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  1. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA matching shapes metabolism and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Pellicer, Ana; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Calvo, Enrique; Aix, Esther; González-Guerra, Andrés; Logan, Angela; Bernad-Miana, María Luisa; Romanos, Eduardo; Cruz, Raquel; Cogliati, Sara; Sobrino, Beatriz; Carracedo, Ángel; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Ruíz-Cabello, Jesús; Murphy, Michael P; Flores, Ignacio; Vázquez, Jesús; Enríquez, José Antonio

    2016-07-28

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) shows extensive within population sequence variability. Many studies suggest that mtDNA variants may be associated with ageing or diseases, although mechanistic evidence at the molecular level is lacking. Mitochondrial replacement has the potential to prevent transmission of disease-causing oocyte mtDNA. However, extension of this technology requires a comprehensive understanding of the physiological relevance of mtDNA sequence variability and its match with the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Studies in conplastic animals allow comparison of individuals with the same nuclear genome but different mtDNA variants, and have provided both supporting and refuting evidence that mtDNA variation influences organismal physiology. However, most of these studies did not confirm the conplastic status, focused on younger animals, and did not investigate the full range of physiological and phenotypic variability likely to be influenced by mitochondria. Here we systematically characterized conplastic mice throughout their lifespan using transcriptomic, proteomic,metabolomic, biochemical, physiological and phenotyping studies. We show that mtDNA haplotype profoundly influences mitochondrial proteostasis and reactive oxygen species generation,insulin signalling, obesity, and ageing parameters including telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in profound differences in health longevity between conplastic strains. PMID:27383793

  2. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  3. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  4. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  5. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  6. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference “creatinine independent” GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys.

  7. Evaluation of Basal Renal Function in Treatment-naïve Patients with Malignancy and Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Control.

    PubMed

    Barai, Sukanta; Gambhir, Sanjay; Jain, Suruchi; Rastogi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of renal insufficiency in patients with malignancy at baseline before initiation of therapy. The published studies based on patient with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy have reported a high prevalence of renal impairment. However, these studies have utilized creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equations to assess the level of renal function. These equations are known to have some serious limitations in reliably predicting GFR. The aim of the study was to accurately document the state of renal function in treatment-naïve cancer patients and compare them against age-matched healthy controls using a reference "creatinine independent" GFR measurement technique. Age-matched comparison of GFR of 1,373 treatment-naïve cancer patients and 1,089 healthy controls were done retrospectively. There was no difference in GFR between cancer and healthy group when analyzed under various age groups, though the overall mean GFR in healthy controls was significantly higher compared to cancer group (80.14 ± 17.63 mL vs 74.43 ± 20.84, P 0≤ 0.01), whereas the mean age in control arm was significantly lower compared to cancer group (44.24 ± 17.63 years vs. 50.70 ± 20.84 years, P ≤ 0.01). Treatment-naïve cancer patients have identical renal function to their healthy age-matched peers. Malignancy per se does not directly lead to the decline in filtration capacity of the kidneys. PMID:27651734

  8. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  9. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  10. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  11. Healthy mental ageing.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2006-09-01

    Healthy mental ageing may be defined as the absence of the common disabling mental health problems of older people, especially cognitive decline and depression, accompanied by the perception of a positive quality of life. Older people are particularly prone to negative effects on mental health due to poor physical health. Modifiable aspects of lifestyle have been shown to be associated with healthy mental ageing. These include increased physical activity, intellectual stimulation (including education), avoidance of smoking and various aspects of diet. There is reasonably strong evidence that the treatment of hypertension will decrease the risk of cognitive impairment, and moderate alcohol intake may also have some benefits on cognition. These modifiable lifestyle factors may benefit from deliberate individual and population health promotion strategies to maximize mental health in old age, although to date intervention trials have not been performed to support the evidence obtained from observational studies. PMID:16953981

  12. Diet and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid

    2005-12-01

    In the future there will be more people aged 65 years and over ('older adults'). Although the exact mechanisms underlying normal ageing are not fully understood, ageing is generally associated with an increase in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and osteoporosis. It is becoming clear that it is possible to prevent, slow or reverse the onset of many these by modifying lifestyle factors such as diet. Studies of older adults in a range of countries have highlighted a number of areas in which dietary quality could be improved. It is important to identify dietary patterns in addition to specific dietary components that offer protection against chronic disease. The challenge in the area of diet and healthy ageing is twofold: first, there is a need to improve the diet of older adults; and second, as most chronic diseases begin earlier in life, there is a need to encourage other age groups to adapt their diet so they can enter old age in better health.

  13. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  14. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  15. Magnesium and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Zanforlini, Bruno Micael; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is relatively stable in the intracellular compartment, although decreases linearly with advancing age. This begs the question as to whether Mg could be used as biomarker of aging. A biomarker of aging is a biological parameter of an organism that, in the absence of disease, better predicts functional capability at a later age than the chronological age. Bone and muscle Mg content might be useful biomarkers, but the need for biopsies and the heterogeneous distribution of Mg in bones and muscles strongly limit the application of these methods in clinical practice. Similar considerations can be made for urinary Mg assessment, particularly after a loading test. Markers of Mg in blood seem fairly unreliable as biomarkers of aging since they are strongly dependent upon renal function, do not reflect the intracellular Mg status, and, in some investigations, are within normal ranges although other Mg parameters are not. Other investigations (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance with fluorescent probes) seem to be promising, but their availability remains limited. PMID:26446714

  16. MedlinePlus: Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... in America (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: The benefits of social prescribing. Article: Healthy ...

  17. Healthy Behaviors or Age Denials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable confusion in the media and the public about healthy behaviors in contrast to "antiaging" behaviors designed to make one look "younger." As an aid in clarifying the differences between these two types of behaviors, we have developed a questionnaire called the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). We also wanted to estimate…

  18. Mass media and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Laurie A; Johnson, Christine P

    2008-01-01

    Health effects associated with media use have largely focused on children and youth with little attention paid to adults, particularly older adults. However, adults aged 60 years and older report heavy television viewing, and unique health education challenges will be faced as the technically savvy baby-boomer cohort ages. Media health effects relevant to older adults include an established causative link with adiposity and correlations to increased risk of chronic disease, reduced physical activity, and undesirable food choice behaviors. Advertising has targeted older adults as a key market segment promoting anti-aging and health related products, with potential negative body image impacts. Implications for health practitioners and research are discussed in the context of these consequences. PMID:19042578

  19. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, K. D.; Corr, S. A.; Gutierrez, C. G.; Fisher, P. A.; Lee, J.-H.; Rathbone, A. J.; Choi, I.; Campbell, K. H. S.; Gardner, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7–9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  20. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Corr, S A; Gutierrez, C G; Fisher, P A; Lee, J-H; Rathbone, A J; Choi, I; Campbell, K H S; Gardner, D S

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7-9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals.

  1. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Corr, S A; Gutierrez, C G; Fisher, P A; Lee, J-H; Rathbone, A J; Choi, I; Campbell, K H S; Gardner, D S

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7-9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  2. Body composition in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, R N

    2000-05-01

    Health risks in elderly people cannot be evaluated simply in conventional terms of body fatness or fat distribution. Elderly people have less muscle and bone mass, expanded extracellular fluid volumes, and reduced body cell mass compared to younger adults. These nonfat components of body composition play critical roles, influencing cognitive and physical functional status, nutritional and endocrine status, quality of life, and comorbidity in elderly people. Different patterns of "disordered body composition" have different relationships to these outcomes and may require different, tailored approaches to treatment that combine various exercise regimens and dietary supplements with hormone replacement or appetite-stimulating drugs. Skeletal muscle atrophy, or "sarcopenia," is highly prevalent in the elderly population, increases with age, and is strongly associated with disability, independent of morbidity. Elders at greatest risk are those who are simultaneously sarcopenic and obese. The accurate identification of sarcopenic obesity requires precise methods of simultaneously measuring fat and lean components, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

  3. Electroencephalographic Fractal Dimension in Healthy Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Smits, Fenne Margreeth; Porcaro, Camillo; Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20-89 years) and 67 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients (age: 50-88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called "free" copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349

  4. Electroencephalographic Fractal Dimension in Healthy Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Smits, Fenne Margreeth; Porcaro, Camillo; Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20-89 years) and 67 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients (age: 50-88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called "free" copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging.

  5. Genetics of healthy aging in Europe: the EU-integrated project GEHA (GEnetics of Healthy Aging).

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Claudio; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène; Bolund, Lars; Christensen, Kaare; de Benedictis, Giovanna; Deiana, Luca; Gonos, Efsthatios; Hervonen, Antti; Yang, Huanning; Jeune, Bernard; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Kristensen, Peter; Leon, Alberta; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Peltonen, Leena; Poulain, Michel; Rea, Irene Maeve; Remacle, José; Robine, Jean Marie; Schreiber, Stefan; Sikora, Ewa; Slagboom, Pieternella Eline; Spazzafumo, Liana; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Toussaint, Olivier; Vaupel, James W

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the 5-year European Union (EU)-Integrated Project GEnetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA), constituted by 25 partners (24 from Europe plus the Beijing Genomics Institute from China), is to identify genes involved in healthy aging and longevity, which allow individuals to survive to advanced old age in good cognitive and physical function and in the absence of major age-related diseases. To achieve this aim a coherent, tightly integrated program of research that unites demographers, geriatricians, geneticists, genetic epidemiologists, molecular biologists, bioinfomaticians, and statisticians has been set up. The working plan is to: (a) collect DNA and information on the health status from an unprecedented number of long-lived 90+ sibpairs (n = 2650) and of younger ethnically matched controls (n = 2650) from 11 European countries; (b) perform a genome-wide linkage scannning in all the sibpairs (a total of 5300 individuals); this investigation will be followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping (LD mapping) of the candidate chromosomal regions; (c) study in cases (i.e., the 2650 probands of the sibpairs) and controls (2650 younger people), genomic regions (chromosome 4, D4S1564, chromosome 11, 11.p15.5) which were identified in previous studies as possible candidates to harbor longevity genes; (d) genotype all recruited subjects for apoE polymorphisms; and (e) genotype all recruited subjects for inherited as well as epigenetic variability of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The genetic analysis will be performed by 9 high-throughput platforms, within the framework of centralized databases for phenotypic, genetic, and mtDNA data. Additional advanced approaches (bioinformatics, advanced statistics, mathematical modeling, functional genomics and proteomics, molecular biology, molecular genetics) are envisaged to identify the gene variant(s) of interest. The experimental design will also allow (a) to identify gender-specific genes involved in healthy aging and longevity

  6. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research.

  7. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  8. Promoting healthy ageing: the importance of lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola

    The UK has a rapidly ageing population with increased healthcare needs. While the population can, on the whole, look forward to longer years of good health, many people will be living with one or more chronic conditions. However, modifiable lifestyle, such as a healthy diet and physical activity, can encourage healthy ageing and improve the quality of life of older people. Nurses are ideally placed to provide advice on nutrition and physical activity to older people in an effort to reduce the burden of age-related disease. This is likely to require new ways of working, with nurses being trained to recognise opportunities for health promotion with older patients, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice. PMID:21287926

  9. Promoting healthy ageing: the importance of lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola

    The UK has a rapidly ageing population with increased healthcare needs. While the population can, on the whole, look forward to longer years of good health, many people will be living with one or more chronic conditions. However, modifiable lifestyle, such as a healthy diet and physical activity, can encourage healthy ageing and improve the quality of life of older people. Nurses are ideally placed to provide advice on nutrition and physical activity to older people in an effort to reduce the burden of age-related disease. This is likely to require new ways of working, with nurses being trained to recognise opportunities for health promotion with older patients, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice.

  10. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing.

  11. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  12. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies. PMID:25913071

  13. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Putney, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Bonnie L.; Sass, Samantha E.; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Results: Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Conclusion: Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly. PMID:27046541

  14. Trabecular bone score in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Bazzocchi, A; Ponti, F; Diano, D; Amadori, M; Albisinni, U; Battista, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this work was to report on trabecular bone score (TBS) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of healthy Italian subjects to be used as a reference standard for future study in clinical and research settings. The secondary aim was to investigate the link between TBS and conventional parameters of bone and body composition by DXA. Methods: 250 individuals of 5 age bands (spanning from 18 to 70 years of age, equally distributed for both age and sex) were prospectively recruited. A lumbar spine (LS) DXA scan (Lunar iDXA™; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) was acquired for each subject and then analysed with the latest version of TBS iNsight v. 2.1 (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France) software. LS bone mineral density (LS BMD), Z-score, T-score and TBS values were collected. Pearson's test was used to investigate the correlations between TBS and LS BMD and the influence of age, body mass index (BMI) and body composition on these parameters. Results: A significant decrease of TBS and LS BMD was observed with ageing in both males (TBS mean values from 1.486 to 1.374; LS BMD mean values from 1.219 to 1.187) and females (TBS mean values from 1.464 to 1.306; LS BMD mean values from 1.154 to 1.116). No statistically significant difference was achieved among males and females of the same age group for both TBS and LS BMD, with the exception of the fifth age group. A significant correlation was found between LS BMD and TBS values in both sexes (r  = 0.555–0.655, p < 0.0001). BMI influenced LS BMD but not TBS. TBS values were inversely correlated with some fat mass parameters, in particular with visceral adipose tissue (in males: r = −0.332, p < 0.001; in females: r = −0.348, p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between TBS and total lean mass, opposite to LS BMD (in males: r = 0.418; p < 0.0001; in females: r = −0.235; p < 0.001). Conclusion: This report is an attempt to start building a database for

  15. NK Cells in Healthy Aging and Age-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Camous, Xavier; Pera, Alejandra; Solana, Rafael; Larbi, Anis

    2012-01-01

    NK cells exhibit the highest cytotoxic capacity within the immune system. Alteration of their number or functionality may have a deep impact on overall immunity. This is of particular relevance in aging where the elderly population becomes more susceptible to infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases amongst others. As the fraction of elderly increases worldwide, it becomes urgent to better understand the aging of the immune system to prevent and cure the elderly population. For this, a better understanding of the function and phenotype of the different immune cells and their subsets is necessary. We review here NK cell functions and phenotype in healthy aging as well as in various age-associated diseases. PMID:23251076

  16. NK cells in healthy aging and age-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Camous, Xavier; Pera, Alejandra; Solana, Rafael; Larbi, Anis

    2012-01-01

    NK cells exhibit the highest cytotoxic capacity within the immune system. Alteration of their number or functionality may have a deep impact on overall immunity. This is of particular relevance in aging where the elderly population becomes more susceptible to infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases amongst others. As the fraction of elderly increases worldwide, it becomes urgent to better understand the aging of the immune system to prevent and cure the elderly population. For this, a better understanding of the function and phenotype of the different immune cells and their subsets is necessary. We review here NK cell functions and phenotype in healthy aging as well as in various age-associated diseases.

  17. Quantitative measures of healthy aging and biological age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    Numerous genetic and non-genetic factors contribute to aging. To facilitate the study of these factors, various descriptors of biological aging, including ‘successful aging’ and ‘frailty’, have been put forth as integrative functional measures of aging. A separate but related quantitative approach is the ‘frailty index’, which has been operationalized and frequently used. Various frailty indices have been constructed. Although based on different numbers and types of health variables, frailty indices possess several common properties that make them useful across different studies. We have been using a frailty index termed FI34 based on 34 health variables. Like other frailty indices, FI34 increases non-linearly with advancing age and is a better indicator of biological aging than chronological age. FI34 has a substantial genetic basis. Using FI34, we found elevated levels of resting metabolic rate linked to declining health in nonagenarians. Using FI34 as a quantitative phenotype, we have also found a genomic region on chromosome 12 that is associated with healthy aging and longevity. PMID:26005669

  18. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  19. Flow Structures in a Healthy and Plaqued Artificial Artery using Fully Index Matched Vascular Flow Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Faraz; Jain, Akash; Sheng, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements are made in a closed loop fully index matched flow facility to study the flow structures and flow wall interactions in healthy and diseased model arteries. The test section is 0.63 m long and the facility is capable of emulating both steady and pulsatile flows under physiologically relevant conditions. The model arteries are in-house developed compliant polymer (PDMS) tubes with 1 cm diameter and 1 mm wall thickness. The Reynolds numbers of flows vary up to 20,000. The plaque is simulated by introducing a radially asymmetric bump that can be varied in shape, size and compliancy. The overall compliancy of the model can be also controlled by varying ratio between the elastomer and the curing agent. The tubes are doped with particles allowing the simultaneous measurements of wall deformation and flows over it. The working fluid in the facility is NaI and is refractive index matched to the PDMS model. This allows flow measurement very close to the wall and measurement of wall shear stress. The aim of this study is to characterize the changes in flow as the compliancy and geometry of blood vessels change due to age or disease. These differences can be used to develop a diagnostic tool to detect early onset of vascular diseases.

  20. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals. PMID:25790831

  1. Yogurt: role in healthy and active aging.

    PubMed

    El-Abbadi, Naglaa Hani; Dao, Maria Carlota; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with health benefits in different populations. Limited information, however, is available on nutritional and health attributes of yogurt in older adults. Yogurt is abundant in calcium, zinc, B vitamins, and probiotics; it is a good source of protein; and it may be supplemented with vitamin D and additional probiotics associated with positive health outcomes. Aging is accompanied by a wide array of nutritional deficiencies and health complications associated with under- and overnutrition, including musculoskeletal impairment, immunosenescence, cardiometabolic diseases, and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, yogurt is accessible and convenient to consume by the older population, which makes yogurt consumption a feasible approach to enhance older adults' nutritional status. A limited number of studies have specifically addressed the impact of yogurt on the nutritional and health status of older adults, and most are observational. However, those reported thus far and reviewed here are encouraging and suggest that yogurt could play a role in improving the nutritional status and health of older adults. In addition, these reports support further investigation into the role of yogurt in healthy and active aging.

  2. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-6 in patients with dysthymic disorder: comparison with age- and sex-matched major depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Katsuki, Asuka; Hayashi, Kenji; Atake, Kiyokazu; Nakamura, Jun

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the serum BDNF levels and plasma IL-6 levels in patients with dysthymic disorder, major depressive disorder and control subjects. Eighteen patients who met the DSM-IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) for dysthymic disorder (male/female: 5/13; age: 36 ± 9 year) and 20 patients (male/female: 7/13; age: 38 ± 10 year) who met the criteria for major depressive disorder were enrolled. The serum BDNF levels in patients with dysthymic and major depressive disorder were significantly lower than those in the control subjects. However, no difference was found between the dysthymic group and major depression group. The plasma IL-6 levels in the dysthymic group and major depression group were significantly higher than those in the control group. No difference was observed in the plasma IL-6 levels between the dysthymic group and major depression group. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of dysthymic disorder and major depression might be similar in terms of the blood levels of BDNF and IL-6.

