant between the two groups in the N0-N1 subset (p = 0.007, p =.000 and p = 0.002). The LRRFS was higher in the NDM group in the III-IV, T3-T4 and N0-N1 subsets (p = 0.004, p = 0.002 and p =.000). In T3-T4 subset, the NDM group experienced higher DFS than the DM group (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, T stage and N stage were found to be independent predictors for OS, DMFS and DFS; chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for DMFS and DFS, age for OS, and diabetes for LRRFS and DFS. Conclusions Type 2 diabetic mellitus is associated with poorer prognosis among patients with NPC. PMID:27760202

  20. Point source modeling of matched case–control data with multiple disease subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose nonlinear distance-odds models investigating elevated odds around point sources of exposure, under a matched case-control design where there are subtypes within cases. We consider models analogous to the polychotomous logit models and adjacent-category logit models for categorical outcomes and extend them to the nonlinear distance-odds context. We consider multiple point sources as well as covariate adjustments. We evaluate maximum likelihood, profile likelihood, iteratively reweighted least squares, and a hierarchical Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under these distance-odds models. We compare these methods using an extensive simulation study and show that with multiple parameters and a nonlinear model, Bayesian methods have advantages in terms of estimation stability, precision, and interpretation. We illustrate the methods by analyzing Medicaid claims data corresponding to the pediatric asthma population in Detroit, Michigan, from 2004 to 2006. PMID:22826092

  1. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  2. Tattoo frequency and types among homicides and other deaths, 2007-2008: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Justin; Cleveland, John; Griffin, Russell; Davis, Gregory G; Lienert, Jeffrey; McGwin, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    An estimated 25% of the US population aged 18 to 50 years has a tattoo, which have been associated with markers of high-risk behaviors including alcohol and drug use, violence, carrying weapons, sexual activity, eating disorders, and suicide. This study compares tattoo prevalence and type in a homicide population to those of an age-, race-, and sex-matched control group of nonhomicide deaths. The data for this study were abstracted from autopsy records maintained by the Jefferson County Alabama Coroner/Medical Examiner's Office for the years 2007 and 2008. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between homicide and tattoo presence and characteristics were calculated using conditional logistic regression. There was no association between tattoo presence and death by homicide; however, among blacks, memorial tattoos were significantly more common among homicides compared with other types of deaths (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.68). The results of the current study suggest that specific types of tattoos, but not all tattoos, may be risk factors for homicide. Other factors, such as race and lifestyle, along with tattoos may need to be considered.

  3. An improvement in IMRT QA results and beam matching in linacs using statistical process control.

    PubMed

    Gagneur, Justin D; Ezzell, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the principles of statistical process control (SPC) in the context of patient specific intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) QA to set clinic-specific action limits and evaluate the impact of changes to the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibrations on IMRT QA results. Ten months of IMRT QA data with 247 patient QAs collected on three beam-matched linacs were retrospectively analyzed with a focus on the gamma pass rate (GPR) and the average ratio between the measured and planned doses. Initial control charts and action limits were calculated. Based on this data, changes were made to the leaf gap parameter for the MLCs to improve the consistency between linacs. This leaf gap parameter is tested monthly using a MLC sweep test. A follow-up dataset with 424 unique QAs were used to evaluate the impact of the leaf gap parameter change. The initial data average GPR was 98.6% with an SPC action limit of 93.7%. The average ratio of doses was 1.003, with an upper action limit of 1.017 and a lower action limit of 0.989. The sweep test results for the linacs were -1.8%, 0%, and +1.2% from nominal. After the adjustment of the leaf gap parameter, all sweep test results were within 0.4% of nominal. Subsequently, the average GPR was 99.4% with an SPC action limit of 97.3%. The average ratio of doses was 0.997 with an upper action limit of 1.011 and a lower action limit of 0.981. Applying the principles of SPC to IMRT QA allowed small differences between closely matched linacs to be identified and reduced. Ongoing analysis will monitor the process and be used to refine the clinical action limits for IMRT QA. PMID:25207579

  4. Multi-platform mass spectrometry analysis of the CSF and plasma metabolomes of rigorously matched amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Wuolikainen, Anna; Jonsson, Pär; Ahnlund, Maria; Antti, Henrik; Marklund, Stefan L; Moritz, Thomas; Forsgren, Lars; Andersen, Peter M; Trupp, Miles

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are protein-aggregation diseases that lack clear molecular etiologies. Biomarkers could aid in diagnosis, prognosis, planning of care, drug target identification and stratification of patients into clinical trials. We sought to characterize shared and unique metabolite perturbations between ALS and PD and matched controls selected from patients with other diagnoses, including differential diagnoses to ALS or PD that visited our clinic for a lumbar puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from rigorously age-, sex- and sampling-date matched patients were analyzed on multiple platforms using gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS). We applied constrained randomization of run orders and orthogonal partial least squares projection to latent structure-effect projections (OPLS-EP) to capitalize upon the study design. The combined platforms identified 144 CSF and 196 plasma metabolites with diverse molecular properties. Creatine was found to be increased and creatinine decreased in CSF of ALS patients compared to matched controls. Glucose was increased in CSF of ALS patients and α-hydroxybutyrate was increased in CSF and plasma of ALS patients compared to matched controls. Leucine, isoleucine and ketoleucine were increased in CSF of both ALS and PD. Together, these studies, in conjunction with earlier studies, suggest alterations in energy utilization pathways and have identified and further validated perturbed metabolites to be used in panels of biomarkers for the diagnosis of ALS and PD. PMID:26883206

  5. Predictors of Immunological Failure of Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV Infected Patients in Ethiopia: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Wondu; Assefa, Anteneh

    2014-01-01

    Background In resource constrained settings, immunological assessment through CD4 count is used to assess response to first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). In this study, we aim to investigate factors associated with immunological treatment failure. Methods A matched case-control study design was used. Cases were subjects who already experienced immunological treatment failure and controls were those without immunological failure after an exactly or approximately equivalent duration of first line treatment with cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS v16.0. Conditional logistic regression was carried out. Results A total of 134 cases and 134 controls were included in the study. At baseline, the mean age ±1 SD of cases was 37.5±9.7 years whereas it was 36.9±9.2 years among controls. The median baseline CD4 counts of cases and controls were 121.0 cells/µl (IQR: 47–183 cells/µl) and 122.0 cells/µl (IQR: 80.0–189.8 cells/µl), respectively. The median rate of CD4 cells increase was comparable for the two groups in the first six months of commencing HAART (P = 0.442). However, the median rate of CD4 increase was significantly different for the two groups in the next 6 months period (M6 to M12). The rate of increment was 8.8 (IQR: 0.5, 14.6) and 1.8 (IQR: 8.8, 11.3) cells/µl/month for controls and cases, respectively (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.003). In conditional logistic regressions grouped baseline CD4 count (P = 0.028), old age group and higher educational status (P<0.001) were significant predictors of immunological treatment failure. Conclusion Subjects with immunological treatment failure have an optimal rate of immunological recovery in the first 6 months of treatment with first line HAART, but relative to the non-failing group the rate declines at a later period, notably between 6 and 12 months. Low baseline CD4 count, old age and higher educational status were associated with immunological treatment failure. PMID:25536416

  6. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Kobusingye, Olive K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15–29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda’s capital city. Methods The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19–4.45), lower engine capacity (<100cc)(OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91–8.70), riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19–3.52), riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58–14.18) and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62–25.9). Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late. Recommendations More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding

  7. Fundamental differences in axial and appendicular bone density in stress fractured and uninjured Royal Marine recruits--a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Davey, Trish; Lanham-New, Susan A; Shaw, Anneliese M; Cobley, Rosalyn; Allsopp, Adrian J; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Arnett, Timothy R; Taylor, Pat; Cooper, Cyrus; Fallowfield, Joanne L

    2015-04-01

    Stress fracture is a common overuse injury within military training, resulting in significant economic losses to the military worldwide. Studies to date have failed to fully identify the bone density and bone structural differences between stress fractured personnel and controls due to inadequate adjustment for key confounding factors; namely age, body size and physical fitness; and poor sample size. The aim of this study was to investigate bone differences between male Royal Marine recruits who suffered a stress fracture during the 32 weeks of training and uninjured control recruits, matched for age, body weight, height and aerobic fitness. A total of 1090 recruits were followed through training and 78 recruits suffered at least one stress fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and whole body (WB) using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in 62 matched pairs; tibial bone parameters were measured using peripheral Quantitative Computer Tomography in 51 matched pairs. Serum C-terminal peptide concentration was measured as a marker of bone resorption at baseline, week-15 and week-32. ANCOVA was used to determine differences between stress fractured recruits and controls. BMD at the LS, WB and FN sites was consistently lower in the stress fracture group (P<0.001). Structural differences between the stress fracture recruits and controls were evident in all slices of the tibia, with the most prominent differences seen at the 38% tibial slice. There was a negative correlation between the bone cross-sectional area and BMD at the 38% tibial slice. There was no difference in serum CTx concentration between stress fracture recruits and matched controls at any stage of training. These results show evidence of fundamental differences in bone mass and structure in stress fracture recruits, and provide useful data on bone risk factor profiles for stress fracture within a healthy military population.

  8. Calibration and seasonal adjustment for matched case-control studies of vitamin D and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gail, Mitchell H; Wu, Jincao; Wang, Molin; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Cook, Nancy R; Eliassen, A Heather; McCullough, Marjorie L; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ziegler, Regina G; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-06-15

    Vitamin D measurements are influenced by seasonal variation and specific assay used. Motivated by multicenter studies of associations of vitamin D with cancer, we formulated an analytic framework for matched case-control data that accounts for seasonal variation and calibrates to a reference assay. Calibration data were obtained from controls sampled within decile strata of the uncalibrated vitamin D values. Seasonal sine-cosine series were fit to control data. Practical findings included the following: (1) failure to adjust for season and calibrate increased variance, bias, and mean square error and (2) analysis of continuous vitamin D requires a variance adjustment for variation in the calibration estimate. An advantage of the continuous linear risk model is that results are independent of the reference date for seasonal adjustment. (3) For categorical risk models, procedures based on categorizing the seasonally adjusted and calibrated vitamin D have near nominal operating characteristics; estimates of log odds ratios are not robust to choice of seasonal reference date, however. Thus, public health recommendations based on categories of vitamin D should also define the time of year to which they refer. This work supports the use of simple methods for calibration and seasonal adjustment and is informing analytic approaches for the multicenter Vitamin D Pooling Project for Breast and Colorectal Cancer. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:27133461

  9. Control and the Aged: Environmental or Personality Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.; Dey, Kay

    Control over self, lifestyle, and environment is a major factor in how one ages. To investigate how age acts as an environmental force in affecting perceptions of control, 45 adults, aged 60-80, from western Kansas were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Tiffany Experienced Control Scales (ECS), the Minnesota…

  10. Computed tomography-guided in vivo cardiac orientation and correlation with ECG in individuals without structural heart disease and in age-matched obese and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Gnalini; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Zahid, Simmi; Byth, Karen; Chik, William; Friedman, Daniel; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac axis in a structurally normal heart is influenced by a number of factors. We investigated the anatomical and electrical cardiac axes in middle-aged individuals without structural heart disease and compared this with age-matched obese and older individuals without structural heart disease. A retrospective study of controls included those between 30 and 60 years old with a normal body mass index (BMI), who were then compared with obese individuals between 30 and 60 years old and with individuals more than 60 years old with a normal BMI. The anatomical cardiac axis was determined along the long axis by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and correlated with the electrical cardiac axis on a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the frontal plane. A total of 124 patients were included. In the controls (n = 59), the mean CT axis was 38.1° ± 7.8° whilst the mean ECG axis was 51.8° ± 26.6°, Pearson r value 0.12 (P = 0.365). In the obese (n = 36), the mean CT axis was 25.1° ± 6.2° whilst the mean ECG axis was 20.1° ± 23.9°, Pearson r value 0.05 (P = 0.808). In the older group (n = 29), the mean CT axis was 34.4° ± 9.1° whilst the mean ECG axis was 34.4° ± 30.3°, Pearson r value 0.26 (P = 0.209). Obese individuals have a more leftward rotation of both axes than age-matched normals (P <0.0001), which could be secondary to elevation of the diaphragm. Older individuals have a more leftward rotation only of their electrical cardiac axis (P = 0.01), which could be a normal variant or reflect underlying conduction disturbances in this age group.

  11. Markers of thrombogenesis are activated in unmedicated patients with acute psychosis: a matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antipsychotic treatment has been repeatedly found to be associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism in schizophrenia. The extent to which the propensity for venous thromboembolism is linked to antipsychotic medication alone or psychosis itself is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether markers of thrombogenesis are increased in psychotic patients who have not yet been treated with antipsychotic medication. Methods We investigated the plasma levels of markers indicating activation of coagulation (D-dimers and Factor VIII) and platelets (soluble P-selectin, sP-selectin) in an antipsychotic-naive group of fourteen men and eleven women with acute psychosis (age 29.1 ± 8.3 years, body mass index 23.6 ± 4.7), and twenty-five healthy volunteers were matched for age, gender and body mass index. Results D-dimers (median 0.38 versus 0.19 mg/l, mean 1.12 ± 2.38 versus 0.28 ± 0.3 mg/l; P = 0.003) and sP-selectin (median 204.1 versus 112.4 ng/ml, mean 209.9 ± 124 versus 124.1 ± 32; P = 0.0005) plasma levels were significantly increased in the group of patients with acute psychosis as compared with healthy volunteers. We found a trend (median 148% versus 110%, mean 160 ± 72.5 versus 123 ± 62.5; P = 0.062) of increased plasma levels of factor VIII in psychotic patients as compared with healthy volunteers. Conclusions The results suggest that at least a part of venous thromboembolic events in patients with acute psychosis may be induced by pathogenic mechanisms related to psychosis rather than by antipsychotic treatment. Finding an exact cause for venous thromboembolism in psychotic patients is necessary for its effective treatment and prevention. PMID:21199572

  12. The role of working memory and verbal fluency in autobiographical memory in early Alzheimer's disease and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Maxwell J; Cifelli, Alberto; Garrard, Peter; Caine, Diana; Jones, Fergal W

    2015-11-01

    Retrieval of autobiographical memories (AMs) is important for "sense of self". Previous research and theoretical accounts suggest that working memory (WM) and semantic and phonemic fluency abilities facilitate the hierarchical search for, and reliving of past, personal events in the mind's eye. However, there remains a lack of consensus as to the nature of the relationships between these cognitive functions and the truly episodic aspects of AM. The present study therefore aimed to explore the associations between these variables in a sample with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The study incorporated a between-groups component, and a correlational component with multiple regression. Participants with Alzheimer's disease (n=10) and matched healthy controls (n=10) were assessed on measures of semantic and episodic AM search and retrieval, auditory and spatial WM, and semantic and phonemic fluency. The AD group produced less episodic AM content compared to controls. Semantic fluency predicted episodic AM retrieval independent of age effects but there were no significant relationships between measures of phonemic fluency, WM and episodic AM. The results suggest that the ability to maintain hierarchical search of the semantic knowledge-base is important for truly episodic reliving, and interventions for people with AM impairment might therefore benefit from incorporating structured, individualised external memory-aids to facilitate AM search and retrieval. PMID:26443928

  13. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be

  14. No difference in cross-modal attention or sensory discrimination thresholds in autism and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M; Heeger, David J; Heller, Laurie M; Gupta, Akshat; Dinstein, Ilan; Minshew, Nancy J; Behrmann, Marlene

    2016-04-01

    Autism has been associated with abnormalities in sensory and attentional processing. Here, we assessed these processes independently in the visual and auditory domains using a visual contrast-discrimination task and an auditory modulation-depth discrimination task. To evaluate changes in sensory function by attention, we measured behavioral performance (discrimination accuracy) when subjects were cued to attend and respond to the same stimulus (frequent valid cue) or cued to attend to one stimulus and respond to the non-cued stimulus (infrequent invalid cue). The stimuli were presented at threshold to ensure equal difficulty across participants and groups. Results from fifteen high-functioning adult individuals with autism and fifteen matched controls revealed no significant differences in visual or auditory discrimination thresholds across groups. Furthermore, attention robustly modulated performance accuracy (performance was better for valid than invalid cues) in both sensory modalities and to an equivalent extent in both groups. In conclusion, when using this well-controlled method, we found no evidence of atypical sensory function or atypical attentional modulation in a group of high functioning individuals with clear autism symptomatology. PMID:26940029

  15. Comparing risk factors for primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and primary drug-susceptible tuberculosis in Jiangsu province, China: a matched-pairs case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Lu, Wei; Zu, Rong-Qiang; Zhu, Li-Mei; Yang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Cheng; Shen, Tao; Zeng, Guang; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li-Xia

    2015-02-01

    To find out the reason why some people get infected directly with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), whereas some get infected with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB), a 1:1:1 matched-pairs case-control study was conducted to identify predictors associated with primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB against the control in Jiangsu Province, China. All three groups were geographically matched (by neighborhood) and matched on sex and age (±5 years). In total, 110 participants were enrolled in each of three matched groups. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that predictors independently associated with primary MDR-TB were illiteracy or primary school education, annual per capita income ≤ US$2,000, per capita living space < 40 m(2), and interval ≥ 7 days of eating fruits; predictors with primary DS-TB were body mass index ≤ 20 and feeling higher life pressure. This indicates that there are different predictors impacting the transmission range of primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB in the general population.

  16. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program was developed in collaboration with the World Bank with a total budget of US$127.7 million, and targets an estimated 738,000 children aged 0 to 6 years living in approximately 6,000 poor communities. The aim of the program is to increase access to early childhood services with the secondary aim of improving school readiness. Methods/Design The study is being conducted across nine districts. The baseline survey contained 310 villages, of which 100 were originally allocated to the intervention arm, 20 originally allocated to a 9-month delay staggered start, 100 originally allocated to an 18-month delay staggered start and 90 allocated to a matched control group (no intervention). The study consists of two cohorts, one comprising children aged 12 to 23 months and the other comprising children aged 48 to 59 months at baseline. The data collection instruments include child observations and task/game-based assessments as well as a questionnaire suite, village head questionnaire, service level questionnaires, household questionnaire, and child caretaker questionnaire. The baseline survey was conducted from March to April 2009, midline was conducted from April to August 2010 and endline conducted early 2013. The resultant participation rates at both the district and village levels were 90%. At the child level, the participation rate was 99.92%. The retention rate at the child level at midline was 99.67%. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed record of the trial design including a discussion regarding difficulties faced with compliance to the randomization, compliance to the dispersion schedule of community block grants, and procurement delays for baseline and midline

  17. [Genetic Control of Circadian Rhythms and Aging].

    PubMed

    Solovyeva, I A; Dobrovolskayaa, E V; Moskalev, A A

    2016-04-01

    The review establishes a link between a group of genes which are conserved in evolution and form a molecular oscillator responsible for generation of circadian rhythms and genetic determinants of aging including associated pathways of intracellular signaling. An analysis of mechanisms of development of age-dependent pathologies is conducted from the viewpoint of circadian genetics. Systematic data of circadian gene expression studies in animals demonstrating different rates of aging from accelerated to negligible are presented. PMID:27529973

  18. Multi-Scale Matching for the Automatic Location of Control Points in Large Scale Aerial Images Using Terrestrial Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berveglieri, A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2014-03-01

    A technique to automatically locate Ground Control Points (GCPs) in large aerial images is presented considering the availability of low accuracy direct georeferencing data. The approach is based on image chips of GCPs extracted from vertical terrestrial images. A strategy combining image matching techniques was implemented to select correct matches. These matches were used to define a 2D transformation with which the GCP is projected close to its correct position, reducing the search space in the aerial image. Area-based matching with some refinements is used to locate GCPs with sub-pixel precision. Experiments were performed with multi-scale images and assessed with a bundle block adjustment simulating an indirect sensor orientation. The accuracy analysis was accomplished based on discrepancies obtained from GCPs and check points. The results were better than interactive measurements and a planimetric accuracy of 1/5 of the Ground Sample Distance (GSD) for the check points was achieved.

  19. Pelvic enthesopathy on CT is significantly more prevalent in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) compared with matched control patients.

    PubMed

    Slonimsky, Einat; Leibushor, Naama; Aharoni, Dvora; Lidar, Merav; Eshed, Iris

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of pelvic enthesopathy on computed tomography (CT) in patients with DISH compared to matched control group. Pelvic CT examinations of patients with DISH (Resnick criteria) were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of enthesophytes at four entheseal sites bilaterally: ischial tuberosity, pubis, greater trochanter, and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). This was compared with age- and gender-matched control group of consecutive patients with <2 flowing osteophytes on CT along the entire spine. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to examine the degree of difference between pelvic enthesopathy in DISH patients and controls and to estimate the potential predictive ability of the different findings. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio of the studied findings. Pelvic CTs of 210 patients (149:61, M:F; average age, 72.3 years) were evaluated: DISH group, 104 patients (74:30, M:F); matched control group, 106 patients (75:31, M:F). Mean total and local enthesopathy scores were significantly higher in the DISH group compared with the control group (total 5.03:1.9; ASIS 1.58:0.55; pubis 0.94:0.36; ischial tuberosity 1.47:0.76; greater trochanter 1.04:0.24; p < 0.001). ASIS and greater trochanter enthesophytes were the most robust contributors that significantly distinguished between patients with DISH and those without DISH. Prominent enthesophytes were more common among DISH patients (DISH:controls, 52:13, p = 0.02). Prominent pelvic enthesophytes detected on CT have a strong discriminating power between DISH and non-DISH patients. Results imply that pelvic enthesopathy may be included in the radiographic criteria for DISH. PMID:26686367

  20. On the matching equations of energy shaping controllers for mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crasta, N.; Ortega, Romeo; Pillai, Harish K.

    2015-09-01

    Total energy shaping is a controller design methodology that achieves (asymptotic) stabilisation of mechanical systems endowing the closed-loop system with a Lagrangian or Hamiltonian structure with a desired energy function. The success of the method relies on the possibility of solving two partial differential equations (PDEs) which identify the kinetic and potential energy functions that can be assigned to the closed loop. Particularly troublesome is the PDE associated to the kinetic energy (KE) which is quasi-linear and non-homogeneous, and the solution that defines the desired inertia matrix must be positive definite. This task is simplified by the inclusion of gyroscopic forces in the target dynamics, which translates into the presence of a free skew-symmetric matrix in the KE matching equation that reduces the number of PDEs to be solved. Recently, it has been claimed that considering a more general form for the target dynamic forces that relax the skew-symmetry condition further reduces the number of KE PDEs. The purpose of this paper is to prove that this claim is wrong.

  1. Dissociative Symptoms and Reported Trauma Among Patients with Spirit Possession and Matched Healthy Controls in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nijenhuis, Ellert; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gernaat, Hajo B. P. E.; de Jong, Joop T.

    2010-01-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among spirit possession, dissociative symptoms and reported potentially traumatizing events in Uganda. One hundred nineteen persons with spirit possession, diagnosed by traditional healers, were compared to a matched control group of 71 nonpossessed persons. Assessments included demographic items and measures of dissociation and potentially traumatizing events. Compared to the nonpossessed group, the possessed group reported more severe psychoform dissociation and somatoform dissociation and more potentially traumatizing events. The associations between these events and both types of dissociation were significant. Yet, consistent with the cultural perception of dissociative symptoms, the participants subjectively did not associate dissociative symptoms with potentially traumatizing events. In conclusion, spirit possession deserves more interest as a possible idiom of distress and a culture-specific expression of dissociation related to potential traumatizing events. PMID:20401630

  2. A post-hoc Unweighted Analysis of Counter-Matched Case-Control Data.

    PubMed

    Rakovski, Cyril; Langholz, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Informative sampling based on counter-matching risk set subjects on exposure correlated with a variable of interest has been shown to be an efficient alternative to simple random sampling; however, the opposite is true when correlation between the two covariates is absent. Thus, the counter-matching design will entail substantial gains in statistical efficiency compared to simple random sampling at a first stage of analyses focused by design on variables correlated with the counter-matching variable but will lose efficiency at a second stage of analyses aimed at variables independent of the counter-matching variable and not conceived as a part of the initial study. In an effort to recover efficiency in such second stage of analyses scenarios, we considered a naive analysis of the effect of a dichotomous covariate on the disease rates in the population that ignores the underlying counter-matching sampling design. We derive analytical expressions for the bias and variance and show that when the counter-matching and the new dichotomous variable of interest are uncorrelated and a multiplicative main effects model holds, such an analysis is advantageous over the standard "weighted" approach, especially when the counter-matching variable is rare and in such scenarios the efficiency gains exceeds 80%. Moreover, we consider all possible conceptual violations of the required assumptions and show that moderate departures from the above-mentioned requirements lead to negligible levels of bias; numerical values for the bias under common scenarios are provided. The method is illustrated via an analysis of BRCA1/2 deleterious mutations in the radiation treatment counter-matched WECARE study of second breast cancer. PMID:26351961

  3. Self-rated health in the last 12 years of life compared to matched surviving controls: the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Sari; Pentti, Jaana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a valid measure of health status and associated with mortality. Based on individual-level biannual repeat data on SRH we sought to characterize the natural history of poor SRH during the 12 years prior to death in men and women in different age groups. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Health and Retirement Study participants who died between 1998 and 2010 and had at least two SRH measurements in the 12 years prior to death. We used a nested case-control design to compare SRH trajectories of deceased men and women aged 30-64, 65-79 and 80 years versus surviving participants. The cases comprised 3,350 deceased participants who were matched to surviving controls (n = 8,127). SRH was dichotomized into good vs. poor health. Men and women dying at age 65-79 and ≥ 80 years had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of poor SRH already 11-12 years prior to death compared to surviving controls. The risk estimates remained statistically significant even after adjusting for life-style related risk factors and diagnosed diseases. Prevalence of poor SRH before death was lowest among those aged ≥ 80 years and highest in 30-64 year-olds. In conclusion, men and women who subsequently die perceive their health worse already 11-12 years prior to death compared to their surviving controls.

  4. rhBMP-2 protects against reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure: A matched case-control study of 448 patients.

    PubMed

    Macki, Mohamed; Syeda, Sbaa; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Bydon, Mohamad; Gokaslan, Ziya

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this independent study is to determine the impact of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on reoperation for pseudarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure. A nested case-control study of first-time posterolateral, instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine for degenerative spinal disease was undertaken. Cases of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure were assigned to controls, who did not experience the primary outcome measure at the time of reoperation. Cases and controls were matched on number of interspaces fused and inclusion of interbody. Predictors of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure were assessed with a conditional logistical regression controlling for rhBMP-2, age, obesity, and smoking. Of the 448 patients, 155 cases of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation were matched with 293 controls. Twenty-six percent of first-time surgeries included rhBMP-2, which was statistically more commonly used in the control cohort (33.11%) versus the case cohort (12.90%) (Unadjusted odds ratio [ORunadj]=0.28) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-0.49). Following a multivariate analysis controlling for age, obesity, and smoking, the rhBMP-2 recipients incurred a 73% lower odds of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure (95% CI, 0.15-0.48). Neither sarcomatous nor osseous neoplasm was detected in the study population. Mean follow up did not differ between the cases (81.57±standard deviation [SD] 4.98months) versus controls (74.75±2.49month) (ORunadj=1.01) (95% CI: 1.00-1.01). rhBMP-2 in lumbar fusion constructs protects against reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure. However, the decision to include fusion supplements should be weighted between surgical determinants and clinical outcomes. PMID:27396376

  5. rhBMP-2 protects against reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure: A matched case-control study of 448 patients.

    PubMed

    Macki, Mohamed; Syeda, Sbaa; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Bydon, Mohamad; Gokaslan, Ziya

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this independent study is to determine the impact of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on reoperation for pseudarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure. A nested case-control study of first-time posterolateral, instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine for degenerative spinal disease was undertaken. Cases of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure were assigned to controls, who did not experience the primary outcome measure at the time of reoperation. Cases and controls were matched on number of interspaces fused and inclusion of interbody. Predictors of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure were assessed with a conditional logistical regression controlling for rhBMP-2, age, obesity, and smoking. Of the 448 patients, 155 cases of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation were matched with 293 controls. Twenty-six percent of first-time surgeries included rhBMP-2, which was statistically more commonly used in the control cohort (33.11%) versus the case cohort (12.90%) (Unadjusted odds ratio [ORunadj]=0.28) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-0.49). Following a multivariate analysis controlling for age, obesity, and smoking, the rhBMP-2 recipients incurred a 73% lower odds of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure (95% CI, 0.15-0.48). Neither sarcomatous nor osseous neoplasm was detected in the study population. Mean follow up did not differ between the cases (81.57±standard deviation [SD] 4.98months) versus controls (74.75±2.49month) (ORunadj=1.01) (95% CI: 1.00-1.01). rhBMP-2 in lumbar fusion constructs protects against reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure. However, the decision to include fusion supplements should be weighted between surgical determinants and clinical outcomes.

  6. Reduction in Sensorimotor Control with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Stelmach, George E.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews age-related declines in motor performance, examining the known types of sensorimotor deficits in the elderly. The article highlights recent data that show changes in kinematics of arm movements, prehension tasks, and handwriting that reveal why movement becomes slower and less accurate in older adults. (SM)

  7. The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

    PubMed

    Nathan, I; Hackett, A F; Kirby, S

    1996-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.

  8. Effects of sports drinks on the maintenance of physical performance during 3 tennis matches: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery. Objective The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches. Methods This was a crossover, randomized controlled study. Eight male regionally-ranked tennis players participated in this study. Players underwent a series of physical tests to assess their strength, speed, power and endurance following the completion of three tennis matches each of two hours duration played over three consecutive half-days (1.5 day period for each condition). In the first condition the players consumed a sports drink before, during and after each match; in the second, they drank an identical volume of placebo water. The results obtained were compared with the third ‘rest’ condition in which the subjects did not play any tennis. Main outcomes measured were maximal isometric strength and fatigability of knee and elbow extensors, 20-m sprint speed, jumping height, specific repeated sprint ability test and hand grip strength. Results The physical test results for the lower limbs showed no significant differences between the three conditions. Conversely, on the upper limbs the EMG data showed greater fatigue of the triceps brachii in the placebo condition compared to the rest condition, while the ingestion of sports drinks attenuated this fatigue. Conclusions This study has demonstrated for the first time that, when tennis players are adequately hydrated and ingest balanced meals between matches, then no large drop in physical performance is observed even during consecutive competitive matches. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01353872. PMID:25302057

  9. Age-Dependent and Age-Independent Measures of Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Hofmann, Richard

    Using a longitudinal data set obtained from 169 pre-adolescent children between the ages of 8 and 13 years, this study statistically divided locus of control into two independent components. The first component was noted as "age-dependent" (AD) and was determined by predicted values generated by regressing children's ages onto their locus of…

  10. Large B-cell lymphomas in adolescents and young adults in comparison to adult patients: a matched-control analysis in 55 patients.

    PubMed

    Coso, Diane; Garciaz, Sylvain; Esterni, Benjamin; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Ivanov, Vadim; Aurran-Schleinitz, Thérèse; Schiano, Jean-Marc; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Chetaille, Bruno; Blaise, Didier; Vey, Norbert; Bouabdallah, Réda

    2014-08-01

    The aim of our study was to assess whether large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) in adolescents and young adults (AYA) should be considered as a clinocopathological entity, and to evaluate the prognostic value of age. Fifty-five patients aged > 15-30 years were fully matched to 365 adult patients aged 31-65 years. We found a high incidence of primary mediastinal thymic LBCL subtype (33% vs. 5%), while histological transformation was rare (2% vs. 14%). LBCL in AYA presented with a bulky mediastinal mass (51% vs. 21%), and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) value was significantly higher (73% vs. 54%). The complete response rate to chemotherapy was similar in the two groups. Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of AYA were 73% and 68%, respectively. The matched-control analysis showed no difference for either OS or EFS. LBCL in AYA presents with some critical features which differ from those of older adults. However, the outcome is equivalent to that observed in older patients.

  11. Intertrial Sources of Stimulus Control and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dean C.; Johnston, Mark D.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments compared delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) accuracy under 2 procedures in adults with mental retardation. In the trial-unique procedure, every trial in a session contained different stimuli. Thus, comparison stimuli that were correct on one trial were never incorrect on other trials in that session (or vice versa). In the 2-sample…

  12. Hypothalamic control of sleep in aging.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Asya

    2012-09-01

    The timing of sleep and its duration are affected by circadian and homeostatic factors. Physiological and behavioral attributes such as the duration of previous wake period, food availability, temperature, and stress all affect sleep and its quality. As many of these physiological inputs are integrated in the hypothalamus, it is not surprising that this brain structure plays a crucial role in the regulation of sleep. I will discuss this role also in the context of aging, which is associated with changes in both hypothalamic function and the composition of sleep.

  13. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

  14. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Left Ventricular Thrombus after Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Matched Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue-Xin; Jing, Lin-De; Jia, You-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is reported to be a common complication in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. And it has the potential to cause systemic embolism. This retrospective study was to present the current situation of LVT in clinical practice, as well as to evaluate the clinical characteristics and the risk factors of LVT after AMI. Methods: LVT cases (n = 96) were identified from 13,732 AMI (non-ST elevation myocardial infarction was excluded) patients in Fuwai Hospital's electronic medical records system from January 2003 to January 2013. The controls (n = 192) were gender- and age-matched AMI patients without LVT during this period. A conditional logistic regression (fitted by the Cox model) was performed to identify the independent risk factors. Results: The incidence of LVT after AMI was 0.7%. Univariate analysis indicated that the anterior myocardial infarction (especially extensive anterior myocardial infarction), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LVEF ≤40%, severe regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA), pericardial effusion, and left ventricular aneurysm were all related to LVT after AMI. The independent risk factors obtained from the conditional logistic regression analysis were lower LVEF (odds ratio (OR) = 0.891, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.828–0.960), extensive anterior myocardial infarction (OR = 6.403, 95% CI: 1.769–23.169), severe RWMA (OR = 7.348, 95% CI: 1.323–40.819), and left ventricular aneurysm (OR = 6.955, 95% CI: 1.673–28.921). Conclusions: This study indicated that lower LVEF, extensive anterior myocardial infarction, severe RWMA, and left ventricular aneurysm were independent risk factors of LVT after AMI. It also suggested that further efforts are needed for the LVT diagnosis after AMI in clinical practice. PMID:26365955

  15. Collagen fragment biomarkers as serological biomarkers of lean body mass – a biomarker pilot study from the DAHANCA25B cohort and matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Nedergaard, Anders; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne; Johansen, Jørgen; Overgaard, Jens; Overgaard, Kristian; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Lønbro, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of muscle mass and function is an important complication to ageing and a range of pathologies, including, but not restricted to, cancer, organ failures, and sepsis. A number of interventions have been proposed ranging from exercise to anabolic pharmacological therapy, with varying success. Easily applicable serological biomarkers of lean and/or muscle mass and change therein would benefit monitoring of muscle mass during muscle atrophy as well as during recovery. We set out to validate if novel peptide biomarkers derived from Collagen III and VI were markers of lean body mass (LBM) or change therein in head and neck cancer patients in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group(DAHANCA) 25B cohort subjected to resistance training as well as in an age-matched and gender-matched control group. Methods Blood samples and dual X-ray absorptiometry data were measured at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks in 41 HNSCC subjects of the DAHANCA 25B cohort of subjects recovering from neck and head cancer (stages provided in Table 1), and at baseline only in 21 healthy age-matched and gender-matched controls. Serum from blood was analyzed for the ProC3, IC6, and C6M peptide biomarkers and LBM were derived from the dual X-ray absorptiometry scans. Results We were not able to show any correlation between biomarkers and LBM or C6M and anabolic response to exercise in recovering head and neck cancer patients. However, we did find that the biomarkers IC6, IC6/C6M, and ProC3 are biomarkers of LBM in the control group subjects (R2/P of 0.249/0.035, 0.416/0.007 and 0.178 and P = 0.057, respectively), Conclusion In conclusion, the IC6, ProC3, and IC6/C6M biomarkers are indeed biomarkers of LBM in healthy individuals of both genders, but not in HNSCC patients. PMID:26673155

  16. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  17. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  18. Quasi-phase matching and quantum control of high harmonic generation in waveguides using counterpropagating beams

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L.; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2010-11-09

    All-optical quasi-phase matching (QPM) uses a train of counterpropagating pulses to enhance high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow waveguide. A pump pulse enters one end of the waveguide, and causes HHG in the waveguide. The counterpropagation pulses enter the other end of the waveguide and interact with the pump pulses to cause QPM within the waveguide, enhancing the HHG.

  19. Age-structured optimal control in population economics.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Gustav; Prskawetz, Alexia; Veliov, Vladimir M

    2004-06-01

    This paper brings both intertemporal and age-dependent features to a theory of population policy at the macro-level. A Lotka-type renewal model of population dynamics is combined with a Solow/Ramsey economy. We consider a social planner who maximizes an aggregate intertemporal utility function which depends on per capita consumption. As control policies we consider migration and saving rate (both age-dependent). By using a new maximum principle for age-structured control systems we derive meaningful results for the optimal migration and saving rate in an aging population. The model used in the numerical calculations is calibrated for Austria.

  20. Effectiveness of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines (Inflexal V ® and Fluad ® ) in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia in the elderly: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Rossi, Stefania; Panatto, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the main mean of preventing influenza in the elderly. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines available in Italy in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia, a matched case-control study was performed in elderly subjects during the 2010-2011 season in Genoa (Italy). Cases and controls were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to gender, age, socio-economic status and type of influenza vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as IVE = [(1-OR)x100] and crude odds ratios were estimated through conditional logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated through multivariable logistic models.   In the study area, influenza activity was moderate in the 2010-2011 season, with optimal matching between circulating viruses and vaccine strains. We recruited 187 case-control pairs; 46.5% of cases and 79.1% of controls had been vaccinated. The adjuvanted influenza vaccines (Fluad (®) considered together with Inflexal V (®) ) were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization, their effectiveness being 94.8% (CI 77.1-98.8). Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 95.2% (CI 62.8-99.4) and 87.8 (CI 0.0-98.9) for Inflexal V (®) and Fluad (®) , respectively. Both adjuvanted vaccines proved effective, although the results displayed statistical significance only for Inflexal V (®) (p = 0.004), while for Fluad (®) statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.09). Our study is the first to provide information on the effectiveness of Inflexal V (®) in terms of reducing hospitalizations for influenza or pneumonia in the elderly, and demonstrates that this vaccine yields a high degree of protection and that its use would generate considerable saving for the National Health Service.

  1. Post-operative quality of life in children with severe perthes disease: differences to matched controls and correlation with clinical function.

    PubMed

    Palmen, Nina K; Zilkens, Christoph; Rosenthal, Dietmar; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Hefter, Harald; Westhoff, Bettina

    2014-10-27

    The diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) has a considerable influence on the daily life of the patients with restrictions in their leisure time activities. This might influence their mood. Until now this aspect of the disease has been neglected. Therefore the objective of the study was to evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children with severe LCPD who had an extensive surgery with pelvic/femoral osteotomy. The KIDSCREEN-10 and the modified Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) -questionnaire were administered to 17 children (16 boys and 1 girl) aged 5 to 11 years at the time of surgery. Analyses of mHHS were made preoperatively and at the time of the follow-up examination at least 2 years postoperatively. KIDSCREEN-analyses were made postoperatively. The follow-up results were compared to an age-matched normal control group. Correlations were computed between KIDSCREEN-10 and mHHS pre- and post-operatively. The postoperative calculated KIDSCREEN-10-T-value [70.2 (SD 12.7)] was higher than the mean T-value of the control-group [56.6 (SD 10.4)]. The mHHS improved from 54.4 (SD 19.9) to a score of 99.5 (SD 1.5) postoperatively. A strong correlation was found between the preoperative mHHS and the postoperative KIDSCREEN-10-T-value (Spearman's-rho 0.67, P=0.003). After containment improving surgery and a mean follow-up period of 4.2 years the HRQoL-status is even better compared with a healthy age-matched control group. As well an excellent clinical function could be achieved. PMID:25568729

  2. Diagnosing prosopagnosia: effects of ageing, sex, and participant-stimulus ethnic match on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Cambridge Face Perception Test.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Devin C; McKone, Elinor; Dawel, Amy; Duchaine, Bradley; Palermo, Romina; Schmalzl, Laura; Rivolta, Davide; Wilson, C Ellie; Yovel, Galit

    2009-07-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT) have provided the first theoretically strong clinical tests for prosopagnosia based on novel rather than famous faces. Here, we assess the extent to which norms for these tasks must take into account ageing, sex, and testing country. Data were from Australians aged 18 to 88 years (N = 240 for CFMT; 128 for CFPT) and young adult Israelis (N = 49 for CFMT). Participants were unselected for face recognition ability; most were university educated. The diagnosis cut-off for prosopagnosia (2 SDs poorer than mean) was affected by age, participant-stimulus ethnic match (within Caucasians), and sex for middle-aged and older adults on the CFPT. We also report internal reliability, correlation between face memory and face perception, correlations with intelligence-related measures, correlation with self-report, distribution shape for the CFMT, and prevalence of developmental prosopagnosia.

  3. Effect of telephone health coaching (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs: cohort study with matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Tunkel, Sarah; Blunt, Ian; Bardsley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the effect of a telephone health coaching service (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs. Design Analysis of person level administrative data. Difference-in-difference analysis was done relative to matched controls. Setting Community based intervention operating in a large English city with industry. Participants 2698 patients recruited from local general practices before 2009 with heart failure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and a history of inpatient or outpatient hospital use. These individuals were matched on a 1:1 basis to control patients from similar areas of England with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use, and a predictive risk score. Intervention Telephone health coaching involved a personalised care plan and a series of outbound calls usually scheduled monthly. Median length of time enrolled on the service was 25.5 months. Control participants received usual healthcare in their areas, which did not include telephone health coaching. Main outcome measures Number of emergency hospital admissions per head over 12 months after enrolment. Secondary metrics calculated over 12 months were: hospital bed days, elective hospital admissions, outpatient attendances, and secondary care costs. Results In relation to diagnoses of health conditions and other baseline variables, matched controls and intervention patients were similar before the date of enrolment. After this point, emergency admissions increased more quickly among intervention participants than matched controls (difference 0.05 admissions per head, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.09, P=0.046). Outpatient attendances also increased more quickly in the intervention group (difference 0.37 attendances per head, 0.16 to 0.58, P<0.001), as did secondary care costs (difference £175 per head, £22 to £328, P=0.025). Checks showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in

  4. Effect of Aging on ERP Components of Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Kropotov, Juri; Ponomarev, Valery; Tereshchenko, Ekaterina P.; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    As people age, their performance on tasks requiring cognitive control often declines. Such a decline is frequently explained as either a general or specific decline in cognitive functioning with age. In the context of hypotheses suggesting a general decline, it is often proposed that processing speed generally declines with age. A further hypothesis is that an age-related compensation mechanism is associated with a specific cognitive decline. One prominent theory is the compensation hypothesis, which proposes that deteriorated functions are compensated for by higher performing functions. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) in the context of a GO/NOGO task to examine the age-related changes observed during cognitive control in a large group of healthy subjects aged between 18 and 84 years. The main question we attempted to answer was whether we could find neurophysiological support for either a general decline in processing speed or a compensation strategy. The subjects performed a relatively demanding cued GO/NOGO task with similar omissions and reaction times across the five age groups. The ERP waves of cognitive control, such as N2, P3cue and CNV, were decomposed into latent components by means of a blind source separation method. Based on this decomposition, it was possible to more precisely delineate the different neurophysiological and psychological processes involved in cognitive control. These data support the processing speed hypothesis because the latencies of all cognitive control ERP components increased with age, by 8 ms per decade for the early components (<200 ms) and by 20 ms per decade for the late components. At the same time, the compensatory hypothesis of aging was also supported, as the amplitudes of the components localized in posterior brain areas decreased with age, while those localized in the prefrontal cortical areas increased with age in order to maintain performance on this simple task at a relatively stable level

  5. Effect of Aging on ERP Components of Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Kropotov, Juri; Ponomarev, Valery; Tereshchenko, Ekaterina P; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    As people age, their performance on tasks requiring cognitive control often declines. Such a decline is frequently explained as either a general or specific decline in cognitive functioning with age. In the context of hypotheses suggesting a general decline, it is often proposed that processing speed generally declines with age. A further hypothesis is that an age-related compensation mechanism is associated with a specific cognitive decline. One prominent theory is the compensation hypothesis, which proposes that deteriorated functions are compensated for by higher performing functions. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) in the context of a GO/NOGO task to examine the age-related changes observed during cognitive control in a large group of healthy subjects aged between 18 and 84 years. The main question we attempted to answer was whether we could find neurophysiological support for either a general decline in processing speed or a compensation strategy. The subjects performed a relatively demanding cued GO/NOGO task with similar omissions and reaction times across the five age groups. The ERP waves of cognitive control, such as N2, P3cue and CNV, were decomposed into latent components by means of a blind source separation method. Based on this decomposition, it was possible to more precisely delineate the different neurophysiological and psychological processes involved in cognitive control. These data support the processing speed hypothesis because the latencies of all cognitive control ERP components increased with age, by 8 ms per decade for the early components (<200 ms) and by 20 ms per decade for the late components. At the same time, the compensatory hypothesis of aging was also supported, as the amplitudes of the components localized in posterior brain areas decreased with age, while those localized in the prefrontal cortical areas increased with age in order to maintain performance on this simple task at a relatively stable level

  6. Unique Relations of Age and Delinquency with Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Context processing has significant empirical support as an explanation of age- and psychopathology-related deficiencies in cognitive control. We examined whether context processing generalizes to younger individuals who are in trouble with the law. We tested whether age and delinquency might have unique relations to context processing skills in…

  7. Tandem chirped quasi-phase-matching grating optical parametric amplifier design for simultaneous group delay and gain control.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau-Lefort, M; Fejer, M M; Afeyan, Bedros

    2005-03-15

    We present a broadband optical parametric amplifier design using tapered gain and tandem chirped quasi-phase-matching gratings to obtain flat gain and group-delay spectra suitable for applications such as ultrashort-pulse amplification and fiber-optic communication systems. Although a tapered-gain amplifier consisting of a single chirped grating can provide constant gain over a wide frequency range, it cannot be used to control the group delay across the spectrum. We propose controlling both the gain and the group delay profiles using a two-stage amplifier configuration, in which the idler of the first is used as the input signal of the second. PMID:15792000

  8. Hypnotics and the Occurrence of Bone Fractures in Hospitalized Dementia Patients: A Matched Case-Control Study Using a National Inpatient Database

    PubMed Central

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matusi, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing falls and bone fractures in hospital care is an important issue in geriatric medicine. Use of hypnotics is a potential risk factor for falls and bone fractures in older patients. However, data are lacking on the association between use of hypnotics and the occurrence of bone fracture. Methods We used a national inpatient database including 1,057 hospitals in Japan and included dementia patients aged 50 years or older who were hospitalized during a period of 12 months between April 2012 and March 2013. The primary outcome was the occurrence of bone fracture during hospitalization. Use of hypnotics was compared between patients with and without bone fracture in this matched case-control study. Results Of 140,494 patients, 830 patients suffered from in-hospital fracture. A 1:4 matching with age, sex and hospital created 817 cases with fracture and 3,158 matched patients without fracture. With adjustment for the Charlson comorbidity index, emergent admission, activities of daily living, and scores for level walking, a higher occurrence of fractures were seen with short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.73; P<0.001), ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (1.66; 1.37–2.01; P<0.001), hydroxyzine (1.45; 1.15–1.82, P=0.001), risperidone and perospirone (1.37; 1.08–1.73; P=0.010). Other drug groups were not significantly associated with the occurrence of in-hospital fracture. Conclusions Short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics and ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics may increase risk of bone fracture in hospitalized dementia patients. PMID:26061231

  9. Managing Threats against Control in Old Age: A Narrative Inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; Santanello, Holly R.; Caruso, Christa J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The desire to retain personal control over self and life circumstances continues into old age; it exists in tension with late-life vulnerabilities. Objectives This article investigates how elders respond to threats against control in light of changes surrounding health and identity. Methods Community-dwelling African-American (n = 10) and European-American elders (n = 10), aged 70 years and older, with varied self-reported health statuses were qualitatively interviewed. Open-ended interviews explored elders’ perceptions of control and threats to control in older age. Results Three themes linked elders’ responses to threats to control. Elders: (a) proactively monitored physical and mental health; (b) maintained roles that shaped important aspects of identity, and (c) fostered personal growth and development by generative practices. Responses of participants who had difficulty countering threats to control are also offered. Discussion This study shows that the construct of control is not abstract; it is interpreted and applied by elders in the contexts of everyday life. Respondents used personal resources honed throughout the life course to respond to threats to control. Elders viewed control as a cultural construct with nuanced meanings that recalled past roles and current changes that occur with age. Suggestions are offered for how health professionals can assist elders with the cognitive and emotional tasks required to deal with threats to personal control surrounding health and identity. PMID:24165219

  10. Refractive index and solubility control of para-cymene solutions for index-matched fluid-structure interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Charles; Fu, Christopher D.; Weichselbaum, Noah A.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2015-12-01

    To deploy optical diagnostics such as particle image velocimetry or planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in complex geometries, it is beneficial to use index-matched facilities. A binary mixture of para-cymene and cinnamaldehyde provides a viable option for matching the refractive index of acrylic, a common material for scaled models and test sections. This fluid is particularly appropriate for large-scale facilities and when a low-density and low-viscosity fluid is sought, such as in fluid-structure interaction studies. This binary solution has relatively low kinematic viscosity and density; its use enables the experimentalist to select operating temperature and to increase fluorescence signal in PLIF experiments. Measurements of spectral and temperature dependence of refractive index, density, and kinematic viscosity are reported. The effect of the binary mixture on solubility control of Rhodamine 6G is also characterized.

  11. Age-and education-matched comparison of aging HIV+ men who have sex with men to general population on common neuropsychological assessments

    PubMed Central

    Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries. PMID:24265296

  12. Age- and education-matched comparison of aging HIV+ men who have sex with men to general population on common neuropsychological assessments.

    PubMed

    Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries.

  13. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  14. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  15. Image-matching during ant navigation occurs through saccade-like body turns controlled by learned visual features.

    PubMed

    Lent, David D; Graham, Paul; Collett, Thomas S

    2010-09-14

    Visual memories of landmarks play a major role in guiding the habitual foraging routes of ants and bees, but how these memories engage visuo-motor control systems during guidance is poorly understood. We approach this problem through a study of image matching, a navigational strategy in which insects reach a familiar place by moving so that their current retinal image transforms to match a memorized snapshot of the scene viewed from that place. Analysis of how navigating wood ants correct their course when close to a goal reveals a significant part of the mechanism underlying this transformation. Ants followed a short route to an inconspicuous feeder positioned at a fixed distance from a vertical luminance edge. They responded to an unexpected jump of the edge by turning to face the new feeder position specified by the edge. Importantly, the initial speed of the turn increased linearly with the turn's amplitude. This correlation implies that the ants' turns are driven initially by their prior calculation of the angular difference between the current retinal position of the edge and its desired position in their memorized view. Similar turns keep ants to their path during unperturbed routes. The neural circuitry mediating image-matching is thus concerned not only with the storage of views, but also with making exact comparisons between the retinal positions of a visual feature in a memorized view and of the same feature in the current retinal image.

  16. Hypoalbuminemia in drug-free patients with major depressive disorder compared with a dietary matched control group: a clinical meaning beyond malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Winston W; Chang, Hui-Chih; Wu, Po-Lun; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2005-03-01

    Serum albumin (sALB) is routinely determined in blood tests and is an excellent predictor of risk for many medical illnesses. Hypoalbuminemia has been sporadically reported in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. We compared sALB levels between 19 drug-free patients of major depressive disorder with a control group of matching diets. We conducted this study by controlling the nutrition factor by assessing patient's diets, as well as other possible confounding factors such as sex, age, body mass index (BMI), liver function, and exercise, while focusing on hypoalbuminemia in patients with major depressive disorder. There is no difference in age, gender distribution, and dietary frequency on protein and albumin intake between the patient and control group. The sALB levels of the group with major depressive disorder were significantly reduced (p=0.049). The severity of depression is negatively correlated to the sALB level (r=-0.46, p=0.04). Hypoalbuminemia has clinical meanings on severity of depression and is independent of malnutrition. However, our results can only be seen as very preliminary and should be confirmed by larger studies.

  17. A population-based study comparing HRQoL among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors to propensity score matched controls, by cancer type, and gender

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Traci; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Kurian, Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Background Objectives were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between breast cancer survivors, prostate cancer survivors (PCS), and colorectal cancer survivors (CCS) to matched controls, stratified by short and long-term survivors, by cancer type, and gender. Methods By using the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, propensity scores matched three controls to adult survivors >1 year past diagnosis (N = 11,964) on age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, insurance status, and region of the USA Chi-square tests and logistic regression models compared HRQoL outcomes (life satisfaction, activity limitations, sleep quality, emotional support, general, physical, and mental health). Results Although all cancer survivors reported worse general health (p < 0.000) and more activity limitations (p < 0.004) than controls, these disparities decreased among long-term survivors. Short-term PCS and male CCS were more likely to report worse outcomes across additional domains of HRQoL than controls, but PCS were 0.61, 0.63, and 0.70 times less likely to report activity limitations, fair/poor general health, and 1–15 bad physical health days in the past month than male CCS. Breast cancer survivors and female CCS were 2.12 and 3.17, 1.58 and 1.86, and 1.49 and 153, respectively, times more likely to report rarely/never receiving needed emotional support, 1–15 bad mental health days in the past month, and not receiving enough sleep 1–15 days in the past month than PCS and male CCS. Conclusions Cancer survivors experience worse HRQoL than similar individuals without a history of cancer and the severity of affected HRQoL domains differ by time since diagnosis, cancer type, and gender. PMID:23606210

  18. Parallel circuits control temperature preference in Drosophila during ageing.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiang-Wen; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chang, Sue-Wei; Liu, Tsung-Ho; Lai, Jason Sih-Yu; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Fu, Chien-Chung; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-01-01

    The detection of environmental temperature and regulation of body temperature are integral determinants of behaviour for all animals. These functions become less efficient in aged animals, particularly during exposure to cold environments, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we identify an age-related change in the temperature preference of adult fruit flies that results from a shift in the relative contributions of two parallel mushroom body (MB) circuits—the β'- and β-systems. The β'-circuit primarily controls cold avoidance through dopamine signalling in young flies, whereas the β-circuit increasingly contributes to cold avoidance as adult flies age. Elevating dopamine levels in β'-afferent neurons of aged flies restores cold sensitivity, suggesting that the alteration of cold avoidance behaviour with ageing is functionally reversible. These results provide a framework for investigating how molecules and individual neural circuits modulate homeostatic alterations during the course of senescence.

  19. Hierarchical model of matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrycz, Witold; Roventa, Eugene

    1992-01-01

    The issue of matching two fuzzy sets becomes an essential design aspect of many algorithms including fuzzy controllers, pattern classifiers, knowledge-based systems, etc. This paper introduces a new model of matching. Its principal features involve the following: (1) matching carried out with respect to the grades of membership of fuzzy sets as well as some functionals defined on them (like energy, entropy,transom); (2) concepts of hierarchies in the matching model leading to a straightforward distinction between 'local' and 'global' levels of matching; and (3) a distributed character of the model realized as a logic-based neural network.

  20. Uniquely human self-control begins at school age.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to resist an impulse for immediate gratification, repeat a previously successful action, attend to a distracting noise, and quit in the face of repeated failure. Six-year-old children were more skillful than either 3-year-olds or chimpanzees at controlling their impulses. These results suggest that humans' most fundamental skills of self-control - as part of the overall decision-making process - are a part of their general great ape heritage, and that their species-unique skills of self-control begin at around the age at which many children begin formal schooling.

  1. Does age affect the stress and coping process? Implications of age differences in perceived control.

    PubMed

    Aldwin, C M

    1991-07-01

    The perceived controllability of situations is thought to influence the types of coping strategies used, and thus is important in adaptive processes. Elderly individuals are widely perceived to have less control over their environment than other adults. This lack of perceived control should have adverse affects on how they cope with stressful situations. However, most studies have shown that older adults differ little from younger adults in their approaches to coping with stress. This contradiction was investigated in a sample of 228 community-residing adults with a mean age of 42.16 (SD = 14.88). Path analysis revealed that appraisals and attributions do affect the use of coping strategies such as instrumental action and escapism in the expected directions, and age is negatively associated with perceived control. However, there was an independent and negative relationship between age and the reported use of escapist coping strategies, which mitigated the adverse effects of perceived lack of control. Neither age nor perceived controllability had direct effects on depression, but they had indirect effects through their influence on the use of coping strategies and perceived efficacy.

  2. Seventy-year-old habitual volleyball players have larger tibial cross-sectional area and may be differentiated from their age-matched peers by the osteogenic index in dynamic performance.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Linnamo, V; Komi, P V; Selänne, H; Heinonen, A

    2010-07-01

    The osteogenicity of a given exercise may be estimated by calculating an osteogenic index (OI) consisting of magnitude and rate of strain. Volleyball involves repetitive jumping and requires high power output and thus may be expected to be beneficial to bone and performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine if habitual volleyball playing is reflected in OI. Ten elderly habitual volleyball players [age 69.9 (SD 4.4) years] and ten matched controls volunteered [age 69.7 (4.2) years] as subjects. Distal tibia (d), tibial mid-shaft (50) and femoral neck (FN) bone characteristics were measured using pQCT and DXA. To estimate skeletal rigidity, cross-sectional area (ToA(50)), and compressive (BSI(d)) and bending strength indices (SSImax(50)) were calculated. Maximal performance was assessed with eccentric ankle plantar flexion, isometric leg press and countermovement jump (CMJ). A fast Fourier transform (FFT) was calculated from the acceleration of the center of mass during the CMJ. Maximal acceleration (MAG) and mean magnitude frequency (MMF) were selected to represent the constituents of OI. OI was calculated as the sum of the products of magnitudes and corresponding frequencies. Volleyball players had 7% larger ToA(50) and 37% higher power in CMJ, 15% higher MAG and 36% higher OI (P matched controls. No difference was observed in leg press, plantar flexion or the MMF (P >or= 0.646). In conclusion, habitual volleyball players may be differentiated from their matched peers by their dynamic jumping performance, and the differences are reflected in the magnitude but not rate of loading.

  3. Risk factors of direct heat-related hospital admissions during the 2009 heatwave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The extreme heatwave of 2009 in South Australia dramatically increased morbidity, with a 14-fold increase in direct heat-related hospitalisation in metropolitan Adelaide. Our study aimed to identify risk factors for the excess morbidity. Design A matched case–control study of risk factors was conducted. Setting Patients and matched community controls were interviewed to gather data on demographics, living environment, social support, health status and behaviour changes during the heatwave. Participants Cases were all hospital admissions with heat-related diagnoses during the 5-day heatwave in 2009. Controls were randomly selected from communities. Outcome measures Descriptive analyses, simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. Adjusted ORs (AORs) were estimated. Results In total, 143 hospital patients and 143 matched community controls were interviewed, with a mean age of 73 years (SD 21), 96% European ethnicity, 63% retired, 36% with high school or higher education, and 8% institutional living. The regression model indicated that compared with the controls, cases were more likely to have heart disease (AOR=13.56, 95% CI 1.27 to 144.86) and dementia (AOR=26.43, 95% CI 1.99 to 350.73). The protective factors included higher education level (AOR=0.48, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.99), having air-conditioner in the bedroom (AOR=0.12, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.74), having an emergency button (AOR=0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.96), using refreshment (AOR=0.10, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.84), and having more social activities (AOR=0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.57). Conclusions Pre-existing heart disease and dementia significantly increase the risk of direct heat-related hospitalisations during heatwaves. The presence of an air-conditioner in the bedroom, more social activities, a higher education level, use of emergency buttons and refreshments reduce the risk during heatwaves. PMID:27256088

  4. Tilt Matching Paradigm Using a Joystick-Controlled Motion Platform: A Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feustel, Aden C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    Subjects stand on a platform with their eyes closed. The platform tilts to a certain position, holds for several seconds, and returns to neutral. The subject is then asked to reproduce the previous position using a joystick that controls the movement of the platform. Objectives: Test the capabilities of the joystick-controlled platform, evaluating software & hardware; Determine if participants are able to accurately reproduce tilt positions; Test the effect of increasing the load on subjects by 20 percent of their body weight; Test the effect of having subjects wear shoes during the test.

  5. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: a propensity score-matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Liu, Fangfang; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Wu, Yuntang; Song, Kun; Huang, Guowei; Wang, Guolin; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dietary patterns were associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known in Chinese. We design this case-control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and MS in Chinese adults. In this study, 1492 participants with MS were matched with 1492 controls using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and MS was defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statement of 2009. Higher scores for the high-protein/cholesterol pattern were associated with higher prevalence of MS. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (OR) for the extreme quartile was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10–1.68) and the P for trend <0.01 after adjusted for the other two dietary pattern scores. We also found a moderate consumption of the balanced pattern was associated with the lowest prevalence of MS. The ORs across quartiles of the balanced pattern were 1 (reference), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68–1.02), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56–0.85), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68–1.04) after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that there is a strong association between a diet rich in animal offal, animal blood, meat, and sausage and a higher prevalence of MS. PMID:27708414

  6. Teaching styles of mothers and the match-to-sample performance of their retarded preschool-age- children.

    PubMed

    Filler, J W; Bricker, W A

    1976-03-01

    Twenty-one mothers and their preschool-age retarded children were observed during three structured teaching sessions. Each session was rated for various forms of maternal preresponse and postresponse activity as well as performance of the children. The results indicated that the most frequent forms of maternal behavior were preresponse verbal directions and instructions; however, the best predictor of children's correct performance was postresponse positive feedback. Patterns of intercorrelations among maternal measures were generally consistent with those reported by Hess and Shipman (1965). The hypothesis was advanced that maternal postresponse feedback may occur as the result of correct responding which, in turn, is more directly affected by other aspects of teaching style.

  7. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  8. Efficacy of naturopathy and yoga in bronchial asthma--a self controlled matched scientific study.

    PubMed

    Sathyaprabha, T N; Murthy, H; Murthy, B T

    2001-01-01

    Asthma is one of the common psychosomatic illness influenced by many factors. Bronchodilators give temporary relief and have side effects. The present study is aimed at finding the efficacy of a non-pharmacological approach of naturopathy and Yoga in bronchial asthma. A total no of 37 patients (19 men, 18 women) with mean age 35.06 yrs (men), 40.74 yrs (women) admitted to INYS, Bangalore, for the period of 21 days. The treatment included 1. Diet therapy 2. Nature cure treatment and 3. Yoga therapy. The various parameters including lung function test were measured on admission and once a week. Results showed the significant improvement in PEFR, VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV/FEC %, MVV, ESR and absolute eosinophil count. The patients reported a feeling of well being, freshness and comfortable breathing. Naturopathy and yoga helps in inducing positive health, alleviating the symptoms of disease by acting at physical and mental levels.

  9. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Laura K; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  10. Mothers of boys with gender identity disorder: a comparison of matched controls.

    PubMed

    Marantz, S; Coates, S

    1991-03-01

    This pilot study compared mothers of boys with gender identity disorder (GID) with mothers of normal boys to determine whether differences in psychopathology and child-rearing attitudes and practices could be identified. Results of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and the Beck Depression Inventory revealed that mothers of boys with GID had more symptoms of depression and more often met the criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder than the controls. Fifty-three percent of the mothers of boys with GID compared with only 6% of controls met the diagnosis for Borderline Personality Disorder on the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines or had symptoms of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory. Results of the Summers and Walsh Symbiosis Scale suggested that mothers of probands had child-rearing attitudes and practices that encouraged symbiosis and discouraged the development of autonomy.

  11. The skeletal muscle cross sectional area in long-term bisphosphonate users is smaller than that of bone mineral density-matched controls with increased serum pentosidine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Ikegami, Shota; Kamimura, Mikio; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Nakamura, Yukio; Nonaka, Kiichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    Bisphosphonates are effective in increasing bone mineral density (BMD), but fragility fractures can still occur despite bisphosphonate treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine if long-term bisphosphonate users have characteristic findings in the musculoskeletal system, which could put them at risk of developing typical or atypical femoral fractures. We recruited 40 female patients who had taken bisphosphonates for more than 3 years. The control group included 60 volunteers who were matched by age, body mass index, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived BMDs. We measured the skeletal muscle cross sectional area around the proximal thigh and buckling ratio of the femoral neck using quantitative computed tomography (qCT) and several biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Those parameters were compared between the groups. While no significant differences of buckling ratio derived from qCT were detected, the skeletal muscle cross sectional area was significantly smaller in the long-term bisphosphonate users than in the controls. Furthermore, the serum pentosidine level was significantly higher in the bisphosphonate users than in the controls. To determine if those differences were attributable to bisphosphonate treatment, we further compared those parameters between before and after 3 years of bisphosphonate treatment in 32 patients. After 3 years of bisphosphonate treatment, the BMD of the femoral neck and serum pentosidine level increased but not the skeletal muscle cross sectional area. In the present study, the skeletal muscle mass did not match the bone mass in long-term bisphosphonate users, thus suggesting that increases in BMD by bisphosphonates are unlikely to have secondary positive effects on the surrounding skeletal muscles. Also, serum pentosidine levels were greater in the long-term bisphosphonate users. Further study is necessary to test if such patients are prone to develop typical or atypical femoral fractures. PMID:25708052

  12. Differential Epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal: A Matched Case Control Investigation in a Highly Endemic Enteric Fever Setting

    PubMed Central

    Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Dongol, Sabina; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Voong Vinh, Phat; Arjyal, Amit; Martin, Laura B.; Rondini, Simona; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteric fever, a systemic infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is endemic in Kathmandu, Nepal. Previous work identified proximity to poor quality water sources as a community-level risk for infection. Here, we sought to examine individual-level risk factors related to hygiene and sanitation to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of enteric fever in this setting. Methodology and principal findings A matched case-control analysis was performed through enrollment of 103 blood culture positive enteric fever patients and 294 afebrile community-based age and gender-matched controls. A detailed questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls and the association between enteric fever infection and potential exposures were examined through conditional logistic regression. Several behavioral practices were identified as protective against infection with enteric fever, including water storage and hygienic habits. Additionally, we found that exposures related to poor water and socioeconomic status are more influential in the risk of infection with S. Typhi, whereas food consumption habits and migration play more of a role in risk of S. Paratyphi A infection. Conclusions and significance Our work suggests that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A follow different routes of infection in this highly endemic setting and that sustained exposure to both serovars probably leads to the development of passive immunity. In the absence of a polyvalent vaccine against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we advocate better systems for water treatment and storage, improvements in the quality of street food, and vaccination with currently available S. Typhi vaccines. PMID:23991240

  13. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. PMID:25944170

  14. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours.

  15. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D

    2013-01-01

    Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.

  16. Aphrodisiac Use Associated with HIV Infection in Elderly Male Clients of Low-Cost Commercial Sex Venues in Guangxi, China: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guojian; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongman; Lan, Guanghua; Feng, Xue; Lin, Rui; Abdullah, Abu S.; Wu, Zunyou; Shi, Cynthia X.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi. Methods A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years), number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years), and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection. Findings This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08–3.04), never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08–3.07), and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05–2.98) were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02). Conclusions Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission. PMID:25286369

  17. Effectiveness of Day Hospital Mentalization-Based Treatment for Patients with Severe Borderline Personality Disorder: A Matched Control Study.