  3. Social Factors and Healthy Aging: Findings from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS)

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-84 years), and oldest-old adults (85 to 101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with self-reported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain an important determinant of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed. PMID:27034910

  4. Impact of stimulus integrity on age differences in letter matching.

    PubMed

    Groth, Karen E; Gilmore, Grover C; Thomas, Cecil W

    2003-01-01

    Young and older adults were tested in both a letter-identification and a letter-matching task in which the integrity of the letter stimuli was manipulated through contrast reduction and low-pass spatial frequency filtering. The use of the contrast and filtering manipulations was an attempt to increase encoding difficulty in an effort to examine whether stimulus integrity impacts more than just the initial encoding of the letter pairs in a letter-matching task, namely the comparison process as indexed by fast-same and false-different effects. Of interest in terms of aging is whether a decline in information-processing performance often reported in the aging literature is related to the known encoding deficits of older adults. In the letter-identification task, both contrast reduction and filtering slowed letter-identification speed for both groups, with the effect being larger for the older adults. In the letter-matching task, decreased processing efficiency produced by the contrast-reduction and low-pass-filtering manipulations led to an overall increase in reaction time and errors, but it did not interact with the magnitude of the fast-same effect or false-different effects for either subject group. These findings suggest that the stimulus integrity manipulations only impact the encoding of the letter pairs in the matching task and not the comparison process. The results of the present study support a dual-process model of the matching task consisting of separate encoding and comparison processes. The finding of a larger fast-same effect for older adults suggests that the age effect is occurring at the comparison stage, but it is not impacted by the stimulus integrity manipulations. The findings are described within a generalized slowing framework.

  5. Reduced stress and inflammatory responsiveness in experienced meditators compared to a matched healthy control group.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Lutz, Antoine; Perlman, David M; Bachhuber, David R W; Schuyler, Brianna S; MacCoon, Donal G; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is a major contributor to symptom exacerbation across many chronic inflammatory conditions and can acutely provoke increases in inflammation in healthy individuals. With the rise in rates of inflammation-related medical conditions, evidence for behavioral approaches that reduce stress reactivity is of value. Here, we compare 31 experienced meditators, with an average of approximately 9000 lifetime hours of meditation practice (M age=51years) to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=37; M age=48years) on measures of stress- and inflammatory responsivity, and measures of psychological health. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and a neurogenic inflammatory response was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Size of the capsaicin-induced flare response and increase in salivary cortisol and alpha amylase were used to quantify the magnitude of inflammatory and stress responses, respectively. Results show that experienced meditators have lower TSST-evoked cortisol (62.62±2.52 vs. 70.38±2.33; p<.05) and perceived stress (4.18±.41 vs. 5.56±.30; p<.01), as well as a smaller neurogenic inflammatory response (81.55±4.6 vs. 96.76±4.26; p<.05), compared to the control group. Moreover, experienced meditators reported higher levels of psychological factors associated with wellbeing and resilience. These results suggest that the long-term practice of meditation may reduce stress reactivity and could be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26970711

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Dolutegravir in HIV-Seronegative Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy H; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul M; Chen, Shuguang; Patel, Parul; Wajima, Toshihiro; Peppercorn, Amanda F; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dolutegravir pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to matched, healthy controls. In this open-label, parallel-group study, eight adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score 7–9) and eight healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and body mass index received a single dolutegravir 50-mg dose. Following dosing, 72-hour PK sampling was performed to determine total and unbound dolutegravir concentrations. PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric least squares mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) in subjects with hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects were generated by analysis of variance. Results showed that PK parameters of total plasma dolutegravir were similar between subject groups. The unbound fraction was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than in healthy subjects with GMR (90% CI) of 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) for unbound fraction at 3 hours post-dose and 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) for unbound fraction at 24 hours post-dose; this correlated with lower serum albumin concentrations and was not considered clinically significant. Dolutegravir was well tolerated in both groups; all adverse events were reported as minor. Although free fraction was increased, no dose adjustment is required for patients treated with dolutegravir who have mild to moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26097786

  7. Age-related changes in matching novel objects across viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Yaroslav; Vuong, Quoc C.; Bennett, Patrick J.; Sekuler, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Object recognition is an important visual process. We are not only required to recognize objects across a variety of lighting conditions and variations in size, but also across changes in viewpoint. It has been shown that reaction times in object matching increase as a function of increasing angular disparity between two views of the same object, and it is thought that this is related to the time it takes to mentally rotate an object. Recent studies have shown that object rotations for familiar objects affect older subjects differently than younger subjects. To investigate the general normalization effects for recognizing objects across different viewpoints regardless of visual experience with an object, in the current study we used novel 3D stimuli. Older and younger subjects matched objects across a variety of viewpoints along both in-depth and picture-plane rotations. Response times (RTs) for in-depth rotations were generally slower than for picture plane rotations and older subjects, overall, responded slower than younger subjects. However, a male RT advantage was only found for objects that differed by large, in-depth rotations. Compared to younger subjects, older subjects were not only slower but also less accurate at matching objects across both rotation axes. The age effect was primarily due to older male subjects performing worse than younger male subjects, whereas there was no significant age difference for female subjects. In addition, older males performed even worse than older females, which argues against a general male advantage in mental rotations tasks. PMID:21784094

  8. Inulin-type fructans in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Kieran M

    2007-11-01

    Worldwide, the population is aging, with estimates of 1 billion people aged 60 y or over within the next 20 y. With aging comes a reduction in overall health and increased morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease. Mortality due to gastrointestinal infections is up to 400 times higher in the elderly compared with younger adults. Recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota changes in old age, with an increased number of bacterial groups represented in the predominant elderly gut microbiota. This change in species "evenness" coincides with parallel changes in immune function, diet, and lifestyle and may contribute to disease susceptibility and severity in old age. The intestinal microbiota may thus be identified as an important target for improving health through reduced disease risk. Here, the application of prebiotics, especially the inulin-type fructans, and synbiotics (prebiotics combined with efficacious probiotic strains) will be discussed in terms of microbiota modulation and impact on disease risk in the aged population. Recent human intervention studies have confirmed the microbiota modulatory capability of the inulin-type fructans in the elderly and there is some evidence for reduced risk of disease. However, there is a need for more and larger human intervention studies to determine the efficacy of prebiotics in the elderly, particularly studies that take advantage of recent high resolution analytical methodologies like metabonomics, to shed light on possible prebiotic mechanisms of action.

  9. Healthy ageing, but what is health?

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2013-12-01

    Ageing occurs in spite of complex pathways of maintenance and repair. There is no "enemy within", which has the specific evolution-selected function to cause ageing and death. This understanding of ageing should transform our approach towards interventions from therapeutic "anti-ageing" to maintaining health. But what is health? Ideally, health is a state of complete physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. But in pragmatic terms, health is a state of adequate physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. In order to identify a set of measurable, evidence-based and demonstratable parameters of health, robustness and resilience at various levels, the concept of homeodynamic space can be a useful one. Age-related health problems for which there are no clear-cut causative agents, except the complex process of ageing, may be better tackled by focusing on health mechanisms and their maintenance, rather than disease management and treatment. Continuing the disease-oriented research approaches are economically, socially and psychologically unsustainable as compared with health-oriented and preventive strategies, such as hormesis. Supporting health-oriented research is the urgency of our time.

  10. Inorganic nitrite supplementation for healthy arterial aging

    PubMed Central

    DeVan, Allison E.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This is attributable primarily to adverse changes in arteries, notably, increases in large elastic artery stiffness and endothelial dysfunction mediated by inadequate concentrations of the vascular-protective molecule, nitric oxide (NO), and higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Inorganic nitrite is a promising precursor molecule for augmenting circulating and tissue NO bioavailability because it requires only a one-step reduction to NO. Nitrite also acts as an independent signaling molecule, exerting many of the effects previously attributed to NO. Results of recent studies indicate that nitrite may be effective in the treatment of vascular aging. In old mice, short-term oral sodium nitrite supplementation reduces aortic pulse wave velocity, the gold-standard measure of large elastic artery stiffness, and ameliorates endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by normalization of NO-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation. These improvements in age-related vascular dysfunction with nitrite are mediated by reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation, and may be linked to increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and health. Increasing nitrite levels via dietary intake of nitrate appears to have similarly beneficial effects in many of the same physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being performed to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing nitrite bioavailability on human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In summary, inorganic nitrite, as well as dietary nitrate supplementation, represents a promising therapy for treatment of arterial aging and prevention of age-associated CVD in humans. PMID:24408999

  11. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  12. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD. PMID:26713424

  13. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects. PMID:27027323

  14. Age and education-matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of ECAS.

    PubMed

    Loose, Markus; Burkhardt, Christian; Aho-Özhan, Helena; Keller, Jürgen; Abdulla, Susanne; Böhm, Sarah; Kollewe, Katja; Uttner, Ingo; Abrahams, Sharon; Petri, Susanne; Weber, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) has been developed to assess cognition and behaviour in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cognitive impairments of ALS-specific and ALS-non-specific functions can be determined using cut-off scores based on performance of healthy subjects. However, detailed analyses show that older healthy subjects perform worse than younger ones, whereas highly-educated individuals perform better than those with lower education levels. As a consequence, this study presents new age and education matched cut-off scores for the revised German/Swiss-German version of the ECAS based on the performance of 86 healthy subjects.

  15. Whole-Genome Sequencing of a Healthy Aging Cohort.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Galina A; Bodian, Dale L; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Sarah E; Wineinger, Nathan E; Niederhuber, John E; Topol, Eric J; Torkamani, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype-healthy aging-to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants, but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and coronary artery disease. Additionally, healthy aging is not associated with a decreased rate of rare pathogenic variants, potentially indicating the presence of disease-resistance factors. In keeping with this possibility, we identify suggestive common and rare variant genetic associations implying that protection against cognitive decline is a genetic component of healthy aging. These findings, based on a relatively small cohort, require independent replication. Overall, our results suggest healthy aging is an overlapping but distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity that may be enriched with disease-protective genetic factors. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27114037

  16. Food for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Ajmone Marsan, Paolo; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Masoero, Francesco; Miggiano, Giacinto; Morelli, Lorenzo; Moro, Daniele; Rossi, Filippo; Sckokai, Paolo; Trevisi, Erminio

    2014-01-01

    The link between diet and health has been recognized since the Grecian period; as Hippocrates said, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food". Although the primary goals of diet are meeting nutritional requirements and providing energy, there is increasing awareness that a correct and balanced diet may prevent the insurgence of diet-related pathologies and/or improve well-being and life expectancy, also reflecting on the ageing process. Research on the interaction among nutrients, gut microbiota and host metabolism is presently unravelling the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive and negative effects of traditional diets on health and ageing, providing useful information for the design of innovative foods targeting specific needs and segments of the population. The food supply chain plays a key role in ensuring quality and safety through both comprehensive quality management and inspection systems and a focused innovation process mainly devoted to the creation of functional foods. However, innovation and scientific development pose a problem of information asymmetry towards final consumers; thus, regulatory aspects and private and public communication strategies must be efficiently developed. PMID:26630510

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Subitizing in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Silvia; Fait, Elisa; Monti, Alessia; Brignani, Debora; Mazza, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    To understand the nature of age-related changes in enumeration abilities we measured two ERP responses -N2pc and CDA, associated respectively to attentive individuation and VWM- and posterior alpha band (8-15 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD), traditionally linked to enhanced target processing. Two groups of old and young participants enumerated a variable number (1-6) of targets presented among distractors. Older participants were less accurate in enumerating targets. ERP results in old participants showed a suppression of N2pc amplitudes for all numerosities, and a decrease in CDA only for the largest set (4-6 targets). In contrast with the pattern for young adults, time/frequency results on older adults revealed neither a modulation of alpha oscillations as a function of target numerosity, nor an effect of ERD lateralization. These patterns indicate that both attention and working memory contribute to the age-related decline in enumeration, and point to an overall decrease in the activity of the visual areas responsible for the processing of the hemifield where the relevant objects are presented. PMID:26098959

  18. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  19. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parent Information Pregnancy Infants (Ages 0-3) Diseases & Conditions Safety in the Home & ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on Facebook ...

  20. Meals described as healthy or unhealthy match public health education in England.

    PubMed

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Booth, David A

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general public aim to lower the incidence of nutrition-related diseases by influencing habitual food choices. Yet little is known about how well the guidelines are matched by the actual practices that people regard as healthy or unhealthy. In the present study, British residents were asked in a cognitive interview to write a description of an occasion when either they ate in an unhealthy way or the eating was healthy. The reported foods and drinks, as well as sort of occasion, location, people present and time of day, were categorised by verbal and semantic similarities. The number of mentions of terms in each category was then contrasted between groups in exact probability tests. Perceived unhealthy and healthy eating occasions differed reliably in the sorts of foods and the contexts reported. There was also full agreement with the national guidelines on eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, eating small amounts of foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar, drinking plenty of water, and cutting down on alcohol. There was a tendency to regard choices of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods as healthy. Reported healthy and unhealthy eating did not differ in incidences of meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein or of dairy foods and milk. These results indicate that operationally clear recommendations by health professionals are well understood in this culture but members of the public do not make clear distinctions in the case of foods that can be included in moderate amounts in a healthy diet.

  1. Fasting or caloric restriction for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. PMID:23639403

  2. Electroencephalographic Fractal Dimension in Healthy Ageing and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20–89 years) and 67 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients (age: 50–88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called “free” copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349

  3. Healthy aging profile in octogenarians in Brazil 1

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the healthy aging profile in octogenarians in Brazil. Method: this population-based epidemiological study was conducted using household interviews of 335 octogenarians in a Brazilian municipality. The decision-tree model was used to assess the healthy aging profile in relation to the socioeconomic characteristics evaluated at baseline. All of the tests used a p-value < 0.05. Results: the majority of the 335 participating older adults were women (62.1%), were aged between 80 and 84 years (50.4%), were widowed (53.4%), were illiterate (59.1%), had a monthly income of less than one minimum wage (59.1%), were retired (85.7%), lived with their spouse (63.8%), did not have a caregiver (60.3%), had two or more children (82.7%), and had two or more grandchildren (78.8%). The results indicate three age groups with a healthier aging profile: older adults aged 80 to 84 years (55.6%), older adults aged 85 years and older who are married (64.9%), and older adults aged 85 and older who do not have a partner or a caregiver (54.2%). Conclusion: the healthy aging profile of octogenarians can be explained by age group, marital status, and the presence of a caregiver. PMID:27579929

  4. The Old-Age Healthy Dependency Ratio in Europe.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Magdalena M; Rau, Roland

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the question of whether improvements in the health of the elderly in European countries could compensate for population ageing on the supply side of the labour market. We propose a state-of-health-specific (additive) decomposition of the old-age dependency ratio into an old-age healthy dependency ratio and an old-age unhealthy dependency ratio in order to participate in a discussion of the significance of changes in population health to compensate for the ageing of the labour force. Applying the proposed indicators to the Eurostat's population projection for the years 2010-2050, and assuming there will be equal improvements in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth, we discuss various scenarios concerning future of the European labour force. While improvements in population health are anticipated during the years 2010-2050, the growth in the number of elderly people in Europe may be expected to lead to a rise in both healthy and unhealthy dependency ratios. The healthy dependency ratio is, however, projected to make up the greater part of the old-age dependency ratio. In the European countries in 2006, the value of the old-age dependency ratio was 25. But in the year 2050, with a positive migration balance over the years 2010-2050, there would be 18 elderly people in poor health plus 34 in good health per 100 people in the current working age range of 15-64. In the scenarios developed in this study, we demonstrate that improvements in health and progress in preventing disability will not, by themselves, compensate for the ageing of the workforce. However, coupled with a positive migration balance, at the level and with the age structure assumed in the Eurostat's population projections, these developments could ease the effect of population ageing on the supply side of the European labour market.

  5. Psychopathological Dimensions in Substance Abusers with and without HIV/AIDS and Healthy Matched Group

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Sajjad; Taramian, Sonbol; Kafie, Seyed Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Background Inattention to symptoms of mental disorders and substance abuse in patients with HIV/AIDS and other at-risk groups, may lead to irreversible damages. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychopathological dimensions in substance abusers with and without HIV/AIDS and healthy matched groups. Methods In a cross-sectional and analytical study, selected samples (by available, consecutive, and objective methods) were 43 HIV-positive substance abusers, 49 HIV negative substance abusers under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in the counseling clinic of Behavioral Diseases and Addiction Abandonment, and 45 ordinary individuals. All of them were evaluated by matched confounding variables via Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Findings Results indicated a significant difference between these groups in the Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI), and Positive Symptom Total (PST) (P < 0.001). Two by two the comparison of the three groups from psychopathological dimensions revealed that substance abusers with HIV/AIDS persistently suffer more mental problems in all dimensions compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In addition, in comparison with HIV negative substance abusers, they also suffer more mental problems in other dimensions, including somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobia, and psychoticism (P < 0.05). Yet, the difference in paranoid ideation, hostility, and obsessive-compulsive cases was insignificant. Two by two, the comparison between healthy individuals and substance abusers without HIV/AIDS showed higher levels of depression and psychoticism in substance abusers (P < 0.05), but no difference in other dimensions. Conclusion Comorbidity of substance abuse and HIV diagnosis intensify mental disorder symptoms. Moreover, lack of prevention and implementation of appropriate psychological and psychiatric interventions after substance abuse and HIV lead to extended establishment

  6. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  7. Oxytocin does not improve performance of patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers in a facial emotion matching task.

    PubMed

    Horta de Macedo, Ligia R; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Machado-de-Sousa, João Paulo; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2014-12-15

    The neuropeptide oxytocin improves the performance in facial emotion recognition tests in healthy volunteers and in individuals with schizophrenia. Different paradigms are used in emotion recognition tasks, engaging different neurobiological bases. To date, the effects of oxytocin in facial emotion matching tasks have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intranasal oxytocin in a facial emotion matching task in patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Twenty patients and 20 healthy volunteers received 48 IU intranasal oxytocin and placebo in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within subjects design. Fifty minutes after treatment, subjects completed a facial emotion matching task and three control tests. Oxytocin failed to improve facial affect processing, in contrast with previous results. Possible explanations are the fact that we used a facial emotion matching paradigm instead of emotion labeling tasks and a higher dose of oxytocin than the one used in most similar studies.

  8. Study Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities: Recruitment and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a consort of three large care providers with a total…

  9. Is a healthy city also an age-friendly city?

    PubMed

    Jackisch, Josephine; Zamaro, Gianna; Green, Geoff; Huber, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    Healthy Ageing is an important focus of the European Healthy Cities Network and has been supported by WHO since 2003 as a key strategic topic, since 2010 in cooperation with the Global Network of Age-friendly Cities and Communities. Based on the methodology of realist evaluation, this article synthesizes qualitative evidence from 33 structured case studies (CS) from 32 WHO European Healthy Cities, 72 annual reports from Network cities and 71 quantitative responses to a General Evaluation Questionnaire. City cases are assigned to three clusters containing the eight domains of an age-friendly city proposed by WHO's Global Age-friendly City Guide published in 2007. The analysis of city's practice and efforts in this article takes stock of how cities have developed the institutional prerequisites and processes necessary for implementing age-friendly strategies, programmes and projects. A content analysis of the CS maps activities across age-friendly domains and illustrates how cities contribute to improving the social and physical environments of older people and enhance the health and social services provided by municipalities and their partners.