    PubMed

    Bales, Dawn L; Timman, Reinier; Andrea, Helene; Busschbach, Jan J V; Verheul, Roel; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of day hospital Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) by documenting the treatment outcome of a highly inclusive group of severe borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, benchmarked by a carefully matched group who received other specialized psychotherapeutic treatments (OPT). Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted to assess diagnostic status at baseline. Baseline, 18-month treatment outcome and 36-month treatment outcome (after the maintenance phase) on psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory) and personality functioning (118-item Severity Indices of Personality Problems) were available for 29 BPD patients assigned to MBT, and an initial set of 175 BPD patients assigned to OPT. Propensity scores were used to determine the best matches for the MBT patients within the larger OPT group, yielding 29 MBT and 29 OPT patients for direct comparison. Treatment outcome was analysed using multilevel modelling. Pre to post effect sizes were consistently (very) large for MBT, with a Cohen's d of -1.06 and -1.42 for 18 and 36 months, respectively, for the reduction in psychiatric symptoms, and ds ranging from 0.81 to 2.08 for improvement in domains of personality functioning. OPT also yielded improvement across domains but generally of moderate magnitude. In conclusion, the present matched control study, executed by an independent research institute outside the UK, demonstrated the effectiveness of day hospital MBT in a highly inclusive and severe group of BPD patients, beyond the benchmark provided by a mix of specialized psychotherapy programmes. Interpretation of the (large) between condition effects warrants cautionary caveats given the non-randomized design, as well as variation in treatment dosages.

  18. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (“OWB-D”), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (“OWB-R”), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  19. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  20. Multimode cavity-assisted quantum storage via continuous phase-matching control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalachev, Alexey; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2013-09-01

    A scheme for spatial multimode quantum memory is developed such that spatial-temporal structure of a weak signal pulse can be stored and recalled via cavity-assisted off-resonant Raman interaction with a strong angular-modulated control field in an extended Λ-type atomic ensemble. It is shown that effective multimode storage is possible when the Raman coherence spatial grating involves wave vectors with different longitudinal components relative to the paraxial signal field. The possibilities of implementing the scheme in the solid-state materials are discussed.

  1. Assessing sedimentation issues within aging of flood-control reservoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flood control reservoirs designed and built by federal agencies have been extremely effective in reducing the ravages of floods nationwide. Yet some structures are being removed for a variety of reasons, while other structures are aging rapidly and require either rehabilitation or decommissioning. ...

  2. Interface control by chemical and dimensional matching in an oxide heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Marita; Hadermann, Joke; Dyer, Matthew S.; Turner, Stuart; Alaria, Jonathan; Manning, Troy D.; Abakumov, Artem M.; Claridge, John B.; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.

    2016-04-01

    Interfaces between different materials underpin both new scientific phenomena, such as the emergent behaviour at oxide interfaces, and key technologies, such as that of the transistor. Control of the interfaces between materials with the same crystal structures but different chemical compositions is possible in many materials classes, but less progress has been made for oxide materials with different crystal structures. We show that dynamical self-organization during growth can create a coherent interface between the perovskite and fluorite oxide structures, which are based on different structural motifs, if an appropriate choice of cations is made to enable this restructuring. The integration of calculation with experimental observation reveals that the interface differs from both the bulk components and identifies the chemical bonding requirements to connect distinct oxide structures.

  3. Reinforcer Control by Comparison-Stimulus Color and Location in a Delayed Matching-to-Sample Task

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Brent; Jones, B Max

    2008-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained in a delayed matching-to-sample task involving bright- and dim-yellow samples on a central key, a five-peck response requirement to either sample, a constant 1.5-s delay, and the presentation of comparison stimuli composed of red on the left key and green on the right key or vice versa. Green-key responses were occasionally reinforced following the dimmer-yellow sample, and red-key responses were occasionally reinforced following the brighter-yellow sample. Reinforcer delivery was controlled such that the distribution of reinforcers across both comparison-stimulus color and comparison-stimulus location could be varied systematically and independently across conditions. Matching accuracy was high throughout. The ratio of left to right side-key responses increased as the ratio of left to right reinforcers increased, the ratio of red to green responses increased as the ratio of red to green reinforcers increased, and there was no interaction between these variables. However, side-key biases were more sensitive to the distribution of reinforcers across key location than were comparison-color biases to the distribution of reinforcers across key color. An extension of Davison and Tustin's (1978) model of DMTS performance fit the data well, but the results were also consistent with an alternative theory of conditional discrimination performance (Jones, 2003) that calls for a conceptually distinct quantitative model. PMID:18540217

  4. Reinforcer control by comparison-stimulus color and location in a delayed matching-to-sample task.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Brent; Jones, B Max

    2008-05-01

    Six pigeons were trained in a delayed matching-to-sample task involving bright- and dim-yellow samples on a central key, a five-peck response requirement to either sample, a constant 1.5-s delay, and the presentation of comparison stimuli composed of red on the left key and green on the right key or vice versa. Green-key responses were occasionally reinforced following the dimmer-yellow sample, and red-key responses were occasionally reinforced following the brighter-yellow sample. Reinforcer delivery was controlled such that the distribution of reinforcers across both comparison-stimulus color and comparison-stimulus location could be varied systematically and independently across conditions. Matching accuracy was high throughout. The ratio of left to right side-key responses increased as the ratio of left to right reinforcers increased, the ratio of red to green responses increased as the ratio of red to green reinforcers increased, and there was no interaction between these variables. However, side-key biases were more sensitive to the distribution of reinforcers across key location than were comparison-color biases to the distribution of reinforcers across key color. An extension of Davison and Tustin's (1978) model of DMTS performance fit the data well, but the results were also consistent with an alternative theory of conditional discrimination performance (Jones, 2003) that calls for a conceptually distinct quantitative model.

  5. Locus of control and psychological distress among the aged.

    PubMed

    Hale, W D; Hedgepeth, B E; Taylor, E B

    A relationship between locus of control and adjustment has been found in many studies of young adults, with externals generally reporting higher levels of psychological distress. However, studies of locus of control and adjustment in the aged have produced conflicting results. This investigation examined the relationship between locus of control and self-reported psychopathology in a sample of 139 residents of a retirement complex. Correlation coefficients were computed for locus of control and each of the nine symptom dimensions of the Brief Symptom Inventory. These analyses were carried out separately for males and for females to determine if locus of control orientation was associated with adjustment for both males and females. Results indicate that locus of control is correlated with self-reported psychopathology for older women but not for older men. These results and those of related investigations are discussed within the context of Rotter's social learning theory.

  6. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  7. Geographic Region, Weather, Pilot Age and Air Carrier Crashes: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Pressley, Joyce C.; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G.; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Information about risk factors of aviation crashes is crucial for developing effective intervention programs. Previous studies assessing factors associated with crash risk were conducted primarily in general aviation, air taxis and commuter air carriers. Methods A matched case-control design was used to examine the associations of geographic region, basic weather condition, and pilot age with the risk of air carrier (14 CFR Part 121) crash involvement. Cases (n=373) were air carrier crashes involving aircraft made by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Airbus, recorded in the National Transportation Safety Board’s aviation crash database during 1983 through 2002, and controls (n=746) were air carrier incidents involving aircraft of the same three makes selected at random from the Federal Aviation Administration’s aviation incident database. Each case was matched with two controls on the calendar year when the index crash occurred. Conditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results With adjustment for basic weather condition, pilot age, and total flight time, the risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska was more than three times the risk for other regions [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 – 7.49]. Instrument meteorological conditions were associated with an increased risk for air carrier crashes involving pilot error (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15 – 4.44) and a decreased risk for air carrier crashes without pilot error (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 – 0.87). Neither pilot age nor total flight time was significantly associated with the risk of air carrier crashes. Conclusions The excess risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska and the effect of adverse weather on pilot-error crashes underscore the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety. PMID:19378910

  8. Risk factors for heart failure in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed myocardial infarction: a matched, case-control study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for heart failure (HF) have not yet been studied in myocardial infarction (MI) patients in Iran. This study was conducted to determine these risk factors. METHODS: In this nationwide, hospital-based, case-control study, the participants were all new MI patients hospitalized from April 2012 to March 2013 in Iran. The data on 1,691 new cases with HF (enrolled by census sampling) were compared with the data of 6,764 patients without HF as controls. We randomly selected four controls per one case, matched on the date at MI and HF diagnosis, according to incidence density sampling. Using conditional logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to identify potential risk factors. RESULTS: The one-year in-hospital mortality rate was 18.2% in the cases and higher than in the controls (12.1%) (p<0.05). Significant risk factors for HF were: right bundle branch block (RBBB) (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.19), stroke (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.89), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34 to 3.09). Diabetes, hypertension, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and age were determined to be the factors significantly associated with HF incidence (p<0.05). The most important factor in women was diabetes (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.88). Age, hypertension, PCI, CABG, and RBBB were the most important factors in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may help to better identify and monitor the predictive risk factors for HF in MI patients. The pattern of risk factors was different in men and women. PMID:27188309

  9. Leptin levels in relation to body composition and insulin concentration in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome compared to controls matched for body mass index.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, U; Godang, K; Ueland, T; Berg, J P; Bollerslev, J

    2000-06-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with weight gain and visceral obesity. We examined the relationship between regional fat distribution and serum levels of leptin, cortisol and insulin. Twenty-three consecutive patients with recently diagnosed CS (18 with pituitary adenoma, 5 with adrenal tumor), where compared to obese controls, matched for age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI). Serum insulin, leptin, cortisol, C-peptide and body composition determined by DEXA were measured. Serum leptin levels were significantly increased in patients with CS (36.9+/-3.8 vs 18.9+/-2.4 ng/ml, p<0.001; women: 40.1+/-4.6 vs 21.7+/-2.9 ng/ml, p<0.01; men: 27.9+/-5.7 vs 10.9+/-2.3 ng/ml; p<0.05), the same were fasting insulin levels (178+/-30 vs 81+/-10 pmol/l; p<0.01) and C-peptide (1.51+/-0.12 vs 0.77+/-0.07 nmol/l; p<0.001). In a subgroup of 12 patients, truncal fat mass was significantly elevated when compared to obese controls (19.2 kg vs 14.7 kg, p<0.01, and 42% vs 36% in percentage of truncal body tissue, p<0.05), whereas total fat mass was insignificantly increased. Serum leptin correlated positively to total body fat (%) as in patients with CS (r=0.94, p<0.001) as in controls (r=0.68, p<0.01). The correlation to truncal body fat (%) was also significant in both groups (CS: r=0.84, p<0.001; controls: r=0.63, p<0.01). Multiple regression showed that percent total body fat was the predictor of leptin concentrations among patients with CS (r2=0.88, p<0.001) whereas insulin did not contribute significantly to the variance in leptin concentrations. In controls, both leptin and insulin (r2=0.65, p<0.001) contributed significantly to the variations in leptin levels. Controlled for the differences in total body fat, patients with endogenous CS have significantly increased serum leptin levels, compared to BMI-matched obese controls. This suggests that hyperleptinemia in CS not primarily reflects changes in body composition, but is the result of different hormonal influences on adipose

  10. Matched concurrent case-control study of risk factors for feather pecking in hens on free-range commercial farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nicol, C J; Pötzsch, C; Lewis, K; Green, L E

    2003-09-01

    1. The aim of the study was to compare the management and husbandry of free-range flocks in the UK where feather pecking was either present (case) or absent (control). 2. One hundred flocks were enrolled into a concurrent case-control study: 50 where birds had recently started feather pecking, and 50 matched control flocks where birds of the same age had not started feather pecking. 3. Information was obtained from a detailed interview with the flock manager, and by direct inspection of the flock, house and range. 4. Initial univariate analyses revealed that case flocks were more likely to comprise ISA Brown than Lohmann, were more likely to be restricted from litter areas to prevent floor eggs, and were less likely to use the outside range. 5. Cluster analysis indicated that feather pecking was not associated with any particular husbandry system. 6. The only influential risk factor significant in the multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis was use of the outdoor range. The risk of feather pecking was reduced 9-fold in flocks where more than 20% of birds used the range on sunny days (odds ratio = 0.12). Use of the range was positively associated with the presence of trees and/or hedges on the range.

  11. Sympathetic control of reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in human aging.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2015-10-01

    This Synthesis highlights a series of recent studies that has systematically interrogated age-related deficits in cold-induced skin vasoconstriction. In response to cold stress, a reflex increase in sympathetic nervous system activity mediates reductions in skin blood flow. Reflex vasoconstriction during cold exposure is markedly impaired in aged skin, contributing to the relative inability of healthy older adults to maintain core temperature during mild cold stress in the absence of appropriate behavioral thermoregulation. This compromised reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in healthy aging can occur as a result of functional deficits at multiple points along the efferent sympathetic reflex axis, including blunted sympathetic outflow directed to the skin vasculature, reduced presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis and/or release, and altered end-organ responsiveness at several loci, in addition to potential alterations in afferent thermoreceptor function. Arguments have been made that the relative inability of aged skin to appropriately constrict is due to the aging cutaneous arterioles themselves, whereas other data point to the neural circuitry controlling those vessels. The argument presented herein provides strong evidence for impaired efferent sympathetic control of the peripheral cutaneous vasculature during whole body cold exposure as the primary mechanism responsible for attenuated vasoconstriction.

  12. Sympathetic control of reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in human aging

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2015-01-01

    This Synthesis highlights a series of recent studies that has systematically interrogated age-related deficits in cold-induced skin vasoconstriction. In response to cold stress, a reflex increase in sympathetic nervous system activity mediates reductions in skin blood flow. Reflex vasoconstriction during cold exposure is markedly impaired in aged skin, contributing to the relative inability of healthy older adults to maintain core temperature during mild cold stress in the absence of appropriate behavioral thermoregulation. This compromised reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in healthy aging can occur as a result of functional deficits at multiple points along the efferent sympathetic reflex axis, including blunted sympathetic outflow directed to the skin vasculature, reduced presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis and/or release, and altered end-organ responsiveness at several loci, in addition to potential alterations in afferent thermoreceptor function. Arguments have been made that the relative inability of aged skin to appropriately constrict is due to the aging cutaneous arterioles themselves, whereas other data point to the neural circuitry controlling those vessels. The argument presented herein provides strong evidence for impaired efferent sympathetic control of the peripheral cutaneous vasculature during whole body cold exposure as the primary mechanism responsible for attenuated vasoconstriction. PMID:26272321

  13. Has the time come to control hepatitis A globally? Matching prevention to the changing epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, G; Van Herck, K; Vorsters, A; Wiersma, S; Shapiro, C; Andrus, J K; Ropero, A M; Shouval, D; Ward, W; Van Damme, P

    2008-10-01

    For the first time a global meeting on hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection as vaccine preventable disease was organized at the end of 2007. More than 200 experts from 46 countries gathered to investigate the changing global HAV epidemiology reflecting the increasing numbers of persons at risk for severe clinical disease and mortality from HAV infection. The benefits of childhood and adult hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination strategies and the data needed by individual countries and international health organizations to assess current HepA prevention strategies were discussed. New approaches in preventing HAV infection including universal HepA vaccination were considered. This introductory paper summarizes the major findings of the meeting and describes the changing epidemiology of HAV infections and the impact of HepA vaccination strategies in various countries. Implementation of HepA vaccination strategies should take into account the level of endemicity, the level of the socio-economic development and sanitation, and the risk of outbreaks. A stepwise strategy for introduction of HepA universal immunisation of children was recommended. This strategy should be based on accurate surveillance of cases and qualitative documentation of outbreaks and their control, secure political support on the basis of high-quality results, and comprehensive cost-effectiveness studies. The recognition of the need for increased global attention towards HepA prevention is an important outcome of this meeting.

  14. Safety of Fixed Dose of Antihypertensive Drug Combinations Compared to (Single Pill) Free-Combinations: A Nested Matched Case-Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Emmanuel; Happe, André; Bouget, Jacques; Paillard, Francois; Vigneau, Cécile; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Oger, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    To compare serious adverse events of fixed-dose dual antihypertensive drug combination (FIXED) to component-based free-combination (FREE).A population-based nationwide cohort from the French Health Insurance System included subjects over 50 years with first time claims (new user) in the second half of 2009 for a calcium-channel blocker or a thiazide-like diuretic in combination with either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker as FREE or FIXED. We designed a nested matched case-control analysis with 304 cases, hospitalized for hypotension, syncope, or collapse (n = 224), renal failure (n = 19), hyponatremia, hyper- or hypokalemia (n = 61) and 1394 controls matched for gender, age, date of inclusion in the cohort, and administrative county. Subjects with a medical history of cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, or cancer were excluded.The mean age ± SD was 73 ± 10 years and 70% were women. Based on the last delivery preceding the index date, 1414 patients (83%) were exposed to FIXED. Homogeneity of FIXED effect compared to FREE across components of the main composite outcome was rejected (P = 0.0099). FIXED formulation significantly increased the odd of the most frequent component (ie, hypotension, syncope, or collapse): OR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.15-3.05) compared to FREE after adjusting for confounding factors including dose.Serious adverse event occurring in the early phase of treatment deserves attention of physicians because it could alter the benefit/risk ratio of antihypertensive drug combination.

  15. Safety of Fixed Dose of Antihypertensive Drug Combinations Compared to (Single Pill) Free-Combinations: A Nested Matched Case-Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Emmanuel; Happe, André; Bouget, Jacques; Paillard, Francois; Vigneau, Cécile; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Oger, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    To compare serious adverse events of fixed-dose dual antihypertensive drug combination (FIXED) to component-based free-combination (FREE).A population-based nationwide cohort from the French Health Insurance System included subjects over 50 years with first time claims (new user) in the second half of 2009 for a calcium-channel blocker or a thiazide-like diuretic in combination with either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker as FREE or FIXED. We designed a nested matched case-control analysis with 304 cases, hospitalized for hypotension, syncope, or collapse (n = 224), renal failure (n = 19), hyponatremia, hyper- or hypokalemia (n = 61) and 1394 controls matched for gender, age, date of inclusion in the cohort, and administrative county. Subjects with a medical history of cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, or cancer were excluded.The mean age ± SD was 73 ± 10 years and 70% were women. Based on the last delivery preceding the index date, 1414 patients (83%) were exposed to FIXED. Homogeneity of FIXED effect compared to FREE across components of the main composite outcome was rejected (P = 0.0099). FIXED formulation significantly increased the odd of the most frequent component (ie, hypotension, syncope, or collapse): OR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.15-3.05) compared to FREE after adjusting for confounding factors including dose.Serious adverse event occurring in the early phase of treatment deserves attention of physicians because it could alter the benefit/risk ratio of antihypertensive drug combination. PMID:26656365

  16. Control of mitochondrial integrity in ageing and disease

    PubMed Central

    Szklarczyk, Radek; Nooteboom, Marco; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2014-01-01

    Various molecular and cellular pathways are active in eukaryotes to control the quality and integrity of mitochondria. These pathways are involved in keeping a ‘healthy’ population of this essential organelle during the lifetime of the organism. Quality control (QC) systems counteract processes that lead to organellar dysfunction manifesting as degenerative diseases and ageing. We discuss disease- and ageing-related pathways involved in mitochondrial QC: mtDNA repair and reorganization, regeneration of oxidized amino acids, refolding and degradation of severely damaged proteins, degradation of whole mitochondria by mitophagy and finally programmed cell death. The control of the integrity of mtDNA and regulation of its expression is essential to remodel single proteins as well as mitochondrial complexes that determine mitochondrial functions. The redundancy of components, such as proteases, and the hierarchies of the QC raise questions about crosstalk between systems and their precise regulation. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms on the genomic, proteomic, organellar and cellular levels holds the key for the development of interventions for mitochondrial dysfunctions, degenerative processes, ageing and age-related diseases resulting from impairments of mitochondria. PMID:24864310

  17. National Trend and Characteristics of Acute Hepatitis C among HIV-Infected Individuals: A Matched Case-Control Study—Taiwan, 2001–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Mao-Song; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been increasingly recognized among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide. We investigated the trend of and factors associated with acute hepatitis C (AHC) among HIV-infected individuals in Taiwan. Methods The National Disease Surveillance System collects characteristics of AHC, HIV, syphilis, and gonorrhea cases through mandatory reports and patient interviews. Reported AHC patients in 2014 were interviewed additionally on sexual and parenteral exposures. Information on HCV genotypes were collected from the largest medical center serving HIV-infected Taiwanese. We defined an HIV/AHC case as a documented negative HCV antibody test result followed within 12 months by a positive test in a previously reported HIV-infected individual. Each case was matched to two HIV-infected, non-AHC controls for age, age of HIV diagnosis, sex, transmission route, HIV diagnosis date, and county/city. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify associated characteristics. Results During 2001–2014, 93 of 6,624 AHC reports were HIV/AHC cases; the annual case count increased from one in 2009 to 34 in 2014. All were males (81 [87%] MSM) aged 21–49 years with AHC diagnosed 2–5,923 days after HIV diagnoses. Sixty-eight (73%) lived in the Taipei metropolitan area. Detected HCV genotypes were 2a (n = 6), 1b (n = 5), 1b + 2a (n = 1) and 2b (n = 1). Among 28 HIV/AHC patients interviewed in 2014, 13 (46%) reported engaging in unprotected sex ≤3 months before AHC diagnosis. Seventy-nine HIV/AHC cases were matched to 158 controls. HIV/AHC was associated with recent syphilis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 10.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2–28.6) and last syphilis >6 months (aOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2–6.9). Conclusions HIV/AHC cases continued to increase particularly among sexually active HIV-infected MSM with a syphilis diagnosis in northern Taiwan. We recommend surveillance of associated behavioral and virologic

  18. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in blood and adipose tissue of Agent Orange-exposed Vietnam veterans and matched controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, P.C.; Gochfeld, M.; Nygren, M.; Hansson, M.; Rappe, C.; Velez, H.; Ghent-Guenther, T.; Wilson, W.P.

    1988-03-18

    Vietnam veterans who were heavily exposed to Agent Orange exceeded matched control subjects in both blood and adipose tissue levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) but not in the levels of the 12 other 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and dibenzofurans that were detected. Since only TCDD among these compounds was present in Agent Orange but all are present in the population of the industrialized world, it is likely that the elevated TCDD levels arose from wartime exposure. The high correlation (r = +.89) of blood with adipose tissue level suggests that there may be a mobile equilibrium between them and that blood measurement could replace adipose tissue measurement of TCDD levels, making the collection of human data less invasive.

  19. Profitability and Market Value of Orphan Drug Companies: A Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Dyfrig A.; Poletti-Hughes, Jannine

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns about the high cost of orphan drugs has led to questions being asked about the generosity of the incentives for development, and associated company profits. Methods We conducted a retrospective, propensity score matched study of publicly-listed orphan companies. Cases were defined as holders of orphan drug market authorisation in Europe or the USA between 2000–12. Control companies were selected based on their propensity for being orphan drug market authorisation holders. We applied system General Method of Moments to test whether companies with orphan drug market authorization are valued higher, as measured by the Tobin’s Q and market to book value ratios, and are more profitable based on return on assets, than non-orphan drug companies. Results 86 companies with orphan drug approvals in European (4), USA (61) or both (21) markets were matched with 258 controls. Following adjustment, orphan drug market authorization holders have a 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.6% to 18.7%) higher return on assets than non-orphan drug companies; Tobin’s Q was higher by 9.9% (1.0% to 19.7%); market to book value by 15.7% (3.1% to 30.0%) and operating profit by 516% (CI 19.8% to 1011%). For each additional orphan drug sold, return on assets increased by 11.1% (0.6% to 21.3%), Tobin’s Q by 2.7% (0.2% to 5.2%), and market to book value ratio by 5.8% (0.7% to 10.9%). Conclusions Publicly listed pharmaceutical companies that are orphan drug market authorization holders are associated with higher market value and greater profits than companies not producing treatments for rare diseases. PMID:27768685

  20. Bus Stops and Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Collisions in Lima, Peru: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ebel, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. Design Matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossing. Setting Random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February, 2011 to September, 2011. Participants 97 intersection cases representing 1,134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October, 2010 and January, 2011 and their matched controls. Main Exposures Presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. Main Outcome Occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Results Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53-7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Both formal and informal bus stops were associated with a higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76-22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37-6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02-5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high income countries. Conclusions In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. PMID:24357516

  1. Match Rates Into Higher-Income, Controllable Lifestyle Specialties for Students From Highly Ranked, Research-Based Medical Schools Compared With Other Applicants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh S.; Katz, Joel T.; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Factors impacting medical student specialty career choice are poorly understood, but may include income potential and lifestyle features such as limited and predictable work hours. Methods Data from the National Resident Matching Program and the San Francisco Match were used to examine match rates into higher-income controllable lifestyle (CL), lower-income CL, and noncontrollable lifestyle (NCL) specialties from 2002 to 2007. We studied 3 cohorts: students from highly ranked, research-based medical schools, other US senior medical students, and independent applicants (consisting mostly of graduates from foreign medical schools). Results By 2007, 22.5% of students from highly ranked schools matched into a higher-income CL specialty compared with 16.5% of other US seniors and 8.4% of independent applicants. During the study period, students from highly ranked schools increased their match rate in higher-income CL specialties by 7.9%, while all cohorts experienced declines in match rates for NCL specialties. Compared with other US seniors, students from highly ranked schools were more likely to match into higher-income CL specialties (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–1.68), while independent applicants were much less likely to do so (OR, 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42–0.51). Independent applicants had the highest odds (OR, 2.38; 95% CI: 2.25–2.52) of matching into NCL specialties. Conclusions All cohorts had declining match rates into NCL specialties from 2002 to 2007. When compared with other US seniors, students from highly ranked schools had the highest odds of matching in higher-income CL specialties, while independent applicants had the highest odds of matching into NCL specialties. These trends are important to consider in light of recent efforts to better balance the physician workforce. PMID:21976084

  2. The Role of Serotype Interactions and Seasonality in Dengue Model Selection and Control: Insights from a Pattern Matching Approach.

    PubMed

    Ten Bosch, Quirine A; Singh, Brajendra K; Hassan, Muhammad R A; Chadee, Dave D; Michael, Edwin

    2016-05-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever is characterized by highly seasonal, multi-annual fluctuations, and the irregular circulation of its four serotypes. It is believed that this behaviour arises from the interplay between environmental drivers and serotype interactions. The exact mechanism, however, is uncertain. Constraining mathematical models to patterns characteristic to dengue epidemiology offers a means for detecting such mechanisms. Here, we used a pattern-oriented modelling (POM) strategy to fit and assess a range of dengue models, driven by combinations of temporary cross protective-immunity, cross-enhancement, and seasonal forcing, on their ability to capture the main characteristics of dengue dynamics. We show that all proposed models reproduce the observed dengue patterns across some part of the parameter space. Which model best supports the dengue dynamics is determined by the level of seasonal forcing. Further, when tertiary and quaternary infections are allowed, the inclusion of temporary cross-immunity alone is strongly supported, but the addition of cross-enhancement markedly reduces the parameter range at which dengue dynamics are produced, irrespective of the strength of seasonal forcing. The implication of these structural uncertainties on predicted vulnerability to control is also discussed. With ever expanding spread of dengue, greater understanding of dengue dynamics and control efforts (e.g. a near-future vaccine introduction) has become critically important. This study highlights the capacity of multi-level pattern-matching modelling approaches to offer an analytic tool for deeper insights into dengue epidemiology and control.

  3. The Role of Serotype Interactions and Seasonality in Dengue Model Selection and Control: Insights from a Pattern Matching Approach

    PubMed Central

    ten Bosch, Quirine A.; Hassan, Muhammad R. A.; Chadee, Dave D.; Michael, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever is characterized by highly seasonal, multi-annual fluctuations, and the irregular circulation of its four serotypes. It is believed that this behaviour arises from the interplay between environmental drivers and serotype interactions. The exact mechanism, however, is uncertain. Constraining mathematical models to patterns characteristic to dengue epidemiology offers a means for detecting such mechanisms. Here, we used a pattern-oriented modelling (POM) strategy to fit and assess a range of dengue models, driven by combinations of temporary cross protective-immunity, cross-enhancement, and seasonal forcing, on their ability to capture the main characteristics of dengue dynamics. We show that all proposed models reproduce the observed dengue patterns across some part of the parameter space. Which model best supports the dengue dynamics is determined by the level of seasonal forcing. Further, when tertiary and quaternary infections are allowed, the inclusion of temporary cross-immunity alone is strongly supported, but the addition of cross-enhancement markedly reduces the parameter range at which dengue dynamics are produced, irrespective of the strength of seasonal forcing. The implication of these structural uncertainties on predicted vulnerability to control is also discussed. With ever expanding spread of dengue, greater understanding of dengue dynamics and control efforts (e.g. a near-future vaccine introduction) has become critically important. This study highlights the capacity of multi-level pattern-matching modelling approaches to offer an analytic tool for deeper insights into dengue epidemiology and control. PMID:27159023

  4. A Semiparametric Missing-Data-Induced Intensity Method for Missing Covariate Data in Individually Matched Case–Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Langholz, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Summary In individually matched case–control studies, when some covariates are incomplete, an analysis based on the complete data may result in a large loss of information both in the missing and completely observed variables. This usually results in a bias and loss of efficiency. In this article, we propose a new method for handling the problem of missing covariate data based on a missing-data-induced intensity approach when the missingness mechanism does not depend on case–control status and show that this leads to a generalization of the missing indicator method. We derive the asymptotic properties of the estimates from the proposed method and, using an extensive simulation study, assess the finite sample performance in terms of bias, efficiency, and 95% confidence coverage under several missing data scenarios. We also make comparisons with complete-case analysis (CCA) and some missing data methods that have been proposed previously. Our results indicate that, under the assumption of predictable missingness, the suggested method provides valid estimation of parameters, is more efficient than CCA, and is competitive with other, more complex methods of analysis. A case–control study of multiple myeloma risk and a polymorphism in the receptor Inter-Leukin-6 (IL-6-α) is used to illustrate our findings. PMID:19751251

  5. Age-related modifications in neural cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, A U

    1992-09-01

    Integrated cardiovascular responses to a range of different stimuli, as well as the overall, spontaneously occurring variability in blood pressure and heart rate, undergo complex changes with aging. A general trend is that homeostatic control mechanisms lose part of their ability to modulate heart rate and to buffer the concomitant blood pressure variations; the two phenomena are possibly linked by a cause-effect relationship. A detailed analysis of the age-related changes in the major reflex systems reveals a clear-cut impairment in arterial baroreceptor control of the heart rate, but much less pronounced changes in its control of blood pressure, on the other hand, both the hemodynamic and humoral components of the cardiopulmonary reflex appear to be markedly attenuated. The experimental evidence of the mechanisms underlying these changes is still largely incomplete, and it appears that the gaps will have to be filled by a systematic, detailed analysis, i.e., that no generalizations or extrapolations will be possible. Indeed, the data available so far indicate that the age-related alterations are highly non-uniform, some functions undergoing a definite impairment but others being much better preserved and some being even enhanced; thus aging is by no means associated with a generalized decline in cardiovascular functions and should instead be viewed as a complex, highly selective process. These peculiar biological features of the aging phenomena merit further investigation in both the cardiovascular and the other organ systems, in order to verify the possibility that currently unrecognized homeostatic potentials in the elderly subject may be exploited to advance his/her clinical management in health and disease.

  6. A matched case-control study of toxoplasmosis after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: still a devastating complication.

    PubMed

    Conrad, A; Le Maréchal, M; Dupont, D; Ducastelle-Leprêtre, S; Balsat, M; Labussière-Wallet, H; Barraco, F; Nicolini, F-E; Thomas, X; Gilis, L; Chidiac, C; Ferry, T; Wallet, F; Rabodonirina, M; Salles, G; Michallet, M; Ader, F

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis (TXP) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Little is known about the risk factors and there is no consensus on prophylactic measures. To investigate the risk factors, we conducted a single-centre, retrospective matched case-control study among adults who underwent AHSCT from January 2006 to March 2015 in our hospital. TXP cases were identified from the prospectively maintained hospital's database. The 1:2 control population consisted of the two patients who received an AHSCT immediately before and after each case with similar donor relationship (related, unrelated) but who did not develop TXP. Risk factors were identified by conditional logistic regression. Clinical features and outcome of TXP were examined. Twenty-three (3.9%) cases of TXP (20 diseases, three infections) were identified among 588 AHSCT recipients. Twenty (87%) cases had a positive pre-transplant Toxoplasma gondii serology. In comparison with 46 matched control patients, risk factors were the absence of effective anti-Toxoplasma prophylaxis (odds ratio (OR) 11.95; 95% CI 3.04-46.88; p <0.001), high-grade (III-IV) acute graft-versus-host-disease (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.04-9.23; p 0.042) and receipt of the tumour necrosis factor-α blocker etanercept (OR 12.02; 95% CI 1.33-108.6; p 0.027). Mortality attributable to TXP was 43.5% (n = 10). Non-relapse mortality rates during the study period of cases and controls were 69.6% (n = 16) and 17.4% (n = 8), respectively. Lung involvement was the dominant clinical feature (n = 14). Two cases were associated with graft failure, one preceded by haemophagocytic syndrome. Given TXP-related morbidity and attributable mortality, anti-Toxoplasma prophylaxis is essential for optimized management of seropositive AHSCT recipients. PMID:27172809

  7. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  8. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  9. Application of an RF Biased Langmuir Probe to Etch Reactor Chamber Matching, Fault Detection and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Douglas; Booth, Jean-Paul; Benjamin, Neil; Thorgrimsson, Chris; Brooks, Mitchell; Nagai, Mikio; Albarede, Luc; Kim, Jung

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor device manufacturing typically occurs in an environment of both increasing equipment costs and per unit sale price shrinkage. Profitability in such a conflicted economic environment depends critically on yield, throughput and cost-of-ownership. This has resulted in increasing interest in improved fault detection, process diagnosis, and advanced process control. Achieving advances in these areas requires an integrated understanding of the basic physical principles driving the processes of interest and the realities of commercial manufacturing. Following this trend, this work examines the usefulness of an RF-biased planar Langmuir probe^1. This method delivers precise real-time (10 Hz) measurements of ion flux and tail weighted electron temperature. However, it is also mechanically non-intrusive, reliable and insensitive to contamination and deposition on the probe. Since the measured parameters are closely related to physical processes occurring at the wafer-plasma interface, significant improvements in process control, chamber matching and fault detection are achieved. Examples illustrating the improvements possible will be given. ^1J.P. Booth, N. St. J. Braithwaite, A. Goodyear and P. Barroy, Rev.Sci.Inst., Vol.71, No.7, July 2000, pgs. 2722-2727.