  10. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up. Methods Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7±8.9 years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002–2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8 years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. Results At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Conclusions Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life. PMID:24276781

  11. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition—from entire diets to specific nutrients—affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i) methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns (NBPs), along with (ii) modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging. PMID:27375409

  12. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  13. Sympathetic activity during passive heat stress in healthy aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Daniel; Schlader, Zachary J; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular adjustments during heat stress are generally attenuated in healthy aged humans, which could be due to lower increases in sympathetic activity compared to the young. We compared muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) between 11 young (Y: 28 ± 4 years) and 10 aged (A: 70 ± 5 years) subjects prior to and during passive heating. Furthermore, MSNA responses were compared when a cold pressor test (CPT) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were superimposed upon heating. Baseline MSNA burst frequency (Y: 15 ± 4 vs. A: 31 ± 3 bursts min−1, P ≤ 0.01) and burst incidence (Y: 26 ± 8 vs. A: 50 ± 7 bursts (100 cardiac cycles (CC))−1, P ≤ 0.01) were greater in the aged. Heat stress increased core temperature to a similar extent in both groups (Y: +1.2 ± 0.1 vs. A: +1.2 ± 0.0°C, P = 0.99). Absolute levels of MSNA remained greater in the aged during heat stress (burst frequency: Y: 47 ± 6 vs. A: 63 ± 11 bursts min−1, P ≤ 0.01; burst incidence: Y: 48 ± 8 vs. A: 67 ± 9 bursts (100 CC)−1, P ≤ 0.01); however, the increase in both variables was similar between groups (both P ≥ 0.1). The CPT and LBNP further increased MSNA burst frequency and burst incidence, although the magnitude of increase was similar between groups (both P ≥ 0.07). These results suggest that increases in sympathetic activity during heat stress are not attenuated in healthy aged humans. Key points Cardiovascular adjustments to heat stress are attenuated in healthy aged individuals, which could contribute to their greater prevalence of heat-related illnesses and deaths during heat waves. The attenuated cardiovascular adjustments in the aged could be due to lower increases in sympathetic nerve activity during heat stress. We examined muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and plasma catecholamine concentrations in healthy young and aged individuals during whole-body passive heat stress. The main finding

  14. Preparing the workforce for healthy aging programs: the Skills for Healthy Aging Resources and Programs (SHARP) model.

    PubMed

    Frank, Janet C; Altpeter, Mary; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Driggers, Joann; Lachenmayr, Susan; Manning, Colleen; Martinez, Dana M; Price, Rachel M; Robinson, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Current public health and aging service agency personnel have little training in gerontology, and virtually no training in evidence-based health promotion and disease management programs for older adults. These programs are rapidly becoming the future of our community-based long-term care support system. The purpose of this project was to develop and test a model community college career technical education program, Skills for Healthy Aging Resources and Programs (SHARP), for undergraduate college students, current personnel in aging service and community organizations, and others interested in retraining. A multidisciplinary cross-sector team from disciplines of public health, sociology, gerontology and nursing developed four competency-based courses that focus on healthy aging, behavior change strategies, program management, an internship, and an option for leader training in the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program. To enhance implementation and fidelity, intensive faculty development training was provided to all instructors and community agency partners. Baseline and postprogram evaluation of competencies for faculty and students was conducted. Process evaluation for both groups focused on satisfaction with the curricula and suggestions for program improvement. SHARP has been piloted five times at two community colleges. Trainees (n = 113) were primarily community college students (n = 108) and current aging service personnel (n = 5). Statistically significant improvements in all competencies were found for both faculty and students. Process evaluation outcomes identified the needed logical and component adaptations to enhance the feasibility of program implementation, dissemination, and student satisfaction. The SHARP program provides a well-tested, evidence-based effective model for addressing workforce preparation in support of healthy aging service program expansion and delivery.

  15. Healthy Aging Promotion through Neuroscientific Information-Based Strategies.

    PubMed

    Seinfeld, Sofia; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2015-10-01

    To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted. PMID:26426029

  16. Healthy Aging Promotion through Neuroscientific Information-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Seinfeld, Sofia; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted. PMID:26426029

  17. Healthy Aging Promotion through Neuroscientific Information-Based Strategies.

    PubMed

    Seinfeld, Sofia; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2015-09-28

    To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted.

  18. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Since the ageing population demands a response to ensure older people remain healthy and active, we studied the dynamics of a recently proposed healthy ageing phenotype. We drew the phenotype’s trajectories and tested whether their levels and rates of change are influenced by health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions earlier in the life course. Design and outcomes The English Longitudinal Ageing Study, a prospective, nationally representative sample of people aged ≥50 years, measured a set of eight biomarkers which make up the outcome of the healthy ageing phenotype three times over nearly a decade (N2004 = 5009, N2008 = 5301, N2013 = 4455). A cluster of health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions were also measured repeatedly. We assessed the phenotype’s distribution non-parametrically, then fitted linear mixed models to phenotypic change and further examined time interactions with gender and socioeconomic position. We ran additional analyses to test robustness. Results Women had a wider distribution of the healthy ageing phenotype than men had. The phenotype declined annually by −0.242 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.352, −0.131). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the levels and rates of phenotypic change. Women started at higher levels, then declined more steeply by −0.293 (CI: −0.403, −0.183) annually, leading to crossover in the trajectories. Smoking and physical activity assessed on the Allied Dunbar scale were strongly associated with the trajectories. Conclusion Though marked by secular decline, the trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype showed distinct socioeconomic gradients. The trajectories were also susceptible to variations in health behaviours, strengthening the case for serial interventions to attain healthy and active ageing. PMID:27105690

  19. Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions). Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years), young-old (60–69 years), and old-old (70–80 years). Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test. The measures used for performance analysis were number of correct answers (accuracy) and execution time of commands on the different subtests. Results. Regarding accuracy, groups showed similar performance on the first blocks, but the young-old and old-old performed worse than adults on blocks 9 and 10. With respect to execution time, groups differed from block 2 (i.e., the groups differed for all blocks, except for block 1), with the worst performance observed in the old-old group, followed by that of the young-old group. Therefore, the elderly required more time to attain performance similar to that of adults, showing that time measurements are more sensitive for detecting the effects of age. Sentence comprehension ability is correlated with cognitive test performance, especially for global cognition and working memory tests. Conclusions. Healthy aging is characterized by the ability to compensate for difficulties in linguistic processing, which allows the elderly to maintain functional communication. PMID:26605334

  20. The science of healthy aging: genes, milieu, and chance.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2007-10-01

    Healthy aging and longevity depend on successful and dynamic interactions among biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Biological aging occurs mainly during the period of survival beyond the evolutionarily required essential lifespan (ELS). Natural selection processes for survival and successful reproduction have selected for a range of genetically determined ELS-assuring maintenance and repair systems (MRSs). The progressive failure of MRSs, and the consequent accumulation of molecular heterogeneity and damage, underlie the biological basis of aging, age-related diseases, and eventual death. However, the genetic processes of MRSs operate in a complex hierarchy of factors which range from intracellular molecular factors to physiological, psychological, environmental, and other stochastic factors, including chance. This view also facilitates setting up a framework for understanding, researching, and developing effective and realistic strategies for aging intervention, prevention, and therapies. Manipulating genes and the milieu in which genes and gene products operate opens up novel possibilities of aging intervention and prevention. Gene therapy, stem cells, and modulation through functional foods, nutriceuticals, cosmeceuticals and lifestyle alterations, including mild stress-induced hormesis, are examples of such strategies at various levels of development and practice.

  1. Using Education Technology as a Proactive Approach to Healthy Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Daragh; Spencer, Anne; Hussey, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Bone Health in the Park was created in Ireland and is an online health promotion education resource focussing on bone health, healthy ageing and falls prevention. The programme was designed by an Advanced Nurse Practitioner in collaboration with an Education Technologist and primarily uses storytelling to promote education specifically on bone health and falls risk prevention for health care professionals, clients, families and informal carers. This paper reports on core deliverables from this programme from 2010 to 2015, and provides insight into their development, in addition to details on its clinical effectiveness by using technology enhanced learning to underpin health promotion initiatives. PMID:27332189

  2. Expiratory muscle endurance in middle-aged healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Levi, M; Gea, J; Ferrer, A; Mendez, R; Ramírez-Sarmiento, A; Maldonado, D; Broquetas, J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate expiratory muscle endurance in middle-aged healthy subjects using incremental as well as constant expiratory loads, 14 healthy volunteers (51 +/- 16 years) were submitted to a specific endurance test, which was performed breathing against a threshold valve, and was divided into two parts. In part I, the load was progressively increased (50 g each 2 min) until task failure occurred. The mean mouth pressure generated against the highest load held for at least 60 sec was defined as the maximal expiratory sustainable pressure (Pth(max)). In part II, each subject breathed against a constant submaximal expiratory load (80% Pth(max)) until task failure occurred (expiratory endurance time or Tth(80)). Both parts of the test were repeated 24-48 h later. Progressive expiratory loading induced a linear increase in mouth expiratory pressure and the Pth(max) obtained was 141 +/- 43 cm H(2)O, representing 74 +/- 28% of the maximal expiratory pressure (PE(max)). Under constant loads, the Tth(80) was 17 +/- 9 min. At the end-point of both parts, the tension time index for expiratory muscles was dramatically increased (>0.25), and both EMG central frequency and PE(max) were decreased with no changes in maximal inspiratory pressure or inspiratory capacity. Extreme dyspnea was present in most of the subjects but no complications were observed. The endurance of expiratory muscles can be easily assessed in healthy subjects using this method, which has acceptable reproducibility and tolerance. PMID:11733852

  3. Healthy Aging: What's On Your Plate? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging What's On Your Plate? Past Issues / Winter 2015 ... On Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/whats-your- ...

  4. Positive Technology for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Cipresso, Pietro; Repetto, Claudia; Serino, Silvia; Triberti, Stefano; Brivio, Eleonora; Galimberti, Carlo; Graffigna, Guendalina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are widely and rapidly spreading in people's daily lives. But what is the possible role of the mass proliferation of digital devices in supporting healthy living and active ageing? Are they useful in fostering personal growth and individual integration of the elderly, by promoting satisfaction, opportunities for action, and self-expression? Rather, do they enhance automation, impose constraints on personal initiative, and result in compulsive consumption of information? In this chapter, we suggest that possible answers to these questions will be offered by the "Positive Technology" approach, i.e., the scientific and applied approach to using technology so that it improves the quality of our personal experiences through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement. First, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to manipulate the quality of experience with the goal of increasing wellness and generating strengths and resilience in individuals, organizations, and society. Then, we classify positive technologies according to their effects on these three features of personal experience - Hedonic: technologies used to induce positive and pleasant experiences; Eudaimonic: technologies used to support individuals in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences; Social/Interpersonal: technologies used to support and improve the connectedness between individuals, groups, and organizations. Finally, we discuss the possible role of positive technologies for healthy living and active ageing by presenting different practical applications of this approach.

  5. Down with Retirement: Implications of Embodied Cognition for Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and neurocognitive approaches to human healthy aging attribute age-related decline to the biologically caused loss of cognitive-control functions. However, an embodied-cognition approach to aging implies a more interactive view according to which cognitive control emerges from, and relies on a person's active encounters with his or her physical and social environment. We argue that the availability of cognitive-control resources does not only rely on biological processes but also on the degree of active maintenance, that is, on the systematic use of the available control resources. Unfortunately, there is evidence that the degree of actual use might systematically underestimate resource availability, which implies that elderly individuals do not fully exploit their cognitive potential. We discuss evidence for this possibility from three aging-related issues: the reduction of dopaminergic supply, loneliness, and the loss of body strength. All three phenomena point to a downward spiral, in which losses of cognitive-control resources do not only directly impair performance but also more indirectly discourage individuals from making use of them, which in turn suggests underuse and a lack of maintenance-leading to further loss. On the positive side, the possibility of underuse points to not yet fully exploited reservoirs of cognitive control, which calls for more systematic theorizing and experimentation on how cognitive control can be enhanced, as well as for reconsiderations of societal practices that are likely to undermine the active maintenance of control resources-such as retirement laws. PMID:27555831

  6. Down with Retirement: Implications of Embodied Cognition for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and neurocognitive approaches to human healthy aging attribute age-related decline to the biologically caused loss of cognitive-control functions. However, an embodied-cognition approach to aging implies a more interactive view according to which cognitive control emerges from, and relies on a person’s active encounters with his or her physical and social environment. We argue that the availability of cognitive-control resources does not only rely on biological processes but also on the degree of active maintenance, that is, on the systematic use of the available control resources. Unfortunately, there is evidence that the degree of actual use might systematically underestimate resource availability, which implies that elderly individuals do not fully exploit their cognitive potential. We discuss evidence for this possibility from three aging-related issues: the reduction of dopaminergic supply, loneliness, and the loss of body strength. All three phenomena point to a downward spiral, in which losses of cognitive-control resources do not only directly impair performance but also more indirectly discourage individuals from making use of them, which in turn suggests underuse and a lack of maintenance—leading to further loss. On the positive side, the possibility of underuse points to not yet fully exploited reservoirs of cognitive control, which calls for more systematic theorizing and experimentation on how cognitive control can be enhanced, as well as for reconsiderations of societal practices that are likely to undermine the active maintenance of control resources—such as retirement laws. PMID:27555831

  7. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  8. Expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Busse, Stefan; Steiner, Johann; Alter, Juliane; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Bogerts, Bernhard; Hartig, Roland; Busse, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Although monocytes and macrophages could serve as new therapeutic targets for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aging of the human innate immune system, its role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD are only poorly understood. We have addressed this here by determining the number of CD14+ monocytes and the frequency of HLA-DR-, CD80-, and CD86-expression in peripheral blood from healthy volunteers aged 20-79 years, and in AD patients at diagnosis and after 12, 30, and 52 weeks of rivastigmine treatment. While the number of CD14+ monocytes remained constant, the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 by monocytes increased with age. However, no differences were identified by comparing AD patients with age-matched healthy controls or following treatment of AD patients with rivastigmine. These results indicate that changes in the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 are caused by immunosenescence rather than by AD pathology or treatment of AD patients with rivastigmine.

  9. Cognitive control, goal maintenance, and prefrontal function in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Jessica L; Barch, Deanna M; Racine, Caroline A; Braver, Todd S

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive control impairments in healthy older adults may partly reflect disturbances in the ability to actively maintain goal-relevant information, a function that depends on the engagement of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, healthy young and older adults performed versions of a task in which contextual cues provide goal-relevant information used to bias processing of subsequent ambiguous probes. In Study 1, a blocked design and manipulation of the cue-probe delay interval revealed a generalized pattern of enhanced task-related brain activity in older adults but combined with a specific delay-related reduction of activity in lateral PFC regions. In Study 2, a combined blocked/event-related design revealed enhanced sustained (i.e., across-trial) activity but a reduction in transient trial-related activation in lateral PFC among older adults. Further analyses of within-trial activity dynamics indicated that, within these and other lateral PFC regions, older adults showed reduced activation during the cue and delay period but increased activation at the time of the probe, particularly on high-interference trials. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that age-related impairments in goal maintenance abilities cause a compensatory shift in older adults from a proactive (seen in young adults) to a reactive cognitive control strategy. PMID:17804479

  10. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  11. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20-40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  12. Natural selection of mitochondria during somatic lifetime promotes healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodell, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene J.; Bergersen, Linda H.; Singh, Keshav K.; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis during life-time challenges both eliminates disadvantageous properties and drives adaptive selection of advantageous phenotypic variations. Intermittent fission and fusion of mitochondria provide specific targets for health promotion by brief temporal stressors, interspersed with periods of recovery and biogenesis. For mitochondria, the mechanisms of selection, variability, and heritability, are complicated by interaction of two independent genomes, including the multiple copies of DNA in each mitochondrion, as well as the shared nuclear genome of each cell. The mechanisms of stress-induced fission, followed by recovery-induced fusion and biogenesis, drive the improvement of mitochondrial functions, not only as directed by genotypic variations, but also as enabled by phenotypic diversity. Selective adaptation may explain unresolved aspects of aging, including the health effects of exercise, hypoxic and poisonous preconditioning, and tissue-specific mitochondrial differences. We propose that intermittent purposeful enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis by stressful episodes with subsequent recovery paradoxically promotes adaptive mitochondrial health and continued healthy aging. PMID:23964235

  13. Want to Stay Mobile as You Age? a Healthy Diet May Do the Trick

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159583.html Want to Stay Mobile as You Age? A Healthy Diet May Do the Trick Study found ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy eating may help reduce a woman's risk of physical disability as she grows ...

  14. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  15. The matching of sinus arrhythmia to respiration: are trauma patients without serious injury comparable to healthy laboratory subjects?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Reisner, Andrew T; Chen, Liangyou; Edla, Shwetha; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-01-01

    We sought to better understand the physiology underlying the metrics of heart rate variability (HRV) in trauma patients without serious injury, compared to healthy laboratory controls. In trauma patients without serious injury (110 subjects, 470 2-min data segments), we studied the correlation between sinus arrhythmia (SA) rate, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). Most segments with 2.4 < HR/RR < 4.8 exhibited SA-RR matching, whereas rate matching was absent in 81% of the segments with HR/RR < 2.4 and in 86% of the segments with HR/RR > 4.8. The findings were comparable, in some cases remarkably so, to previous reports from healthy laboratory subjects. The presence (or absence) of SA-RR matching, when SA is largely controlled by respiration, can be anticipated in this trauma population. This work provides a valuable step towards the definition of patterns of HRV found in trauma patients with and without life-threatening injury. PMID:25570720

  16. Towards Deeper Research and Better Policy for Healthy Aging --Using the Unique Data of Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey1

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this review article are to facilitate deeper research and better policy analysis for healthy aging, which not only means surviving to old ages in good health, but also mean the economics and society of our country would be aging healthily, with sound policy and intervention programs. Toward these objectives, we introduce the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), which has been conducted by Center for Healthy Aging and Development Studies, National School of Development of Peking University since 1998. We present a comprehensive and summarized introduction of the CLHLS study design, sample distributions, contents, general quality assessment and availability of the CLHLS data collected. Such an introduction would be helpful for our colleagues who may be interested in using this unique and more-than-fourteen-year longitudinal survey data resource for deeper interdisciplinary research and better policy analysis on healthy aging. To illustrate how the unique data resources of CLHLS may be useful, we also summarize and discuss ten selected healthy aging policy related research based on data from the CLHLS. Finally, we discussed the future perspectives using the unique and rich CLHLS datasets. PMID:24443653

  17. Age-related deficit in a bimanual joint position matching task is amplitude dependent

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive load associated with joint position sense increases with age but does not necessarily result in impaired performance in a joint position matching task. It is still unclear which factors interact with age to predict matching performance. To test whether movement amplitude and direction are part of such predictors, young and older adults performed a bimanual wrist joint position matching task. Results revealed an age-related deficit when the target limb was positioned far from (25°) the neutral position, but not when close to (15°, 5°) the neutral joint position, irrespective of the direction. These results suggest that the difficulty associated with the comparison of two musculoskeletal states increases towards extreme joint amplitude and that older adults are more vulnerable to this increased difficulty. PMID:26347649

  18. Epigenome-Wide Scans Identify Differentially Methylated Regions for Age and Age-Related Phenotypes in a Healthy Ageing Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsun-Po; Pidsley, Ruth; Nisbet, James; Glass, Daniel; Mangino, Massimo; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Feng; Valdes, Ana; Shin, So-Youn; Dempster, Emma L.; Murray, Robin M.; Grundberg, Elin; Hedman, Asa K.; Nica, Alexandra; Small, Kerrin S.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mill, Jonathan; Spector, Tim D.; Deloukas, Panos

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been implicated in cellular senescence and longevity, yet the causes and functional consequences of these variants remain unclear. To elucidate the role of age-related epigenetic changes in healthy ageing and potential longevity, we tested for association between whole-blood DNA methylation patterns in 172 female twins aged 32 to 80 with age and age-related phenotypes. Twin-based DNA methylation levels at 26,690 CpG-sites showed evidence for mean genome-wide heritability of 18%, which was supported by the identification of 1,537 CpG-sites with methylation QTLs in cis at FDR 5%. We performed genome-wide analyses to discover differentially methylated regions (DMRs) for sixteen age-related phenotypes (ap-DMRs) and chronological age (a-DMRs). Epigenome-wide association scans (EWAS) identified age-related phenotype DMRs (ap-DMRs) associated with LDL (STAT5A), lung function (WT1), and maternal longevity (ARL4A, TBX20). In contrast, EWAS for chronological age identified hundreds of predominantly hyper-methylated age DMRs (490 a-DMRs at FDR 5%), of which only one (TBX20) was also associated with an age-related phenotype. Therefore, the majority of age-related changes in DNA methylation are not associated with phenotypic measures of healthy ageing in later life. We replicated a large proportion of a-DMRs in a sample of 44 younger adult MZ twins aged 20 to 61, suggesting that a-DMRs may initiate at an earlier age. We next explored potential genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying a-DMRs and ap-DMRs. Genome-wide overlap across cis-meQTLs, genotype-phenotype associations, and EWAS ap-DMRs identified CpG-sites that had cis-meQTLs with evidence for genotype–phenotype association, where the CpG-site was also an ap-DMR for the same phenotype. Monozygotic twin methylation difference analyses identified one potential environmentally-mediated ap-DMR associated with total cholesterol and LDL (CSMD1). Our results suggest that in a

  19. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  20. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Kevin S.; Czyz, Craig N.; Cahill, Kenneth V.; Foster, Jill A.; Burns, John A.; Everman, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. PMID:24734167

  1. Exercise Is Key to Healthy Aging | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. NIH Research Exercise Is Key to Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter ... to exercise regularly—at any age! Why is exercise so important? Exercise is perhaps the best demonstrated ...

  2. Comparison of measures of physiologic stress during treadmill exercise in a patient with 20% lower extremity burn injuries and healthy matched and nonmatched individuals.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, J L; Giuffrida, C; Petrazzi, A; Schlanser, J; McDowell-Montini, C; Pietrzyk, C; Landry, V L

    2000-01-01

    Patients with burn injuries are referred for rehabilitation within days after the injuries to encourage early ambulation and functional training. Many of these patients are hypermetabolic at rest. Metabolic demands of activity are added to the already hypermetabolic state and elevate total energy requirements and some physiologic measures. Reports on the physiologic stress imposed by therapeutic activities for patients with burn injuries are limited to low levels of metabolic demand (< or =2 metabolic equivalents [METS]). The degree of stress imposed by functional activities such as ambulation (3 METS) and stair climbing (5 METS) is not known for adults with burn injuries. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical measures of myocardial and physiologic stress in a patient with 20% lower extremity total body surface area burns during an exercise challenge equivalent to stair climbing. Physiologic measures were assessed before and during a treadmill activity (5 METS) for a 40-year-old obese man 3 weeks after he had lower extremity burn injuries. These measures were compared with mean values for 62 healthy counterparts and 6 healthy subjects matched for age, gender, and fitness level. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate pressure product, and the rating of perceived exertion for the patient with burn injuries were higher at baseline and during exercise than the mean values for the 62 healthy individuals and the 6 matched subjects. The steady state exercise values for heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate pressure product, and rating of perceived exertion at 6 minutes were 189 beats per minute, 190 mm Hg, 3591, and 17, respectively, for the patient with burn injuries and were 111.3 beats per minute, 149 mm Hg, 1680, and 11.7, respectively, for the 6 matched subjects. Ventilation during exercise also increased for the patient with burn injuries more than for the matched subjects (3/4 vs 1/4). Pain experienced by the patient with burn injuries

  3. Dissociative Symptoms and Reported Trauma Among Patients with Spirit Possession and Matched Healthy Controls in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nijenhuis, Ellert; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gernaat, Hajo B. P. E.; de Jong, Joop T.

    2010-01-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among spirit possession, dissociative symptoms and reported potentially traumatizing events in Uganda. One hundred nineteen persons with spirit possession, diagnosed by traditional healers, were compared to a matched control group of 71 nonpossessed persons. Assessments included demographic items and measures of dissociation and potentially traumatizing events. Compared to the nonpossessed group, the possessed group reported more severe psychoform dissociation and somatoform dissociation and more potentially traumatizing events. The associations between these events and both types of dissociation were significant. Yet, consistent with the cultural perception of dissociative symptoms, the participants subjectively did not associate dissociative symptoms with potentially traumatizing events. In conclusion, spirit possession deserves more interest as a possible idiom of distress and a culture-specific expression of dissociation related to potential traumatizing events. PMID:20401630

  4. A Comparison of Measures of Endothelial Function in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Age and Gender Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Richard B.; Vun, Simon V.; Spark, J. Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study compared flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral artery tonometry (PAT), and serum nitric oxide (NO) measures of endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) against age/gender matched controls. 25 patients (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) with established PAD and an age/gender matched group of 25 healthy controls (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) were studied. Endothelial function was measured using the % FMD, reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using PAT and serum NO (μmol). Difference for each method between PAD and control patients and correlation between the methods were investigated. FMD and RHI were lower in patients with PAD (median FMD for PAD = 2.16% versus control = 3.77%, p = 0.034 and median RHI in PAD = 1.64 versus control = 1.92, p = 0.005). NO levels were not significantly different between the groups (PAD median = 7.70 μmol, control median = 13.05 μmol, p = 0.662). These results were obtained in elderly patients and cannot be extrapolated to younger individuals. FMD and PAT both demonstrated a lower hyperaemic response in patients with PAD; however, FMD results in PAD patients were unequivocally reduced whereas half the PAD patients had RHI values above the established threshold for endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that FMD is a more appropriate method for the measurement of NO-mediated endothelial function. PMID:26942010

  5. Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; French, David P; Jackson, Dean; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil; Degens, Hans

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity helps to improve physical and mental functions as well as reverse some effects of chronic disease to keep older people mobile and independent. Despite the highly publicised benefits of physical activity, the overwhelming majority of older people in the United Kingdom do not meet the minimum physical activity levels needed to maintain health. The sedentary lifestyles that predominate in older age results in premature onset of ill health, disease and frailty. Local authorities have a responsibility to promote physical activity amongst older people, but knowing how to stimulate regular activity at the population-level is challenging. The physiological rationale for physical activity, risks of adverse events, societal and psychological factors are discussed with a view to inform public health initiatives for the relatively healthy older person as well as those with physical frailty. The evidence shows that regular physical activity is safe for healthy and for frail older people and the risks of developing major cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, obesity, falls, cognitive impairments, osteoporosis and muscular weakness are decreased by regularly completing activities ranging from low intensity walking through to more vigorous sports and resistance exercises. Yet, participation in physical activities remains low amongst older adults, particularly those living in less affluent areas. Older people may be encouraged to increase their activities if influenced by clinicians, family or friends, keeping costs low and enjoyment high, facilitating group-based activities and raising self-efficacy for exercise. PMID:26936444

  6. Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; French, David P; Jackson, Dean; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil; Degens, Hans

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity helps to improve physical and mental functions as well as reverse some effects of chronic disease to keep older people mobile and independent. Despite the highly publicised benefits of physical activity, the overwhelming majority of older people in the United Kingdom do not meet the minimum physical activity levels needed to maintain health. The sedentary lifestyles that predominate in older age results in premature onset of ill health, disease and frailty. Local authorities have a responsibility to promote physical activity amongst older people, but knowing how to stimulate regular activity at the population-level is challenging. The physiological rationale for physical activity, risks of adverse events, societal and psychological factors are discussed with a view to inform public health initiatives for the relatively healthy older person as well as those with physical frailty. The evidence shows that regular physical activity is safe for healthy and for frail older people and the risks of developing major cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, obesity, falls, cognitive impairments, osteoporosis and muscular weakness are decreased by regularly completing activities ranging from low intensity walking through to more vigorous sports and resistance exercises. Yet, participation in physical activities remains low amongst older adults, particularly those living in less affluent areas. Older people may be encouraged to increase their activities if influenced by clinicians, family or friends, keeping costs low and enjoyment high, facilitating group-based activities and raising self-efficacy for exercise.

  7. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  8. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  9. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  10. Changes in CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+, and Immunoglobulin M-Positive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome-Affected Pigs and Age-Matched Uninfected Wasted and Healthy Pigs Correlate with Lesions and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Load in Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Segalés, Joaquim; Domingo, Mariano; Mateu, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one 8- to 12-week-old wasted pigs were selected from several conventional farms with histories of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and classified into two groups according to their porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection status, as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). Twenty-four pigs tested positive for PCV2 (PCV2-positive group), while 17 pigs tested negative for PCV2 (PCV2-negative group). In addition, eight uninfected healthy pigs from an experimental farm were used as controls. Heparinized blood samples were taken to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive [DP]), and immunoglobulin M-positive (IgM+) cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Histopathological studies were done to evaluate the apparent degrees of lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid organs (superficial inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils, and spleen) and to determine the viral load of the PCV2 genome by using an ISH technique. Animals of the PCV2-positive group showed a significant downshift of the CD8+ and DP cell subsets compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, in PCV2-positive pigs, the amount of PCV2 genome in lymphoid tissues was related to the degree of cell depletion in those tissues (P < 0.05) as well as to the relative decrease in IgM+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood. These data support the notion that PCV2-positive pigs might have an impaired immune response. PMID:11874858

  11. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging. PMID:26540298

  12. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging.

  13. Promoting Cognitive Health: A Formative Research Collaboration of the Healthy Aging Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, James N.; Beard, Renee L.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fetterman, David; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may help maintain cognitive health. The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network, 9 universities collaborating with their communities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is conducting a multiyear research project, begun in 2005, to understand how to translate this…

  14. Age related microsatellite instability in T cells from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Krichevsky, Svetlana; Pawelec, Graham; Gural, Alexander; Effros, Rita B; Globerson, Amiela; Yehuda, Dina Ben; Yehuda, Arie Ben

    2004-04-01

    Many immune functions decline with age and may jeopardize the elderly, as illustrated, for example by the significantly higher mortality rate from influenza in old age. Although innate and humoral immunity are affected by aging, it is the T cell compartment, which manifests most alterations. The mechanisms behind these alterations are still unclear, and several explanations have been offered including thymic involution and Telomere attrition leading to cell senescence. Age related accumulation of mutations has been documented and could serve as an additional mechanism of T cell dysfunction. One effective repair mechanism capable of rectifying errors in DNA replications is the mismatch repair (MMR) system. We previously reported a comparative examination of individual DNA samples from blood cells obtained at 10 year intervals from young and old subjects. We showed significantly higher rates of microsatellite instability (MSI), an indicator of MMR dysfunction in older subjects, compared to young. In the present study we confirm this result, using direct automated sequencing and in addition, we demonstrate that as CD8 lymphocytes from aged individuals, undergo repeated population doublings (PDs) in culture, they develop MSI. CD4 clones that also undergo repeated PDs in culture develop significant MSI as well. Elucidation of this previously unexplored facet of lymphocyte dynamics in relation to aging may help identify novel mechanisms of immunosenescence and pathways that could serve as targets for interventions to restore immune function.

  15. Crater Retention Ages from (4) Vesta Matching Independent Ar-Ar Ages of HED Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Kneissl, Thomas; Ivanov, Boris A.; Michael, Gregory G.; Neukum, Gerhard; Nathues, Andreas; Sierks, Holger; Wagner, Roland; Krohn, Katrin; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-04-01

    In July 2012 the Dawn spacecraft completed its mapping task of the Main Belt asteroid Vesta with a second high altitude mapping orbit. Dawn is now on its way to the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, where it will perform a similar mapping campaign like that at Vesta [1]. The Main Belt is the source region of most impactors in the inner solar system [2,3,4], making it a key region for understanding the early history of our Solar System. In order to determine absolute surface ages from Vesta we derived a crater production function and a chronology function for Vesta. We derived these functions from the respective lunar functions [2] and scaled [5] them to the impact conditions on Vesta [6]. In general we find good agreement between the derived crater production function and the measured crater distribution. However, we also find disagreement between 8 and 15 km crater size, on areas older ~2.2 Ga. Older areas show a steep (~-6 cumulative) slope, which we link to a decaying influence of the vestan collisional family (Vestoids). The lower boundary of 8 km crater size may be explained by fast ejected small spalls and/or a more efficient Yarkovsky effect [7]. This influence is not observed for instance inside the large Rheasilvia basin, which we date with ~2.2 Ga. Since the formation of this basin is believed to be a major source of replenishment of the Vestoids, it's currently observed cratering record is not indicative for the basin formation age in contrast to [8]. The young interior of the Rheasilvia basin is likely a result of repeated resets of the crater retention age due to mass wasting processes on the basin walls. We use topographic heights, which are less affected by mass wasting such as the top of the central peak of the basin as well as proximal ejecta blankets outside the basin to date the formation age of Rheasilvia. For the central peak we derive a surface age of 3.59 (+0.079/-0.18) Ga. The proximal ejecta blanket at the Oppia crater is dated with 3.62 (+0

  16. Centenarians’ offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  17. Centenarians' offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  18. Superior longitudinal fasciculus and language functioning in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Kiely M; McQueeny, Tim; Howe, Steven R; Shear, Paula; Szaflarski, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Structural deterioration of brain tissue in older adults is thought to be responsible for the majority of age-related cognitive decline. Disruption of widespread cortical networks due to a loss of axonal integrity may also play an important role. Research examining correlations between structural change and functional decline has focused heavily on working memory, processing speed, and executive processes while other aspects of cognition, such as language functioning, have received less attention. The current study aimed to determine whether age-related changes in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), are responsible for the deterioration in language functioning associated with age. Subjects included 112 right-handed volunteers (ages 19-76). For each subject, the SLF of the left hemisphere was reconstructed from diffusion tensor images (DTI). Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted from parietal (SLFp) and temporal (SLFt) bundles. Language functioning was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and Semantic Fluency Test (SFT). Regression analyses revealed that males and females showed a different pattern of decline in FA across adulthood. For males, greater SLFt FA was significantly associated with increased COWAT performance, and there was a positive relationship between both age and SLFp FA with BNT scores. In females, greater SLFp FA was related to lower COWAT performance. Taken together, the results suggest that white matter integrity of the SLF follows a different pattern of decline in adulthood for males and females, and this decline differentially affects language functioning.

  19. Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, Matina; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-02-01

    According to World Health Organization older individuals is the fastest growing age-group around the globe, thanks to the tremendous improvements in medical and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as in quality of life. Unfortunately, this raise in life span is accompanied by significant increase in disease burden, and consequent economical costs. Lifestyle modifications and effective prevention strategies have shown considerable benefits as regards the development of age-oriented chronic diseases. Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is a key component for achieving good health. Nevertheless, this parameter has insufficiently been investigated in older people. This is a rather important scientific gap, considering the westernization of nutritional habits observed the last few decades, with high red meat consumption and its processed products being an indispensable part. Moreover, its adverse impact in cardiovascular disease and cancer has been extensively investigated, while in recent literature, interest has been remarkably oriented towards its subtypes (i.e., fresh and processed); however, outcomes as regards the older population are controversial with a variety of them proposing moderation of red meat mainly the processed type, whilst others recognizing fresh red meat, especially the lean type, an important source of high quality protein so as to manage muscle tissue loss, a common implication of advanced-age discount. The aim of the present review was to present an overview of studies which have investigated the association between red meat and its subtypes, with chronic diseases, in middle and advanced age individuals. PMID:26642896

  20. Examining Strategies to Build and Sustain Healthy Aging Programming Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altpeter, Mary; Schneider, Ellen Caylor; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Community collaboratives provide a means to build local capacity, reduce service fragmentation and duplication, maximize efficiency, and create synergies for "systems change". But what are the collaborative practices that aging services providers and other stakeholders employ for "system change" and…

  1. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  2. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  3. Vascular Aging across the Menopause Transition in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kerrie L.; Hildreth, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging, featuring endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening, is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In women, vascular aging appears to be accelerated during the menopause transition, particularly around the late perimenopausal period, presumably related to declines in ovarian function and estrogen levels. The mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening with the menopause transition are not completely understood. Oxidative stress and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α contribute to endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Habitual endurance exercise attenuates the age-related increase in large artery stiffness in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women and can reverse arterial stiffening to premenopausal levels in estrogen-replete postmenopausal women. In contrast, estrogen status appears to play a key permissive role in the adaptive response of the endothelium to habitual endurance exercise in that endothelial improvements are absent in estrogen-deficient women but present in estrogen-replete women. We review here the current state of knowledge on the biological defects underlying vascular aging across the menopause transition, with particular focus on potential mechanisms, the role of habitual exercise in preserving vascular health, and key areas for future research. PMID:25984561

  4. Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, Matina; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-02-01

    According to World Health Organization older individuals is the fastest growing age-group around the globe, thanks to the tremendous improvements in medical and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as in quality of life. Unfortunately, this raise in life span is accompanied by significant increase in disease burden, and consequent economical costs. Lifestyle modifications and effective prevention strategies have shown considerable benefits as regards the development of age-oriented chronic diseases. Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is a key component for achieving good health. Nevertheless, this parameter has insufficiently been investigated in older people. This is a rather important scientific gap, considering the westernization of nutritional habits observed the last few decades, with high red meat consumption and its processed products being an indispensable part. Moreover, its adverse impact in cardiovascular disease and cancer has been extensively investigated, while in recent literature, interest has been remarkably oriented towards its subtypes (i.e., fresh and processed); however, outcomes as regards the older population are controversial with a variety of them proposing moderation of red meat mainly the processed type, whilst others recognizing fresh red meat, especially the lean type, an important source of high quality protein so as to manage muscle tissue loss, a common implication of advanced-age discount. The aim of the present review was to present an overview of studies which have investigated the association between red meat and its subtypes, with chronic diseases, in middle and advanced age individuals.