  10. Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-01-01

    Light beams with extraordinary spatial structures, such as the Airy beam (AB), the Bessel-Gaussian beam (BGB) and the Laguerre-Gaussian beam (LGB), are widely studied and applied in many optical scenarios. We report on preparation of light beams with controllable spatial structures through sum frequency generation (SFG) using two Gaussian pump beams in a quasi-phase matching (QPM) crystal. The spatial structures, including multi-ring-like BGB, donut-like LGB, and super-Gaussian-like beams, can be controlled periodically via crystal phase mismatching by tuning the pump frequency or crystal temperature. This phenomenon has not been reported or discussed previously. Additionally, we present numerical simulations of the phenomenon, which agree very well with the experimental observations. Our findings give further insight into the SFG process in QPM crystals, provide a new way to generate light with unusual spatial structures, and may find applications in the fields of laser optics, all-optical switching, and optical manipulation and trapping. PMID:25007780

  11. Delay and probability discounting of sexual and monetary outcomes in individuals with cocaine use disorders and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Herrmann, Evan S; Sweeney, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorders are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, partly due to higher rates of unprotected sex. Recent research suggests delay discounting of condom use is a factor in sexual HIV risk. Delay discounting is a behavioral economic concept describing how delaying an event reduces that event's value or impact on behavior. Probability discounting is a related concept describing how the uncertainty of an event decreases its impact on behavior. Individuals with cocaine use disorders (n = 23) and matched non-cocaine-using controls (n = 24) were compared in decision-making tasks involving hypothetical outcomes: delay discounting of condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task), delay discounting of money, the effect of sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk on likelihood of condom use (Sexual Probability Discounting Task), and probability discounting of money. The Cocaine group discounted delayed condom-protected sex (i.e., were more likely to have unprotected sex vs. wait for a condom) significantly more than controls in two of four Sexual Delay Discounting Task partner conditions. The Cocaine group also discounted delayed money (i.e., preferred smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts) significantly more than controls. In the Sexual Probability Discounting Task, both groups showed sensitivity to STI risk, however the groups did not differ. The Cocaine group did not consistently discount probabilistic money more or less than controls. Steeper discounting of delayed, but not probabilistic, sexual outcomes may contribute to greater rates of sexual HIV risk among individuals with cocaine use disorders. Probability discounting of sexual outcomes may contribute to risk of unprotected sex in both groups. Correlations showed sexual and monetary results were unrelated, for both delay and probability discounting. The results highlight the importance of studying specific behavioral processes (e.g., delay and probability

  12. Vacuolating cytotoxin genotypes are strong markers of gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer-associated Helicobacter pylori strains: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Memon, Ameer A; Hussein, Nawfal R; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y; Burette, Alain; Atherton, John C

    2014-08-01

    The Helicobacter pylori virulence gene, cagA, and active forms of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, are major determinants of pathogenesis. However, previous studies linking these factors to disease risk have often included patients using aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) or acid-suppressing drugs, both of which may confound results. Also, particularly for gastric cancer (GC), controls have often been of quite different ages. Here, we performed a careful study in a "clean" Belgian population with gastric cancer cases age and sex matched to 4 controls and with a parallel duodenal ulcer (DU) group. As in other populations, there was a close association between the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. For GC, associations were found for vacA s1-positive (P = 0.01, odds ratio [OR], 9.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 201.89), i1-positive (P = 0.003; OR, 12.08; 95% CI, 1.50 to 259.64), and cagA-positive status (P < 0.05; OR, infinity; 95% CI, 0.76 to infinity). For DU, associations were found with vacA s1 (P = 0.002; OR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.52 to 27.87) and i1 (P = 0.004; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.36 to 14.78) status but not with cagA status. Neither condition showed independent associations with the vacA m1 allele or with more biologically active forms of cagA with longer 3' variable regions. In this Belgian population, the best markers of gastric cancer- and duodenal ulcer-associated strains are the vacA s1 and i1 genotypes. This fits with experimental data showing that the s and i regions are the key determinants of vacuolating cytotoxin activity.

  13. Protein Homeostasis and Aging: the importance of exquisite quality control

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hiroshi; Kaushik, Susmita; Cuervo, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    All cells count on precise mechanisms that regulate protein homeostasis to maintain a stable and functional proteome. A progressive deterioration in the ability of cells to preserve the stability of their proteome occurs with age and contributes to the functional loss characteristic of old organisms. Molecular chaperones and the proteolytic systems are responsible for this cellular quality control by assuring continuous renewal of intracellular proteins. When protein damage occurs, such as during cellular stress, the coordinated action of these cellular surveillance systems allows detection and repair of the damaged structures or, in many instances, leads to the complete elimination of the altered proteins from inside cells. Dysfunction of the quality control mechanisms and intracellular accumulation of abnormal proteins in the form of protein inclusions and aggregates occur in almost all tissues of an aged organism. Preservation or enhancement of the activity of these surveillance systems until late in life improves their resistance to stress and is sufficient to slow down aging. In this work, we review recent advances on our understanding of the contribution of chaperones and proteolytic systems to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, the cellular response to stress and ultimately to longevity. PMID:20152936

  14. Disrupted Stimulus Control but Not Reward Sensitivity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matching Law Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Hawthorn, Rose; Bolger, Sam; Meredith, Katie; Bishop, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The matching law suggests that behavior is emitted in proportion to the level of reinforcement available. The current study investigated this effect in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and focused on the effects of magnitude of reinforcement (Study 1), and rate of reinforcement (Studies 2 and 3), on matching performance. Studies 1…

  15. Differential clinical outcome of dengue infection among patients with and without HIV infection: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pang, Junxiong; Thein, Tun-Linn; Lye, David C; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2015-06-01

    Clinical characteristics and outcome among dengue patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain elusive. A total of 10 dengue virus (DENV)-HIV Chinese patients were compared with 40 Chinese dengue patients without HIV, who were matched for age, gender, type of care received, methods, and year of dengue diagnosis from 2005 to 2008. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistics regression were applied. DENV-HIV patients were significantly associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 severe dengue (conditional odds ratio [COR] = 5.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-32.64) but not with the WHO 1997 dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (COR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.09-1.71). This is mainly due to severe plasma leakage and the lack of hemorrhagic manifestations. Hospitalization duration was longer for DENV-HIV patients (10.5 days; interquartile range [IQR] = 5.5-26.3 days) compared with dengue patients (5 days; IQR = 4-6 days). There were no significant differences in presentation of clinical warning signs and symptoms at admission and during hospitalization, except for rash (adjusted COR [ACOR] = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.03-0.92). DENV-HIV patients were associated with higher pulse rate (ACOR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), eosinophils proportion (ACOR = 3.07; 95% CI = 1.12-8.41) and lower hematocrit level (ACOR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.64-0.98) compared with dengue patients. Even though DENV-HIV patients may present similarly to dengue patients, they may be more likely to have severe dengue outcome. Hence, close monitoring of DENV-HIV patients is highly recommended as part of dengue clinical care and management.

  16. Effects of age on cognitive control during semantic categorization.

    PubMed

    Mudar, Raksha A; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Maguire, Mandy J; Spence, Jeffrey S; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study age effects of perceptual (basic-level) vs. perceptual-semantic (superordinate-level) categorization on cognitive control using the go/nogo paradigm. Twenty-two younger (11 M; 21 ± 2.2 years) and 22 older adults (9 M; 63 ± 5.8 years) completed two visual go/nogo tasks. In the single-car task (SiC) (basic), go/nogo responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (go) and a dog (nogo). In the object animal task (ObA) (superordinate), responses were based on multiple exemplars of objects (go) and animals (nogo). Each task consisted of 200 trials: 160 (80%) 'go' trials that required a response through button pressing and 40 (20%) 'nogo' trials that required inhibition/withholding of a response. ERP data revealed significantly reduced nogo-N2 and nogo-P3 amplitudes in older compared to younger adults, whereas go-N2 and go-P3 amplitudes were comparable in both groups during both categorization tasks. Although the effects of categorization levels on behavioral data and P3 measures were similar in both groups with longer response times, lower accuracy scores, longer P3 latencies, and lower P3 amplitudes in ObA compared to SiC, N2 latency revealed age group differences moderated by the task. Older adults had longer N2 latency for ObA compared to SiC, in contrast, younger adults showed no N2 latency difference between SiC and ObA. Overall, these findings suggest that age differentially affects neural processing related to cognitive control during semantic categorization. Furthermore, in older adults, unlike in younger adults, levels of categorization modulate neural processing related to cognitive control even at the early stages (N2).

  17. Effects of Age on Cognitive Control during Semantic Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Mudar, Raksha A.; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Maguire, Mandy J.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Eroh, Justin; Michael, A. Kraut; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study age effects of perceptual (basic-level) vs. perceptual-semantic (superordinate-level) categorization on cognitive control using the go/nogo paradigm. Twenty-two younger (11 M; 21±2.2 years) and 22 older adults (9 M; 63±5.8 years) completed two visual go/nogo tasks. In the single car task (SiC) (basic), go/nogo responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (go) and a dog (nogo). In the object animal task (ObA) (superordinate), responses were based on multiple exemplars of objects (go) and animals (nogo). Each task consisted of 200 trials: 160 (80%) ‘go’ trials that required a response through button pressing and 40 (20%) ‘nogo’ trials that required inhibition/withholding of a response. ERP data revealed significantly reduced nogo-N2 and nogo-P3 amplitudes in older compared to younger adults, whereas go-N2 and go-P3 amplitudes were comparable in both groups during both categorization tasks. Although the effects of categorization levels on behavioral data and P3 measures were similar in both groups with longer response times, lower accuracy scores, longer P3 latencies, and lower P3 amplitudes in ObA compared to SiC, N2 latency revealed age group differences moderated by the task. Older adults had longer N2 latency for ObA compared to SiC, in contrast, younger adults showed no N2 latency difference between SiC and ObA. Overall, these findings suggest that age differentially affects neural processing related to cognitive control during semantic categorization. Furthermore, in older adults, unlike in younger adults, levels of categorization modulate neural processing related to cognitive control even at the early stages (N2). PMID:25823764

  18. Conformational diversity of flexible ligand in metal-organic frameworks controlled by size-matching mixed ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Xiu-Ni; Qin, Lan; Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Yu, Lei; Xie, Yi-Xin; Han, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of N-auxiliary flexible exo-bidentate ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) and carboxylates ligands naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H2ndc) or 4,4‧-(hydroxymethylene)dibenzoic acid (H2hmdb), in the presence of cadmium(II) salts have given rise to two novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands (FL-MOFs), namely, [Cd2(2,6-ndc)2(bpp)(DMF)]·2DMF (1) and [Cd3(hmdb)3(bpp)]·2DMF·2EtOH (2) (DMF=N,N-Dimethylformamide). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that compound 1 exhibits a three-dimensional self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster second building unit. Compound 2 displays an infinite three-dimensional 'Lucky Clover' shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster and V-shaped organic linkers. The flexible bpp ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which are successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process.

  19. Effects of home-based constraint-induced therapy versus dose-matched control intervention on functional outcomes and caregiver well-being in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Chang, Kai-chieh; Lin, Yu-chan; Chen, Yi-ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compared home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) with a dose-matched home-based control intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The differences in unilateral and bilateral motor performance, daily functions, and quality of parental well-being (i.e., the stress level of their parents) were evaluated. The study included 21 children with CP (age range, 48-119 months) who were randomly assigned to the CIT or control group. All participants received individualized home-based interventions, 3.5-4h a day, twice a week for 4weeks. Primary outcomes were measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales II (PDMS-2) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) is the whole name of the assessment. All first letters of this instrument title should be in upper case. Secondary outcome measures were the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL), the Caregiver Functional Use Survey (CFUS), and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI). Outcome measures were performed at baseline (pretreatment), 4weeks (posttreatment), and 6-month (follow-up). Compared with the control group, the CIT group exhibited significantly better performance in grasping control as measured by the PDMS-2, unilateral/bilateral motor efficacy as measured by the BOTMP, and unilateral hand function as measured by the PMAL immediately after the treatment. At the 6-month follow-up, CIT had beneficial effects on grasping control assessed by PDMS-2 and on unilateral/bilateral functional performance measured by the PMAL and CFUS. Parents in both groups reported comparable stress levels at the 6-month follow-up, although the parent-child dysfunctional interaction deteriorated more immediately after CIT than after the control intervention. The follow-up of this randomized controlled trial suggested beneficial effects of home-based CIT on unilateral grasping skills and unilateral/bilateral functional performance at 6 months. The higher stress level reported by the parents in the

  20. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  1. Surgery for Patients With Spontaneous Deep Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Case-Control Study Using Propensity Score Matching.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; Zhao, He-Xiang; Guo, Rui; Lin, Sen; Dong, Wei; Ma, Lu; Fang, Yuan; Tian, Meng; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most dangerous cerebrovascular diseases, especially when in deep brain. The treatment of spontaneous deep supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study using propensity score matching to compare the efficacy of surgery and conservative treatment for patients with deep surpatentorial hemorrhage. We observed the outcomes of consecutive patients with spontaneous deep supratentorial hemorrhage retrospectively from December 2008 to July 2013. Clinical outcomes of surgery and conservative treatments were compared in patients with deep sICH using propensity score matching method. The primary outcome was neurological function status at 6 months post ictus. The second outcomes included mortality at 30 days and 6 months, and the incidence of complications. Subgroup analyses of 6-month outcome were conducted. Sixty-three (22.66%) of the 278 patients who received surgery had a favorable neurological function status at 6 months, whereas in the conservative group, 66 of 278 (23.74%) had the same result (P = 0.763). The 30-day mortality in the surgical group was 19.06%, whereas 30.58% in the conservative group (P = 0.002). There was significant difference in the mortality at 6 months after ictus as well (23.38% vs 36.33%, P = 0.001). The subgroup analyses showed significantly better outcomes for the surgical group when hematoma was >40 mL (13.33% vs 0%, P = 0.005) or complicated with intraventricular hemorrhage (16.67% vs 7.27%, P = 0.034). For complications, the risk of pulmonary infection, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, urinary infection, pulmonary embolus, and need for tracheostomy/long term ventilation in the surgical group was higher than the conservative group (31.29% vs 15.47%, P < 0.001; 6.83% vs 3.96%, P = 0.133; 2.88% vs 1.80%, P = 0.400; 1.80% vs 1.08%, P = 0.476; 32.73% vs 23.38%, P = 0.014). Surgery could

  2. Surgery for Patients With Spontaneous Deep Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Case-Control Study Using Propensity Score Matching.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; Zhao, He-Xiang; Guo, Rui; Lin, Sen; Dong, Wei; Ma, Lu; Fang, Yuan; Tian, Meng; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most dangerous cerebrovascular diseases, especially when in deep brain. The treatment of spontaneous deep supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study using propensity score matching to compare the efficacy of surgery and conservative treatment for patients with deep surpatentorial hemorrhage. We observed the outcomes of consecutive patients with spontaneous deep supratentorial hemorrhage retrospectively from December 2008 to July 2013. Clinical outcomes of surgery and conservative treatments were compared in patients with deep sICH using propensity score matching method. The primary outcome was neurological function status at 6 months post ictus. The second outcomes included mortality at 30 days and 6 months, and the incidence of complications. Subgroup analyses of 6-month outcome were conducted. Sixty-three (22.66%) of the 278 patients who received surgery had a favorable neurological function status at 6 months, whereas in the conservative group, 66 of 278 (23.74%) had the same result (P = 0.763). The 30-day mortality in the surgical group was 19.06%, whereas 30.58% in the conservative group (P = 0.002). There was significant difference in the mortality at 6 months after ictus as well (23.38% vs 36.33%, P = 0.001). The subgroup analyses showed significantly better outcomes for the surgical group when hematoma was >40 mL (13.33% vs 0%, P = 0.005) or complicated with intraventricular hemorrhage (16.67% vs 7.27%, P = 0.034). For complications, the risk of pulmonary infection, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, urinary infection, pulmonary embolus, and need for tracheostomy/long term ventilation in the surgical group was higher than the conservative group (31.29% vs 15.47%, P < 0.001; 6.83% vs 3.96%, P = 0.133; 2.88% vs 1.80%, P = 0.400; 1.80% vs 1.08%, P = 0.476; 32.73% vs 23.38%, P = 0.014). Surgery could

  3. Risk Factors for Influenza A(H7N9) Disease in China, a Matched Case Control Study, October 2014 to April 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Ren, Ruiqi; Ou, Jianming; Kang, Min; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Havers, Fiona; Huo, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Sun, Qianlai; He, Yongchao; Liu, Bo; Wu, Shenggen; Wang, Yali; Sui, Haitian; Zhang, Yongjie; Tang, Shaopei; Chang, Caiyun; Xiang, Lunhui; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Shiguang; Zhou, Suizan; Chen, Tao; Xiang, Nijuan; Greene, Carolyn M.; Zhang, Yanping; Shu, Yuelong; Feng, Zijian; Li, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been associated with exposure to poultry and live poultry markets (LPMs). We conducted a case-control study to identify additional and more specific risk factors. Methods. Cases were laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) infections in persons in China reported from October 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015. Poultry workers, those with insufficient data, and those refusing participation were excluded. We matched up to 4 controls per case by sex, age, and residential community. Using conditional logistic regression, we examined associations between A(H7N9) infection and potential risk factors. Results. Eighty-five cases and 334 controls were enrolled with similar demographic characteristics. Increased risk of A(H7N9) infection was associated with the following: visiting LPMs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6–15.3), direct contact with live poultry in LPMs (aOR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.1–15.6), stopping at a live poultry stall when visiting LPMs (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.9), raising backyard poultry at home (aOR, 7.7; 95% CI, 2.0–30.5), direct contact with backyard poultry (aOR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.1–22.1), and having ≥1 chronic disease (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5–6.5). Conclusions. Our study identified raising backyard poultry at home as a risk factor for illness with A(H7N9), suggesting the need for enhanced avian influenza surveillance in rural areas. PMID:27704029

  4. Determinants of infant mortality in community of Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia: a matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infant mortality accounts for almost 67 percent of under-five child mortality that occurs globally. An understanding of factors related to infant mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce infant deaths. But no community based studies have been conducted to identify determinants of infant mortality in Ethiopia for the past two decades. The purpose of this study is to identify determinants of infant mortality in community of Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based matched case–control study was conducted. The study covered 133 infants who died during infancy between January 2010 and February 2011 in the study area. For each case, a control with approximately same date of birth and survived his/her first year of live and alive at time data collection was selected. Conditional logistic regression method was used to identify determinant factors of infant mortality using Epi-info 3.5.1 statistical software. Results According to the final logistic regression model, not attending antenatal care follow-up [AOR=2.04, 95% CI:(1.04,4.02)], not using soap for hand washing before feeding child [AOR=2.50, 95% CI: (1.32,4.76)], negative perceived benefits of mother to modern treatment and prevention [AOR=2.76, 95% CI: (1.21,6.09)], small birth size [AOR=2.91, 95% CI: (1.01,8.46)] and high birth order with short birth interval [AOR=3.80, 95% CI: (1.20,11.98)] were found to be independent determinants of infant mortality. Conclusions Antenatal care follow-up, hand washing habit with soap before feeding child, birth size, perceived benefits of mothers to modern treatment, birth order and preceding birth interval were determinants of infant mortality. PMID:23621915

  5. Effect of a quality-controlled fermented nutraceutical on skin aging markers: An antioxidant-control, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    BERTUCCELLI, GIUSEPPE; ZERBINATI, NICOLA; MARCELLINO, MASSIMILIANO; NANDA KUMAR, NAVALPUR SHANMUGAM; HE, FANG; TSEPAKOLENKO, VLADIMIR; CERVI, JOSEPH; LORENZETTI, ALDO; MAROTTA, FRANCESCO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether oral supplementation with a fermented papaya preparation (FPP-treated group) or an antioxidant cocktail (antioxidant-control group, composed of 10 mg trans-resveratrol, 60 µg selenium, 10 mg vitamin E and 50 mg vitamin C) was able to improve the skin antioxidant capacity and the expression of key skin genes, while promoting skin antiaging effects. The study enrolled 60 healthy non-smoker males and females aged 40–65 years, all of whom showed clinical signs of skin aging. The subjects were randomly divided into two matched groups, and were administered FPP or antioxidant treatment of a 4.5 g/day sachet sublingually twice a day for 90 days in a double-blind fashion. The parameters investigated were: Skin surface, brown spots, skin evenness, skin moisturization, elasticity (face), redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) concentration, and the expression levels of key genes (outer forearm sample). As compared with the baseline (day 0) and antioxidant-control values, FPP-treated subjects showed a significant improvement in skin evenness, moisturization and elasticity. The two treatments improved the MDA and SOD skin concentrations, but only the FPP-treated group showed a higher SOD level and a significant NO increase, along with significant upregulation of acquaporin-3 and downregulation of the potentially pro-aging/carcinogenetic cyclophilin-A and CD147 genes (P<0.05). Progerin was unaffected in both treatment groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that orally-administered FPP showed a consistent biological and gene-regulatory improvement in the skin, as was also demonstrated in previous experimental and clinical trials testing other tissues, while common oral antioxidants had only a minor effect. PMID:26998011

  6. Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: a matched group comparison

    PubMed Central

    Gutbrod, T.; Wolke, D.; Soehne, B.; Ohrt, B.; Riegel, K.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the effects of small for gestational age (SGA) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants on growth and development until the fifth year of life.
METHODS—VLBW (< 1500 g) infants, selected from a prospective study, were classified as SGA (n = 115) on the basis of birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and were compared with two groups of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants matched according to birth weight (AGA-BW; n = 115) or gestation at birth (AGA-GA; n = 115). Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors were recorded, and duration and intensity of treatment were computed from daily assessments. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured at birth, five and 20 months (corrected for prematurity), and at 56 months. General development was assessed at five and 20 months with the Griffiths scale of babies abilities, and cognitive development at 56 months with the Columbia mental maturity scales, a vocabulary (AWST) and language comprehension test (LSVTA).
RESULTS—Significant group differences were found in complications (pregnancy, birth, and neonatal), parity, and multiple birth rate. The AGA-GA group showed most satisfactory growth up to 56 months, with both the AGA-BW and SGA groups lagging behind. The AGA-GA group also scored significantly more highly on all developmental and cognitive tests than the other groups. Developmental test results were similar for the SGA and AGA-BW groups at five and 20 months, but AGA-BW infants (lowest gestation) had lower scores on performance intelligence quotient and language comprehension at 56 months than the SGA group. When prenatal and neonatal complications, parity, and multiple birth were accounted for, group differences in growth remained, but differences in cognitive outcome disappeared after five months.
CONCLUSIONS—Being underweight and with a short gestation (SGA and VLBW) leads to poor weight gain and head growth in infancy but does not

  7. Sudden unexpected death in infants under 3 months of age and vaccination status – a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Barbeillon, Florence; Paris-Llado, Josepha

    2001-01-01

    Aims To determine whether DTPP+Hib vaccination (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis +/− haemophilus) increased the risk of sudden unexpected death (SUD) in children under 3 months of age. Methods We conducted a multicentre case-control study in the 28 French ‘SIDS Centers’. Case selection was based on death labelled sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) of an infant aged between 30 and 90 days. Three living controls were selected, matched for sex, gestational age and born immediately after the victim in the same maternity unit. Results We identified 114 cases of SUD aged between 30 and 90 days and 341 live controls matched for age and sex and born in the same maternity unit as the case. DTPP±Hib immunization did not increase the risk of SUD (OR 1.08) (95% CI 0.49, 2.36) in children under 3 months of age when adjusted for sleeping position, illness in the week before death, maternal tobacco consumption, birth weight, type of mattress, breastfeeding and sex. However, low birth-weight (6.53 [2.29, 18.9]), multiple birth (5.1 [1.76, 15.13]), no breastfeeding (1.77 [1.1, 2.85]), prone sleeping position (9.8 [5, 8, 18, 9]), soft mattress (3.26 [1.69, 6.29]), recent illness (3.44 [1.84, 6.41]) and parental smoking (1.74 [1.2, 2.96]) were confirmed as risk factors in early SIDS. Conclusions DTPP±Hib immunization is not a risk factor for early SUD. In this population, we found the same risk factors as described for SIDS. PMID:11298074

  8. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  9. Work-related treatment for major depressive disorder and incapacity to work: preliminary findings of a controlled, matched study.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Christoph; Bode, Katharina; Wunsch, Eva-Maria; Kliem, Sören; Grocholewski, Anja; Finger, Friederike

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of work-related cognitive-behavioral treatment (W-CBT) with that of cognitive-behavioral treatment as usual (CBT-AU) for employees on sick leave as a result of a major depressive disorder (MDD). We collected data for 26 matched outpatients at pre- and posttreatment, as well as at 1-year follow-up. Outcome measures were the days of incapacity to work (DIW) as well as self-report measures (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Symptom Checklist 90-R [GSI], Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [FLZ]). We analyzed data with hierarchical linear modeling in a 2-level model. Therapy effects were defined in 3 ways: effect size (ES), response (based on the reliable change index), and remission compared with the general population's symptom level. The DIW were reduced significantly after both types of treatment, but employees showed even fewer DIW after W-CBT. At follow-up, significantly more employees were working as a result of W-CBT than with CBT-AU. Significant improvements on scores of self-rating measures corresponded with moderate-to-large effect sizes for both treatment types. Approximately 2 thirds of the treated employees were categorized as unimpaired on BDI scores at posttreatment and at follow-up. At least 1 half of the employees were classified as unimpaired on GSI scores at both assessment points. In future research, a randomized controlled trial should be conducted using a larger sample size to investigate the impact of moderators (e.g., employees at different branches of the company). Findings provided support for using common CBT techniques to enhance return to work without losing expected improvements at the symptom level.

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  11. Effects of Home-Based Constraint-Induced Therapy versus Dose-Matched Control Intervention on Functional Outcomes and Caregiver Well-Being in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Chang, Kai-chieh; Lin, Yu-chan; Chen, Yi-ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compared home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) with a dose-matched home-based control intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The differences in unilateral and bilateral motor performance, daily functions, and quality of parental well-being (i.e., the stress level of their parents) were evaluated. The study included 21…

  12. Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

  13. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction in a subset of autism lymphoblastoid cell lines in a well-matched case control cohort.

    PubMed

    Rose, Shannon; Frye, Richard E; Slattery, John; Wynne, Rebecca; Tippett, Marie; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Melnyk, Stepan; James, S Jill

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the autism spectrum disorders. However, little attention has been given to the etiology of mitochondrial dysfunction or how mitochondrial abnormalities might interact with other physiological disturbances associated with autism, such as oxidative stress. In the current study we used respirometry to examine reserve capacity, a measure of the mitochondrial ability to respond to physiological stress, in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from children with autistic disorder (AD) as well as age and gender-matched control LCLs. We demonstrate, for the first time, that LCLs derived from children with AD have an abnormal mitochondrial reserve capacity before and after exposure to increasingly higher concentrations of 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-napthoquinone (DMNQ), an agent that increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Specifically, the AD LCLs exhibit a higher reserve capacity at baseline and a sharper depletion of reserve capacity when ROS exposure is increased, as compared to control LCLs. Detailed investigation indicated that reserve capacity abnormalities seen in AD LCLs were the result of higher ATP-linked respiration and maximal respiratory capacity at baseline combined with a marked increase in proton leak respiration as ROS was increased. We further demonstrate that these reserve capacity abnormalities are driven by a subgroup of eight (32%) of 25 AD LCLs. Additional investigation of this subgroup of AD LCLs with reserve capacity abnormalities revealed that it demonstrated a greater reliance on glycolysis and on uncoupling protein 2 to regulate oxidative stress at the inner mitochondria membrane. This study suggests that a significant subgroup of AD children may have alterations in mitochondrial function which could render them more vulnerable to a pro-oxidant microenvironment derived from intrinsic and extrinsic sources of ROS such as immune activation and pro

  14. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    predictor of subjects' ability to sing the notes E and F♯; (3) mean speech frequency correlated moderately and significantly (p < .001) with sharpness and flatness of singing response accuracy in Hz; (4) speech range was the strongest predictor of singing accuracy for the pitches G and A in the study (p < .001); (5) gender emerged as a significant, but not the strongest, predictor for ability to sing the pitches in the study above C and D; (6) gender did not correlate with mean speech frequency and speech range; (7) age in months emerged as a low but significant predictor of ability to sing the lower notes (C and D) in the study; (8) age correlated significantly but negatively low (r = -.23, p < .05, two-tailed) with mean speech frequency; and (9) age did not emerge as a significant predictor of overall singing accuracy. Ancillary findings indicated that there were significant differences in singing accuracy based on geographic location by gender, and that siblings and fraternal twins in the study generally performed similarly. In addition, reliability for using the CSpeech for acoustical analysis revealed test/retest correlations of .99, with one exception at .94. Based on these results, suggestions were made concerning future research concerned with studying the use of voice in speech and how it may affect singing development, overall use in singing, and pitch-matching accuracy.

  15. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  16. Cognitive control, goal maintenance, and prefrontal function in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Jessica L; Barch, Deanna M; Racine, Caroline A; Braver, Todd S

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive control impairments in healthy older adults may partly reflect disturbances in the ability to actively maintain goal-relevant information, a function that depends on the engagement of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, healthy young and older adults performed versions of a task in which contextual cues provide goal-relevant information used to bias processing of subsequent ambiguous probes. In Study 1, a blocked design and manipulation of the cue-probe delay interval revealed a generalized pattern of enhanced task-related brain activity in older adults but combined with a specific delay-related reduction of activity in lateral PFC regions. In Study 2, a combined blocked/event-related design revealed enhanced sustained (i.e., across-trial) activity but a reduction in transient trial-related activation in lateral PFC among older adults. Further analyses of within-trial activity dynamics indicated that, within these and other lateral PFC regions, older adults showed reduced activation during the cue and delay period but increased activation at the time of the probe, particularly on high-interference trials. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that age-related impairments in goal maintenance abilities cause a compensatory shift in older adults from a proactive (seen in young adults) to a reactive cognitive control strategy. PMID:17804479

  17. Smoking is associated with schizophrenia, but not with mood disorders, within a population with low smoking rates: a matched case-control study in Bucaramanga, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Díaz-Martínez, Luis A; Rueda-Jaimes, Germán E; Rueda-Sánchez, Mauricio; Farelo-Palacín, Daniel; Diaz, Francisco J; de Leon, Jose

    2006-04-01

    When comparing current smoking in schizophrenia patients versus the general population, the average odds ratio (OR) was 5.3 in a meta-analysis of 42 studies from 20 nations. Limited tobacco access can eliminate this strong association in some nations. Out of the 42 ORs, 37 were significantly higher than 1. Of the 5 non-significant ORs, three came from Colombian studies comparing current smoking prevalences in schizophrenia versus those in the general population (18%). However, the 3 ORs were not adjusted for confounders. We hypothesized that the association between schizophrenia and smoking is so strong that it can be detected in populations with limited access to smoking after carefully controlling for confounders. Of the three Colombian studies, one included 73 schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) and 111 patients with mood disorders (DSM-IV bipolar or major depressive disorders). The current study matched each of these patients with 2 controls from the general population and performed more sophisticated statistical analyses. Prevalences of current smoking were 26% for schizophrenia patients and 10% for their matched controls (adjusted Mantel-Haenszel OR=3.1, 95% CI, 1.4-6.8), and 7% for patients with mood disorders and 12% for their matched controls (adjusted Mantel-Haenszel OR=0.62; CI, 0.28-1.4). The previously observed lack of association between schizophrenia and current smoking was due to lack of control of important confounding variables because of the absence of a control group. This re-analysis, which used a careful matching that controlled for confounders, suggests that the association between schizophrenia and smoking behaviors can stand in populations with low monetary income and low smoking rates. This study also suggests that the association between severe mood disorders (bipolar and major depression) and smoking is not as strong as that observed between schizophrenia and smoking, and may not be observable in

  18. Smoking is associated with schizophrenia, but not with mood disorders, within a population with low smoking rates: a matched case-control study in Bucaramanga, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Díaz-Martínez, Luis A; Rueda-Jaimes, Germán E; Rueda-Sánchez, Mauricio; Farelo-Palacín, Daniel; Diaz, Francisco J; de Leon, Jose

    2006-04-01

    When comparing current smoking in schizophrenia patients versus the general population, the average odds ratio (OR) was 5.3 in a meta-analysis of 42 studies from 20 nations. Limited tobacco access can eliminate this strong association in some nations. Out of the 42 ORs, 37 were significantly higher than 1. Of the 5 non-significant ORs, three came from Colombian studies comparing current smoking prevalences in schizophrenia versus those in the general population (18%). However, the 3 ORs were not adjusted for confounders. We hypothesized that the association between schizophrenia and smoking is so strong that it can be detected in populations with limited access to smoking after carefully controlling for confounders. Of the three Colombian studies, one included 73 schizophrenia patients (DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) and 111 patients with mood disorders (DSM-IV bipolar or major depressive disorders). The current study matched each of these patients with 2 controls from the general population and performed more sophisticated statistical analyses. Prevalences of current smoking were 26% for schizophrenia patients and 10% for their matched controls (adjusted Mantel-Haenszel OR=3.1, 95% CI, 1.4-6.8), and 7% for patients with mood disorders and 12% for their matched controls (adjusted Mantel-Haenszel OR=0.62; CI, 0.28-1.4). The previously observed lack of association between schizophrenia and current smoking was due to lack of control of important confounding variables because of the absence of a control group. This re-analysis, which used a careful matching that controlled for confounders, suggests that the association between schizophrenia and smoking behaviors can stand in populations with low monetary income and low smoking rates. This study also suggests that the association between severe mood disorders (bipolar and major depression) and smoking is not as strong as that observed between schizophrenia and smoking, and may not be observable in

  19. Basement control on thermochronometer cooling ages: an example from the Andean fold-thrust belt in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, N.; Ehlers, T. A.; Rak, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the style, geometry and kinematics of basement deformation where it is not exposed is an ongoing challenge in orogenic belts. Basement deformation must be inferred based on the resulting surface observables. Geologic map patterns, thermochronometer cooling signals, and synorogenic sediment distribution in the northern Bolivian Andes strongly argue for displacement on large-scale basement thrust sheets. To show the relationship between basement deformation and surface observables such as mapped geology and thermochronometer cooling ages, we link a forward modeled balanced cross section to a 2-D thermokinematic model to compare predicted to measured cooling ages. Applying isostasy and erosion to sequentially deformed balanced cross sections links the growth of hinterland structures to the developing foreland basins and highlights subsurface controls on surface geology. The cross section kinematics become velocity vectors by assigning ages to displacement amounts. A range of potential velocity vectors is then used to calculate heat transport, erosion, and rock cooling. Predicted cooling ages highlight that large basement ramps impart a significant and tractable cooling signal. This signal is the most visible in the across strike pattern of cooling ages for each system (zircon fission track, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/ He). The pronounced, predicted cooling age pattern generated by large basement thrust sheets match measured ages across the northern Bolivian Andes strongly suggesting basement deformation similar to that show in balanced cross sections.