  5. Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Their Contribution to Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Mello, Anna Maria; Paroni, Giulia; Daragjati, Julia; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Studies on populations at different ages have shown that after birth, the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition keeps evolving, and this seems to occur especially in old age. Significant changes in GI microbiota composition in older subjects have been reported in relation to diet, drug use and the settings where the older subjects are living, that is, in community nursing homes or in a hospital. Moreover, changes in microbiota composition in the old age have been related to immunosenescence and inflammatory processes that are pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathways of frailty. Frailty is an age-related condition of increased vulnerability to stresses due to the impairment in multiple inter-related physiologic systems that are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes, such as falls, delirium, institutionalization, hospitalization and death. Preliminary data suggest that changes in microbiota composition may contribute to the variations in the biological, clinical, functional and psycho-social domains that occur in the frail older subjects. Multidimensional evaluation tools based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) have demonstrated to be useful in identifying and measuring the severity of frailty in older subjects. Thus, a CGA approach should be used more widely in clinical practice to evaluate the multidimensional effects potentially related to GI microbiota composition of the older subjects. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in restoring the microbiota changes of older subjects, promoting different aspects of health in elderly people as improving immune function and reducing inflammation. Whether modulation of GI microbiota composition, with multi-targeted interventions, could have an effect on the prevention of frailty remains to be further investigated in the perspective of improving the health status of frail 'high risk' older individuals. PMID:27028130

  6. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lasher, Richard A; Pahnke, Aric Q; Johnson, Jeffrey M; Sachse, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06) but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06) and adult (0.91 ± 0.04) myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal that the

  7. Mediterranean diet and healthy ageing: a Sicilian perspective.

    PubMed

    Vasto, Sonya; Buscemi, Silvio; Barera, Annalisa; Di Carlo, Marta; Accardi, Giulia; Caruso, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is a common dietary pattern characterizing a lifestyle and culture proven to contribute to better health and quality of life in Mediterranean countries. By analyzing the diet of centenarians from the Sicani Mountains and eating habits of inhabitants of Palermo, it is reported that a close adherence to MedDiet is observed in the countryside, whereas in big towns this adherence is not so close. This has an effect on the rates of mortality at old age (and reciprocally longevity) that are lower in the countryside than in big towns. Concerning the health effects of the diet, the low content of animal protein and the low glycaemic index of the Sicilian MedDiet might directly modulate the insulin/IGF-1 and the mTOR pathways, known to be involved in ageing and longevity. In particular, the reduction of animal protein intake may significantly reduce serum IGF-1 concentrations and inhibit mTOR activity with a down-regulation of the signal that leads to the activation of FOXO3A and, consequently, to the transcription of homeostatic genes that favour longevity. The down-regulation of both IGF-1 and mTORC1 also induces an anti-inflammatory effect. In addition to the effects on sensing pathways, many single components of MedDiet are known to have positive effects on health, reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol and other important risk factors of age-related diseases. However, a key role is played by polyphenols represented in high amount in the Sicilian MedDiet (in particular in extra virgin olive oil) that can work as hormetins that provide an environmental chemical signature regulating stress resistance pathways such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2.

  8. Preparing the Workforce for Healthy Aging Programs: The Skills for Healthy Aging Resources and Programs (SHARP) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Janet C.; Altpeter, Mary; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Driggers, Joann; Lachenmayr, Susan; Manning, Colleen; Martinez, Dana M.; Price, Rachel M.; Robinson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Current public health and aging service agency personnel have little training in gerontology, and virtually no training in evidence-based health promotion and disease management programs for older adults. These programs are rapidly becoming the future of our community-based long-term care support system. The purpose of this project was to develop…

  9. Age and hypertension strongly induce aortic stiffening in rats at basal and matched blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, George; Ragonnet, Christophe; Chimenti, Stefano; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Age and hypertension are major causes of large artery remodeling and stiffening, a cardiovascular risk factor for heart and kidney damage. The aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model is recognized for human cardiovascular pathology, but discrepancies appeared in studies of arterial stiffness. We performed experiments using a robust analysis via echo tracking in 20-week adult (n = 8) and 80-week-old SHR (n = 7), with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 6;6) at basal and matched levels of blood pressure (BP). After anesthesia with pentobarbital, abdominal aortic diameter and pressure were recorded and BP was decreased by clonidine i.v. At basal BP, aortic pulse distension, compliance, and distensibility (AD) were reduced and stiffness index increased with age and hypertension and further altered with age + hypertension. When BP was adjusted in SHR to that of normotensive rats (130 mmHg), there was no difference between 20-week-old SHR and WKY Importantly, the age effect was maintained in both WKY and SHR and accentuated by hypertension in old rats. At 130 mmHg, with similar pulse pressure in the four groups, AD (kPa(-3)) = 24.2 ± 1 in 20 weeks WKY, 19.7 ± 1.4 in 20 weeks SHR, 12.4 ± 1.3 in 80 weeks WKY and 6.6 ± 0.6 in 80 weeks SHR; distension = 7.6 ± 0.4%, 6.7 ± 0.6%, 3.7 ± 0.3%, and 1.8 ± 0.2% in the same groups. In conclusion, reduced distensibility, that is, stiffening due to age is clearly shown here in both WKY and SHR as well as a synergistic effect of age and hypertension. This technique will allow new studies on the mechanisms responsible and drug intervention. PMID:27233301

  10. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA): A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Kuh, D; Bewick, M; Standberg, T; Farrell, J; Pengelly, R; Joel, M E; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Mercier, J; Bringer, J; Camuzat, T; Bourret, R; Bedbrook, A; Kowalski, M L; Samolinski, B; Bonini, S; Brayne, C; Michel, J P; Venne, J; Viriot-Durandal, P; Alonso, J; Avignon, A; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Bousquet, P J; Combe, B; Cooper, R; Hardy, R; Iaccarino, G; Keil, T; Kesse-Guyot, E; Momas, I; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Thijs, C; Tischer, C; Vellas, B; Zaidi, A; Alonso, F; Andersen Ranberg, K; Andreeva, V; Ankri, J; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Augé, P; Berr, C; Bertone, P; Blain, H; Blasimme, A; Buijs, G J; Caimmi, D; Carriazo, A; Cesario, A; Coletta, J; Cosco, T; Criton, M; Cuisinier, F; Demoly, P; Fernandez-Nocelo, S; Fougère, B; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Goldberg, M; Guldemond, N; Gutter, Z; Harman, D; Hendry, A; Heve, D; Illario, M; Jeandel, C; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Krys, O; Kula, D; Laune, D; Lehmann, S; Maier, D; Malva, J; Matignon, P; Melen, E; Mercier, G; Moda, G; Nizinkska, A; Nogues, M; O'Neill, M; Pelissier, J Y; Poethig, D; Porta, D; Postma, D; Puisieux, F; Richards, M; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Romano, V; Roubille, F; Schulz, H; Scott, A; Senesse, P; Slagter, S; Smit, H A; Somekh, D; Stafford, M; Suanzes, J; Todo-Bom, A; Touchon, J; Traver-Salcedo, V; Van Beurden, M; Varraso, R; Vergara, I; Villalba-Mora, E; Wilson, N; Wouters, E; Zins, M

    2015-11-01

    Health is a multi-dimensional concept, capturing how people feel and function. The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both individuals and population groups. A universal Active and Healthy Ageing definition is not available and it may differ depending on the purpose of the definition and/or the questions raised. While the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) has had a major impact, a definition of Active and Healthy Ageing is urgently needed. A meeting was organised in Montpellier, France, October 20-21, 2014 as the annual conference of the EIP on AHA Reference Site MACVIA-LR (Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif en Languedoc Roussillon) to propose an operational definition of Active and Healthy Ageing including tools that may be used for this. The current paper describes the rationale and the process by which the aims of the meeting will be reached.

  11. [Anti-aging with healthy nutrition. This you can recommend!].

    PubMed

    Zeyfang, A; Feucht, I; Rükgauer, M; Nikolaus, T

    2002-09-26

    For a dietary anti-aging concept that "gives life to years and adds years to life" we recommend a low-fat, carbohydrate and fiber-rich diet containing plenty of fruits and vegetables and moderate amounts of protein (in particular of vegetable origin). Prolonging the fasting state by cancelling dinner is also of benefit. Five servings of fruits and vegetables (preferentially red, yellow and green) daily and whole-grain products provide sufficient amounts of vitamins C and E and the provitamin A beta-carotene, as well as secondary phytochemicals. Also to be recommended are low-fat dairy products, fish once or twice a week, little meat and eggs, and a maximum of 4-8 fl oz (1/8 to 1/4 liter) of red wine per day.

  12. Association of vitamin D receptor with longevity and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Najmi Varzaneh, Farnaz; Sharifi, Farshad; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Mirarefin, Mojde; Maghbooli, Zhila; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Larijani, Bagher; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Longevity is a multifaceted trait in which variety of genes and environmental factors are involved. Newly, the role of vitamin D has been revived regarding its potential advantage on delaying the aging process. Vitamin D exerts its effect through vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR-FokI is the only polymorphism which alters the VDR length. We examined the frequency of FokI genotypes in old age population as compared to young adults to determine the discerning genotype of FokI polymorphism leading to longer living. In addition, to highlight the position of FokІ polymorphism in quality of life; a cognitive function assessment was performed. 728 participants participated in this study of which 166 individuals were elderly residents of Kahrizak Charity Foundation. The rest were participants of Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and VDR genotype was detected by the polymerase chain reaction. The participants in the elderly group underwent a cognitive function assessment. Cognitive function was measured with the mini mental state examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.5. The prevalence of ff genotype showed 48% decrease in elderly population as compared to young adults (P=0.06). In addition, F allele was over-represented in the elderly group as compared to controls (P=0.05). Also, "FF" participants of elderly group had higher MMSE as compared to "ff" genotype (18.16Vs17.12). Our data suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FokI may be possibly involved in longevity and cognitive function. PMID:23690102

  13. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  14. The quest for active and healthy ageing: what cyberpsychology can offer.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission identified active and healthy ageing as a societal challenge common to all European countries, and an area which presents considerable potential for Europe to lead the world in providing innovative responses to this challenge (http://ec.europa.eu/active-healthy-ageing). To tackle the challenge of an ageing population, the European Commission launched the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Active and Healthy Ageing. What can cyberpsychology offer to this process? After presenting the main features of cyberpsychology, this paper identifies in patient engagement and positive technologies the key assets that will allow the technological innovations constantly being developed to provide greater help and care in enabling elderly people to live more normal, happier, fulfilling lives.

  15. Age-Related Increases in Motivation among Children with Mental Retardation and MA- and CA-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Greenberg, Mark; Crnic, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by 12 months in children with mild mental retardation and mental age and chronological age matched controls (ages 1-5 years). Results suggested correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental…

  16. Comparison of Baseline Dietary Intake of Hispanic and Matched Non-Hispanic White Breast Cancer Survivors Enrolled in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study

    PubMed Central

    HERNÁNDEZ-VALERO, MARÍA A.; THOMSON, CYNTHIA A.; HERNÁNDEZ, MIKE; TRAN, TAYLOR; DETRY, MICHELLE A.; THERIAULT, RICHARD L.; HAJEK, RICHARD A.; PIERCE, JOHN P.; FLATT, SHIRLEY W.; CAAN, BETTE J.; JONES, LOVELL A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the reported baseline dietary intake of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living study, a randomized plant-based dietary intervention clinical trial. Design Dietary data from 4 days repeated 24-hour recalls within 3 weeks included daily total intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, cholesterol, total fat, monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, fruit/vegetable servings, carotenoids, alcohol, caffeine, and percentage of energy from protein, carbohydrates, alcohol, and fats. Subjects One hundred sixty-five Hispanic breast cancer survivors age-matched to 165 non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors diagnosed with Stage I, II, or IIIA primary operable breast cancer. Statistical analyses Two-sample t tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests to compare dietary intake, and logistic and ordinal logistic regression analyses to examine the association between ethnicity, alcohol, and lycopene consumption, while controlling for place of birth, education, body mass index, and time since diagnosis. Results Hispanics were more likely to be foreign-born (P<0.001), less educated (P<0.0001) and to consume higher amounts of lycopene (P=0.029), while non-Hispanic whites were more likely to consume alcohol (P=0.001). However, no differences were observed in the average amounts of alcohol consumed or total percents of energy from alcohol. Both groups consumed more than five servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Being Hispanic remained a significant predictor of lower alcohol use (P=0.004) and higher lycopene consumption (P=0.005) after controlling for place of birth, education, body mass index, and time since diagnosis. Conclusions There are more similarities than differences in the dietary intake of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living study. Further analysis is needed to determine if higher lycopene consumption shown among the

  17. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  18. Comparison of whole saliva flow rates and mucin concentrations in healthy Caucasian young and aged adults.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R A; Kipnis, V; Denny, P A; Denny, P C

    1992-06-01

    Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 42 healthy Caucasians; 21 were between 18 and 35 years of age, and 21 between 65 and 83 years of age. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the aged group, but the stimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the aged than in the young group. Both groups showed significantly increased flow during salivary stimulation. MG1 and MG2 concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were significantly lower in the aged group. There were no significant correlations between salivary flow rates and MG1 and MG2 concentrations.

  19. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity: Genetics of Healthy Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus; Hervonen, Anti; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Sikora, Ewa; Flachsbart, Frederieke; Christiansen, Lene; De Craen, Anton J.M.; Kirkwood, Tom B.L.; Rea, I. Meave; Poulain, Michel; Robine, Jean-Marie; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Passarino, Giuseppe; Deiana, Luca; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Valensin, Silvana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Tan, Qihua; Helmer, Quinta; Van den Akker, Erik B.; Deelen, Joris; Martella, Francesca; Cordell, Heather J.; Ayers, Kristin L.; Vaupel, James W.; Törnwall, Outi; Johnson, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Stefan; Lathrop, Mark; Skytthe, Axel; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Christensen, Kaare; Gampe, Jutta; Nebel, Almut; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118 nonagenarian Caucasian sibling pairs that have been enrolled in fifteen study centers of eleven European countries as part of the Genetics of Healthy Ageing (GEHA) project. In the joint linkage analyses we observed four regions that show linkage with longevity; chromosome 14q11.2 (LOD=3.47), chromosome 17q12-q22 (LOD=2.95), chromosome 19p13.3-p13.11 (LOD=3.76) and chromosome 19q13.11-q13.32 (LOD=3.57). To fine map these regions linked to longevity, we performed association analysis using GWAS data in a subgroup of 1,228 unrelated nonagenarian and 1,907 geographically matched controls. Using a fixed effect meta-analysis approach, rs4420638 at the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 gene locus showed significant association with longevity (p-value=9.6 × 10−8). By combined modeling of linkage and association we showed that association of longevity with APOEε4 and APOEε2 alleles explain the linkage at 19q13.11-q13.32 with p-value=0.02 and p-value=1.0 × 10−5, respectively. In the largest linkage scan thus far performed for human familial longevity, we confirm that the APOE locus is a longevity gene and that additional longevity loci may be identified at 14q11.2, 17q12-q22 and 19p13.3-p13.11. Since the latter linkage results are not explained by common variants, we suggest that rare variants play an important role in human familial longevity. PMID:23286790

  20. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity. PMID:24462788

  1. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity.

  2. Structural hippocampal network alterations during healthy aging: a multi-modal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Amandine; Periot, Olivier; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Hiba, Bassem; Bordessoules, Martine; Pérès, Karine; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2013-01-01

    While hippocampal atrophy has been described during healthy aging, few studies have examined its relationship with the integrity of White Matter (WM) connecting tracts of the limbic system. This investigation examined WM structural damage specifically related to hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging subjects (n = 129), using morphological MRI to assess hippocampal volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to assess WM integrity. Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia were excluded from the analysis. In our sample, increasing age was significantly associated with reduced hippocampal volume and reduced Fractional Anisotropy (FA) at the level of the fornix and the cingulum bundle. The findings also demonstrate that hippocampal atrophy was specifically associated with reduced FA of the fornix bundle, but it was not related to alteration of the cingulum bundle. Our results indicate that the relationship between hippocampal atrophy and fornix FA values is not due to an independent effect of age on both structures. A recursive regression procedure was applied to evaluate sequential relationships between the alterations of these two brain structures. When both hippocampal atrophy and fornix FA values were included in the same model to predict age, fornix FA values remained significant whereas hippocampal atrophy was no longer significantly associated with age. According to this latter finding, hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging could be mediated by a loss of fornix connections. Structural alterations of this part of the limbic system, which have been associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, result at least in part from the aging process. PMID:24367331

  3. A demographic and social profile of age- and sex-matched vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, J H; Greninger, S A; Young, R K

    1986-07-01

    A demographic and social profile was compiled for 150 vegetarians and 150 nonvegetarians who were matched for age and sex. A 328-item questionnaire containing both closed- and open-ended questions was administered. Information collected included personal and demographic data, personal habits, social activities, and possible influences of vegetarianism. No differences were observed in the cultural, ethnic, or familial background of the groups. Vegetarians were less influenced by parents and traditional religions, were slightly less well educated, and were employed in less-skilled occupations. However, vegetarians socialized more than nonvegetarians, as evidenced by their greater frequency of entertaining, going out with friends, and joining organizations. The commitment to vegetarianism was strong and appeared to be reinforced by an extensive network of family and friends who were also vegetarians. This strong support network was particularly evident for those who practiced the more restrictive forms of vegetarianism, the only major difference observed within the types of vegetarians studied.

  4. Ageing and endurance training effects on quantity and quality of pulmonary vascular bed in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that in healthy individuals, peak oxygen consumption is associated with a greater pulmonary capillary blood volume and a more distensible pulmonary circulation. Our cross-sectional study suggests that, in healthy men aged 20 to 60 years (n = 63), endurance sport practice (vigorous-intensity domain of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) is associated with better quantity (pulmonary capillary blood volume) and quality (slope of increase in lung diffusion for carbon monoxide on exercise) of the pulmonary vascular bed, partly counterbalancing the deleterious effects of ageing, which remains to be demonstrated in a prospective longitudinal design. PMID:24460636

  5. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  6. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.

  7. Development of the Thai healthy aging model: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thiamwong, Ladda; McManus, Michael S; Suwanno, Jom

    2013-06-01

    To develop a model of healthy aging from the perspective of Thais, a grounded theory approach, including in-depth interviews and focus groups, was used. A purposive sample of 39 community-dwelling adults aged 40-85 years old was interviewed. The Thai healthy aging model composed of three themes: normality, nature, and dharma. In Thai, they are called tham-ma-da, tham-ma-chat, and tham-ma, or "Thai 3Ts". The theme of normality encompasses subthemes of staying physically active by being involved in plenty of physical activities, and being mentally active with creative and thoughtful hobbies and work. The theme of nature encompasses subthemes of living simply and being careful with money. The theme of dharma encompasses subthemes of enjoyment through helping family and participating in community activities, staying away from stress and worries by talking openly and honestly with someone, making merit, and helping other people without expecting anything in return. A greater understanding of healthy aging is a benefit for older adults and healthcare providers in an intervention-design process. Research can contribute valuable information to shape policy for healthy aging as well.

  8. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  9. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    PubMed

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  10. Comparing Volume Loss in Neuroanatomical Regions of Emotion versus Regions of Cognition in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Peter S; Noniyeva, Yuliana; Bott, Nick; Dutt, Shubir; Sturm, Virginia; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    Many emotional functions are relatively preserved in aging despite declines in several cognitive domains and physical health. High levels of happiness exist even among centenarians. To address the hypothesis of whether preservation of emotional function in healthy aging may relate to different rates of age-related volume loss across brain structures, we performed two volumetric analyses on structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging of a group of healthy aging research participants using Freesurfer version 5.1. Volumes selected as supporting cognition included bilateral midfrontal and lateral frontal gyri, lateral parietal and temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobes. Volumes supporting emotion included bilateral amygdala, rostral anterior cingulate, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using structural MRI scans from 258 subjects. We found no difference in proportional change between groups. A longitudinal mixed effects model was used to compare regional changes over time in a subset of 84 subjects. Again, there was no difference in proportional change over time. While our results suggest that aging does not collectively target cognitive brain regions more than emotional regions, subgroup analysis suggests relative preservation of the anterior cingulate cortex, with greater volume loss in the nucleus accumbens. Implications of these relative rates of age-related volume loss in healthy aging are discussed and merit further research. PMID:27552103

  11. Comparing Volume Loss in Neuroanatomical Regions of Emotion versus Regions of Cognition in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Noniyeva, Yuliana; Bott, Nick; Dutt, Shubir; Sturm, Virginia; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2016-01-01

    Many emotional functions are relatively preserved in aging despite declines in several cognitive domains and physical health. High levels of happiness exist even among centenarians. To address the hypothesis of whether preservation of emotional function in healthy aging may relate to different rates of age-related volume loss across brain structures, we performed two volumetric analyses on structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging of a group of healthy aging research participants using Freesurfer version 5.1. Volumes selected as supporting cognition included bilateral midfrontal and lateral frontal gyri, lateral parietal and temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobes. Volumes supporting emotion included bilateral amygdala, rostral anterior cingulate, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using structural MRI scans from 258 subjects. We found no difference in proportional change between groups. A longitudinal mixed effects model was used to compare regional changes over time in a subset of 84 subjects. Again, there was no difference in proportional change over time. While our results suggest that aging does not collectively target cognitive brain regions more than emotional regions, subgroup analysis suggests relative preservation of the anterior cingulate cortex, with greater volume loss in the nucleus accumbens. Implications of these relative rates of age-related volume loss in healthy aging are discussed and merit further research. PMID:27552103

  12. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  13. The Influence of Age and Gender on the Pro/Antioxidant Status in Young Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of age and gender on the pro/antioxidant balance in young healthy subject aged 20-40 years. The individuals were divided into women: aged 20-25 years (group A), aged 32-39 years (group B), and men aged 20-25 years (group C). In blood, the metals, markers of oxidative stress and antioxidants were estimated. The Cu level and Cu/Zn ratio in group B was higher than in group A. There were no differences in metals concentrations between groups A and C. The similar levels of malondialdehyde concentrations and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities were observed in all groups. The decrease in glutathione reduced and glutathione peroxidase was in group B than in group A. The higher glutathione reduced, lower glutathione oxidized concentrations and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) were observed in group C when compared to group A. The superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were higher in groups B and C than in group A.The age and gender have an influence on the pro/antioxidant status in healthy people aged 20-40 years. The main antioxidants responsible for the removal of free radicals in men aged 20-25 years and women aged 32-39 years are superoxide dismutase and catalase, while the glutathione peroxidase activity declines. The detoxification being mediated through glutathione is weakened in women aged 32-39 years. PMID:27650614

  14. Communication Skills of Young Children Implanted Prior to Four Years of Age Compared to Typically Hearing Matched Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Judith Anne Lakawicz

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the conversational language skills and interactions of four children who are d/hh and who received cochlear implants (CI) prior to the age of four years with four typically hearing peers matched for age, gender, teacher perceived language ability and race. This exploratory, descriptive study was…

  15. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging.

  16. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    PubMed

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people. PMID:26960686

  17. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    PubMed

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  18. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  19. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  20. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  1. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  2. Design, recruitment, logistics, and data management of the GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) project

    PubMed Central

    Skytthe, A.; Valensin, S.; Jeune, B.; Cevenini, E.; Balard, F.; Beekman, M.; Bezrukov, V.; Blanche, H.; Bolund, L.; Broczek, K.; Carru, C.; Christensen, K.; Christiansen, L.; Collerton, J.C.; Cotichini, R.; de Craen, A.J.M.; Dato, S.; Davies, K.; De Benedictis, G.; Deiana, L.; Flachsbart, F.; Gampe, J.; Gilbault, C.; Gonos, E.S.; Haimes, E.; Hervonen, A.; Hurme, M.A.; Janiszewska, D.; Jylhä, M.; Kirkwood, T.B.L.; Kristensen, P.; Laiho, P.; Leon, A.; Marchisio, A.; Masciulli, R.; Nebel, A.; Passarino, G.; Pelicci, G.; Peltonen, L.; Perola, M.; Poulain, M.; Rea, I.M.; Remacle, J.; Robine, J.M.; Schreiber, S.; Scurti, M.; Sevini, F.; Sikora, E.; Skouteri, A.; Slagboom, P.E.; Spazzafumo, L.; Stazi, M.A.; Toccaceli, V.; Toussaint, O.; Törnwall, O.; Vaupel, J.W.; Voutetakis, K.; Franceschi, C.

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the integrated European project GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) was initiated with the aim of identifying genes involved in healthy ageing and longevity. The first step in the project was the recruitment of more than 2500 pairs of siblings aged 90 years or more together with one younger control person from 15 areas in 11 European countries through a coordinated and standardised effort. A biological sample, preferably a blood sample, was collected from each participant, and basic physical and cognitive measures were obtained together with information about health, life style, and family composition. From 2004 to 2008 a total of 2535 families comprising 5319 nonagenarian siblings were identified and included in the project. In addition, 2548 younger control persons aged 50–75 years were recruited. A total of 2249 complete trios with blood samples from at least two old siblings and the younger control were formed and are available for genetic analyses (e.g. linkage studies and genome-wide association studies). Mortality follow-up improves the possibility of identifying families with the most extreme longevity phenotypes. With a mean follow-up time of 3.7 years the number of families with all participating siblings aged 95 years or more has increased by a factor of 5 to 750 families compared to when interviews were conducted. Thus, the GEHA project represents a unique source in the search for genes related to healthy ageing and longevity. PMID:21871552

  3. Design, recruitment, logistics, and data management of the GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) project.

    PubMed

    Skytthe, A; Valensin, S; Jeune, B; Cevenini, E; Balard, F; Beekman, M; Bezrukov, V; Blanche, H; Bolund, L; Broczek, K; Carru, C; Christensen, K; Christiansen, L; Collerton, J C; Cotichini, R; de Craen, A J M; Dato, S; Davies, K; De Benedictis, G; Deiana, L; Flachsbart, F; Gampe, J; Gilbault, C; Gonos, E S; Haimes, E; Hervonen, A; Hurme, M A; Janiszewska, D; Jylhä, M; Kirkwood, T B L; Kristensen, P; Laiho, P; Leon, A; Marchisio, A; Masciulli, R; Nebel, A; Passarino, G; Pelicci, G; Peltonen, L; Perola, M; Poulain, M; Rea, I M; Remacle, J; Robine, J M; Schreiber, S; Scurti, M; Sevini, F; Sikora, E; Skouteri, A; Slagboom, P E; Spazzafumo, L; Stazi, M A; Toccaceli, V; Toussaint, O; Törnwall, O; Vaupel, J W; Voutetakis, K; Franceschi, C

    2011-11-01

    In 2004, the integrated European project GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) was initiated with the aim of identifying genes involved in healthy ageing and longevity. The first step in the project was the recruitment of more than 2500 pairs of siblings aged 90 years or more together with one younger control person from 15 areas in 11 European countries through a coordinated and standardised effort. A biological sample, preferably a blood sample, was collected from each participant, and basic physical and cognitive measures were obtained together with information about health, life style, and family composition. From 2004 to 2008 a total of 2535 families comprising 5319 nonagenarian siblings were identified and included in the project. In addition, 2548 younger control persons aged 50-75 years were recruited. A total of 2249 complete trios with blood samples from at least two old siblings and the younger control were formed and are available for genetic analyses (e.g. linkage studies and genome-wide association studies). Mortality follow-up improves the possibility of identifying families with the most extreme longevity phenotypes. With a mean follow-up time of 3.7 years the number of families with all participating siblings aged 95 years or more has increased by a factor of 5 to 750 families compared to when interviews were conducted. Thus, the GEHA project represents a unique source in the search for genes related to healthy ageing and longevity.

  4. The effect of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Yümin, Eylem Tütün; Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Sertel, Meral; Ankaralı, Handan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effects of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and three healthy female volunteers over the age of 20 were included in the study. The statistical analyses were performed by considering the age and body mass index values of the individuals. The individuals were divided according to their ages and body mass index values. Foot pain was measured with a visual analogue scale and plantar cutaneous sensation using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. [Results] Fifty-six (27.5%) of the participants had normal weights, 67 (33%) were overweight, and 80 (39%) were obese. Statistical analysis revealed that as age and body mass index values increased, plantar sensitivity decreased and the frequency and severity of pain increased. [Conclusion] It is possible that healthy women may experience a decrease in foot plantar sensation with increasing weight and age. If women do not have any health problems, proprioception and sensory training must be focused on in order to prevent balance and falling problems. PMID:27799700

  5. Design, recruitment, logistics, and data management of the GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) project.

    PubMed

    Skytthe, A; Valensin, S; Jeune, B; Cevenini, E; Balard, F; Beekman, M; Bezrukov, V; Blanche, H; Bolund, L; Broczek, K; Carru, C; Christensen, K; Christiansen, L; Collerton, J C; Cotichini, R; de Craen, A J M; Dato, S; Davies, K; De Benedictis, G; Deiana, L; Flachsbart, F; Gampe, J; Gilbault, C; Gonos, E S; Haimes, E; Hervonen, A; Hurme, M A; Janiszewska, D; Jylhä, M; Kirkwood, T B L; Kristensen, P; Laiho, P; Leon, A; Marchisio, A; Masciulli, R; Nebel, A; Passarino, G; Pelicci, G; Peltonen, L; Perola, M; Poulain, M; Rea, I M; Remacle, J; Robine, J M; Schreiber, S; Scurti, M; Sevini, F; Sikora, E; Skouteri, A; Slagboom, P E; Spazzafumo, L; Stazi, M A; Toccaceli, V; Toussaint, O; Törnwall, O; Vaupel, J W; Voutetakis, K; Franceschi, C

    2011-11-01

    In 2004, the integrated European project GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) was initiated with the aim of identifying genes involved in healthy ageing and longevity. The first step in the project was the recruitment of more than 2500 pairs of siblings aged 90 years or more together with one younger control person from 15 areas in 11 European countries through a coordinated and standardised effort. A biological sample, preferably a blood sample, was collected from each participant, and basic physical and cognitive measures were obtained together with information about health, life style, and family composition. From 2004 to 2008 a total of 2535 families comprising 5319 nonagenarian siblings were identified and included in the project. In addition, 2548 younger control persons aged 50-75 years were recruited. A total of 2249 complete trios with blood samples from at least two old siblings and the younger control were formed and are available for genetic analyses (e.g. linkage studies and genome-wide association studies). Mortality follow-up improves the possibility of identifying families with the most extreme longevity phenotypes. With a mean follow-up time of 3.7 years the number of families with all participating siblings aged 95 years or more has increased by a factor of 5 to 750 families compared to when interviews were conducted. Thus, the GEHA project represents a unique source in the search for genes related to healthy ageing and longevity. PMID:21871552

  6. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  7. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  8. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  9. Macular retinal sensitivity using MP-1 in healthy Malaysian subjects of different ages

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Siti Aishah; Sharanjeet-Kaur; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ngah, Nor Fariza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the influence of age and gender on macular sensitivity to light in healthy subjects of 4 age groups using the MP-1 microperimeter. Methods A prospective study was carried out on 50 healthy subjects (age range: 18–60 years) divided into 4 age groups; 18–30 years, 31–40 years, 41–50 years and 51–60 years. Full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina was performed utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. Macula area was divided into four quadrants, which were superior nasal (SN), inferior nasal (IN), inferior temporal (IT) and superior temporal (ST). Results Total mean sensitivity at 10° for age groups 18–30 years, 31–40 years, 41–50 years and 51–60 years were 19.46 ± 0.30, 19.40 ± 0.39, 19.47 ± 0.35 and 18.73 ± 0.75 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° and at the four quadrants with age but not for gender. The retinal sensitivity was highest in the IT quadrant and lowest in the SN quadrant for all age groups. The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.019 dB, 0.016 dB, 0.022 dB, 0.029 dB and 0.029 dB per year age-related decline in mean macular sensitivity within the central 10° diameter in the SN, IN, IT and ST quadrants respectively. Conclusion Among normal healthy subjects, there was a linear decline in retinal light sensitivity with increasing age with the highest reduction in the superior nasal quadrant and lowest in the inferior temporal quadrant. PMID:26025808

  10. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Vlahou, Eleni L; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

    2014-05-29

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18-89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5-6.5 Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

  11. The Impact of Sex and Age on Serum Prohepcidin Concentration in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jasiniewska, Joanna; Dymek, Grazyna; Gruszka, Marzenna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Within the last 8 years, it has become evident that hepcidin has a diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Therefore, it is a great need to establish the reference interval for hepcidin and its precursor. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age and sex on serum prohepcidin concentration in healthy adults. Material and methods: 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled during the 18 months of the study - 56 males and 44 females, mean age 34.8±10.1 yrs. Serum prohepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferring receptor (sTfR) and plasma erythropoietin were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Serum iron and unsaturated iron binding capacity were determined on ARCHITECT ci8200 (Abbott Diagnostics) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results Serum prohepcidin concentrations ranged from 74.9 ng/ml to 300.4 ng/ml in healthy adults of both sexes. However, prohepcidin levels were significantly higher in males (median value 145.7 ng/ml) than in females (median 127.3 ng/ml) (p=0.0016). Serum prohepcidin was not associated with age in the group of healthy adults. Conclusions Serum prohepcidin concentrations were found to be related to sex. Significantly lower prohepcidin levels were observed in females compared with males.

  12. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  13. Retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemic damage than age-matched pigmented animals.

    PubMed

    Safa, R; Osborne, N N

    2000-04-17

    Age- and sex-matched pigmented (Lister Hooded) and albino (Wistar) rats were used in this study. The retinas of the animals were subjected to pressure-induced ischaemia (35 min, 120 mmHg) and reperfusion (3 days) in precisely the same way. The b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the pigmented animals recovered to normal levels while those of the albino rats were reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity associated with a sub-set of amacrine cells was almost completely obliterated in the retinas from the albino rats but unaffected in the retinas of the pigmented rats. Also, in certain areas of the retina from albino rats there was a suggestion that the calretinin-immunoreactivity was affected. This was never seen in the retinas of the pigmented animals. The GABA-immunoreactivity in the retina of both albino and pigmented rats appeared to be unaffected by ischaemia/reperfusion. The data presented show that retinas from albino rats are more susceptible to ischaemia/reperfusion than retinas from pigmented animals. The results also show that reduction of the b-wave of the ERG and changes in the nature of the ChAT immunoreactivity represent sensitive markers to detect the effect of ischaemia/reperfusion to the retina.

  14. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  15. Effect of ageing on left ventricular compliance and distensibility in healthy sedentary humans

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Naoki; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Bhella, Paul S; Shibata, Shigeki; Gandhi, Nainesh K; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Palmer, Dean; Levine, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    Healthy, but sedentary ageing leads to marked atrophy and stiffening of the heart, with substantially reduced cardiac compliance; but the time course of when this process occurs during normal ageing is unknown. Seventy healthy sedentary subjects (39 female; 21–77 years) were recruited from the Dallas Heart Study, a population-based, random community sample and enriched by a second random sample from employees of Texas Health Resources. Subjects were highly screened for co-morbidities and stratified into four groups according to age: G21−34: 21–34 years, G35−49: 35–49 years, G50−64: 50–64 years, G≥65: ≥65 years. All subjects underwent invasive haemodynamic measurements with right heart catheterization to define Starling and left ventricular (LV) pressure–volume curves. LV end-diastolic volumes (EDV) were measured by echocardiography at baseline, −15 and −30 mmHg lower-body negative pressure, and 15 and 30 ml kg−1 saline infusion with simultaneous measurements of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. There were no differences in heart rate or blood pressures among the four groups at baseline. Baseline EDV index was smaller in G≥65 than other groups. LV diastolic pressure–volume curves confirmed a substantially greater LV compliance in G21−34 compared with G50−64 and G≥65, resulting in greater LV volume changes with preload manipulations. Although LV chamber compliance in G50−64 and G≥65 appeared identical, pressure–volume curves were shifted leftward, toward a decreased distensibility, with increasing age. These results suggest that LV stiffening in healthy ageing occurs during the transition between youth and middle-age and becomes manifest between the ages of 50 to 64. Thereafter, this LV stiffening is followed by LV volume contraction and remodelling after the age of 65. PMID:22331419

  16. Mouse Models of Oxidative Stress Indicate a Role for Modulating Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Ryan T.; Walsh, Michael E.; Van Remmen, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a complex process that affects every major system at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. Although the exact cause of aging is unknown, there is significant evidence that oxidative stress plays a major role in the aging process. The basis of the oxidative stress hypothesis is that aging occurs as a result of an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, which leads to the accrual of damaged proteins, lipids and DNA macromolecules with age. Age-dependent increases in protein oxidation and aggregates, lipofuscin, and DNA mutations contribute to age-related pathologies. Many transgenic/knockout mouse models over expressing or deficient in key antioxidant enzymes have been generated to examine the effect of oxidative stress on aging and age-related diseases. Based on currently reported lifespan studies using mice with altered antioxidant defense, there is little evidence that oxidative stress plays a role in determining lifespan. However, mice deficient in antioxidant enzymes are often more susceptible to age-related disease while mice overexpressing antioxidant enzymes often have an increase in the amount of time spent without disease, i.e., healthspan. Thus, by understanding the mechanisms that affect healthy aging, we may discover potential therapeutic targets to extend human healthspan. PMID:25300955

  17. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  18. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  19. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  20. Spirometric standard of healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Khuda, K M; Sultana, R; Bari, M R; Islam, R; Erfan, M A

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary function test of various types are utilized clinically and epidemiologically to measures the functional status of the lung and to asses the diseases. Spirometric standard for healthy Bangladeshi adults aged 18-40 years is conducted in National Institute of Diseases of Chest and Hospital (NIDCH). This is cross sectional study is establish normal value of lung functions for Bangladeshi adult. Total of 995 (628 males & 367 females) healthy adults were selected to obtain lung function values; from a healthy adult those who attended in the hospital as a patients attended and healthy stuff of NIDCH. A computerized spirometer was used to measure lung volume and flows in a standard way. The best of the three reading was taken as the correct value. Anthropometric parameters including age, weight and height were recorded appropriately and body mass index was calculated. The statistical package for the social science (SPSS-10.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data. The pulmonary function data was separated by sex and classified on the basis of height weight age and body surface area. The mean and standard deviation was calculated for every such variable. The lung function variable shows a linear positive correlation with height, weight and age. Force vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) increase in height. Males show higher values for lung function variables than female. Stepwise regression analysis was done using age, height and weight, BMI as independent variable strong correlation was found between lung function values and independent variables. Height shows the highest correlation. The regression equation for lung function variables was determined for males and females considering height as independent variable. Lung function values of Bangladeshi adult were significantly lower than Nigerian, British and American result but nearly similar to Indian result. Nomogram was constructed in relation to height for males

  1. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging.