  20. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes and risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang-fang; Liu, Yuan-ting; Lin, Xiao-ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Xing-lan; Xu, Chun-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95% CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95% CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95% CI 0·23, 0·50) (P(trend)<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95% CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95% CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95% CI 0·30, 0·63) (P(trend)<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (P(interaction)=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population.

  1. Effect of telehealth on hospital utilisation and mortality in routine clinical practice: a matched control cohort study in an early adopter site

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Ariti, Cono; Fisher, Elizabeth; Bardsley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of a home-based telehealth intervention on the use of secondary healthcare and mortality. Design Observational study of a mainstream telehealth service, using person-level administrative data. Time to event analysis (Cox regression) was performed comparing telehealth patients with controls who were matched using a machine-learning algorithm. Setting A predominantly rural region of England (North Yorkshire). Participants 716 telehealth patients were recruited from community, general practice and specialist acute care, between June 2010 and March 2013. Patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or diabetes, and a history of associated inpatient admission. Patients were matched 1:1 to control patients, also selected from North Yorkshire, with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use and predictive risk score. Interventions Telehealth involved the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals as part of the ongoing management of the patient's health condition. Monitoring centre staff alerted healthcare professionals if the telemonitored data exceeded preset thresholds. Control patients received usual care, without telehealth. Primary and secondary outcome measures Time to the first emergency (unplanned) hospital admission or death. Secondary metrics included time to death and time to first admission, outpatient attendance and emergency department visit. Results Matched controls and telehealth patients were similar at baseline. Following enrolment, telehealth patients were more likely than matched controls to experience emergency admission or death (adjusted HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.56, p<0.001). They were also more likely to have outpatient attendances (adjusted HR=1.25, 1.11 to 1.40, p<0.001), but mortality rates were similar between groups. Sensitivity analyses showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in the

  2. Robust finite-time containment control for high-order multi-agent systems with matched uncertainties under directed communication graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Junjie; Wang, Jinzhi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the robust finite-time containment control problem for a class of high-order uncertain nonlinear multi-agent systems modelled as high-order integrator systems with bounded matched uncertainties. When relative state information between neighbouring agents is available, an observer-based distributed controller is proposed for each follower using the sliding mode control technique which solves the finite-time containment control problem under general directed communication graphs. When only relative output information is available, robust exact differentiators and high-order sliding-mode controllers are employed together with the distributed finite-time observers. It is shown that robust finite-time containment control can still be achieved in this situation. An application in the coordination of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.

  3. Reinforcer Control by Comparison-Stimulus Color and Location in a Delayed Matching-to-Sample Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Brent; Jones, B. Max

    2008-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained in a delayed matching-to-sample task involving bright- and dim-yellow samples on a central key, a five-peck response requirement to either sample, a constant 1.5-s delay, and the presentation of comparison stimuli composed of red on the left key and green on the right key or vice versa. Green-key responses were…

  4. The Effect of Aging in Inhibitory Control of Major Depressive Disorder Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing-Wei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Elderly depressed patients manifest pronounced executive dysfunction compared with younger subjects with depressive disorder. Aging-related brain changes may result in executive dysfunction in geriatric depression. We investigated the neural correlates of inhibitory control processing in depressed subjects at different ages using event-related potentials (ERPs). A equiprobable visual Go/Nogo task was used in 19 young (27.4 ± 5.0 years) and 18 elderly (70.8 ± 6.9 years) depressed subjects and their age-matched healthy controls (20 young subjects, 26.2 ± 3.7 years, and 18 elderly subjects, 68.1 ± 4.8 years). The responses were based on two types of equilateral triangular figures of upright (Go) and inverted triangle (Nogo). The elderly subjects exhibited later N2 and P3 latencies, and larger Go-N2 and P3 amplitudes, compared with the younger subjects. Further, the elderly controls displayed smaller P3 in the central and parietal regions, and yielded larger Nogo-P3 amplitude in the frontal region compared with younger controls. While the young depressed patients yielded smaller P3 amplitude than the controls across frontal, central and parietal regions, elderly depressed patients yielded smaller P3 than the elderly controls only in the frontal region. Our results suggest that the inhibitory control subprocesses are differentially affected by depression and aging. The stimulus response speed and the effort intensity of inhibition control are specifically impaired in the elderly depressed patients. And the diminished amplitudes of frontal P3 in the elderly depression imply a frontal dysfunction mechanism. PMID:27065830

  5. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  6. Latent palmprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2009-06-01

    The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.

  7. Innervation and neuromuscular control in ageing skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hepple, Russell T; Rice, Charles L

    2016-04-15

    Changes in the neuromuscular system affecting the ageing motor unit manifest structurally as a reduction in motor unit number secondary to motor neuron loss; fibre type grouping due to repeating cycles of denervation-reinnervation; and instability of the neuromuscular junction that may be due to either or both of a gradual perturbation in postsynaptic signalling mechanisms necessary for maintenance of the endplate acetylcholine receptor clusters or a sudden process involving motor neuron death or traumatic injury to the muscle fibre. Functionally, these changes manifest as a reduction in strength and coordination that precedes a loss in muscle mass and contributes to impairments in fatigue. Regular muscle activation in postural muscles or through habitual physical activity can attenuate some of these structural and functional changes up to a point along the ageing continuum. On the other hand, regular muscle activation in advanced age (>75 years) loses its efficacy, and at least in rodents may exacerbate age-related motor neuron death. Transgenic mouse studies aimed at identifying potential mechanisms of motor unit disruptions in ageing muscle are not conclusive due to many different mechanisms converging on similar motor unit alterations, many of which phenocopy ageing muscle. Longitudinal studies of ageing models and humans will help clarify the cause and effect relationships and thus, identify relevant therapeutic targets to better preserve muscle function across the lifespan. PMID:26437581

  8. Mitochondrial proteostasis in the control of aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Martin Borch; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in the aging process. Studies in model organisms have started to integrate mitochondrial effects on aging with the maintenance of protein homeostasis. These findings center on the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), which has been implicated in lifespan extension in worms, flies, and mice, suggesting a conserved role in the long-term maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current knowledge of the UPR(mt) and discuss its integration with cellular pathways known to regulate lifespan. We highlight how insight into the UPR(mt) is revolutionizing our understanding of mitochondrial lifespan extension and of the aging process. PMID:24930971

  9. Mitochondrial proteostasis in the control of aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Martin Borch; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in the aging process. Studies in model organisms have started to integrate mitochondrial effects on aging with the maintenance of protein homeostasis. These findings center on the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), which has been implicated in lifespan extension in worms, flies, and mice, suggesting a conserved role in the long-term maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current knowledge of the UPR(mt) and discuss its integration with cellular pathways known to regulate lifespan. We highlight how insight into the UPR(mt) is revolutionizing our understanding of mitochondrial lifespan extension and of the aging process.

  10. A Matched Control Analysis of Adjuvant and Salvage High-Dose Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ost, Piet; De Troyer, Bart; Fonteyne, Valerie; Oosterlinck, Willem; De Meerleer, Gert

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: It is unclear whether immediate adjuvant radiotherapy for high-risk disease at prostatectomy (capsule perforation, seminal vesicle invasion, and/or positive surgical margins) is equivalent to delayed salvage radiotherapy at biochemical recurrence. We performed a matched case analysis comparing high-dose adjuvant intensity modulated radiotherapy (A-IMRT) with salvage IMRT (S-IMRT). Methods and Materials: One hundred forty-four patients with high-risk disease at prostatectomy were referred for A-IMRT, and 134 patients with high-risk disease were referred at biochemical recurrence (rising prostate-specific antigen [PSA], following prostatectomy, above 0.2 ng/ml) for S-IMRT. Patients were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to preoperative PSA level, Gleason score, and pT stage. Median doses of 74 Gy and 76 Gy were prescribed for A-IMRT and S-IMRT, respectively. We report biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) rates using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine tumour- and treatment-related factors. Results: A total of 178 patients were matched (89:89). From the end of radiotherapy, the median follow-up was 36 months for both groups. The 3-year bRFS rate for the A-IMRT group was 90% compared to 65% for the S-IMRT group (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, S-IMRT, Gleason grades of {>=}4+3, perineural invasion, preoperative PSA level of {>=}10 ng/ml, and omission of androgen deprivation (AD) were independent predictors for a reduced bRFS (p < 0.05). From the date of surgery, the median follow-up was 43 and 60 months for A-IMRT and S-IMRT, respectively. The 3-year bRFS rate for A-IMRT was 91% compared to 79% for S-IMRT (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, Gleason grades of {>=}4+3, perineural invasion, and omission of AD were independent predictors for a reduced bRFS (p < 0.05). S-IMRT was no longer an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.08). Conclusions: High-dose A-IMRT significantly improves 3-year bRFS compared to

  11. Iodine 125 Brachytherapy With Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil in the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma: 1-to-1 Matched Case-Control Series

    SciTech Connect

    McCannel, Tara A. McCannel, Colin A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We initially reported the radiation-attenuating effect of silicone oil 1000 centistokes for iodine 125. The purpose of this report was to compare the clinical outcomes in case patients who had iodine 125 brachytherapy with vitrectomy and silicone oil 1000 centistokes with the outcomes in matched control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with uveal melanoma who were treated with iodine 125 plaque brachytherapy and vitrectomy with silicone oil with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone were matched for tumor size, location, and sex. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics and tumor response to radiation, final visual acuity, macular status, central macular thickness by ocular coherence tomography (OCT), cataract progression, and metastasis at last follow-up visit were compared. Surgical complications were also determined. Results: Twenty case patients met the inclusion criteria. The average follow-up time was 22.1 months in case patients and 19.4 months in control patients. The final logMAR vision was 0.81 in case patients and 1.1 in control patients (P=.071); 8 case patients and 16 control patients had abnormal macular findings (P=.011); and the average central macular thickness by OCT was 293.2 μm in case patients and 408.5 μm in control patients (P=.016). Eleven case patients (55%) and 1 control patient (5%) had required cataract surgery at last follow-up (P=.002). Four patients in the case group and 1 patient in the control group experienced metastasis (P=.18). Among the cases, intraoperative retinal tear occurred in 3 patients; total serous retinal detachment and macular hole developed in 1 case patient each. There was no case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, treatment failure, or local tumor dissemination in case patients or control patients. Conclusions: With up to 3 years of clinical follow-up, silicone oil during brachytherapy

  12. Locus of Control and Psychological Distress among the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, W. Daniel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined relationship between locus of control and self-reported psychopathology in 139 residents of retirement complex. Correlation coefficients computed for locus of control and each of nine symptom dimensions of the Brief Symptom Inventory indicated that locus of control was correlated with self-reported psychopatholgoy for older women but not…

  13. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, Fokke J; Heinemann, Lothar AJ; Graf, Helmut; Lewis, Michael; Moehner, Sabine; Assmann, Anita; Kühl-Habich, Doerthe

    2007-01-01

    Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria) from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile) of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0) and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3) for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD). While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and 1365 controls) showed a

  14. Comparing pyridoxine and doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A matched, controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Eliza; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common gestational condition. This is the first study to compare the use of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) versus Diclectin (doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl) for NVP symptoms. Participants were pregnant women with NVP who used either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for ≥4 days prior to calling the Motherisk NVP Helpline. Women receiving pyridoxine only (n = 80) were matched to a woman taking doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl only (n = 80), accounting for potential confounders and baseline level of NVP, measured by the Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) score. Change in NVP severity after a week of therapy with either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl was quantified using the PUQE-24 scale, which describes NVP symptoms 24 hours prior to their call. Doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use found a significant reduction in PUQE score, compared with pyridoxine (+0.5 versus -0.2, P < .05; negative denotes worsening). This association was especially prominent in women with more severe symptoms, where doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use saw a mean improvement of 2.6 versus 0.4 with pyridoxine (P < .05). As well, doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use was associated with fewer women experiencing moderate to severe scores after a week of treatment, compared with the pyridoxine group (7 versus 17, P < .05), despite similar baseline PUQE scores.

  15. Risk Factors and Outcomes Associated with Acquisition of Colistin-Resistant KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a Matched Case-Control Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Zarkotou, Olympia; Pournaras, Spyros; Voulgari, Evangelia; Chrysos, Georgios; Prekates, Athanassios; Voutsinas, Dionysios; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    A matched 1:3 case-control study investigated factors predicting colistin-resistant versus colistin-susceptible KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition and its impact on patient outcomes. Case patients were more often admitted from other institutions (P = 0.019) and had longer therapy with β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (P = 0.002) and higher overall mortality (P = 0.05). All 52 study isolates were clonally related, suggesting horizontal dissemination. None of these parameters independently predicted colistin resistance, which probably occurred in a susceptible KPC-KP strain that was subsequently disseminated horizontally. PMID:20375234

  16. Community Involvement, Perceived Control, and Attitudes toward Aging among Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A person-environment approach was used to explore the relationship between community involvement and attitudes toward aging among middle-age and older lesbians and gay men. Specifically, this study investigated the relationships between participation in gay community activities, perceived control, and aging-related concerns among two…

  17. Childhood Adversities Are Associated with Shorter Telomere Length at Adult Age both in Individuals with an Anxiety Disorder and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kananen, Laura; Surakka, Ida; Pirkola, Sami; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Ripatti, Samuli; Hovatta, Iiris

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening has been previously associated to self-perceived stress and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood disorders. We set out to investigate whether telomere length is affected in patients with anxiety disorders in which stress is a known risk factor. We also studied the effects of childhood and recent psychological distress on telomere length. We utilized samples from the nationally representative population-based Health 2000 Survey that was carried out between 2000–2001 in Finland to assess major public health problems and their determinants. We measured the relative telomere length of the peripheral blood cells by quantitative real-time PCR from 321 individuals with DSM-IV anxiety disorder or subthreshold diagnosis and 653 matched controls aged 30–87 years, who all had undergone the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. While telomere length did not differ significantly between cases and controls in the entire cohort, the older half of the anxiety disorder patients (48–87 years) exhibited significantly shorter telomeres than healthy controls of the same age (P = 0.013). Interestingly, shorter telomere length was also associated with a greater number of reported childhood adverse life events, among both the anxiety disorder cases and controls (P = 0.005). Childhood chronic or serious illness was the most significantly associated single event affecting telomere length at the adult age (P = 0.004). Self-reported current psychological distress did not affect telomere length. Our results suggest that childhood stress might lead to accelerated telomere shortening seen at the adult age. This finding has potentially important implications supporting the view that childhood adversities might have a considerable impact on well being later in life. PMID:20520834

  18. Inter-image matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Interimage matching is the process of determining the geometric transformation required to conform spatially one image to another. In principle, the parameters of that transformation are varied until some measure of some difference between the two images is minimized or some measure of sameness (e.g., cross-correlation) is maximized. The number of such parameters to vary is faily large (six for merely an affine transformation), and it is customary to attempt an a priori transformation reducing the complexity of the residual transformation or subdivide the image into small enough match zones (control points or patches) that a simple transformation (e.g., pure translation) is applicable, yet large enough to facilitate matching. In the latter case, a complex mapping function is fit to the results (e.g., translation offsets) in all the patches. The methods reviewed have all chosen one or both of the above options, ranging from a priori along-line correction for line-dependent effects (the high-frequency correction) to a full sensor-to-geobase transformation with subsequent subdivision into a grid of match points.

  19. Effects of Morphine on Temporal Discrimination and Color Matching: General Disruption of Stimulus Control or Selective Effects on Timing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ryan D.; Odum, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    Discrepant effects of drugs on behavior maintained by temporal-discrimination procedures make conclusive statements about the neuropharmacological bases of timing difficult. The current experiment examined the possible contribution of a general, drug-induced disruption of stimulus control. Four pigeons responded on a three-component multiple…

  20. Incident Comorbidities and All-Cause Mortality among Five-Year Survivors of Stage I and II Breast Cancer Diagnosed at Age 65 or Older: A Prospective Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jennifer H.; Thwin, Soe Soe; Lash, Timothy L.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Field, Terry S.; Haque, Reina; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Petersen, Hans V.; Prout, Marianne N.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Geiger, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Five-year breast cancer survivors, diagnosed after 65 years of age, may develop more incident comorbidities than similar populations free of cancer. We investigated if older breast cancer survivors have a similar comorbidity burden 6–15 years after cancer diagnosis to matched women free of breast cancer at start of follow-up and if incident comorbidities are associated with all-cause mortality. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 1,361 older five-year early stage breast cancer survivors diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 and 1,361 age- and health system-matched women were followed for ten years. Adjudicated medical record review captured prevalent and incident comorbidities during follow-up or until death as collected from the National Death Index. Results Older five-year breast cancer survivors did not acquire incident comorbidities more often than matched women free of breast cancer in the subsequent 10 years (HR=1.0, 95%CI: 0.93,1.1). Adjusted for cohort membership, women with incident comorbidities had a higher mortality rate than those without incident comorbidities (HR=4.8, 95%CI: 4.1,5.6). A breast cancer history continued to be a hazard for mortality 6–15 years after diagnosis (HR=1.3, 95%CI: 1.1,1.4). Conclusions We found that older breast cancer survivors who developed comorbidities had an increased all-cause mortality rate even after adjusting for age and prevalent comorbidity burden. Additionally, survivors acquire comorbidities at a rate similar to older women free of breast cancer. These results highlight the association between comorbidity burden and long-term mortality risk among older breast cancer survivors and their need for appropriate oncology and primary care follow-up. PMID:24939060

  1. Global Research in an Age of Export Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    When a jury convicted a Tennessee professor this month of illegally exporting information to foreign countries via his graduate students and a trip to China, it sent a message to colleges that they need to scrupulously monitor their faculty members' research and their compliance with the often confusing universe of export-control regulations. In…

  2. Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher; And Others

    Experiences with uncontrollable events may lead to the expectation that future events will elude control, resulting in disruptions in motivation, emotion, and learning. This text explores this phenomenon, termed learned helplessness, tracking it from its discovery to its entrenchment in the psychological canon. The volume summarizes and integrates…

  3. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  4. The influence of caregivers and behavioral and psychological symptoms on nursing home placement of persons with Alzheimer’s disease: A matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Candace N; Miller, Margaret C; Lane, Marcia; Cornman, Carol; Sarsour, Khaled; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and caregiver characteristics may influence the decision to provide care at home or in a nursing home, though few studies examine this association near the actual time of nursing home placement. Using a matched case–control design, this study investigates the association between (1) total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score, (2) the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-4 (an agitation/aggression subscale), and (3) individual domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and nursing home placement. Methods: Data from the South Carolina Alzheimer’s disease Registry provides an opportunity to expand the literature by looking at cases at the time of nursing home care eligibility/placement and allowing for propensity-score-matched controls. Cases (n = 352) entered a nursing home within 6 months of study initiation; controls (n = 289) remained in the community. Registry data were combined with caregiver survey data, including the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Conditional logistic regression was applied. Results: A 10% increase in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score implied a 30% increase in odds of nursing home admission (odds ratio: 1.30; 95% confidence interval: 1.14–1.50), having married or male caregivers predicted nursing home placement. Cases versus controls were significantly more likely to have behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia related to agitation/aggression 1 month prior to nursing home admission. Conclusion: Interventions targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia without available effective interventions in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and caregiver support services are necessary to prevent or delay nursing home admission.

  5. The influence of caregivers and behavioral and psychological symptoms on nursing home placement of persons with Alzheimer’s disease: A matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Candace N; Miller, Margaret C; Lane, Marcia; Cornman, Carol; Sarsour, Khaled; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and caregiver characteristics may influence the decision to provide care at home or in a nursing home, though few studies examine this association near the actual time of nursing home placement. Using a matched case–control design, this study investigates the association between (1) total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score, (2) the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-4 (an agitation/aggression subscale), and (3) individual domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and nursing home placement. Methods: Data from the South Carolina Alzheimer’s disease Registry provides an opportunity to expand the literature by looking at cases at the time of nursing home care eligibility/placement and allowing for propensity-score-matched controls. Cases (n = 352) entered a nursing home within 6 months of study initiation; controls (n = 289) remained in the community. Registry data were combined with caregiver survey data, including the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Conditional logistic regression was applied. Results: A 10% increase in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score implied a 30% increase in odds of nursing home admission (odds ratio: 1.30; 95% confidence interval: 1.14–1.50), having married or male caregivers predicted nursing home placement. Cases versus controls were significantly more likely to have behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia related to agitation/aggression 1 month prior to nursing home admission. Conclusion: Interventions targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia without available effective interventions in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and caregiver support services are necessary to prevent or delay nursing home admission. PMID:27606063

  6. Acoustic Beam Forming Array Using Feedback-Controlled Microphones for Tuning and Self-Matching of Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliffe, Eliott (Inventor); Naguib, Ahmed (Inventor); Humphreys, Jr., William M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A feedback-controlled microphone includes a microphone body and a membrane operatively connected to the body. The membrane is configured to be initially deflected by acoustic pressure such that the initial deflection is characterized by a frequency response. The microphone also includes a sensor configured to detect the frequency response of the initial deflection and generate an output voltage indicative thereof. The microphone additionally includes a compensator in electric communication with the sensor and configured to establish a regulated voltage in response to the output voltage. Furthermore, the microphone includes an actuator in electric communication with the compensator, wherein the actuator is configured to secondarily deflect the membrane in opposition to the initial deflection such that the frequency response is adjusted. An acoustic beam forming microphone array including a plurality of the above feedback-controlled microphones is also disclosed.

  7. Controlled processes account for age-related decrease in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Adam, Stéphane; der Linden, Martial Van; Morais, José

    2007-05-01

    A decrease in controlled processes has been proposed to be responsible for age-related episodic memory decline. We used the Process Dissociation Procedure, a method that attempts to estimate the contribution of controlled and automatic processes to cognitive performance, and entered both estimates in regression analyses. Results indicate that only controlled processes explained a great part of the age-related variance in a word recall task, especially when little environmental support was offered. PMID:16860766

  8. Optimal Control of Markov Processes with Age-Dependent Transition Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Mrinal K. Saha, Subhamay

    2012-10-15

    We study optimal control of Markov processes with age-dependent transition rates. The control policy is chosen continuously over time based on the state of the process and its age. We study infinite horizon discounted cost and infinite horizon average cost problems. Our approach is via the construction of an equivalent semi-Markov decision process. We characterise the value function and optimal controls for both discounted and average cost cases.

  9. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and cortisol release in first-degree relatives of type I and type II bipolar patients and healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, S; Honig, A; Nicolson, N A; Riedel, W J

    2002-11-01

    Biological vulnerability for bipolar disorders (BD) in relatives of BD patients has not as yet been established. Serotonergic vulnerability was studied, using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), in healthy first-degree relatives of BD patients and healthy controls. The effects of ATD on mood and cortisol release in 30 healthy adult, lifetime symptom free, unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients (Family History; FH) were compared with effects in 15 healthy matched controls in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design. During ATD and placebo, salivary cortisol response was also assessed during a stress-inducing speech task (SIST). First-degree relatives of type II BD patients (FH II) showed an elevation of mood, whereas control subjects and relatives of type I BD patients (FH I) showed a lowering of mood after ATD. ATD was followed by a decrease in cortisol level in both FH subgroups, but not in the controls. The results suggest serotonergic vulnerability that affected mood in FH II subjects and cortisol release in both FH I and FH II subjects.

  10. Controlling for sugar and ascorbic acid, a mixture of flavonoids matching navel oranges significantly increases human postprandial serum antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Shannon M; Reber, Josh D; Freeman, Brenner L; Orgad, Kfir; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2011-07-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease development. The postprandial state is an important contributor to chronic disease development. Orange flavonoids may reduce postprandial oxidation. It was hypothesized that a mixture of orange flavonoids would reduce postprandial oxidation better than a single orange flavonoid or orange sugar and ascorbic acid, but not as well as orange juice, when consumed with a typical breakfast. A placebo-controlled crossover trial (16 male and female participants, 4 treatments, 4 visits) was carried out. Treatments were placebo (ascorbic acid and sugar equivalent to orange juice); placebo plus hesperidin; placebo plus hesperidin, luteolin, and naringenin (mixture; found to have synergistic antioxidant properties in vitro in previous work); and orange juice (positive control). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total plasma phenolics (TP), and serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) were measured after a 12-hour baseline fast and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after sample consumption. The placebo plus mixture and orange juice groups were significantly increased in ORAC and LO lag time. Data for TP were inconsistent with ORAC and LO. Contrary to previous studies attributing the protective postprandial effect to fructose and ascorbate in other fruit trials, orange phenolic compounds contribute directly to the postprandial oxidative protection of serum, despite an inconsistent change in serum TP.

  11. Aging commuter aeroplanes: Fatigue evaluation and control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmerson, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of reliability in aircraft is caused by two broad classes of problems. There are those problems which are self evident and hazardous rather than catastrophic. These are the problem areas where characteristically there have been multiple overhauls, repairs, and replacements, and where aging really means the results of repair ineffectiveness that accumulates. The other class of the problem is the insidious and potentially catastrophic class. It includes the progressive deterioration of items that are not maintained, and often cannot be maintained because the deterioration cannot be seen. It includes the loss of physical properties in adhesives and other organic compounds, corrosion, and the response of repeated loads. Dealt with here is a currently unnecessarily troublesome aspect of that response. Although we must remain concerned about those types of aircraft which have been certified under a design standard or operational rule which embodies the elementary fail-safe concept and which have not been subjected to a subsequent structural audit, the focus here is on types of aircraft for which fatigue and damage tolerance evaluation was not required as a condition of certification.

  12. Evidence-based decision-making in infectious diseases epidemiology, prevention and control: matching research questions to study designs and quality appraisal tools

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT) was initiated and is being funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to define a methodology for evaluating and grading evidence and strength of recommendations in the field of public health, with emphasis on infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control. One of the first steps was to review existing quality appraisal tools (QATs) for individual research studies of various designs relevant to this area, using a question-based approach. Methods Through team discussions and expert consultations, we identified 20 relevant types of public health questions, which were grouped into six domains, i.e. characteristics of the pathogen, burden of disease, diagnosis, risk factors, intervention, and implementation of intervention. Previously published systematic reviews were used and supplemented by expert consultation to identify suitable QATs. Finally, a matrix was constructed for matching questions to study designs suitable to address them and respective QATs. Key features of each of the included QATs were then analyzed, in particular in respect to its intended use, types of questions and answers, presence/absence of a quality score, and if a validation was performed. Results In total we identified 21 QATs and 26 study designs, and matched them. Four QATs were suitable for experimental quantitative study designs, eleven for observational quantitative studies, two for qualitative studies, three for economic studies, one for diagnostic test accuracy studies, and one for animal studies. Included QATs consisted of six to 28 items. Six of the QATs had a summary quality score. Fourteen QATs had undergone at least one validation procedure. Conclusions The results of this methodological study can be used as an inventory of potentially relevant questions, appropriate study designs and QATs for researchers and authorities engaged with evidence-based decision

  13. The Impact of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Program on Absenteeism, Diarrhea, and Respiratory Infection: A Matched-Control Trial in Mali.

    PubMed

    Trinies, Victoria; Garn, Joshua V; Chang, Howard H; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a matched-control trial in Mali to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) intervention on pupil absence, diarrhea, and respiratory infections. After completion of the intervention, data were collected from 100 beneficiary schools and 100 matched comparison schools in 5-6 sessions over a 14-month period. Data collection included roll calls to assess absenteeism and interviews with a subset of pupils to assess recent absence and disease symptoms. The odds of pupils being absent at roll call were 23% higher in beneficiary schools than in comparison schools (odds ratio [OR]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.42). The odds of pupils reporting being absent due to diarrhea (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94) or having had diarrhea (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.85) or respiratory infection symptoms (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.86) in the past week were lower in beneficiary schools compared with comparison schools. We found that a school-based WASH intervention can have a positive effect on reducing rates of illness, as well as absence due to diarrhea. However, we did not find evidence that these health impacts led to a reduction in overall absence. Higher absence rates are less likely attributable to the intervention than the result of an imbalance in unobserved confounders between study groups. PMID:27114292

  14. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, and 29.7 kg/m2). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min), and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. RESULTS Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher pulse pressure, heart rate, and double product of pulse pressure and heart rate (PP×HR) (type 1: 5,263 vs. 4,121 mmHg/min, P = 0.0004; type 2: 5,359 vs. 4,321 mmHg, P = 0.0023) levels than corresponding control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding pulse pressure (59 vs. 58 mmHg), heart rate (89 vs. 88/min), and PP×HR (5,263 vs. 5,359 mmHg/min). CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PP×HR, an index of pulsatile stress, comparable to those of nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. PMID:20693351

  15. Does Verbal Labeling Influence Age Differences in Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kray, Jutta; Schmitt, Hannah; Heintz, Sonja; Blaye, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine whether different types of verbal labeling can influence age-related changes in the dynamic control of behavior by inducing either a proactive or reactive mode of control. Proactive control is characterized by a strong engagement in maintaining task-relevant information to be optimally prepared while…

  16. Lead-free electric matches.

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S. F.; Hiskey, M. A.; Naud, D.; Busse, J. R.; Asay, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    Electric matches are used in pyrotechnics to initiate devices electrically rather than by burning fuses. Fuses have the disadvantage of burning with a long delay before igniting a pyrotechnic device, while electric matches can instantaneously fire a device at a user's command. In addition, electric matches can be fired remotely at a safe distance. Unfortunately, most current commercial electric match compositions contain lead as thiocyanate, nitroresorcinate or tetroxide, which when burned, produces lead-containing smoke. This lead pollutant presents environmental exposure problems to cast, crew, and audience. The reason that these lead containing compounds are used as electric match compositions is that these mixtures have the required thermal stability, yet are simultaneously able to be initiated reliably by a very small thermal stimulus. A possible alternative to lead-containing compounds is nanoscale thermite materials (metastable intermolecular composites or MIC). These superthermite materials can be formulated to be extremely spark sensitive with tunable reaction rate and yield high temperature products. We have formulated and manufactured lead-free electric matches based on nanoscale Al/MoO{sub 3} mixtures. We have determined that these matches fire reliably and to consistently ignite a sample of black powder. Initial safety, ageing and performance results are presented in this paper.

  17. Use of avilamycin for growth promotion and avilamycin-resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers in a matched case-control study in France.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, C; Gicquel-Bruneau, M; Perrin-Guyomard, A; Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Guillemot, D; Sanders, P

    2005-09-12

    We assessed the putative link between avilamycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium carriage and avilamycin consumption in broilers. As part of the French programme of monitoring for antimicrobial resistance, broilers sampled at slaughterhouse in 1999 and 2000 and carrying avilamycin-resistant E. faecium were matched by slaughterhouse, slaughter month and production type (free-range, standard, light) with control broilers carrying avilamycin-susceptible strains. History of antibiotics consumption (either for growth promotion or therapeutic purpose) in the broiler flocks sampled was collected from the monitoring programme and consumption of each antibiotic class was screened as a potential risk factor. Avilamycin was a risk factor for avilamycin-resistant E. faecium carriage: OR=2.3. PMID:16023523

  18. Age-related decline in cognitive control: the role of fluid intelligence and processing speed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on cognitive control suggests an age-related decline in proactive control abilities whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. However, the reason of the differential age effect on cognitive control efficiency is still unclear. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence and processing speed on the selective age-related decline in proactive control. Eighty young and 80 healthy older adults were included in this study. The participants were submitted to a working memory recognition paradigm, assessing proactive and reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs and hierarchical linear regressions indicated that the ability to appropriately use cognitive control processes during aging seems to be at least partially affected by the amount of available cognitive resources (assessed by fluid intelligence and processing speed abilities). Conclusions This study highlights the potential role of cognitive resources on the selective age-related decline in proactive control, suggesting the importance of a more exhaustive approach considering the confounding variables during cognitive control assessment. PMID:24401034

  19. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. PMID:24632351

  20. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment.

  1. Age, education, and the gender gap in the sense of control.

    PubMed

    Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette

    2008-01-01

    High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.

  2. The effect of aging on fronto-striatal reactive and proactive inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Kleerekooper, Iris; van Rooij, Sanne J H; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; de Leeuw, Max; Kahn, Rene S; Vink, Matthijs

    2016-05-15

    Inhibitory control, like most cognitive processes, is subject to an age-related decline. The effect of age on neurofunctional inhibition processing remains uncertain, with age-related increases as well as decreases in activation being reported. This is possibly because reactive (i.e., outright stopping) and proactive inhibition (i.e., anticipation of stopping) have not been evaluated separately. Here, we investigate the effects of aging on reactive as well as proactive inhibition, using functional MRI in 73 healthy subjects aged 30-70years. We found reactive inhibition to slow down with advancing age, which was paralleled by increased activation in the motor cortex. Behaviorally, older adults did not exercise increased proactive inhibition strategies compared to younger adults. However, the pattern of activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) showed a clear age-effect on proactive inhibition: rather than flexibly engaging the rIFG in response to varying stop-signal probabilities, older subjects showed an overall hyperactivation. Whole-brain analyses revealed similar hyperactivations in various other frontal and parietal brain regions. These results are in line with the neural compensation hypothesis of aging: processing becomes less flexible and efficient with advancing age, which is compensated for by overall enhanced activation. Moreover, by disentangling reactive and proactive inhibition, we can show for the first time that the age-related increase in activation during inhibition that is reported generally by prior studies may be the result of compensation for reduced neural flexibility related to proactive control strategies.

  3. Health care resource utilisation in primary care prior to and after a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: a retrospective, matched case–control study in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined medical resource utilisation patterns in the United Kingdom (UK) prior to and following Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis. Methods A patient cohort aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed AD between January 2008 and December 2010 was identified through the UK’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with a continuous record in the CPRD (formerly the General Practice Research Database [GPRD]) for both the 3 years prior to, and the 1 year following, AD diagnosis were eligible for inclusion. A control cohort was identified by matching general older adult (GOA) patients to patients with AD based on year of birth, gender, region, and Charlson Comorbidity Index at a ratio of 2:1. Medical resource utilisation was calculated in 6-month intervals over the 4-year study period. Comparisons between AD and GOA control cohorts were conducted using conditional logistic regression for patient characteristics and a generalised linear model for resource utilisation. Results Data for the AD cohort (N = 3,896) and matched GOA control cohort (N = 7,792) were extracted from the CPRD. The groups were 65% female and the AD cohort had a mean age of 79.9 years (standard deviation 6.5 years) at the date of diagnosis. Over the entire study period, the AD cohort had a significantly higher mean primary care consultation rate than the GOA cohort (p < .0001). While the GOA cohort primary care consultation rate gradually increased over the 4-year period (ranging from 5 to 7 consultations per 6-month period), increases were more pronounced in the AD cohort (ranging from 6 to 11 consultations per 6-month period, peaking during the 6-month periods immediately prior to and post diagnosis). The AD cohort also had a higher overall specialty referral rate than the GOA cohort over the 4-year period (37% vs. 25%, respectively; p < .0001); the largest difference was during the 6 months immediately prior to AD diagnosis (17% vs. 5

  4. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen L; Shafto, Meredith A; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2015-11-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory.

  5. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen L; Shafto, Meredith A; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2015-11-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  6. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen L.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Duncan, John; Henson, Rik; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Davis, Simon; Geerligs, Linda; Kievit, Rogier; McCarrey, Anna; Price, Darren; Taylor, Jason; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Dixon, Marie; Barnes, Dan; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  7. Peripheral mechanisms of thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow in aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2010-01-01

    Human skin blood flow is controlled via dual innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction and vasodilation are both impaired with primary aging, rendering the aged more vulnerable to hypothermia and cardiovascular complications from heat-related illness. Age-related alterations in the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow occur at multiple points along the efferent arm of the reflex, including 1) diminished sympathetic outflow, 2) altered presynaptic neurotransmitter synthesis, 3) reduced vascular responsiveness, and 4) impairments in downstream (endothelial and vascular smooth muscle) second-messenger signaling. This mechanistic review highlights some of the recent findings in the area of aging and the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. PMID:20413421

  8. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  9. Risk Factors Associated With Early Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Results From a Multinational Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    López-Medrano, F; Silva, J T; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Carver, P L; van Delden, C; Merino, E; Pérez-Saez, M J; Montero, M; Coussement, J; de Abreu Mazzolin, M; Cervera, C; Santos, L; Sabé, N; Scemla, A; Cordero, E; Cruzado-Vega, L; Martín-Moreno, P L; Len, Ó; Rudas, E; de León, A Ponce; Arriola, M; Lauzurica, R; David, M; González-Rico, C; Henríquez-Palop, F; Fortún, J; Nucci, M; Manuel, O; Paño-Pardo, J R; Montejo, M; Muñoz, P; Sánchez-Sobrino, B; Mazuecos, A; Pascual, J; Horcajada, J P; Lecompte, T; Lumbreras, C; Moreno, A; Carratalà, J; Blanes, M; Hernández, D; Hernández-Méndez, E A; Fariñas, M C; Perelló-Carrascosa, M; Morales, J M; Andrés, A; Aguado, J M

    2016-07-01

    Risk factors for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) after kidney transplantation have been poorly explored. We performed a multinational case-control study that included 51 kidney transplant (KT) recipients diagnosed with early (first 180 posttransplant days) IPA at 19 institutions between 2000 and 2013. Control recipients were matched (1:1 ratio) by center and date of transplantation. Overall mortality among cases was 60.8%, and 25.0% of living recipients experienced graft loss. Pretransplant diagnosis of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD; odds ratio [OR]: 9.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-90.58; p = 0.041) and delayed graft function (OR: 3.40; 95% CI: 1.08-10.73; p = 0.037) were identified as independent risk factors for IPA among those variables already available in the immediate peritransplant period. The development of bloodstream infection (OR: 18.76; 95% CI: 1.04-339.37; p = 0.047) and acute graft rejection (OR: 40.73, 95% CI: 3.63-456.98; p = 0.003) within the 3 mo prior to the diagnosis of IPA acted as risk factors during the subsequent period. In conclusion, pretransplant COPD, impaired graft function and the occurrence of serious posttransplant infections may be useful to identify KT recipients at the highest risk of early IPA. Future studies should explore the potential benefit of antimold prophylaxis in this group. PMID:26813515

  10. Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviours in elementary school students: a matched-pair randomised control trial in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Washburn, Isaac; DuBois, David L; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; Brechling, Vanessa; Day, Joseph; Beets, Michael W; Acock, Alan C; Berbaum, Michael; Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian R

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the effects of the Positive Action (PA) programme in Chicago Public Schools on problem behaviours among a cohort of elementary school students from grade three through grade five. Using a matched-pair, randomised control design with 14 elementary schools, approximately 510 fifth-graders self-reported lifetime substance use, serious violence-related behaviour, and current bullying and disruptive behaviours. Three-level (i.e. students nested within schools within school pairs) overdispersed Poisson models were used to examine programme effects on the number of items endorsed for each of the four outcomes. Findings indicated that students in the intervention endorsed 31% fewer substance use behaviours (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.69), 37% fewer violence-related behaviours (IRR = 0.63) and 41% fewer bullying behaviours (IRR = 0.59), respectively, compared to students in the control schools. Reduction in reported disruptive behaviours was of a similar magnitude (27%, IRR = 0.73), but was not statistically significant. These results replicate findings of an earlier randomised trial of the PA programme and extend evidence of its effectiveness to youth attending large urban school systems.

  11. Risk Factors Associated With Early Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Results From a Multinational Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    López-Medrano, F; Silva, J T; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Carver, P L; van Delden, C; Merino, E; Pérez-Saez, M J; Montero, M; Coussement, J; de Abreu Mazzolin, M; Cervera, C; Santos, L; Sabé, N; Scemla, A; Cordero, E; Cruzado-Vega, L; Martín-Moreno, P L; Len, Ó; Rudas, E; de León, A Ponce; Arriola, M; Lauzurica, R; David, M; González-Rico, C; Henríquez-Palop, F; Fortún, J; Nucci, M; Manuel, O; Paño-Pardo, J R; Montejo, M; Muñoz, P; Sánchez-Sobrino, B; Mazuecos, A; Pascual, J; Horcajada, J P; Lecompte, T; Lumbreras, C; Moreno, A; Carratalà, J; Blanes, M; Hernández, D; Hernández-Méndez, E A; Fariñas, M C; Perelló-Carrascosa, M; Morales, J M; Andrés, A; Aguado, J M

    2016-07-01

    Risk factors for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) after kidney transplantation have been poorly explored. We performed a multinational case-control study that included 51 kidney transplant (KT) recipients diagnosed with early (first 180 posttransplant days) IPA at 19 institutions between 2000 and 2013. Control recipients were matched (1:1 ratio) by center and date of transplantation. Overall mortality among cases was 60.8%, and 25.0% of living recipients experienced graft loss. Pretransplant diagnosis of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD; odds ratio [OR]: 9.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-90.58; p = 0.041) and delayed graft function (OR: 3.40; 95% CI: 1.08-10.73; p = 0.037) were identified as independent risk factors for IPA among those variables already available in the immediate peritransplant period. The development of bloodstream infection (OR: 18.76; 95% CI: 1.04-339.37; p = 0.047) and acute graft rejection (OR: 40.73, 95% CI: 3.63-456.98; p = 0.003) within the 3 mo prior to the diagnosis of IPA acted as risk factors during the subsequent period. In conclusion, pretransplant COPD, impaired graft function and the occurrence of serious posttransplant infections may be useful to identify KT recipients at the highest risk of early IPA. Future studies should explore the potential benefit of antimold prophylaxis in this group.

  12. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC-male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging.

  13. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC–male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. PMID:25470527

  14. Aetiology of diarrhoeal disease and evaluation of viral–bacterial coinfection in children under 5 years old in China: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.L.; Liu, N.; Humphries, E.M.; Yu, J.M.; Li, S.; Lindsay, B.R.; Stine, O.C.; Duan, Z.J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, diarrhoeal diseases are the second leading cause of death among children under 5 years old. Few case–control studies on the aetiology of diarrhoea have been conducted in China. A case–control study on 922 children under 5 years old who presented with diarrhoea and individually matched controls was conducted in China between May 2011 and January 2013. Quantitative PCR was used to analyze stool samples for 10 diarrhoeal pathogens. Potential enteric pathogens were detected in 377 (81.8%) of 461 children with diarrhoea and 215 controls (46.6%, p <0.001). Rotavirus, norovirus GII, Shigella and adenovirus were qualitatively associated with diarrhoea. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal cutoff threshold for defining a symptomatic individual was 72, 5840, and 104 copies per reaction for rotavirus (odds ratio 259), norovirus GII (odds ratio 10.6) and Shigella (odds ratio 5.1). The attributable fractions were 0.18 for rotavirus, 0.08 for norovirus GII, 0.01 for Shigella and 0.04 for adenovirus. Coinfections between pathogens were common. Two pairs, rotavirus and adenovirus, and norovirus GII and Salmonella were positively associated. The co-occurrence of rotavirus and sapovirus, astrovirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli or Campylobacter jejuni only occurred in children with disease. Coinfection was not correlated with clinical symptoms. Quantitative data are critical. Our results indicate that increased pathogen loads increase the OR between diarrhoea and rotavirus, norovirus GII and Shigella. Coinfections with rotavirus and norovirus GII are common and occur in a nonrandom distribution. Despite testing for ten diarrhoeal pathogens, over two-thirds of cases do not have a recognized attributable cause. PMID:26724990

  15. Pontryagin's principle for control problems in age-dependent population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Brokate, M

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, Pontryagin's principle is proved for a fairly general problem of optimal control of populations with continuous time and age variable. As a consequence, maximum principles are developed for an optimal harvesting problem and a problem of optimal birth control.

  16. Disseminating the Positively Aging[R] Teaching Materials: Results of a Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of 2 dissemination methods for the Positively Aging teaching materials. In San Antonio, Texas, 4 middle schools participated in a 3-year controlled trial of dissemination via distance electronic support alone (control) compared to distance electronic support plus in-school support from study staff…

  17. Accelerated aging of extruded dielectric power cables. Part 1; Control and monitoring methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, M.S.; Smith, J.T. III ); Thue, W.A. )

    1992-04-01

    In accelerated cable life testing of power cables, cable samples are usually subjected to elevated voltages and temperatures in the presence of water in order to promote aging of the insulation and premature failures through the treeing mechanism. Failure to accurately control and monitor these accelerating facts can have adverse effects on test results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. In this paper, a new and improved accelerated cable life test is described. Through the use of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), very precise and consistent control of the accelerated aging process has been achieved. A computer has been utilized to make continuous real-time data acquisition and storage to key operating parameters possible. This precise control of monitoring methodology has permitted the study of the synergistic effects of voltage and temperature on the accelerated aging of full-sized cables in the laboratory.

  18. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  19. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  20. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  1. Effects of a School-Based Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on Health Behaviors: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M; Acock, Alan; DuBois, David L; Yan, Zi; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Day, Joseph; Flay, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    There is considerable research that suggests that school-based social-emotional programs can foster improved mental health and reduce problem behaviors for participating youth; in contrast, much less is known about the impact of these programs on physical health, even though some of these programs also include at least limited direct attention to promoting physical health behaviors. We examined the effects of one such program, Positive Action (PA), on physical health behaviors and body mass index (BMI), and tested for mediation of program effects through a measure of social-emotional and character development (SECD). Participating schools in the matched-pair, cluster-randomized trial were 14 low-performing K-8 Chicago Public Schools. We followed a cohort of students in each school from grades 3 to 8 (eight waves of data collection; 1170 total students). Student self-reports of health behaviors served as the basis for measures of healthy eating and exercise, unhealthy eating, personal hygiene, consistent bedtime, and SECD. We collected height and weight measurements at endpoint to calculate age- and gender-adjusted BMI z-scores. Longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses revealed evidence of favorable program effects on personal hygiene [effect size (ES) = 0.48], healthy eating and exercise (ES = 0.21), and unhealthy eating (ES = -0.19); in addition, BMI z-scores were lower among students in PA schools at endpoint (ES = -0.21). Program effects were not moderated by either gender or student mobility. Longitudinal structural equation modeling demonstrated mediation through SECD for healthy eating and exercise, unhealthy eating, and personal hygiene. Findings suggest that a SECD program without a primary focus on health behavior promotion can have a modest impact on outcomes in this domain during the childhood to adolescence transition. PMID:26781590

  2. Effects of a School-Based Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on Health Behaviors: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M; Acock, Alan; DuBois, David L; Yan, Zi; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Day, Joseph; Flay, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    There is considerable research that suggests that school-based social-emotional programs can foster improved mental health and reduce problem behaviors for participating youth; in contrast, much less is known about the impact of these programs on physical health, even though some of these programs also include at least limited direct attention to promoting physical health behaviors. We examined the effects of one such program, Positive Action (PA), on physical health behaviors and body mass index (BMI), and tested for mediation of program effects through a measure of social-emotional and character development (SECD). Participating schools in the matched-pair, cluster-randomized trial were 14 low-performing K-8 Chicago Public Schools. We followed a cohort of students in each school from grades 3 to 8 (eight waves of data collection; 1170 total students). Student self-reports of health behaviors served as the basis for measures of healthy eating and exercise, unhealthy eating, personal hygiene, consistent bedtime, and SECD. We collected height and weight measurements at endpoint to calculate age- and gender-adjusted BMI z-scores. Longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses revealed evidence of favorable program effects on personal hygiene [effect size (ES) = 0.48], healthy eating and exercise (ES = 0.21), and unhealthy eating (ES = -0.19); in addition, BMI z-scores were lower among students in PA schools at endpoint (ES = -0.21). Program effects were not moderated by either gender or student mobility. Longitudinal structural equation modeling demonstrated mediation through SECD for healthy eating and exercise, unhealthy eating, and personal hygiene. Findings suggest that a SECD program without a primary focus on health behavior promotion can have a modest impact on outcomes in this domain during the childhood to adolescence transition.

  3. Using social-emotional and character development to improve academic outcomes: a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial in low-income, urban schools

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD, but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. METHODS The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. RESULTS PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. CONCLUSIONS A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes. PMID:24138347

  4. Effectiveness of Short-Term Inpatient Psychotherapy Based on Transactional Analysis With Patients With Personality Disorders: A Matched Control Study Using Propensity Score.

    PubMed

    Horn, Eva K; Verheul, Roel; Thunnissen, Moniek; Delimon, Jos; Soons, Mirjam; Meerman, Anke M M A; Ziegler, Uli M; Rossum, Bert V; Andrea, Helene; Stijnen, Theo; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2015-10-01

    Controlled studies on the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy with patients with personality disorders (PD) are rare. This study aims to compare 3-month short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis (STIP-TA) with other psychotherapies (OP) up to 36-month follow-up. PD patients treated with STIP-TA were matched with OP patients using the propensity score. The primary outcome measure was general psychiatric symptomatology; secondary outcomes were psychosocial functioning and quality of life. In 67 pairs of patients, both STIP-TA and OP showed large symptomatic and functional improvements. However, STIP-TA patients showed more symptomatic improvement at all time points compared to OP patients. At 36 months, 68% of STIP-TA patients were symptomatically recovered compared to 48% of OP patients. STIP-TA outperformed OP in terms of improvements in general psychiatric symptomatology and quality of life. Superiority of STIP-TA was most pronounced at 12-month follow-up, but remained intact over the course of the 3-year follow-up.

  5. The effect of aging on fronto-striatal reactive and proactive inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Kleerekooper, Iris; van Rooij, Sanne J H; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; de Leeuw, Max; Kahn, Rene S; Vink, Matthijs

    2016-05-15

    Inhibitory control, like most cognitive processes, is subject to an age-related decline. The effect of age on neurofunctional inhibition processing remains uncertain, with age-related increases as well as decreases in activation being reported. This is possibly because reactive (i.e., outright stopping) and proactive inhibition (i.e., anticipation of stopping) have not been evaluated separately. Here, we investigate the effects of aging on reactive as well as proactive inhibition, using functional MRI in 73 healthy subjects aged 30-70years. We found reactive inhibition to slow down with advancing age, which was paralleled by increased activation in the motor cortex. Behaviorally, older adults did not exercise increased proactive inhibition strategies compared to younger adults. However, the pattern of activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) showed a clear age-effect on proactive inhibition: rather than flexibly engaging the rIFG in response to varying stop-signal probabilities, older subjects showed an overall hyperactivation. Whole-brain analyses revealed similar hyperactivations in various other frontal and parietal brain regions. These results are in line with the neural compensation hypothesis of aging: processing becomes less flexible and efficient with advancing age, which is compensated for by overall enhanced activation. Moreover, by disentangling reactive and proactive inhibition, we can show for the first time that the age-related increase in activation during inhibition that is reported generally by prior studies may be the result of compensation for reduced neural flexibility related to proactive control strategies. PMID:26899783

  6. Age-related changes in executive control and their relationships with activity performance in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Fogel, Yael

    2013-04-01

    Deterioration in the frontal and prefrontal cortex associated with executive functions (EF) occurs with age and may be associated with changes in daily performance. The aim of the present study was to describe changes occurring with age in Executive Functions (EF) and handwriting activity, as well as to analyze relationships between age, EF and handwriting performance. The study population included 80 healthy participants (aged 31 to 76+) living in the community. After answering five questions about their writing habits, the participants completed the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). In addition, they performed a handwriting task on a digitizer included in the Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET), which provides kinematic measures of the handwriting process. Significant differences were found between the four age groups for both EF and temporal and spatial handwriting measures. A series of regressions indicated that age predicted 35% of the variance of the BADS profile score (EF control) and 32% of the variance of in-air time while writing. The results of this study indicated age effect on both EF control and handwriting performance. Possible implications for further research and clinical evaluation and intervention are discussed. PMID:23558056

  7. Matching a Distribution by Matching Quantiles Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sgouropoulos, Nikolaos; Yao, Qiwei; Yastremiz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of selecting representative portfolios for backtesting counterparty credit risks, we propose a matching quantiles estimation (MQE) method for matching a target distribution by that of a linear combination of a set of random variables. An iterative procedure based on the ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS) is proposed to compute MQE. MQE can be easily modified by adding a LASSO penalty term if a sparse representation is desired, or by restricting the matching within certain range of quantiles to match a part of the target distribution. The convergence of the algorithm and the asymptotic properties of the estimation, both with or without LASSO, are established. A measure and an associated statistical test are proposed to assess the goodness-of-match. The finite sample properties are illustrated by simulation. An application in selecting a counterparty representative portfolio with a real dataset is reported. The proposed MQE also finds applications in portfolio tracking, which demonstrates the usefulness of combining MQE with LASSO. PMID:26692592

  8. Cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and memory in the aging bilingual brain

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Angela; Dennis, Nancy A.; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In recent years bilingualism has been linked to both advantages in executive control and positive impacts on aging. Such positive cognitive effects of bilingualism have been attributed to the increased need for language control during bilingual processing and increased cognitive reserve, respectively. However, a mechanistic explanation of how bilingual experience contributes to cognitive reserve is still lacking. The current paper proposes a new focus on bilingual memory as an avenue to explore the relationship between executive control and cognitive reserve. We argue that this focus will enhance our understanding of the functional and structural neural mechanisms underlying bilingualism-induced cognitive effects. With this perspective we discuss and integrate recent cognitive and neuroimaging work on bilingual advantage, and suggest an account that links cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and brain reserve in bilingual aging and memory. PMID:25520695

  9. Passive Smoking Exposure from Partners as a Risk Factor for ER+/PR+ Double Positive Breast Cancer in Never-Smoking Chinese Urban Women: A Hospital-Based Matched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Li, He-ming; Wang, Yan; Fu, Ling-yu; Liu, Yun-peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between passive smoking exposure (PSE) and breast cancer risk is of major interest. Objective To evaluate the relationship between PSE from partners and breast cancer risk stratified by hormone-receptor (HR) status in Chinese urban women population. Design Hospital-based matched case control study. Setting Chinese urban breast cancer patients without current or previous active smoking history in China Medical University 1st Hospital, Liaoning Province, China between Jan 2009 and Nov 2009. Patients Each breast cancer patient was matched 1∶1 with healthy controls by gender and age (±2 years) from the same hospital. Measurements The authors used unconditional logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratio for women with PSE from partners and breast cancer risk. Results 312 pairs were included in the study. Women who endured PSE had significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.05–2.03; P = 0.027), comparing with unexposed women. Women who exposed to >5 cigarettes/day also had significant increased risk (adjusted OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.28–3.10; P = 0.002), as were women exposed to passive smoke for 16–25 years (adjusted OR: 1.87 95% CI: 1.22–2.86; P = 0.004), and those exposed to > 4 pack-years (adjusted OR: 1.71 95% CI: 1.17–2.50; P = 0.004). Similar trends were significant for estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) double positive subgroup(adjusted OR: 1.71; 2.20; 1.99; 1.92, respectively), but not for ER+/PR−, ER−/PR+, or ER−/PR− subgroups. Limitations limitations of the hospital-based retrospective study, lack of information on entire lifetime PSE and low statistical power. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence that PSE from partners contributes to increased risk of breast cancer, especially for ER/PR double positive breast cancer, in Chinese urban women. PMID:24866166

  10. Age-related changes in postural control to the demands of a precision task.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Ting; Cinelli, Michael E; Lyons, James L; Lee, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Optimal sensorimotor integration is needed to maintain the precision of a visuomotor postural task. Furthermore, cognitive resources have been suggested to be involved in maintaining balance, especially in older adults. This study investigated how older and younger adults differed in employing sensorimotor strategies in a dual-task situation. Older (age 65-84 years) and younger adults (age 19-30 years) performed a visually-based, postural tracking task in different body orientations (from 0° to 45°), which necessitated slightly different task goals. On some trials, participants performed a concurrent silent arithmetic task with the visuomotor tracking task. The results demonstrated that sensorimotor control declined with age. Older adults showed greater medial-lateral center of pressure variability compared to younger adults in the precision task. Younger adults displayed a trend to decrease anterior-posterior variability, but older adults exhibited an opposite trend when the body orientation changed from 0° to 45°. The addition of a dual-task situation decreased overall postural variability in both age groups. Age-related changes in postural control may degrade the flexible coordination of the sensory feedback and motor execution. This study suggested that medial-lateral stability may be more sensitive to this age-related decline and may be closely associated with postural instability and falls.

  11. Aging mechanisms in the Westinghouse PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) Control Rod Drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1991-01-01

    An aging assessment of the Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Control Rod System (CRD) has been completed as part of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research, (NPAR) Program. This study examined the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the system to determine its potential for degradation as the plant ages. Selected results from this study are presented in this paper. The operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. From our evaluation of the data, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and the operating environment, we conclude that the Westinghouse CRD system is subject to degradation which, if unchecked, could affect its safety function as a plant ages. Ways to detect and mitigate the effects of aging are included in this paper. The current maintenance for the control rod drive system at fifteen Westinghouse PWRs was obtained through a survey conducted in cooperation with EPRI and NUMARC. The results of the survey indicate that some plants have modified the system, replaced components, or expanded preventive maintenance. Several of these activities have effectively addressed the aging issue. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H

    2015-08-18

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a "double-edged sword," facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a "skin-deep" phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities.

  13. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H

    2015-08-18

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a "double-edged sword," facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a "skin-deep" phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities. PMID:26170291

  14. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a “double-edged sword,” facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a “skin-deep” phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities. PMID:26170291

  15. Protein quality control in time and space - links to cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Thomas; Liu, Beidong

    2014-02-01

    The evolutionary theory of aging regards aging as an evolved characteristic of the soma, and proponents of the theory state that selection does not allow the evolution of aging in unicellular species lacking a soma-germ demarcation. However, the life history of some microorganisms, reproducing vegetatively by either budding or binary fission, has been demonstrated to encompass an ordered, polar-dependent, segregation of damage leading to an aging cell lineage within the clonal population. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the bacterium Escherichia coli, such segregation is under genetic control and includes an asymmetrical inheritance of protein aggregates and inclusions. Herein, the ultimate and proximate causation for such an asymmetrical inheritance, with special emphasis on damaged/aggregated proteins in budding yeast, is reviewed.

  16. Protein quality control in time and space - links to cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Thomas; Liu, Beidong

    2014-02-01

    The evolutionary theory of aging regards aging as an evolved characteristic of the soma, and proponents of the theory state that selection does not allow the evolution of aging in unicellular species lacking a soma-germ demarcation. However, the life history of some microorganisms, reproducing vegetatively by either budding or binary fission, has been demonstrated to encompass an ordered, polar-dependent, segregation of damage leading to an aging cell lineage within the clonal population. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the bacterium Escherichia coli, such segregation is under genetic control and includes an asymmetrical inheritance of protein aggregates and inclusions. Herein, the ultimate and proximate causation for such an asymmetrical inheritance, with special emphasis on damaged/aggregated proteins in budding yeast, is reviewed. PMID:24103195

  17. The Influence of Task Difficulty and Participant Age on Balance Control in ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sarah A.; Abbott, Angela E.; Nair, Aarti; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Goble, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in sensorimotor integration are reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Poor control of balance in challenging balance tasks is one suggested manifestation of these impairments, and is potentially related to ASD symptom severity. Reported balance and symptom severity relationships disregard age as a potential covariate, however,…

  18. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  19. Aging Labels: The Decline of Control and the Fall of Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodin, Judith; Langer, Ellen

    1980-01-01

    Describes studies that investigate how labeling and stigmatization of the elderly might contribute to behavior that would confirm prevalent stereotypes of old age and lead to lowered self esteem and diminished feelings of control. Also discusses suggested strategies for social change. (Author/GC)

  20. Ageing vessel configuration for continuous redox potential-controlled very-high-gravity fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Guang; Lin, Yen-Han; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2011-01-01

    The development of continuous very-high-gravity (VHG) fermentation is hindered by ineffective glucose uptake in order to result in zero discharge in the effluent stream. To overcome the problem, we proposed a continuous redox potential-controlled fermentation configuration, consisting of a Chemostat vessel connected with two ageing vessels installed in parallel, and the relevant design criteria are also specified. The Chemostat vessel is subjected to redox potential control to maintain yeast viability, and the ageing vessels are used to completely utilize glucose before discharging to next process unit. Two ageing vessels are scheduled alternatively, resulting in continuously-like operation. The size of ageing vessel is governed by the Chemostat size, dilution rate and filling time. The guideline to choose proper dilution rate is provided and the selection criterion of the proposed continuous configuration over batch fermentation is derived. The excess ethanol produced by the proposed continuous configuration over batch fermenter is quantified. As an illustration, a bio-ethanol plant is typically operated 8000 h per annum and the downtime between batches is 6h. Given that the fermenter size of 100 m(3) for both batch fermenter and Chemostat vessel, and glucose fed at 300 g/l, if the proposed continuous redox potential-controlled fermentation configuration (operated at 0.028 h(-1) and controlled at -50 mV) is selected, it will take 191 h for this configuration to outperform the batch counterpart, and the excess amount of ethanol being produced will be 1142 t. PMID:20875953

  1. Association between antibiotic usage and subsequent colonization or infection of extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: a matched case-control study in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Huei-Ting; Wang, Jann-Tay; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2008-11-01

    Nosocomial spreading of extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (EDRAB) is an emerging problem. To clarify the association between prior antibiotic usage and subsequent EDRAB acquisition, we conducted a one-to-one matched case-control study among patients in all intensive care units (ICUs) at the National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, during a 1-year period. A total of 113 pairs of patients were identified. We measured prior antibiotics exposure in 4 perspectives: usage, overall treatment duration, accumulated dosage, and treatment potency. We found positive associations between EDRAB acquisition and prior usage of imipenem and meropenem across 4 measures, especially in usage and average treatment potency (usage, odds ratio [OR](imipenem) = 3.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-11.0, OR(meropenem) = 5.4 with 95% CI = 1.2-20.0; average treatment potency, OR(imipenem) = 5.3 with 95% CI = 1.3-22.0, OR(meropenem) = 3.4 with 95% CI = 1.0-12.0). Ceftazidime use with stronger treatment potency was also strongly associated with subsequent nosocomial EDRAB acquisition (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.5-21.0). The OR of EDRAB acquisition greatly increased in patients who had previously been exposed to any 1 (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 2.3-13.2) or to any 2 or 3 (OR = 11.1, 95% CI = 2.7-46.4) of the abovementioned antibiotics. Based on these findings, we conclude that usage of imipenem, meropenem, and/or ceftazidime is associated with subsequent acquisition of EDRAB in critically ill patients in ICUs. PMID:18707839

  2. An age-dependent feedback control model of calcium dynamics in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fusheng; Liu, Weijiu

    2010-06-01

    The functional decline of selected proteins or organelles leads to aging at the intracellular level. Identification of these proteins or organelles is usually challenging to traditional single-factor approaches since these factors are inter-connected via feedback or feedforward controls. Establishing a feedback control model to simulate the interactions of multiple factors is an insightful approach to guide the search for proteins involved in aging. However, there are only a few mathematical models describing the age-dependent accumulation of DNA mutations, which are directly or indirectly induced by deterioration of the intracellular environment including alteration of calcium homeostasis, a contributor of aging. Thus, based on Cui and Kaandorp's model, we develop an age-dependent mathematical model for the calcium homeostasis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our model contains cell cycle-dependent aging factors and can qualitatively reproduce calcium shocks and calcium accumulations in cells observed in experiments. Using this model, we predict calcium oscillations in wild type, pmc1 Delta, and pmr1 Delta cells. This prediction suggests that Pmr1p plays a major role in regulating cytosolic calcium. Combining the model with our experimental lifespan data, we predict an upper-limit of cytosolic calcium tolerance for cell survival. This prediction indicates that, for aged cells (>35 generations), no pmr1 Delta can tolerate the cytosolic calcium concentration of 0.1 microM while a very small fraction (1%) of aged wild type cells (>50 generations) can tolerate a high cytosolic calcium concentration of 0.5 microM.

  3. Aging into Perceptual Control: A Dynamic Causal Modeling for fMRI Study of Bistable Perception

    PubMed Central

    Dowlati, Ehsan; Adams, Sarah E.; Stiles, Alexandra B.; Moran, Rosalyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by stereotyped changes in functional brain activations, for example a cortical shift in activity patterns from posterior to anterior regions is one hallmark revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of aging cognition. Whether these neuronal effects of aging could potentially contribute to an amelioration of or resistance to the cognitive symptoms associated with psychopathology remains to be explored. We used a visual illusion paradigm to address whether aging affects the cortical control of perceptual beliefs and biases. Our aim was to understand the effective connectivity associated with volitional control of ambiguous visual stimuli and to test whether greater top-down control of early visual networks emerged with advancing age. Using a bias training paradigm for ambiguous images we found that older participants (n = 16) resisted experimenter-induced visual bias compared to a younger cohort (n = 14) and that this resistance was associated with greater activity in prefrontal and temporal cortices. By applying Dynamic Causal Models for fMRI we uncovered a selective recruitment of top-down connections from the middle temporal to Lingual gyrus (LIN) by the older cohort during the perceptual switch decision following bias training. In contrast, our younger cohort did not exhibit any consistent connectivity effects but instead showed a loss of driving inputs to orbitofrontal sources following training. These findings suggest that perceptual beliefs are more readily controlled by top-down strategies in older adults and introduce age-dependent neural mechanisms that may be important for understanding aberrant belief states associated with psychopathology. PMID:27064235

  4. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (M…

  5. Leisure sports and postural control: can a black belt protect your balance from aging?

    PubMed

    Krampe, Ralf T; Smolders, Caroline; Doumas, Michail

    2014-03-01

    To determine potential benefits of intensive leisure sports for age-related changes in postural control, we tested 3 activity groups comprising 70 young (M = 21.67 years, SD = 2.80) and 73 older (M = 62.60 years, SD = 5.19) men. Activity groups were martial artists, who held at least 1st Dan (black belt), sportive individuals exercising sports without explicit balance components, and nonsportive controls. Martial artists had an advantage over sportive individuals in dynamic posture tasks (upright stance on a sway-referenced platform), and these 2 active groups showed better postural control than nonsportive participants. Age-related differences in postural control were larger in nonsportive men compared with the 2 active groups, who were similar in this respect. In contrast, negative age differences in other sensorimotor and cognitive functions did not differ between activity groups. We concluded that individuals engaging in intensive recreational sports have long-term advantages in postural control. However, even in older martial artists with years of practice in their sports, we observed considerable differences favoring the young.