    PubMed

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; LaRocca, Thomas J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote "resistance" against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. PMID:25434012

  2. Healthy Aging from the Perspectives of 683 Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine what factors most greatly contributed to healthy aging with multiple sclerosis (MS) from the perspective of a large sample of older people with MS. Design and Methods. Participants (n = 683; >55 years of age with symptoms >20 years) provided answers to an open-ended question regarding healthy aging and were categorized into three groups, 55–64 (young), 65–74 (middle), and 75 and over (oldest old). Sociodemographic actors were compared using ANOVA. Two independent raters used the framework method of analyzing qualitative data. Results. Participants averaged 64 years of age (±6.2) with MS symptoms for 32.9 years (±9.4). 531 participants were female (78%). The majority of participants lived in their own home (n = 657) with a spouse or partner (n = 483). Participants described seven themes: social connections, attitude and outlook on life, lifestyle choices and habits, health care system, spirituality and religion, independence, and finances. These themes had two shared characteristics, multidimensionality and interdependence. Implications. Learning from the experiences of older adults with MS can help young and middle aged people with MS plan to age in their own homes and communities. Our data suggests that older people with MS prioritize factors that are modifiable through targeted self-management strategies. PMID:27504201

  3. Healthy Aging from the Perspectives of 683 Older People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Elizabeth M; Wiseman, Hailey D; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine what factors most greatly contributed to healthy aging with multiple sclerosis (MS) from the perspective of a large sample of older people with MS. Design and Methods. Participants (n = 683; >55 years of age with symptoms >20 years) provided answers to an open-ended question regarding healthy aging and were categorized into three groups, 55-64 (young), 65-74 (middle), and 75 and over (oldest old). Sociodemographic actors were compared using ANOVA. Two independent raters used the framework method of analyzing qualitative data. Results. Participants averaged 64 years of age (±6.2) with MS symptoms for 32.9 years (±9.4). 531 participants were female (78%). The majority of participants lived in their own home (n = 657) with a spouse or partner (n = 483). Participants described seven themes: social connections, attitude and outlook on life, lifestyle choices and habits, health care system, spirituality and religion, independence, and finances. These themes had two shared characteristics, multidimensionality and interdependence. Implications. Learning from the experiences of older adults with MS can help young and middle aged people with MS plan to age in their own homes and communities. Our data suggests that older people with MS prioritize factors that are modifiable through targeted self-management strategies. PMID:27504201

  4. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chatzianagnostou, Kyriazoula; Del Turco, Serena; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sabatino, Laura; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet’s (MeD) beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and—even more important—healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails. PMID:26783955

  5. Alpha-Synuclein Levels in Blood Plasma Decline with Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Niklas K. U.; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens. PMID:25844871

  6. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Chatzianagnostou, Kyriazoula; Del Turco, Serena; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sabatino, Laura; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet's (MeD) beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and-even more important-healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails. PMID:26783955

  7. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Chatzianagnostou, Kyriazoula; Del Turco, Serena; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sabatino, Laura; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet's (MeD) beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and-even more important-healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails.

  8. Healthy Aging from the Perspectives of 683 Older People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Elizabeth M; Wiseman, Hailey D; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine what factors most greatly contributed to healthy aging with multiple sclerosis (MS) from the perspective of a large sample of older people with MS. Design and Methods. Participants (n = 683; >55 years of age with symptoms >20 years) provided answers to an open-ended question regarding healthy aging and were categorized into three groups, 55-64 (young), 65-74 (middle), and 75 and over (oldest old). Sociodemographic actors were compared using ANOVA. Two independent raters used the framework method of analyzing qualitative data. Results. Participants averaged 64 years of age (±6.2) with MS symptoms for 32.9 years (±9.4). 531 participants were female (78%). The majority of participants lived in their own home (n = 657) with a spouse or partner (n = 483). Participants described seven themes: social connections, attitude and outlook on life, lifestyle choices and habits, health care system, spirituality and religion, independence, and finances. These themes had two shared characteristics, multidimensionality and interdependence. Implications. Learning from the experiences of older adults with MS can help young and middle aged people with MS plan to age in their own homes and communities. Our data suggests that older people with MS prioritize factors that are modifiable through targeted self-management strategies.

  9. Correlations among brain gray matter volumes, age, gender, and hemisphere in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

  10. Remedial Effects of Motivational Incentive on Declining Cognitive Control In Healthy Aging and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harsay, Helga A.; Buitenweg, Jessika I. V.; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Guerreiro, Maria J. S.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The prospect of reward may provide a motivational incentive for optimizing goal-directed behavior. Animal work demonstrates that reward-processing networks and oculomotor-control networks in the brain are connected through the dorsal striatum, and that reward anticipation can improve oculomotor control via this nexus. Due perhaps to deterioration in dopaminergic striatal circuitry, goal-directed oculomotor control is subject to decline in healthy seniors, and even more in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we examine whether healthy seniors and PD patients are able to utilize reward prospects to improve their impaired antisaccade performance. Results confirmed that oculomotor control declined in PD patients compared to healthy seniors, and in healthy seniors compared to young adults. However, the motivational incentive of reward expectation resulted in benefits in antisaccade performance in all groups alike. These findings speak against structural and non-modifiable decline in cognitive control functions, and emphasize the remedial potential of motivational incentive mechanisms in healthy as well as pathological aging. PMID:21060805

  11. Cardioprotective effect of a biofermented nutraceutical on endothelial function in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Francesco; Yadav, Hariom; Kumari, Archana; Catanzaro, Roberto; Jain, Shalini; Polimeni, Ascanio; Lorenzetti, Aldo; Soresi, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    We tested a biofermented nutraceutical (FPP) that has been previously shown to positively modulate nitric oxide (NO). Forty-two healthy middle-aged subjects were given 3 grams of FPP three times a day for 6 weeks, and tests were repeated at 3 and 6 weeks; the control group was given a placebo. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured together with NO compounds (nitrogen oxides [NOx]: NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-)) plasma levels and asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA). In the interventional group, overall FMD significantly increased from 4.2% to 7.3% (p<0.05 vs. placebo). A significant increase in plasma NO and a decrease in ADMA were detected after consumption of FPP (p<0.01). Although larger studies are awaited, it appears that, at least in healthy individuals, such nutraceutical intervention by positively acting on significant cardiovascular parameters can be considered in the armamentarium of a proactive age-management strategy. PMID:22533427

  12. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  13. Stratigraphy and wiggle-matching-based age-depth model of late Holocene marine sediments in Beppu Bay, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwae, Michinobu; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ikehara, Ken; Irino, Tomohisa; Takemura, Keiji; Sagawa, Takuya; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Takeoka, Hidetaka

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed the lithology, magnetic susceptibility, bulk density, and X-ray radiographs of 14 sediment cores (1-9 m long) from Beppu Bay in the western Seto Inland Sea, Japan, to establish the late Holocene stratigraphy in the deepest part of the bay and to develop an age-depth model for the sediments there. The cores contained 18 thick (major event) high-density layers (16 turbidites and two volcanic ash; >1 cm thick), and both lithological observations and density variations in the hemipelagic mud that is dominant in the cores revealed a further 55 thin (minor event) high-density layers (<1 cm thick). Analyses of color properties and opal and sand contents of the hemipelagic mud defined nine lithological units. After stratigraphic correlation of the event layers among cores, we projected 14C dates onto a single composite core. Forty-two AMS 14C dates from bivalve mollusk shells were used to construct a wiggle-matching-based age-depth model for the late Holocene sequence and to determine the local reservoir effect (ΔR). The age-depth model showed a sedimentation rate of 0.23-0.30 cm/yr for a 7.8 m-long composite core and an age of ˜2800 cal yr BP at the base. Wiggle-matching provided ΔR values of 115-155 yr for late Holocene bivalve samples from Beppu Bay, which is consistent with previous estimates reported from coastal areas near the Kuroshio Front. Comparison of wiggle-matching-derived ages of thick turbidites with the ages of historical earthquakes showed differences within ±25 yr. Our study demonstrated that wiggle matching with optimal fitting based on either the weighted least-squares or maximum likelihood method can minimize the effect of scatter of age data due to reworking and burrowing of bivalves and thus improve the accuracy of age-depth models.

  14. Distinguishing rhythmic from non-rhythmic brain activity during rest in healthy neurocognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Bottomley, Monica; Kang, Pardeep; Dixon, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic brain activity at low frequencies (<12 Hz) during rest are thought to increase in neurodegenerative disease, but findings in healthy neurocognitive aging are mixed. Here we address two reasons conventional spectral analyses may have led to inconsistent results. First, spectral-power measures are compared to a baseline condition; when resting activity is the signal of interest, it is unclear what the baseline should be. Second, conventional methods do not clearly differentiate power due to rhythmic versus non-rhythmic activity. The Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC; [10], [65]) avoids these problems by using the signal’s own spectral characteristics as a reference to detect elevations in power lasting a few cycles. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signal during rest, alternating eyes open and closed, in healthy younger (18–25 years) and older (60–74 years) participants. Topographic plots suggested the conventional and BOSC analyses measured different sources of activity, particularly at frequencies, like delta (1–4 Hz), at which rhythms are sporadic (but topographies were more similar in the 8–12 Hz alpha band). There was little theta-band activity meeting the BOSC method’s criteria, suggesting prior findings of theta power in healthy aging may reflect non-rhythmic signal. In contrast, delta oscillations were present at higher levels than theta in both age groups. In sum, applying strict and standardized criteria for rhythmicity, slow rhythms appear present in the resting brain at delta and alpha, but not theta frequencies, and appear unchanged in healthy aging. PMID:25769279

  15. Behavior-Specific Social Support for Healthy Behaviors among African American Church Members: Applying Optimal Matching Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Oates, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    This study used data from 850 African Americans to test optimal matching theory (OMT). OMT predicts that (1) the most important dimensions of social support depend on the controllability of the behavior and (2) different network members often provide support across health behaviors. Data were gathered on social support source for physical…

  16. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  17. Cranberry Interacts With Dietary Macronutrients to Promote Healthy Aging in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cecilia; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Laslo, Mara; Sun, Yaning; Wheeler, Charles T.; Sun, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar–low protein, and low sugar–high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar–high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar–low protein diet but not with the low sugar–high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly’s resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging. PMID:24149429

  18. Cortical Thinning in Healthy Aging Correlates with Larger Motor-Evoked EEG Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, David; Hennebelle, Marie; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to investigate neural activity in patients and controls, exactly how local anatomy impacts the measured signal remains unclear. Better characterizing this relationship is important to improve the understanding of how inter-subject differences in the EEG signal are related to neural activity. We hypothesized that cortical structure might affect event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG. Since aging is a well-documented cause of cortical thinning, we investigated the effects of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical depth (CD – the skull-to-cortex distance) on ERD using anatomical MRI and motor-evoked EEG in 17 healthy young adults and 20 healthy older persons. Results showed a significant negative correlation between ERD and CT, but no consistent relationship between ERD and CD. A thinner cortex was associated with a larger ERD in the α/β band and correcting for CT removed most of the inter-group difference in ERD. This indicates that differences in neural activity might not be the primary cause for the observed aging-related differences in ERD, at least in the motor cortex. Further, it emphasizes the importance of considering conditions affecting the EEG signal, such as cortical anatomical changes due to aging, when interpreting differences between healthy controls and/or patients. PMID:27064767

  19. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  20. Gray-matter macrostructure in cognitively healthy older persons: Associations with age and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Debra A.; Leurgans, Sue; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Barnes, Lisa L.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Han, S. Duke; Bennett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    A deeper understanding of brain macrostructure and its associations with cognition in persons who are considered cognitively healthy is critical to the early detection of persons at risk of developing dementia. Few studies have examined the associations of all three gray-matter macrostructural brain indices (volume, thickness, surface area) with age and cognition, in the same persons who are over the age of 65 and do not have cognitive impairment. We performed automated morphometric reconstruction of total gray matter, cortical gray matter, subcortical gray matter and 84 individual regions in 186 participants (60% over the age of 80) without cognitive impairment. Morphometric measures were scaled and expressed as difference per decade of age and an adjusted score was created to identify those regions in which there was greater atrophy per decade of age compared to cortical or subcortical brain averages. The results showed that there is substantial total volume loss and cortical thinning in cognitively healthy older persons. Thinning was more widespread than volume loss, but volume loss, particularly in temporoparietal and hippocampal regions, was more strongly associated with cognition. PMID:23955313

  1. Beta2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms as Systemic Determinants of Healthy Aging in an Evolutionary Context

    PubMed Central

    Kulminski, Alexander M.; Culminskaya, Irina V.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Land, Kenneth C.; Yashin, Anatoli I.

    2010-01-01

    The Gln27Glu polymorphism but not the Arg16Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene appears to be associated with a broad range of aging-associated phenotypes, including cancers at different sites, myocardial infarction (MI), intermittent claudication (IC), and overall/healthy longevity in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. The Gln27Gln genotype increases risks of cancer, MI and IC, whereas the Glu27 allele or, equivalently, the Gly16Glu27 haplotype tends to be protective against these diseases. Genetic associations with longevity are of opposite nature at young-old and oldest-old ages highlighting the phenomenon of antagonistic pleiotropy. The mechanism of antagonistic pleiotropy is associated with an evolutionary-driven advantage of carriers of a derived Gln27 allele at younger ages and their survival disadvantage at older ages as a result of increased risks of cancer, MI and IC. The ADRB2 gene can play an important systemic role in healthy aging in evolutionary context that warrants exploration in other populations. PMID:20399803

  2. Influence of age on clock gene expression in peripheral blood cells of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentarou; Kumazaki, Masafumi; Takamura, Toshinari; Yokota, Noritsugu; Saito, Tetsuo; Irie, Shin; Kaneko, Shuichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between circadian clock function and the development of obesity and various age-related diseases. In this study, we investigated whether messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of clock genes are associated with age, body mass index, blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, or shift work. Peripheral blood cells were obtained from 70 healthy women, including 25 shift workers, at approximately 9:00 AM. Transcript levels of clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, and PER3) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that BMAL1 mRNA levels were correlated only with age (beta = -.50, p < .001). In contrast, PER3 levels were correlated with fasting plasma glucose (beta = -.29, p < .05) and shift work (beta = .31, p < .05). These results suggest that increased age, glucose intolerance, and irregular hours independently affect the intracellular clock in humans.

  3. Update on the oxidative stress theory of aging: does oxidative stress play a role in aging or healthy aging?

    PubMed

    Salmon, Adam B; Richardson, Arlan; Pérez, Viviana I

    2010-03-01

    The oxidative stress theory of aging predicts that manipulations that alter oxidative stress/damage will alter aging. The gold standard for determining whether aging is altered is life span, i.e., does altering oxidative stress/damage change life span? Mice with genetic manipulations in their antioxidant defense system designed to directly address this prediction have, with few exceptions, shown no change in life span. However, when these transgenic/knockout mice are tested using models that develop various types of age-related pathology, they show alterations in progression and/or severity of pathology as predicted by the oxidative stress theory: increased oxidative stress accelerates pathology and reduced oxidative stress retards pathology. These contradictory observations might mean that (a) oxidative stress plays a very limited, if any, role in aging but a major role in health span and/or (b) the role that oxidative stress plays in aging depends on environment. In environments with minimal stress, as expected under optimal husbandry, oxidative damage plays little role in aging. However, under chronic stress, including pathological phenotypes that diminish optimal health, oxidative stress/damage plays a major role in aging. Under these conditions, enhanced antioxidant defenses exert an "antiaging" action, leading to changes in life span, age-related pathology, and physiological function as predicted by the oxidative stress theory of aging.

  4. Age related decrease of NOR activity in bone marrow metaphase chromosomes from healthy individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Pedrazzini, E; Mamaev, N; Slavutsky, I

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To present data obtained from human bone marrow preparations from healthy individual showing that the proportion of metaphases with silver stained nucleolar organiser region (AgNOR) chromosomes is associated with the age of the donor. METHODS: Bone marrow preparations from eight Russian and 10 Argentinian healthy individuals donating bone marrow for heterologous transplantation were studied by silver staining. The Russian bone marrow preparations were used directly, while the bone marrow specimens from Argentinian donors were incubated for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in F-10 medium with 15% fetal bovine serum. The slides were silver stained by the one step method of Howell and Black with slight modifications. Thirty metaphases with clearly defined D and G group chromosomes were scored for the numbers of AgNORs. All metaphases that were adjacent to silver stained interphase nuclei were analysed to assess the percentage of AgNOR positive mitoses. The Kruskal Wallis test and Kendall's rank correlation coefficient (rK) were used to assess the relation between age and the percentage of AgNOR positive cells. RESULTS: The mean numbers (SE) of AgNORs per metaphase were 5.06 (0.17) and 5.56 (0.23) for the Russian and Argentinian groups, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups. The common percentage of AgNOR positive cells decreased significantly as a function of age, with an rK = -0.57 (p < 0.0012). CONCLUSIONS: The percentages of AgNOR negative metaphases in bone marrow from healthy individuals is strongly associated with age and this may be related to age related telomere loss. PMID:9624419

  5. Factors that characterize bone health with aging in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Shota; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kamimura, Mikio; Nonaka, Kiichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The exponential increase in the incidence of fragility fractures in older people is attributed to attenuation of both bone strength and neuromuscular function. Decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) does not entirely explain this increase. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age on various parameters related to bone health with aging, and to identify combinations of factors that collectively express the bone metabolic state in healthy postmenopausal women. Height, weight, and grip strength were measured in 135 healthy postmenopausal volunteer women. Hip BMD, biomechanical indices derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT), cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat of the proximal thigh, and various biochemical markers of bone metabolism were measured. A smaller group of factors explanatory for bone health was identified using factor analysis and each was newly named. As a result, the factors bone mass, bone turnover, bone structure, and muscle strength had the greatest explanatory power for assessing the bone health of healthy postmenopausal women. Whereas dual X-ray absorptiometry parameters only loaded on the factor bone mass, QCT parameters loaded on both the factors bone mass and bone structure. Most bone turnover markers loaded on the factor bone turnover, but deoxypyridinoline loaded on both bone turnover and muscle strength. Age was negatively correlated with bone mass (r = -0.49, p < 0.001) and muscle strength (r = -0.67, p < 0.001). We conclude that aging is associated as much with muscle weakening as with low BMD. More attention should be paid to the effects of muscle weakening during aging in assessments of bone health. PMID:25113438

  6. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  7. SPM-based count normalization provides excellent discrimination of mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Hammers, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Scheurich, Armin; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Peters, Jürgen; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of [(18)F]FDG PET scans between healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) usually require normalization of regional tracer uptake via ROIs defined using additional software. Here, we validate a simple SPM-based method for count normalization. FDG PET scans of 21 mild, 15 very mild AD, 11 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched controls were analyzed. First, we obtained relative increases in the whole patient sample compared to controls (i.e. areas relatively preserved in patients) with proportional scaling to the cerebral global mean (CGM). Next, average absolute counts within the cluster with the highest t-value were extracted. Statistical comparisons of controls versus three patients groups were then performed using count normalization to CGM, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) as standard, and to the cluster-derived counts. Compared to controls, relative metabolism in aMCI patients was reduced by 15%, 20%, and 23% after normalization to CGM, SMC, and cluster-derived counts, respectively, and 11%, 21%, and 25% in mild AD patients. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values extracted from AD-typical regions showed that the metabolic values obtained using CGM, SMC, and cluster normalization correctly classified 81%, 89% and 92% of aMCI and controls; classification accuracies for AD groups (very mild and mild) were 91%, 97%, and 100%. The proposed algorithm of fully SPM-based count normalization allows for a substantial increase of statistical power in detecting very early AD-associated hypometabolism, and very high accuracy in discriminating mild AD and aMCI from healthy aging. PMID:18691659

  8. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and cortisol release in first-degree relatives of type I and type II bipolar patients and healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, S; Honig, A; Nicolson, N A; Riedel, W J

    2002-11-01

    Biological vulnerability for bipolar disorders (BD) in relatives of BD patients has not as yet been established. Serotonergic vulnerability was studied, using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), in healthy first-degree relatives of BD patients and healthy controls. The effects of ATD on mood and cortisol release in 30 healthy adult, lifetime symptom free, unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients (Family History; FH) were compared with effects in 15 healthy matched controls in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design. During ATD and placebo, salivary cortisol response was also assessed during a stress-inducing speech task (SIST). First-degree relatives of type II BD patients (FH II) showed an elevation of mood, whereas control subjects and relatives of type I BD patients (FH I) showed a lowering of mood after ATD. ATD was followed by a decrease in cortisol level in both FH subgroups, but not in the controls. The results suggest serotonergic vulnerability that affected mood in FH II subjects and cortisol release in both FH I and FH II subjects.