  6. Inhibitory Motor Control in Old Age: Evidence for De-Automatization?

    PubMed Central

    Maylor, Elizabeth Ann; Birak, Kulbir Singh; Schlaghecken, Friederike

    2011-01-01

    To examine age-related effects on high-level consciously controlled and low-level automatically controlled inhibitory processes, the Simon task was combined with the masked prime task in a hybrid procedure. Young and older adults responded to the identity of targets (left/right key-press to left-/right-pointing arrows) that appeared on the left/right of the screen and were preceded by left-/right-pointing backward-masked arrow primes at fixation. Responses were faster and more accurate when the target was congruent with its location than incongruent (Simon effect), and when the target was incompatible with the prime than compatible (negative compatibility effect; NCE). The Simon effect was disproportionately larger, and the NCE disproportionately delayed, in older adults compared to young adults, indicating both high- and low-level inhibitory control deficits with aging. Moreover, the two effects were additive in young adults, but interactive in older adults, providing support for the dedifferentiation hypothesis of aging. Specifically, older adults’ prime-related inhibitory control appeared improved on incongruent relative to congruent trials, suggesting that impaired automatic control was substituted by high-level, non-automatic processes. PMID:21734899

  7. A hospital-based matched case–control study to identify clinical outcome and risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare-associated infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are increasing and few effective antibiotics are currently available to treat patients. We observed decreased carbapenem susceptibility among K. pneumoniae isolated from patients at a tertiary private hospital that showed a phenotype compatible with carbapenemase production although this group of enzymes was not detected in any sample. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical outcomes associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae and to determine the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Methods Risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections were investigated by a matched case–control study from January 2006 through August 2008. A cohort study was also performed to evaluate the association between carbapenem resistance and in-hospital mortality. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined by Vitek 2 and Etest. Carbapenemase activity was detected using spectrophotometric assays. Production of beta-lactamases and alterations in genes encoding K. pneumoniae outer membrane proteins, OmpK35 and OmpK36, were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing, as well as SDS-Page. Genetic relatedness of carbapenem resistant isolates was evaluated by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. Results Sixty patients were included (20 cases and 40 controls) in the study. Mortality was higher for patients with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections compared with those with carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (50.0% vs 25.7%). The length of central venous catheter use was independently associated with carbapenem resistance in the multivariable analysis. All strains, except one, carried blaCTX-M-2, an extended-spectrum betalactamase gene. In addition, a single isolate also possessed blaGES-1. Genes encoding plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases or carbapenemases (KPC, metallo-betalactamases or OXA-carbapenemases) were not

  8. New stereo matching algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Yasser A.; Afifi, Hossam; Rubino, Gerardo

    1999-05-01

    This paper present a new algorithm for stereo matching. The main idea is to decompose the original problem into independent hierarchical and more elementary problems that can be solved faster without any complicated mathematics using BBD. To achieve that, we use a new image feature called 'continuity feature' instead of classical noise. This feature can be extracted from any kind of images by a simple process and without using a searching technique. A new matching technique is proposed to match the continuity feature. The new algorithm resolves the main disadvantages of feature based stereo matching algorithms.

  9. Antecedents and Outcomes of Level and Rates of Change in Perceived Control: The Moderating Role of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Okun, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive…

  10. Everything under Control? The Effects of Age, Gender, and Education on Trajectories of Perceived Control in a Nationally Representative German Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived control is an important variable for various demands involved in successful aging. However, perceived control is not set in stone but rather changes throughout the life course. The aim of this study was to identify cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal mean-level changes as well as rank-order changes in perceived control with…

  11. Age effects on transfer index performance and executive control in baboons (Papio papio)

    PubMed Central

    Bonté, Elodie; Kemp, Caralyn; Fagot, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Reversal performance in the transfer index (TI) task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (Rumbaugh, 1970). However, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. In the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (Papio papio) from 1.6 to 14.3 years of age were tested on a computerized version of the TI task, using an automated self-testing procedure. Age was a significant factor in the level of success, with the younger baboons outperforming the adults. The younger baboons learned the pre-reversal discrimination faster and improved their post-reversal performance more rapidly than adult baboons. As 17 of these baboons had already been tested in previous studies on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks, comparison across tasks provide indicators of the underlying cognitive processes. Age variations in performance were similar between the TI task and in an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) measuring cognitive flexibility (Bonté et al., 2011). This contrasts previous results from a task requiring motor inhibitory control (Fagot et al., 2011). Therefore, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility was a central component of the cognitive system that evolved within non-human primates. They also implicate a decline in executive control with age that begins during early adulthood in this baboon species. PMID:24624114

  12. Age effects on transfer index performance and executive control in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Bonté, Elodie; Kemp, Caralyn; Fagot, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Reversal performance in the transfer index (TI) task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (Rumbaugh, 1970). However, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. In the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (Papio papio) from 1.6 to 14.3 years of age were tested on a computerized version of the TI task, using an automated self-testing procedure. Age was a significant factor in the level of success, with the younger baboons outperforming the adults. The younger baboons learned the pre-reversal discrimination faster and improved their post-reversal performance more rapidly than adult baboons. As 17 of these baboons had already been tested in previous studies on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks, comparison across tasks provide indicators of the underlying cognitive processes. Age variations in performance were similar between the TI task and in an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) measuring cognitive flexibility (Bonté et al., 2011). This contrasts previous results from a task requiring motor inhibitory control (Fagot et al., 2011). Therefore, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility was a central component of the cognitive system that evolved within non-human primates. They also implicate a decline in executive control with age that begins during early adulthood in this baboon species.

  13. The relationship between impulsivity and suicide among rural youths aged 15-35 years: a case-control psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In China, the gender ratio of suicide rates did not match the Western patterns, which was higher for females than males. However, the rural men were at relatively high risk of suicide in Liaoning province. Impulsivity was an important factor of suicide behaviors, but there was a lack of studies in China. This research aimed to study the relationship between impulsive personality traits and suicidal behavior among Chinese rural youths. Suicides were consecutively sampled from six randomly selected counties in Liaoning Province in China. Between 2005 and 2007, a total of 162 suicide victims were enrolled in the study along with 162 community controls matched for age, gender, and location. The psychological autopsy method was used to collect data from informants knowledgeable about the selected suicide victims and controls. The results showed the suicide victims in the study were more likely to demonstrate dysfunctional impulsivity and less likely to demonstrate functional impulsivity compared with the controls. Mental disorders, acute negative life events, and dysfunctional impulsivity contributed to the risk of suicide; educational and functional impulsivity were protective factors. Suicide prevention efforts in rural China may address impulsivity.

  14. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Suicide Among Rural Youths Aged 15–35 Years: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    In China, the gender ratio of suicide rates did not match the Western patterns, which was higher for females than males. However, the rural men were at relatively high risk of suicide in Liaoning province. Impulsivity was an important factor of suicide behaviors, but there was a lack of studies in China. This research aimed to study the relationship between impulsive personality traits and suicidal behavior among Chinese rural youths. Suicides were consecutively sampled from six randomly selected counties in Liaoning Province in China. Between 2005 and 2007, a total of 162 suicide victims were enrolled in the study along with 162 community controls matched for age, gender, and location. The psychological autopsy method was used to collect data from informants knowledgeable about the selected suicide victims and controls. The results showed the suicide victims in the study were more likely to demonstrate dysfunctional impulsivity and less likely to demonstrate functional impulsivity compared with the controls. Mental disorders, acute negative life events and dysfunctional impulsivity contributed to the risk of suicide; educational and functional impulsivity were protective factors. Suicide prevention efforts in rural China may address impulsivity. PMID:26110614

  15. Optically stimulated luminescence age controls on late Pleistocene and Holocene coastal lithosomes, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallinson, D.; Burdette, K.; Mahan, S.; Brook, G.

    2008-01-01

    Luminescence ages from a variety of coastal features on the North Carolina Coastal Plain provide age control for shoreline formation and relative sea-level position during the late Pleistocene. A series of paleoshoreline ridges, dating to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and MIS 3 have been defined. The Kitty Hawk beach ridges, on the modern Outer Banks, yield ages of 3 to 2??ka. Oxygen-isotope data are used to place these deposits in the context of global climate and sea-level change. The occurrence of MIS 5a and MIS 3 shorelines suggests that glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the study area is large (ca. 22 to 26??m), as suggested and modeled by other workers, and/or MIS 3 sea level was briefly higher than suggested by some coral reef studies. Correcting the shoreline elevations for GIA brings their elevation in line with other sea-level indicators. The age of the Kitty Hawk beach ridges places the Holocene shoreline well west of its present location at ca. 3 to 2??ka. The age of shoreline progradation is consistent with the ages of other beach ridge complexes in the southeast USA, suggesting some regionally contemporaneous forcing mechanism. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

  16. Degenerative Changes in the Cervical Spine Are More Common in Middle-Aged Individuals with Thalidomide Embryopathy than in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi Jahani, Shadi A.; Danielsson, Aina; Ab-Fawaz, Rana; Hebelka, Hanna; Danielson, Barbro; Brisby, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Thalidomide was used as a sedative drug for pregnant women in the 1950–60:s and resulted in children born with thalidomide embryopathy (TE), including upper limb malformations. These may alter the motion pattern of the cervical spine by the use of head/shoulder and mouth grip. Aims To compare degenerative changes in the cervical spine in TE individuals with healthy controls (CTR). Methods and Procedures Twenty-seven middle-aged TE individuals and 27 age- and gender-matched CTR were examined by cervical spine MRI. The presence of malformations, disc herniation(s), osteophytes, nerve and medullary compression and the degree of disc degeneration (DD) were evaluated. Outcomes and Results Significantly higher degree of DD was seen in the TE group compared with the controls (p<0.001). Similar frequencies of disc herniation and disc space narrowing were observed in the two groups, but more foraminal narrowing was seen in the TE group (p = 0.002). DD was observed relatively frequently at all cervical levels in the TE group, however, mainly at the two lower levels in the CTR. Conclusions and Implications Middle-aged individuals with TE have a higher frequency of degenerative changes in the cervical spine than controls, possibly caused by an altered load on the cervical spine. PMID:27175919

  17. The double burden of age and major depressive disorder on the cognitive control network.

    PubMed

    Rao, Julia A; Kassel, Michelle T; Weldon, Anne L; Avery, Erich T; Briceno, Emily M; Mann, Megan; Cornett, Bridget; Kales, Helen C; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Welsh, Robert C; Langenecker, Scott A; Weisenbach, Sara L

    2015-06-01

    Poor cognitive control (CC) is common among older individuals with major depressive disorder (OMDD). At the same time, studies of CC in OMDD with fMRI are relatively limited and often have small samples. The present study was conducted to further examine poor CC in OMDD with early onset depression, as well as to investigate the interactive effects of MDD and aging on cognitive control. Twenty OMDD, 17 older never-depressed comparisons (ONDC), 16 younger adults with MDD (YMDD), and 18 younger never-depressed comparisons (YNDC) participated. All participants completed the Go level of the Parametric Go/No-Go Test, which requires sustained attention and inhibitory control while undergoing functional MRI (fMRI). YNDC were faster in reaction times (RTs) to go targets relative to the other 3 groups, and the YMDD group was faster than the OMDD group. fMRI effects of both age and diagnosis were present, with greater activation in MDD, and in aging. Additionally, the interaction of age and MDD was also significant, such that OMDD exhibited greater recruitment of fronto-subcortical regions relative to older comparisons. These results are consistent with prior research reporting that OMDD recruit more fronto-striatal regions in order to perform at the same level as their never-depressed peers, here on a task of sustained attention and inhibitory control. There may be an interaction of cognitive aging and depression to create a double burden on the CC network in OMDD, including possible fronto-striatal compensation during CC that is unique to OMDD, as younger MDD individuals do not show this pattern.

  18. The double burden of age and major depressive disorder on the cognitive control network.

    PubMed

    Rao, Julia A; Kassel, Michelle T; Weldon, Anne L; Avery, Erich T; Briceno, Emily M; Mann, Megan; Cornett, Bridget; Kales, Helen C; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Welsh, Robert C; Langenecker, Scott A; Weisenbach, Sara L

    2015-06-01

    Poor cognitive control (CC) is common among older individuals with major depressive disorder (OMDD). At the same time, studies of CC in OMDD with fMRI are relatively limited and often have small samples. The present study was conducted to further examine poor CC in OMDD with early onset depression, as well as to investigate the interactive effects of MDD and aging on cognitive control. Twenty OMDD, 17 older never-depressed comparisons (ONDC), 16 younger adults with MDD (YMDD), and 18 younger never-depressed comparisons (YNDC) participated. All participants completed the Go level of the Parametric Go/No-Go Test, which requires sustained attention and inhibitory control while undergoing functional MRI (fMRI). YNDC were faster in reaction times (RTs) to go targets relative to the other 3 groups, and the YMDD group was faster than the OMDD group. fMRI effects of both age and diagnosis were present, with greater activation in MDD, and in aging. Additionally, the interaction of age and MDD was also significant, such that OMDD exhibited greater recruitment of fronto-subcortical regions relative to older comparisons. These results are consistent with prior research reporting that OMDD recruit more fronto-striatal regions in order to perform at the same level as their never-depressed peers, here on a task of sustained attention and inhibitory control. There may be an interaction of cognitive aging and depression to create a double burden on the CC network in OMDD, including possible fronto-striatal compensation during CC that is unique to OMDD, as younger MDD individuals do not show this pattern. PMID:26030776

  19. PAN-811 inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death of human Alzheimer's disease-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells via suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valery M; Dancik, Chantée M; Pan, Weiying; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Lebowitz, Michael S; Ghanbari, Hossein A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased oxidative stress has been shown to be a prominent and early feature of vulnerable neurons in AD. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells are affected at an early stage. Exposure to oxidative stress induces the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes cell damage in the form of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidations. Elevated ROS levels are also associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta and formation of senile plaques, a hallmark of the AD brain. If enhanced ROS exceeds the basal level of cellular protective mechanisms, oxidative damage and cell death will result. Therefore, substances that can reduce oxidative stress are sought as potential drug candidates for treatment or preventative therapy of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PAN-811, also known as 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone or Triapine, is a small lipophilic compound that is currently being investigated in several Phase II clinical trials for cancer therapy due to its inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Here we show PAN-811 to be effective in preventing or reducing ROS accumulation and the resulting oxidative damages in both AD-derived and age-matched olfactory neuroepithelial cells.

  20. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-03-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided $50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of $50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The $100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network.

  1. Matched-pair classification

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.

  2. The matching law

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter

    1972-01-01

    The matching law may be viewed either as an empirical generalization, and therby subject to disproof, or as part of a system of equations used to define the utility (“value”) of a reinforcer. In the latter case it is tautologous, and not subject to disproof within the defining context. A failure to obtain matching will most often be a signal that the independent variables have not been properly scaled. If, however, the proper transformations have been made on the independent variables, and matching is not obtained, the experimental paradigm may be outside the purview of the matching law. At that point, reinterpretations or revisions of the law are called for. The theoretical matching law is but one of many possible ways to define utility, and it may eventually be rejected in favor of a more useful definition. PMID:16811604

  3. Position of laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery nephrectomy in clinical practice and comparison (matched case-control study) with standard laparoscopic nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eret, Viktor; Stránský, Petr; Trávníček, Ivan; Ürge, Tomáš; Ferda, Jiří; Petersson, Fredrik; Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One way how to reduce morbidity and improve cosmesic of kidney surgery is single site laparoscopy. Relatively well described concept but without defined position in clincal practise. Aim To report of institutional experience with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) nephrectomy (NE) and compare (matched case-control study) it with that of standard laparoscopic NE (LNE). Material and methods In the period 8/2011 to 10/2013, we performed 183 mini-invasive NE (132 tumours, 51 benign aetiology); 45 of them (24.6%) were LESS, the rest LNE. The main but not absolute indications for LESS were: non-obese men, and less advanced tumours. In 13 patients undergoing LESS-NEs (28.9%) there was a transumbilical approach. For the rest, a pararectal incision was performed and an accessory port was added in 31.1% (14) – 2/22 (9.1%) left sided, 12/23 (52.2%) right sided. Twenty-four LESS-NE were performed by a more experienced surgeon (mean operation time (MOT) 73.1 min), 21 LESS-NE by 4 other surgeons (MOT 132.8 min). These 24 were compared with 43 LNE done by the same surgeon before the period of LESS (1/2007–8/2011) and with similar characteristics of cases (body mass index (BMI) ≤ 35 kg/m2, less advanced tumour). Results We found no statistically significant differences in any of the parameters studied. The MOT 73.1 min vs. 75.0 min (p = 0.78), BMI 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 29.2 kg/m2 (p = 0.08), blood loss 54.7 vs. 39.2 (p = 0.47). Complications (4.2% vs. 11.6%) were only of internal character in origin. No conversion in either group. In LESS-NE, staplers were used more frequently (more expensive than clips) for division of renal hilar vessels (70.8% vs. 51.2%). The mean price of LESS-NE was €367 higher. Conclusions The LESS NE performed by an experienced surgeon is a safe and efficient method for the surgical treatment of both malignant and benign renal conditions in patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2 and with low-stage tumours. The LESS NE is more expensive compared

  4. Age-related changes in human posture control: Sensory organization tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1989-01-01

    Postural control was measured in 214 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Sensory organization tests measured the magnitude of anterior-posterior body sway during six 21 s trials in which visual and somatosensory orientation cues were altered (by rotating the visual surround and support surface in proportion to the subject's sway) or vision eliminated (eyes closed) in various combinations. No age-related increase in postural sway was found for subjects standing on a fixed support surface with eyes open or closed. However, age-related increases in sway were found for conditions involving altered visual or somatosensory cues. Subjects older than about 55 years showed the largest sway increases. Subjects younger than about 15 years were also sensitive to alteration of sensory cues. On average, the older subjects were more affected by altered visual cues whereas younger subjects had more difficulty with altered somatosensory cues.

  5. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  6. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  7. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  8. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  9. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Didier N.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic accidents (RTA) and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06). Conclusions This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support. PMID:24987498

  10. The Relationship of Spelling Recognition, RAN, and Phonological Awareness to Reading Skills in Older Poor Readers and Younger Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzir, Tami; Kim, YoungSuk; Wolf, Maryanne; Kennedy, Becky; Lovett, Maureen; Morris, Robin

    2006-01-01

    The role of spelling recognition was examined in word reading skills and reading comprehension for dyslexic and nondyslexic children. Dyslexic and nondyslexic children were matched on their raw word reading proficiency. Relationships between spelling recognition and the following were examined for both groups of children: verbal ability, working…

  11. Discriminative Validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scales in Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Paul M.; Schoff, Kristin M.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Abelkop, A. Shayne

    2003-01-01

    Examined discriminative validity of the Parent Rating Scale (PRS) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992, Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services). Two groups were compared: a cohort with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) (n = 49) and children from the BASC-PRS standardization sample (n = 49) matched on…

  12. Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized…

  13. Testing Stage-Specific Effects of a Stage-Matched Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Physical Exercise and Its Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Ziegelmann, Jochen P.; Scholz, Urte; Schuz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Health education interventions can be tailored toward stages of change. This strategy is based on theories that predict at which stage which variables are indicative of subsequent behavior change processes. For example, planning is regarded as being effective in intenders. However, rather few studies have tested whether matched interventions are…

  14. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  15. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women whose age is less than 40 years: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Hasswane, Nadia; Kerbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Taboz, Youness; Benkirane, Hassna; Mrabet, Mustapha; Amina, Barkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods A case-control study was conducted with population women whose age is less than 40 years during 2008-2010 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. These women were interviewed for Epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results Included in this study were 124 cases and 148 age matched controls. No statistically significant case-control difference was found for the early age of menarche (OR = 2.474; CI 95%: 1.354- 4.521), and family antecedents of first degree of breast cancer (OR = 11.556; 95% CI: 2.548-52.411). However physical activity (OR = 0.507; 95% CI: 0.339 -0.757) early maternity age (OR = 0.212; 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.514), multiparity (OR = 0.742; 95% CI: 0.359 -1.539) and breastfeeding than 6 months (OR = 0.739; 95% CI: 0.357 -1.523) appear as significant protective factors. Conclusion This study show the criminalization of only part of the known risk factors of breast cancer in this age group and confirms the probable protective role of physical activity and factors related to life reproductive women in our study (early childbearing, multiparity and lactation). PMID:27583083

  16. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Mikael; Wedin, Marianne; Admyre, Therése; Hermansson, Majlis; Böttcher, Gerhard; Göransson, Melker; Lindén, Daniel; Bamberg, Krister; Oscarsson, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR) is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  17. Exercise-stimulated interleukin-15 is controlled by AMPK and regulates skin metabolism and aging.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; MacNeil, Lauren G; Lally, James S; Ford, Rebecca J; Bujak, Adam L; Brar, Ikdip K; Kemp, Bruce E; Raha, Sandeep; Steinberg, Gregory R; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a structural deterioration of skin that compromises its barrier function, healing, and susceptibility to disease. Several lines of evidence show that these changes are driven largely by impaired tissue mitochondrial metabolism. While exercise is associated with numerous health benefits, there is no evidence that it affects skin tissue or that endocrine muscle-to-skin signaling occurs. We demonstrate that endurance exercise attenuates age-associated changes to skin in humans and mice and identify exercise-induced IL-15 as a novel regulator of mitochondrial function in aging skin. We show that exercise controls IL-15 expression in part through skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of metabolism, and that the elimination of muscle AMPK causes a deterioration of skin structure. Finally, we establish that daily IL-15 therapy mimics some of the anti-aging effects of exercise on muscle and skin in mice. Thus, we elucidate a mechanism by which exercise confers health benefits to skin and suggest that low-dose IL-15 therapy may prove to be a beneficial strategy to attenuate skin aging.

  18. Hydrologic control of carbon cycling and aged carbon discharge in the Congo River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schefuß, Enno; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Spencer-Jones, Charlotte L.; Rullkötter, Jürgen; de Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Talbot, Helen M.; Grootes, Pieter M.; Schneider, Ralph R.

    2016-09-01

    The age of organic material discharged by rivers provides information about its sources and carbon cycling processes within watersheds. Although elevated ages in fluvially transported organic matter are usually explained by erosion of soils and sedimentary deposits, it is commonly assumed that mainly young organic material is discharged from flat tropical watersheds due to their extensive plant cover and rapid carbon turnover. Here we present compound-specific radiocarbon data of terrigenous organic fractions from a sedimentary archive offshore the Congo River, in conjunction with molecular markers for methane-producing land cover reflecting wetland extent. We find that the Congo River has been discharging aged organic matter for several thousand years, with apparently increasing ages from the mid- to the Late Holocene. This suggests that aged organic matter in modern samples is concealed by radiocarbon from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. By comparison to indicators for past rainfall changes we detect a systematic control of organic matter sequestration and release by continental hydrology, mediating temporary carbon storage in wetlands. As aridification also leads to exposure and rapid remineralization of large amounts of previously stored labile organic matter, we infer that this process may cause a profound direct climate feedback that is at present underestimated in carbon cycle assessments.

  19. Age Differences in the Demand–Control Model of Work Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Wang, Mo; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Fisher, Gwenith G.

    2010-01-01

    There have been many tests of Karasek’s demand–control model of work stress. However, no studies have examined how the model may differentially apply to older versus younger workers. Due to age changes in cognitive processing, the psychological demands of jobs may interact differently with controls for younger versus older workers. Therefore, the study uses data from the Eurobarometer to examine how the demand–control model of work stress may function differently for older versus younger workers. The results indicate that different controls may in fact buffer different types of job demands for younger versus older workers. The findings reveal that only the interaction between problem solving and time to complete tasks was significant for younger workers. For older workers, however, the interactions between time deadlines and having sufficient time to complete tasks, autonomy, and the interaction between problem solving and schedule flexibility are significant predictors of self-reported stress. PMID:20948986

  20. Effects of incentives, age, and behavior on brain activation during inhibitory control: a longitudinal fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, David J; Hallquist, Michael N; Geier, Charles F; Luna, Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    We investigated changes in brain function supporting inhibitory control under age-controlled incentivized conditions, separating age- and performance-related activation in an accelerated longitudinal design including 10- to 22-year-olds. Better inhibitory control correlated with striatal activation during neutral trials, while Age X Behavior interactions in the striatum indicated that in the absence of extrinsic incentives, younger subjects with greater reward circuitry activation successfully engage in greater inhibitory control. Age was negatively correlated with ventral amygdala activation during Loss trials, suggesting that amygdala function more strongly mediates bottom-up processing earlier in development when controlling the negative aspects of incentives to support inhibitory control. Together, these results indicate that with development, reward-modulated cognitive control may be supported by incentive processing transitions in the amygdala, and from facilitative to obstructive striatal function during inhibitory control. PMID:25284272

  1. Effects of incentives, age, and behavior on brain activation during inhibitory control: A longitudinal fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, David J.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    We investigated changes in brain function supporting inhibitory control under age-controlled incentivized conditions, separating age- and performance-related activation in an accelerated longitudinal design including 10- to 22-year-olds. Better inhibitory control correlated with striatal activation during neutral trials, while Age × Behavior interactions in the striatum indicated that in the absence of extrinsic incentives, younger subjects with greater reward circuitry activation successfully engage in greater inhibitory control. Age was negatively correlated with ventral amygdala activation during Loss trials, suggesting that amygdala function more strongly mediates bottom-up processing earlier in development when controlling the negative aspects of incentives to support inhibitory control. Together, these results indicate that with development, reward-modulated cognitive control may be supported by incentive processing transitions in the amygdala, and from facilitative to obstructive striatal function during inhibitory control. PMID:25284272

  2. Latent fingerprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.

  3. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers. PMID:25231503

  4. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers.

  5. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  6. Processing Speed, Inhibitory Control, and Working Memory: Three Important Factors to Account for Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Gonzalez, Maria Soledad Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Processing speed, inhibitory control and working memory have been identified as the main possible culprits of age-related cognitive decline. This article describes a study of their interrelationships and dependence on age, including exploration of whether any of them mediates between age and the others. We carried out a LISREL analysis of the…

  7. The Relationship of Age to Life Satisfaction, Locus of Control, and Self Concept in Elderly Domiciliary Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehrke, MiltonF.; And Others

    This research project investigates the relationships between age and life satisfaction, self-concept, and locus of control among the aged. The predictions were based in large part on Erickson's adult development theory, and attempts were made to isolate the effects of age from other possible factors such as cohort and environment. The findings…

  8. The prevalence of lacunar infarct decreases with aging in the elderly: a case-controlled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiyou; He, Wenbo; Peng, Chuan-yong; Zhou, Jin; Xu, Qi-lan; Wu, Zong-shan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Lacunar infarct (LI) is well known as a heterogeneous primary disorder of cerebral small vessel. Compelling results have demonstrated that age is a risk factor to the prevalence of LI. However, the relationship between age and the prevalence of LI remains obscure. It is essential to note the relationship between age and the prevalence of LI through more clinical data. Methods A total of 3,500 patients were included in the case-controlled study. All data were collected from the Examination Center of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Lu’an People’s Hospital from January 2014 to December 2015. A primary discharge diagnosis of LI was done, and all subjects were evaluated as retrospective data. The relationship between the risk factors and the prevalence of diabetes and the relationship between age and the prevalence of diabetes was analyzed. A chi-square test was used to analyze the associations between different variables. A one-way analysis of variance was used to test the equality of three or more means at one time by using variances. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value of <0.05. Results The one-way analysis of variance demonstrated that the prevalence of LI increased with age before 60 years and decreased with age after 69 years. The same results were found in both the male and the female subjects. These results showed that the age-related risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, cerebral infarct, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and drinking) have no relationship with the prevalence of LI on the basis of age. There is a significant difference among the different age ranges (P=0.0006). Two-tailed P-value (unpaired t-test) showed the mean significant difference between 30–39 years and 40–49 years (P=0.009) and between 70–79 years and 80–100 years (P=0.0196). F-test (to compare variances) demonstrated that the variances of the different age ranges are significantly different between 30–39 years and 40–49 years (P=0

  9. The Effects of Variable-Interval Reinforcement on Academic Engagement: A Demonstration of Matching Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Brian K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments analyzed the single-alternative form of the matching law as a description of student behavior. Four students (ages 8-10) exhibiting off-task behavior were exposed to variable-interval schedules of social reinforcement contingent on academic engagement. Results provided evidence that subject behavior was under control of the…

  10. Increasing age and experience: are both protective against motorcycle injury? A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, B.; Jackson, R.; Langley, J.; Norton, R.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the associations between age, experience, and motorcycle injury. Setting—Motorcycle riding on non-residential roads between 6 am and midnight over a three year period from February 1993 in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods—A population based case-control study was conducted. Cases were 490 motorcycle drivers involved in a crash and controls were 1518 drivers identified at random roadside surveys. Crash involvement was defined in terms of a motorcycle crash resulting in either a driver or pillion passenger being killed, hospitalised, or presenting to a public hospital emergency department with an injury severity score ≥5. Results—There was a strong and consistent relationship between increasing driver age and decreasing risk of moderate to fatal injury. In multivariate analyses, drivers older than 25 years had more than 50% lower risk than those aged from 15–19 years (odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26 to 0.81). In univariate analyses, a protective effect from riding more than five years compared with less than two years was observed. However, this protection was not sustained when driver age and other potential confounding variables were included in the analyses. Familiarity with the specific motorcycle was the only experience measure associated with a strong protective effect (OR (≥10 000 km experience) 0.52; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.79) in multivariate analyses. Conclusions—Current licensing regulations should continue to emphasise the importance of increased age and might consider restrictions that favour experience with a specific motorcycle. PMID:10728539

  11. Age-related changes in attentional control across adolescence: how does this impact emotion regulation capacities?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Heathcote, Lauren C.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to establish the novel use of the go/no-go Overlap task for investigating the role of attentional control capacities in the processing of emotional expressions across different age-groups within adolescence: at the onset of adolescence (11–12 year-olds) and toward the end of adolescence (17–18 year-olds). We also looked at how attentional control in the processing of fearful, happy, and neutral expressions relates to individual differences in trait anxiety in these adolescent groups. We were able to show that younger adolescents, but not older adolescents had more difficulties with attention control in the presence of all faces, but particularly in the presence of fearful faces. Moreover, we found that across all groups, adolescents with higher trait anxiety exhibited attentional avoidance of all faces, which facilitated relatively better performance on the primary task. These differences in reaction time emerged in the context of comparable accuracy level in the primary task across age-groups. Our results contribute to our understanding of how attentional control abilities to faces but in particular fearful expressions may mature across adolescence. This may affect learning about the environment and the acquisition of behavioral response patterns in the social world. PMID:24575077

  12. Age differences in the frontoparietal cognitive control network: implications for distractibility.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen L; Grady, Cheryl L; Ng, Charisa; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-07-01

    Current evidence suggests that older adults have reduced suppression of, and greater implicit memory for, distracting stimuli, due to age-related declines in frontal-based control mechanisms. In this study, we used fMRI to examine age differences in the neural underpinnings of attentional control and their relationship to differences in distractibility and subsequent memory for distraction. Older and younger adults were shown a rapid stream of words or nonwords superimposed on objects and performed a 1-back task on either the letters or the objects, while ignoring the other modality. Older adults were more distracted than younger adults by the overlapping words during the 1-back task, and they subsequently showed more priming for these words on an implicit memory task. A multivariate analysis of the imaging data revealed a set of regions, including the rostral PFC and inferior parietal cortex, that younger adults activated to a greater extent than older adults during the ignore-words condition, and activity in this set of regions was negatively correlated with priming for the distracting words. Functional connectivity analyses using right and left rostral PFC seeds revealed a network of putative control regions, including bilateral parietal cortex, connected to the frontal seeds at rest. Older adults showed reduced functional connectivity within this frontoparietal network, suggesting that their greater distractibility may be due to decreased activity and coherence within a cognitive control network that normally acts to reduce interference from distraction.

  13. The development of an age structured model for schistosomiasis transmission dynamics and control and its validation for Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, M. S.; Guyatt, H. L.; Bundy, D. A.; Booth, M.; Fulford, A. J.; Medley, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    Mathematical models are potentially useful tools to aid in the design of control programmes for parasitic diseases. In this paper, a fully age structured epidemiological model of human schistosomiasis is developed and parameterized, and used to predict trends in infection prevalence, intensity and prevalence of heavy infections over age and time during several rounds of mass and age targeted treatment. The model is validated against data from a Schistosoma mansoni control programme in Kenya. Images Fig. 3 (a)-(c) PMID:7589272

  14. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  15. Haploidentical T Cell-Replete Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Patients in or above the Sixth Decade of Age Compared with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from an Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Related or Unrelated Donor.

    PubMed

    Blaise, Didier; Fürst, Sabine; Crocchiolo, Roberto; El-Cheikh, Jean; Granata, Angela; Harbi, Samia; Bouabdallah, Reda; Devillier, Raynier; Bramanti, Stephania; Lemarie, Claude; Picard, Christophe; Chabannon, Christian; Weiller, Pierre-Jean; Faucher, Catherine; Mohty, Bilal; Vey, Norbert; Castagna, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that a T cell-replete allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a haploidentical donor (haplo-ID) could be a valid treatment for hematological malignancies. However, little data exist concerning older populations. We provided transplantation to 31 patients over the age of 55 years from a haplo-ID and compared their outcomes with patients of the same ages who underwent transplantation from a matched related (MRD) or an unrelated donor (UD). All 3 groups were comparable, except for their conditioning. Patients in haplo-ID group received 2 days of post-transplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil, whereas patients in other groups received pretransplantation antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, and additional mycophenolate mofetil in case of 1-antigen mismatch. All patients but 1 in the haplo-ID group engrafted. The incidence of grades 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was not statistically different between recipients from haplo-ID (cumulative incidence, 23%) and MRD (cumulative incidence, 21%) transplantations but it was lower than after UD HSCT (cumulative incidence, 44%). No patient in the haplo-ID group developed severe chronic GVHD, compared with cumulative incidences of 16% and 14% after MRD (P = .02) and UD (P = .03) grafts, respectively. The cumulative incidences of relapse were similar in the 3 groups, whereas nonrelapse mortality after UD HSCT was 3-fold higher than after haplo-ID or MRD HSCT. Overall, 2-year overall survival (70%), progression-free survival (67%), and progression and severe chronic GVHD-free survival (67%) probabilities after haplo-ID did not statistically differ from MRD transplantation (78%, 64%, and 51%, respectively), although they were higher than after UD transplantation (51% [P = .08], 38% [P = .02], and 31% [P = .007]). We conclude that T cell-replete haplo-ID HSCT followed by post-transplantation high

  16. The Origin of Aging: Imperfectness-Driven Non-Random Damage Defines the Aging Process and Control of Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties preclude ideal biomolecules and perfect biological functions. This inherent imperfectness leads to the generation of damage by every biological process, at all levels, from small molecules to cells. The damage is too numerous to be repaired, is partially invisible to natural selection and manifests as aging. I propose that it is the inherent imperfectness of biological systems that is the true root of the aging process. As each biomolecule generates specific forms of damage, the cumulative damage is largely non-random and is indirectly encoded in the genome. I consider this concept in light of other proposed theories of aging and integrate these disparate ideas into a single model. I also discuss the evolutionary significance of damage accumulation and strategies for reducing damage. Finally, I suggest ways to test this integrated model of aging. PMID:23769208

  17. Self-care telephone talks as a health-promotion intervention in urban home-living persons 75+ years of age: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a telephone-based self-care intervention among urban living individuals 75+ years of age by comparing self-reported perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency before and after the intervention. Materials and methods In a randomized controlled study, 15 persons answered a questionnaire about perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency. In a sex- and age-matched control group (n=15), the same questions were answered. Data were collected before and after intervention. An open-ended question about experiences of the intervention was included in the last questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a first meeting with health professionals and additional five self-care telephone calls. The control group did not receive any intervention or attention except for the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study group. To compare the intervention group and control group on nominal and ordinal levels, the McNemar test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively, were chosen. Results Thirty individuals (14 females and 16 males) participated in the study, ranging in age between 75 and 93 years. A significant difference was obtained in the intervention group regarding mental health. Mental health improved significantly in the intervention group (P=0.037). In the control group, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency showed worse outcome results after the intervention (19 weeks). Conclusion Self-care telephone talks improved mental health significantly in our sample, and mental health focus could be understood as a possible condition for health promotion to take place. Structured self-care telephone talks have proved to be successful and a relevant method to use in practice. PMID:24421638

  18. Effects of physical training on age-related balance and postural control.

    PubMed

    Lelard, T; Ahmaidi, S

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we review the effects of physical activity on balance performance in the elderly. The increase in the incidence of falls with age reflects the disorders of balance-related to aging. We are particularly interested in age-related changes in the balance control system as reflected in different static and dynamic balance tests. We report the results of studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of physical activity on postural balance. By comparing groups of practitioners of different physical activities, it appears that these effects on postural control depend on the type of activity and the time of practice. Thus, we have focused in the present review on "proprioceptive" and "strength" activities. Training programs offering a combination of several activities have demonstrated beneficial effects on the incidence of falls, and we present and compare the effects of these two types of training activities. It emerges that there are differential effects of programs of activities: while all activities improve participants' confidence in their ability, the "proprioceptive" activities rather improve performance in static tasks, while "strength" activities tend to improve performance in dynamic tasks. These effects depend on the targeted population and will have a greater impact on the frailest subjects. The use of new technologies in the form of "exergames" may also be proposed in home-based exercises.

  19. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate.

  20. A survey of China's birth control among women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Qiu, S

    1983-12-01

    To further implement China's family planning policy of "prevention first, birth control first," a study of the current family planning situation was conducted. A survey of the birth control methods employed by women of childbearing age and by men was based on a nationwide randomized sampling of 1/1000. In the different age groups, ranging from 15-49 years old, IUD users accounted for over 50%, tubal sterilization 25%, and vasectomy 10%. The main IUD users were women in the 20-24 age group. Tubal sterilization was more prevalent among the women in the 35-39 age group. The use of oral contraceptives (OCs) was more common among younger women but accounted for less than 10% of the total. The survey was based on the replies to questionnaires from 172,788 married women of childbearing age; 120,022 of them practiced contraceptive methods for a birth control rate of 69.46%. The breakdown was as follows: IUD, 34.84%; tubal sterilization, 17.63%; vasectomy, 6.94%; OCs, 5.86%; condom users, 1.39%; and other methods (including chemical suppositories, rhythm, or safe period method and withdrawal before ejaculation), 2.78%. There was a higher percentage of OC users in urban areas, and a marked preference for IUDs in the rural communities. The rural birth control rate was 68.58%; the urban rate was 74.17%. The use of the IUD has priority in all the areas; its percentage approaches the national average level. The use of vasectomy as a birth control method varies considerably according to area as does the use of OCs, condom, and tubal sterilization. Rural minority groups prefer the IUD and OCs; tubal sterilization, the condom, and vasectomy are preferred by the Han nationality. The birth control rate differed according to the different occoupation groups: 77.85%, workers; 76.01%, farmers; 85.15%, cadres; 59.52%, housewives; and 66.67%, others. The birth control rate was higher among those who received a college education than the illiterates, but statistics did not show a

  1. Fitness level moderates executive control disruption during exercise regardless of age.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Smilovitch, Mark; Bherer, Louis

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise intensity, age, and fitness levels on executive and nonexecutive cognitive tasks during exercise. Participants completed a computerized modified-Stroop task (including denomination, inhibition, and switching conditions) while pedaling on a cycle ergometer at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak power output (PPO). We showed that a bout of moderate-intensity (60% PPO) to high-intensity (80% PPO) exercise was associated with deleterious performance in the executive component of the computerized modified-Stroop task (i.e., switching condition), especially in lower-fit individuals (p < .01). Age did not have an effect on the relationship between acute cardiovascular exercise and cognition. Acute exercise can momentarily impair executive control equivalently in younger and older adults, but individual's fitness level moderates this relation. PMID:24918309

  2. Alzheimer's Disease and Non-Demented High Pathology Control Nonagenarians: Comparing and Contrasting the Biochemistry of Cognitively Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Maarouf, Chera L.; Daugs, Ian D.; Kokjohn, Tyler A.; Walker, Douglas G.; Hunter, Jesse M.; Kruchowsky, Jane C.; Woltjer, Randy; Kaye, Jeffrey; Castaño, Eduardo M.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beach, Thomas G.; Roher, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    The amyloid cascade hypothesis provides an economical mechanistic explanation for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and correlated neuropathology. However, some nonagenarian individuals (high pathology controls, HPC) remain cognitively intact while enduring high amyloid plaque loads for decades. If amyloid accumulation is the prime instigator of neurotoxicity and dementia, specific protective mechanisms must enable these HPC to evade cognitive decline. We evaluated the neuropathological and biochemical differences existing between non-demented (ND)-HPC and an age-matched cohort with AD dementia. The ND-HPC selected for our study were clinically assessed as ND and possessed high amyloid plaque burdens. ELISA and Western blot analyses were used to quantify a group of proteins related to APP/Aβ/tau metabolism and other neurotrophic and inflammation-related molecules that have been found to be altered in neurodegenerative disorders and are pivotal to brain homeostasis and mental health. The molecules assumed to be critical in AD dementia, such as soluble or insoluble Aβ40, Aβ42 and tau were quantified by ELISA. Interestingly, only Aβ42 demonstrated a significant increase in ND-HPC when compared to the AD group. The vascular amyloid load which was not used in the selection of cases, was on the average almost 2-fold greater in AD than the ND-HPC, suggesting that a higher degree of microvascular dysfunction and perfusion compromise was present in the demented cohort. Neurofibrillary tangles were less frequent in the frontal cortices of ND-HPC. Biochemical findings included elevated vascular endothelial growth factor, apolipoprotein E and the neuroprotective factor S100B in ND-HPC, while anti-angiogenic pigment epithelium derived factor levels were lower. The lack of clear Aβ-related pathological/biochemical demarcation between AD and ND-HPC suggests that in addition to amyloid plaques other factors, such as neurofibrillary tangle density and vascular integrity, must

  3. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills

  4. Age-Related Differences in Vehicle Control and Eye Movement Patterns at Intersections: Older and Middle-Aged Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Yusuke; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Fisher, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Older drivers are at increased risk of intersection crashes. Previous work found that older drivers execute less frequent glances for detecting potential threats at intersections than middle-aged drivers. Yet, earlier work has also shown that an active training program doubled the frequency of these glances among older drivers, suggesting that these effects are not necessarily due to age-related functional declines. In light of findings, the current study sought to explore the ability of older drivers to coordinate their head and eye movements while simultaneously steering the vehicle as well as their glance behavior at intersections. In a driving simulator, older (M = 76 yrs) and middle-aged (M = 58 yrs) drivers completed different driving tasks: (1) travelling straight on a highway while scanning for peripheral information (a visual search task) and (2) navigating intersections with areas potential hazard. The results replicate that the older drivers did not execute glances for potential threats to the sides when turning at intersections as frequently as the middle-aged drivers. Furthermore, the results demonstrate costs of performing two concurrent tasks, highway driving and visual search task on the side displays: the older drivers performed more poorly on the visual search task and needed to correct their steering positions more compared to the middle-aged counterparts. The findings are consistent with the predictions and discussed in terms of a decoupling hypothesis, providing an account for the effects of the active training program. PMID:27736887

  5. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Dario; Mamo, Carlo; Fanì, Mara; Saccavino, Patrizia; Rocca, Flavio; Momenté, Manuel; Fratta, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women) living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs). The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs) exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling. PMID:23984068

  6. The influence of age and weight status on cardiac autonomic control in healthy children: a review.

    PubMed

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Fisher, J P

    2014-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses can provide a non-invasive evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity. How autonomic control normally develops in childhood and how this is affected by obesity remain incompletely understood. In this review we examine the evidence that childhood age and weight status influence autonomic control of the heart as assessed using HRV. Electronic databases (Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies examining HRV in healthy children from birth to 18 years who adhered to the Task Force (1996) guidelines. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven examined childhood age and HRV. A reduction in 24-hour LF:HF was reported from birth to infancy (1 year), while overall HRV (SDNN) showed a marked and progressive increase. From infancy to early-to-late childhood (from 12 months to 15 years) LF:HF ratio was reported to decline further albeit at a slower rate, while RMSSD and SDNN increased. Twenty studies examined the effects of weight status and body composition on HRV. In a majority of studies, obese children exhibited reductions in RMSSD (n = 8/13), pNN50% (n = 7/9) and HF power (n = 14/18), no difference was reported for LF (n = 10/18), while LF:HF ratio was elevated (n = 10/15). HRV changes during childhood are consistent with a marked and progressive increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity relative to sympathetic activity. Obesity disrupts the normal maturation of cardiac autonomic control.

  7. Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

  8. Remedial Effects of Motivational Incentive on Declining Cognitive Control In Healthy Aging and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harsay, Helga A.; Buitenweg, Jessika I. V.; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Guerreiro, Maria J. S.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The prospect of reward may provide a motivational incentive for optimizing goal-directed behavior. Animal work demonstrates that reward-processing networks and oculomotor-control networks in the brain are connected through the dorsal striatum, and that reward anticipation can improve oculomotor control via this nexus. Due perhaps to deterioration in dopaminergic striatal circuitry, goal-directed oculomotor control is subject to decline in healthy seniors, and even more in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we examine whether healthy seniors and PD patients are able to utilize reward prospects to improve their impaired antisaccade performance. Results confirmed that oculomotor control declined in PD patients compared to healthy seniors, and in healthy seniors compared to young adults. However, the motivational incentive of reward expectation resulted in benefits in antisaccade performance in all groups alike. These findings speak against structural and non-modifiable decline in cognitive control functions, and emphasize the remedial potential of motivational incentive mechanisms in healthy as well as pathological aging. PMID:21060805

  9. Polysulfide shuttle control: Towards a lithium-sulfur battery with superior capacity performance up to 1000 cycles by matching the sulfur/electrolyte loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xin-Bing; Huang, Jia-Qi; Peng, Hong-Jie; Nie, Jing-Qi; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-sulfur battery is one of the most promising alternative power sources, but the polysulfide shuttle between the anode and cathode induces low Coulombic efficiency, low utilization of the sulfur cathode, and severe degradation of cycle life. Herein, the polysulfide shuttle was tuned by the loading of sulfur and electrolyte in a Li-S cell. A lithium-sulfur cell with a high initial discharge capacity of 1053 mAh g-1 at a high rate of 1 C and an ultralow decay rate of 0.049%/per cycle during 1000 cycles was obtained by using carbon nanotube@sulfur cathode and suppressing polysulfide shuttle to a shuttle factor of 0.02 by matching the sulfur/electrolyte loading. The use of matching the sulfur/electrolyte loading is a facile way to tune the shuttle of polysulfide, which provides not only new insights to the energy chemistry of Li/S batteries, but also important principle to assemble a Li/S cell with recommend loading for their commercialization application in portable mobile devices and electric vehicles.

  10. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health. PMID:24692342

  11. Online games training aging brains: limited transfer to cognitive control functions.

    PubMed

    van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC) in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77) played five different cognitive training games online for 30 min a day over a period of seven weeks (game group). Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73) instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group). Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention, and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task) and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM), whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3). These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults. PMID:22912609

  12. Online games training aging brains: limited transfer to cognitive control functions

    PubMed Central

    van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P. H.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC) in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60–77) played five different cognitive training games online for 30 min a day over a period of seven weeks (game group). Another group of 20 older adults (age 61–73) instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group). Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention, and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task) and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM), whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3). These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults. PMID:22912609

  13. Age-related differences in control of a visuomotor coordination task: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Young Uk; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Hocheol; Park, Jungsik

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to examine age-related differences in control of a perception-action coordination skill. We adapted a visuomotor tracking experiment requiring various coordination patterns between a limb's motion and an external signal. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 subjects (6 elderly and 6 young) voluntarily participated in the study. The experimental session consisted of 3 trials for 3 different relative phase patterns: 0°, 90°, and 180°, defined by the relationship between the online visual feedback of the joystick motion and the white dot signal. [Results] The 0° and 180° tracking patterns were stable compared with the 90° tracking pattern for both age groups. The present results also showed that the elderly subjects were less stable than were young subjects for all tracking patterns. [Conclusion] The intrinsic coordination dynamics predicted by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) mathematical model did not change with age, whereas utilization of visual feedback information declined overall. Further research is needed regarding methods for increasing utilization of visual feedback information from the perspective of rehabilitation. PMID:27190463

  14. Age-related differences in control of a visuomotor coordination task: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Young Uk; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Hocheol; Park, Jungsik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to examine age-related differences in control of a perception-action coordination skill. We adapted a visuomotor tracking experiment requiring various coordination patterns between a limb’s motion and an external signal. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 subjects (6 elderly and 6 young) voluntarily participated in the study. The experimental session consisted of 3 trials for 3 different relative phase patterns: 0°, 90°, and 180°, defined by the relationship between the online visual feedback of the joystick motion and the white dot signal. [Results] The 0° and 180° tracking patterns were stable compared with the 90° tracking pattern for both age groups. The present results also showed that the elderly subjects were less stable than were young subjects for all tracking patterns. [Conclusion] The intrinsic coordination dynamics predicted by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) mathematical model did not change with age, whereas utilization of visual feedback information declined overall. Further research is needed regarding methods for increasing utilization of visual feedback information from the perspective of rehabilitation. PMID:27190463

  15. Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert D.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Singh, Itender; LaRue, Barb; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pericytes play a key role in the development of cerebral microcirculation. The exact role of pericytes in the neurovascular unit in the adult brain and during brain aging remains, however, elusive. Using adult viable pericyte-deficient mice, we show that pericyte loss leads to brain vascular damage by two parallel pathways: (1) reduction in brain microcirculation causing diminished brain capillary perfusion, cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow responses to brain activation which ultimately mediates chronic perfusion stress and hypoxia, and (2) blood-brain barrier breakdown associated with brain accumulation of serum proteins and several vasculotoxic and/or neurotoxic macromolecules ultimately leading to secondary neuronal degenerative changes. We show that age-dependent vascular damage in pericyte-deficient mice precedes neuronal degenerative changes, learning and memory impairment and the neuroinflammatory response. Thus, pericytes control key neurovascular functions that are necessary for proper neuronal structure and function, and pericytes loss results in a progressive age-dependent vascular-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21040844

  16. Reconfiguration of brain network architecture to support executive control in aging.

    PubMed

    Gallen, Courtney L; Turner, Gary R; Adnan, Areeba; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by declines in executive control abilities and changes in underlying brain network architecture. Here, we examined brain networks in young and older adults during a task-free resting state and an N-back task and investigated age-related changes in the modular network organization of the brain. Compared with young adults, older adults showed larger changes in network organization between resting state and task. Although young adults exhibited increased connectivity between lateral frontal regions and other network modules during the most difficult task condition, older adults also exhibited this pattern of increased connectivity during less-demanding task conditions. Moreover, the increase in between-module connectivity in older adults was related to faster task performance and greater fractional anisotropy of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results demonstrate that older adults who exhibit more pronounced network changes between a resting state and task have better executive control performance and greater structural connectivity of a core frontal-posterior white matter pathway.

  17. Strategies for Controlled Ovarian Stimulation in the Setting of Ovarian Aging.

    PubMed

    Ata, Baris; Seli, Emre

    2015-11-01

    In the context of assisted reproduction, the term ovarian aging is often used to refer to declining potential of ovaries to produce oocytes in adequate number or quality in response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). Different aspects of COS have been modified with the intention to increase the number and quality of oocytes obtained for in vitro fertilization. In the setting of ovarian aging, suppression of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist or short GnRH agonist protocol and stimulation with a daily gonadotropin dosage of ≤ 300 IU/day seem to be appropriate first choices, and there is a strong need for well-designed randomized controlled trials investigating effects of addition of LH activity, estradiol priming, transdermal testosterone administration, and growth hormone supplementation. Given the lack of high-quality evidence showing effectiveness of one approach over another, other factors such as duration of stimulation, total gonadotropin consumption and cost of medication, patient friendliness, and possible side effect profiles must be considered in tailoring the COS protocol according to each individual's needs and desires.

  18. Age-related changes in the control of finger force vectors.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Shweta; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2010-12-01

    We explored changes in finger interaction in the process of healthy aging as a window into neural control strategies of natural movements. In particular, we quantified the amount of force produced by noninstructed fingers in different directions, the amount of force produced by the instructed finger orthogonally to the task direction, and the strength of multifinger synergies stabilizing the total force magnitude and direction during accurate force production. Healthy elderly participants performed accurate isometric force production tasks in five directions by individual fingers and by all four fingers acting together. Their data were compared with a dataset obtained in a similar earlier study of young subjects. Finger force vectors were measured using six-component force/torque sensors. Multifinger synergies were quantified using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. The elderly participants produced lower force magnitudes by noninstructed fingers and higher force magnitudes by instructed fingers in nontask directions. They showed strong synergies stabilizing the magnitude and direction of the total force vector. However, the synergy indexes were significantly lower than those observed in the earlier study of young subjects. The results are consistent with an earlier hypothesis of preferential weakening of intrinsic hand muscles with age. We interpret the findings as a shift in motor control from synergic to element-based, which may be causally linked to the documented progressive neuronal death at different levels of the neural axis. PMID:20829494

  19. Age-related changes in the control of finger force vectors

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Shweta; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We explored changes in finger interaction in the process of healthy aging as a window into neural control strategies of natural movements. In particular, we quantified the amount of force produced by noninstructed fingers in different directions, the amount of force produced by the instructed finger orthogonally to the task direction, and the strength of multifinger synergies stabilizing the total force magnitude and direction during accurate force production. Healthy elderly participants performed accurate isometric force production tasks in five directions by individual fingers and by all four fingers acting together. Their data were compared with a dataset obtained in a similar earlier study of young subjects. Finger force vectors were measured using six-component force/torque sensors. Multifinger synergies were quantified using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. The elderly participants produced lower force magnitudes by noninstructed fingers and higher force magnitudes by instructed fingers in nontask directions. They showed strong synergies stabilizing the magnitude and direction of the total force vector. However, the synergy indexes were significantly lower than those observed in the earlier study of young subjects. The results are consistent with an earlier hypothesis of preferential weakening of intrinsic hand muscles with age. We interpret the findings as a shift in motor control from synergic to element-based, which may be causally linked to the documented progressive neuronal death at different levels of the neural axis. PMID:20829494

  20. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation.

  1. Internal versus external controls on age variability: Definitions, origins and implications in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, A. M.; Poole, G. C.; Payn, R. A.; Izurieta, C.; Wright, M.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Stanford, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The unsteadiness of stream water age is now well established, but the controls on the age dynamics, and the adequate representation and prediction of those dynamics, are not. A basic distinction can be made between internal variability that arises from changes in the proportions of flow moving through the diverse flow pathways of a hydrologic system, and external variability that arises from the stochasticity of inputs and outputs (such as precipitation and streamflow). In this talk I will show how these two types of age variability can be formally defined and distinguished within the framework of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Internal variability implies variations in time in the rSAS function, while external variability does not. This leads naturally to the definition of several modes of internal variability, reflecting generic ways that system flowpaths may be rearranged. This rearrangement may be induced by fluctuations in the system state (such as catchment wetness), or by longer-term changes in catchment structure (such as land use change). One type of change, the 'inverse storage effect' is characterized by an increase in the release of young water from the system in response to an increase in overall system storage. This effect can be seen in many hydrologic settings, and has important implications for the effect of altered hydroclimatic conditions on solute transport through a landscape. External variability, such as increased precipitation, can induce a decrease in mean transit time (and vice versa), but this effect is greatly enhanced if accompanied by an internal shift in flow pathways that increases the relative importance of younger water. These effects will be illustrated using data from field and experimental studies.

  2. Internal versus external controls on age variability: Definitions, origins and implications in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The unsteadiness of stream water age is now well established, but the controls on the age dynamics, and the adequate representation and prediction of those dynamics, are not. A basic distinction can be made between internal variability that arises from changes in the proportions of flow moving through the diverse flow pathways of a hydrologic system, and external variability that arises from the stochasticity of inputs and outputs (such as precipitation and streamflow). In this talk I will show how these two types of age variability can be formally defined and distinguished within the framework of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Internal variability implies variations in time in the rSAS function, while external variability does not. This leads naturally to the definition of several modes of internal variability, reflecting generic ways that system flowpaths may be rearranged. This rearrangement may be induced by fluctuations in the system state (such as catchment wetness), or by longer-term changes in catchment structure (such as land use change). One type of change, the 'inverse storage effect' is characterized by an increase in the release of young water from the system in response to an increase in overall system storage. This effect can be seen in many hydrologic settings, and has important implications for the effect of altered hydroclimatic conditions on solute transport through a landscape. External variability, such as increased precipitation, can induce a decrease in mean transit time (and vice versa), but this effect is greatly enhanced if accompanied by an internal shift in flow pathways that increases the relative importance of younger water. These effects will be illustrated using data from field and experimental studies.

  3. Controlling Factors of Soil CO2 Efflux in Pinus yunnanensis across Different Stand Ages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojun; Zhao, Jixia; Chen, Qibo

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of soil respiration (Rs) across different stand ages have not been well investigated. In this study, we identified temporal variation of Rs and its driving factors under three nature forest stands (e.g. 15-yr-old, 30-yr-old, and 45-yr-old) of Pinus yunnanensis in the Plateau of Mid-Yunnan, China. No consistent tendency was found on the change of Rs with the stand ages. Rs was ranked in the order of 30-yr-old > 45-yr-old >15-yr-old. Rs in 15-yr-old stand was the most sensitive to soil temperature (Ts) among the three sites. However, Ts only explained 30-40% of the seasonal dynamics of Rs at the site. Soil water content (Sw) was the major controlling factor of temporal variation at the three sites. Sw explained 88-93% of seasonal variations of Rs in the 30-yr-old stand, and 63.7-72.7% in the 15-yr-old and 79.1-79.6% in the 45-yr-old stands. In addition, we found that pH, available nitrogen (AN), C/N and total phosphorus (TP) contributed significantly to the seasonal variation of Rs. Sw was significantly related with pH, total nitrogen (TN), AN and TP, suggesting that Sw can affect Rs through improving soil acid-base property and soil texture, and increasing availability of soil nutrient. The results indicated that besides soil water, soil properties (e. g. pH, AN, C/N and TP) were also the important in controlling the temporal variations of Rs across different stand ages in the nature forestry. PMID:25996943

  4. Effect of aging on the PWR Chemical and Volume Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.J.; Travis, R.J.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    The PWR Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS) is designed to provide both safety and non-safety related functions. During normal plant operation it is used to control reactor coolant chemistry, and letdown and charging flow. In many plants, the charging pumps also provide high pressure injection, emergency boration, and RCP seal injection in emergency situations. This study examines the design, materials, maintenance, operation and actual degradation experiences of the system and main sub-components to assess the potential for age degradation. A detailed review of the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Report (LER) databases for the 1988--1991 time period, together with a review of industry and NRC experience and research, indicate that age-related degradations and failures have occurred. These failures had significant effects on plant operation, including reactivity excursions, and pressurizer level transients. The majority of these component failures resulted in leakage of reactor coolant outside the containment. A representative plant of each PWR design (W, CE, and B and W) was visited to obtain specific information on system inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and inspection practices. The results of these visits indicate that adequate system maintenance and inspection is being performed. In some instances, the frequencies of inspection were increase in response to repeated failure events. A parametric study was performed to assess the effect of system aging on Core Damage Frequency (CDF). This study showed that as motor-operated valve (MOV) operating failures increased, the contribution of the High Pressure Injection to CDF also increased.

  5. As we age: Does slippage of quality control in the immune system lead to collateral damage?

    PubMed

    Müller, Ludmila; Pawelec, Graham

    2015-09-01

    The vertebrate adaptive immune system is remarkable for its possession of a very broad range of antigen receptors imbuing the system with exquisite specificity, in addition to the phagocytic and inflammatory cells of the innate system shared with invertebrates. This system requires strict control both at the level of the generation the cells carrying these receptors and at the level of their activation and effector function mediation in order to avoid autoimmunity and mitigate immune pathology. Thus, quality control checkpoints are built into the system at multiple nodes in the response, relying on clonal selection and regulatory networks to maximize pathogen-directed effects and minimize collateral tissue damage. However, these checkpoints are compromised with age, resulting in poorer immune control manifesting as tissue-damaging autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena which can cause widespread systemic disease, paradoxically compounding the problems associated with increased susceptibility to infectious disease and possibly cancer in the elderly. Better understanding the reasons for slippage of immune control will pave the way for developing rational strategies for interventions to maintain appropriate immunity while reducing immunopathology.

  6. Partial hue-matching.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Beattie, Lesley L

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that color can be decomposed into a small number of component colors. Particularly, each hue can be described as a combination of a restricted set of component hues. Methods, such as color naming and hue scaling, aim at describing color in terms of the relative amount of the component hues. However, there is no consensus on the nomenclature of component hues. Moreover, the very notion of hue (not to mention component hue) is usually defined verbally rather than perceptually. In this paper, we make an attempt to operationalize such a fundamental attribute of color as hue without the use of verbal terms. Specifically, we put forth a new method--partial hue-matching--that is based on judgments of whether two colors have some hue in common. It allows a set of component hues to be established objectively, without resorting to verbal definitions. Specifically, the largest sets of color stimuli, all of which partially match each other (referred to as chromaticity classes), can be derived from the observer's partial hue-matches. A chromaticity class proves to consist of all color stimuli that contain a particular component hue. Thus, the chromaticity classes fully define the set of component hues. Using samples of Munsell papers, a few experiments on partial hue-matching were carried out with twelve inexperienced normal trichromatic observers. The results reinforce the classical notion of four component hues (yellow, blue, red, and green). Black and white (but not gray) were also found to be component colors. PMID:21742961

  7. MATCH PLAY, SOAP HOPE.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan Paragi; Hilton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Education Commission (MEC) has published Graduate Medical Education (GME) data since 1997, including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) and the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program (SOAP), and totals all GME in Louisiana for annual publication. The NRMP provides the quotas and filled positions by institution. Following the NRMP, SOAP attempts to place unmatched candidates with slots that are unfilled. The NRMP Fellowship match also comes close to filling quotas and has a significant SOAP. Thus, an accurate number of total filled positions is best obtained in July of the same match year. All GME programs in Louisiana are represented for 2014, and the number trend 2005 to 2014 shows that the only dip was post-Katrina in 2005-2006. The March match after SOAP 2014 is at the peak for both senior medical students and post graduate year one (PGY-1) residents. A significant and similar number stay in Louisiana GME institutions after graduation. Also noteworthy is that a lower percentage are staying in state, due to increased enrollment in all Louisiana medical schools. PMID:27159458

  8. Derivatives of Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrnstein, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The matching law for reinforced behavior solves a differential equation relating infinitesimal changes in behavior to infinitesimal changes in reinforcement. The equation expresses plausible conceptions of behavior and reinforcement, yields a simple nonlinear operator model for acquisition, and suggests a alternative to the economic law of…

  9. Is Matching Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…

  10. Antecedents and outcomes of level and rates of change in perceived control: The moderating role of age.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Frank J; Okun, Morris A

    2015-10-01

    Perceived control is interrelated with aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age. Relatively little is known, however, about resources as antecedents of longitudinal change in perceived control and the role of perceived control as a buffer against mortality risk when these resources are low. We examined functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and emotional support as antecedents of level and rates of change in perceived control and whether level and rates of change in perceived control buffer the relations between high functional limitations and depressive symptoms and lack of emotional support and mortality risk. In addition, age was investigated as a moderator of these associations. To do so, we used 16-year longitudinal data from participants in the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study who were at least 40 years old at Wave 1 (N = 2,540; mean age = 62.85, SD = 12.15; 65% women). With respect to the antecedents of perceived control, results indicated that more functional limitations and depressive symptoms, as well as having less emotional support, were each associated with lower levels of and stronger declines in perceived control over time. Additionally, more functional limitations and less emotional support were more detrimental to levels of perceived control in midlife compared to old age. Focusing on outcomes of perceived control, more positive rates of change in perceived control protected against mortality risk for those with fewer functional limitations and depressive symptoms and more emotional support, and this was more pronounced for functional limitations and depressive symptoms in old age as compared to midlife. Our discussion focuses on the complex interplay among perceived control, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, and emotional support; how they vary with age; and the implications of our findings for interventions.

  11. Matching: its acquisition and generalization.

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Michael A; Donahoe, John W

    2004-01-01

    Choice typically is studied by exposing organisms to concurrent variable-interval schedules in which not only responses controlled by stimuli on the key are acquired but also switching responses and likely other operants as well. In the present research, discriminated key-pecking responses in pigeons were first acquired using a multiple schedule that minimized the reinforcement of switching operants. Then, choice was assessed during concurrent-probe periods in which pairs of discriminative stimuli were presented concurrently. Upon initial exposure to concurrently presented stimuli, choice approximated exclusive preference for the alternative associated with the higher reinforcement frequency. Concurrent schedules were then implemented that gave increasingly greater opportunities for switching operants to be conditioned. As these operants were acquired, the relation of relative response frequency to relative reinforcement frequency converged toward a matching relation. An account of matching with concurrent schedules is proposed in which responding exclusively to the discriminative stimulus associated with the higher reinforcement frequency declines as the concurrent stimuli become more similar and other operants-notably switching-are acquired and generalize to stimuli from both alternatives. The concerted effect of these processes fosters an approximate matching relation in commonly used concurrent procedures. PMID:15540502

  12. Matching preschool children's and teachers' cognitive styles.

    PubMed

    Saracho, O N; Spodek, B

    1994-04-01

    The study examined the significance of matching the cognitive styles of 3-, 4-, and 5-yr.-old preschool children and their teachers. 150 female teachers and their children were administered several instruments to measure cognitive style, intelligence, and the teachers' assessment of their classroom children. They included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Articulation of the Body-concept Scale, and Teachers' Ranking Form. Analysis indicated that teachers assessed their matched and mismatched children's relative standing on a standardized test differently by age. For 3-yr.-olds, field-dependent teachers underestimated their mismatched children more than their other children, while field-independent teachers underestimated their matched children more. Teachers of 4-yr.-old children overestimated all children. For 5-yr.-olds, field-dependent teachers assessed their mismatched children more negatively than their matched children, while field-independent teachers assessed their mismatched children more positively than the field-dependent teachers.

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