  9. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions From a National Institute on Aging Workgroup

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2013-01-01

    We describe two frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is “immutable”, but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. Based on an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a “bottom-up” model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A second framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. PMID:23978300

  10. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    La, Christian; Mossahebi, Pouria; Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; Stamm, Julie; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The 'default-mode' network (DMN) has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (<7 days after stroke onset), and 16 stroke patients in their later stage (between 1 to 6 months after stroke onset), this study showed that patterns of cortical system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz) in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two 'task-positive' networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in 'task-positive' slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis) effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need to be further explored to

  11. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    La, Christian; Mossahebi, Pouria; Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; Stamm, Julie; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The 'default-mode' network (DMN) has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (<7 days after stroke onset), and 16 stroke patients in their later stage (between 1 to 6 months after stroke onset), this study showed that patterns of cortical system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz) in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two 'task-positive' networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in 'task-positive' slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis) effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need to be further explored to

  12. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    La, Christian; Mossahebi, Pouria; Nair, Veena A.; Young, Brittany M.; Stamm, Julie; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The ‘default-mode’ network (DMN) has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (<7 days after stroke onset), and 16 stroke patients in their later stage (between 1 to 6 months after stroke onset), this study showed that patterns of cortical system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01–0.027 Hz) in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two ‘task-positive’ networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in ‘task-positive’ slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis) effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need to be

  13. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture—A phenomenographic study based on older persons’ lived experiences

    PubMed Central

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons’ quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons’ experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons’ qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: “being independent in dependence,” “being at peace,” and “being a valuable person.” This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people. PMID:26960686

  14. Effects of Age and Bolus Volume on Velocity of Hyolaryngeal Excursion in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Barikroo, Ali; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Reduced movement velocity has been identified as a risk marker for movement impairment in older adults. Hyolaryngeal excursion is a key movement feature of normal swallowing function which is known to change with age and other extrinsic variables such as bolus volume. However, velocity of hyolaryngeal excursion has received limited attention in the literature on normal or abnormal swallowing. This study evaluated the effects of age and bolus volume on the velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion during swallowing in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy volunteers were grouped into three age bands (young: 20-35 years, middle age: 36-55 years, older: 56 ≥ years). All subjects swallowed 5 and 20 mL of thin liquid during fluoroscopic recording. Fluoroscopic images were extracted for each swallow representing the onset and maximum excursion positions of the hyoid and larynx. Superior and anterior excursion distance (excursion magnitude) and the time difference between rest and maximum excursion (excursion duration) were calculated. Velocity was calculated as a ratio of distance over time. Superior hyoid excursion magnitude was significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. Anterior laryngeal excursion magnitude was also significantly increased for the 20 mL volume. No kinematic duration measure demonstrated significant change across age or bolus conditions. Superior hyoid excursion velocity was significantly faster for the 20 mL volume. Superior and anterior laryngeal excursion velocity were significantly faster for the 20 mL volume only in the older group. Results of this study indicate that magnitude and velocity of hyoid and laryngeal excursion vary with age and volume. Comprising both excursion magnitude and duration, kinematic velocity may be a more complete metric to evaluate age-related swallowing performance.

  15. Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Michael; Breen, Leigh; Hamilton, D Lee; Philp, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Due to improved health care, diet and infrastructure in developed countries, since 1840 life expectancy has increased by approximately 2 years per decade. Accordingly, by 2050, a quarter of Europe's population will be over 65 years, representing a 10 % rise in half a century. With this rapid rise comes an increased prevalence of diseases of ageing and associated healthcare expenditure. To address the health consequences of global ageing, research in model systems (worms, flies and mice) has indicated that reducing the rate of organ growth, via reductions in protein synthetic rates, has multi-organ health benefits that collectively lead to improvements in lifespan. In contrast, human pre-clinical, clinical and large cohort prospective studies demonstrate that ageing leads to anabolic (i.e. growth) impairments in skeletal muscle, which in turn leads to reductions in muscle mass and strength, factors directly associated with mortality rates in the elderly. As such, increasing muscle protein synthesis via exercise or protein-based nutrition maintains a strong, healthy muscle mass, which in turn leads to improved health, independence and functionality. The aim of this review is to critique current literature relating to the maintenance of muscle mass across lifespan and discuss whether maintaining or reducing protein synthesis is the most logical approach to support musculoskeletal function and by extension healthy human ageing. PMID:26791164

  16. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: < 1 year, n = 8; group 2: 1-4 years, n = 13 and group 3: 5-15 years, n = 15). A reference group of healthy adults (21-38 years, n = 22) was included in their comparisons and reflected specific differences between children and adults. In muscle the concentrations of 8 out of 19 amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P < 0.05). In plasma the concentrations of threonine, glutamine, valine, cysteine, methionine, leucine, lysine, tryptophane, arginine, BCAA, BAA and the essential amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  17. Effect of exercise training on biologic vascular age in healthy seniors

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    Arteriosclerosis with aging leads to central arterial stiffening in humans, which could be a prime cause for increased cardiac afterload in the elderly. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of 1 yr of progressive exercise training on central aortic compliance and left ventricular afterload in sedentary healthy elderly volunteers. Ten healthy sedentary seniors and 11 Masters athletes (>65 yr) were recruited. The sedentary seniors underwent 1 yr of progressive exercise training so that at the end of the year, they were exercising ∼200 min/wk. Central aortic compliance was assessed by the Modelflow aortic age, which reflects the intrinsic structural components of aortic compliance. Cardiac afterload was assessed by effective arterial elastance (Ea) with its contributors of peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and systemic arterial compliance (SAC). After exercise training, Ea, PVR, and SAC were improved in sedentary seniors and became comparable with those of Masters athletes although the Modelflow aortic age was not changed. Moreover, after exercise training, when stroke volume was restored with lower body negative pressure back to pretraining levels, the exercise training-induced improvements in Ea, PVR, and SAC were eliminated. Aortic stiffening with aging was not improved even after 1 yr of progressive endurance exercise training in the previously sedentary elderly, while left ventricular afterload was reduced. This reduced afterload after exercise training appeared to be attributable to cardiovascular functional modulation to an increase in stroke volume rather than to intrinsic structural changes in the arterial wall. PMID:22268113

  18. Impact of age and basic heart rate on heart rate turbulence in healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Jörg Otto; Eichner, Gerrit; Shlevkov, Nikolay; Schrickel, Jan; Yang, Alexander; Balta, Osman; Lewalter, Thorsten; Lüderitz, Berndt

    2005-01-01

    Postextrasystolic acceleration of heart rate (HR), known as HR turbulence (HRT) is attenuated in patients with coronary artery disease at increased risk of adverse events. The influence of age and basic HR on HRT have not been evaluated in a large cohort of persons. In 95 healthy individuals, HRT onset (TO) and slope (TS) were calculated from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms, as well as the turbulence timing (TT). Gender specific differences in TO and TS were compared in simple, linear, weighted regression model. The influence of age and the basic HR preceding ventricular premature contractions on HRT were examined. We found that, in men and women, TO decreases as basic HR increases (P < 0.01). In contrast, in men, TS decreased as basic HR increases, whereas in women, basic HR influenced TS only slightly (P < 0.01). A multiple, linear regression model revealed a decrease in HRT with increasing age in men. In conclusion, physiological acceleration of the HR within the first 11 beats after premature ventricular complex (VPC) was observed in >75% of healthy individuals. An accelerating HR preceding the VPC influenced HRT in men. An increasing age was associated with a decrease in HRT in men and a decrease in TO in women. These results illustrate the importance of physiological modulations of HRT when used for risk stratification, especially in older populations.

  19. Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Michael; Breen, Leigh; Hamilton, D Lee; Philp, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Due to improved health care, diet and infrastructure in developed countries, since 1840 life expectancy has increased by approximately 2 years per decade. Accordingly, by 2050, a quarter of Europe's population will be over 65 years, representing a 10 % rise in half a century. With this rapid rise comes an increased prevalence of diseases of ageing and associated healthcare expenditure. To address the health consequences of global ageing, research in model systems (worms, flies and mice) has indicated that reducing the rate of organ growth, via reductions in protein synthetic rates, has multi-organ health benefits that collectively lead to improvements in lifespan. In contrast, human pre-clinical, clinical and large cohort prospective studies demonstrate that ageing leads to anabolic (i.e. growth) impairments in skeletal muscle, which in turn leads to reductions in muscle mass and strength, factors directly associated with mortality rates in the elderly. As such, increasing muscle protein synthesis via exercise or protein-based nutrition maintains a strong, healthy muscle mass, which in turn leads to improved health, independence and functionality. The aim of this review is to critique current literature relating to the maintenance of muscle mass across lifespan and discuss whether maintaining or reducing protein synthesis is the most logical approach to support musculoskeletal function and by extension healthy human ageing.

  20. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  1. Healthy Lifestyles Related to Subsequent Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mares, JA; Voland, R.; Sondel, SA; Millen, A.E.; LaRowe, T; Moeller, SM; Klein, M.L.; Blodi, B.A; Chappell, R.; Tinker, L.; Ritenbaugh, C; Gehrs, K; Sarto, G; Johnson, E.J; Snodderly, M; Wallace, RB

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The relationships between lifestyle behaviors of diet, smoking and physical activity and the subsequent prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were investigated. Methods The population included 1,313 participants (55 to 74 years) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHIOS). Scores on a modified 2005 Healthy Eating Index (mHEI) were assigned using responses to a food frequency questionnaire administered at WHIOS baseline (1994-1998). Physical activity and lifetime smoking history were queried. An average of six years later, stereoscopic fundus photographs were taken to assess presence and severity of AMD; present in 202 women, 94% of whom had early AMD, the primary outcome. Results In multivariate models, women whose diets scored in the highest compared with the lowest quintile on the mHEI had a 46% lower odds for early AMD. Women in the highest vs. lowest quintile for physical activity (MET- Hrs/Wk) had 54% lower odds for early AMD. Although smoking, alone was not independently associated with AMD, having a combination of three healthy lifestyles (healthy diet, physical activity and not smoking) was associated with a 71% lower odds for AMD compared with having high risk scores (P=0.0004). Conclusions Modifying lifestyles might reduce risk for early AMD as much as 3-fold, lowering the risk for advanced AMD in a person's lifetime and the social and economic costs of AMD to society. PMID:21149749

  2. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation.

  3. A rightward shift in the visuospatial attention vector with healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Benwell, Christopher S. Y.; Thut, Gregor; Grant, Ashley; Harvey, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The study of lateralized visuospatial attention bias in non-clinical samples has revealed a systematic group-level leftward bias (pseudoneglect), possibly as a consequence of right hemisphere (RH) dominance for visuospatial attention. Pseudoneglect appears to be modulated by age, with a reduced or even reversed bias typically present in elderly participants. It has been suggested that this shift in bias may arise due to disproportionate aging of the RH and/or an increase in complementary functional recruitment of the left hemisphere (LH) for visuospatial processing. In this study, we report rightward shifts in subjective midpoint judgment relative to healthy young participants whilst elderly participants performed a computerized version of the landmark task (in which they had to judge whether a transection mark appeared closer to the right or left end of a line) on three different line lengths. This manipulation of stimulus properties led to a similar behavioral pattern in both the young and the elderly: a rightward shift in subjective midpoint with decreasing line length, which even resulted in a systematic rightward bias in elderly participants for the shortest line length (1.98° of visual angle, VA). Overall performance precision for the task was lower in the elderly participants regardless of line length, suggesting reduced landmark task discrimination sensitivity with healthy aging. This rightward shift in the attentional vector with healthy aging is likely to result from a reduction in RH resources/dominance for attentional processing in elderly participants. The significant rightward bias in the elderly for short lines may even suggest a reversal of hemisphere dominance in favor of the LH/right visual field under specific conditions. PMID:24959142

  4. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T; Eskenazi, B; Baumgartner, A; Marchetti, F; Young, S; Weldon, R; Anderson, D; Wyrobek, A

    2006-03-08

    The trend for men to have children at older ages raises concerns that advancing age may increase the production of genetically defective sperm, increasing the risks of transmitting germ-line mutations. We investigated the associations between male age and sperm DNA damage and the influence of several lifestyle factors in a healthy non-clinical group of 80 non-smokers (age: 22-80) with no known fertility problems using the sperm Comet analyses. The average percent of DNA that migrated out of the sperm nucleus under alkaline electrophoresis increased with age (0.18% per year, p=0.006); but there was no age association for damage measured under neutral conditions (p=0.7). Men who consumed >3 cups coffee per day had {approx}20% higher % tail DNA under neutral but not alkaline conditions compared to men who consumed no caffeine (p=0.005). Our findings indicate that (a) older men have increased sperm DNA damage associated with alkali-labile sites or single-strand DNA breaks, and (b) independent of age, men with substantial daily caffeine consumption have increased sperm DNA damage associated with double-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage in sperm can be converted to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations after fertilization increasing the risks for developmental defects and genetic diseases among offspring.

  5. The role of androgens and estrogens on healthy aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Horstman, Astrid M; Dillon, E Lichar; Urban, Randall J; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda

    2012-11-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of sex hormone in both men (andropause) and women (menopause). In men, reductions in testosterone can trigger declines in muscle mass, bone mass, and in physical function. In women, the impact of the loss of sex hormones, such as estradiol, on bone is well elucidated, but evidence is limited on whether the loss of estradiol negatively affects muscle mass and physical function. However, deficiencies in multiple anabolic hormones have been shown to predict health status and longevity in older persons. Thus, consideration should be given as to whether targeted hormone replacement therapies may prove effective at treating clinical conditions, such as age-related sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, and/or acute or chronic illnesses. If initiated carefully in the appropriate clinical population, hormone replacement therapies in men and women may prevent and reverse muscle and bone loss and functional declines and perhaps promote healthy aging and longevity. PMID:22451474

  6. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  7. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  8. Paternal Age Explains a Major Portion of De Novo Germline Mutation Rate Variability in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bourassa, Cynthia V.; Lemieux Perreault, Louis-Philippe; Legault, Marc-André; Barhdadi, Amina; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Noreau, Anne; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Dion, Patrick A.; Boivin, Michel; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    De novo mutations (DNM) are an important source of rare variants and are increasingly being linked to the development of many diseases. Recently, the paternal age effect has been the focus of a number of studies that attempt to explain the observation that increasing paternal age increases the risk for a number of diseases. Using disease-free familial quartets we show that there is a strong positive correlation between paternal age and germline DNM in healthy subjects. We also observed that germline CNVs do not follow the same trend, suggesting a different mechanism. Finally, we observed that DNM were not evenly distributed across the genome, which adds support to the existence of DNM hotspots. PMID:27723766

  9. [European innovation partnership on active and healthy aging: moving from policy to action].

    PubMed

    García Lizana, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change and aging are a common challenge in Europe. The rising number of elderly people will need support at home, and will consume more healthcare services, putting further pressure on the welfare system. Collaborative, integrated and people-centered care provision, whether in hospitals, homes or in the community, is a way forward to sustainable and efficient care systems. Innovative treatments to address chronic diseases and the functional decline of older people will enable them to live longer in better health and with a better quality of life. To fully unleash the potential of aging in the European Union, the European Commission -within its Innovation Union policy- launched the first European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP AHA). Promoting engagement and partnerships among all stakeholders in the healthcare chain is essential. This article describes the theoretical foundations, the development and expectations of the initiative, and its first actions.

  10. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  11. e-Health Interventions for Healthy Aging: A Systematic Review Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Beogo, Idrissa; Buyl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    e-Health interventions could contribute to healthy aging (HA) but their effectiveness has not been synthesised. This study aims to systematically review the effectiveness of e-health interventions for supporting HA. We will perform standardized searches to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of e-health interventions for HA. Outcomes of interest are: wellbeing, quality of life, activities of daily living, leisure activities, knowledge, evaluation of care, social support, skill acquisition and healthy behaviours. We will also consider adverse effects such as social isolation, anxiety, and burden on informal caregivers. Two reviewers will independently assess studies for inclusion and extract data using a standardised tool. We will calculate effect sizes related to e-health interventions. If not possible, we will present the findings in a narrative form. This systematic review will provide unique knowledge on the effectiveness of e-health interventions for supporting HA. PMID:27332428

  12. e-Health Interventions for Healthy Aging: A Systematic Review Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Beogo, Idrissa; Buyl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    e-Health interventions could contribute to healthy aging (HA) but their effectiveness has not been synthesised. This study aims to systematically review the effectiveness of e-health interventions for supporting HA. We will perform standardized searches to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of e-health interventions for HA. Outcomes of interest are: wellbeing, quality of life, activities of daily living, leisure activities, knowledge, evaluation of care, social support, skill acquisition and healthy behaviours. We will also consider adverse effects such as social isolation, anxiety, and burden on informal caregivers. Two reviewers will independently assess studies for inclusion and extract data using a standardised tool. We will calculate effect sizes related to e-health interventions. If not possible, we will present the findings in a narrative form. This systematic review will provide unique knowledge on the effectiveness of e-health interventions for supporting HA.

  13. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D’Errico, Marcello M.; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30’ post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline. PMID:26529517

  14. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  15. Assessment of Functional Change and Cognitive Correlates in the Progression from Healthy Cognitive Aging to Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is currently limited understanding of the course of change in everyday functioning that occurs with normal aging and dementia. To better characterize the nature of this change, we evaluated the types of errors made by participants as they performed everyday tasks in a naturalistic environment. Method Participants included cognitively healthy younger adults (YA; N = 55) and older adults (OA; N =88), and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI: N =55) and dementia (N = 18). Participants performed eight scripted everyday activities (e.g., filling a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. Task performances were coded for the following errors: inefficient actions, omissions, substitutions, and irrelevant actions. Results Performance accuracy decreased with age and level of cognitive impairment. Relative to the YAs, the OA group exhibited more inefficient actions which were linked to performance on neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Relative to the OAs, the MCI group committed significantly more omission errors which were strongly linked to performance on memory measures. All error types were significantly more prominent in individuals with dementia. Omission errors uniquely predicted everyday functional status as measured by both informant-report and a performance-based measure. Conclusions These findings suggest that in the progression from healthy aging to MCI, everyday task difficulties may evolve from task inefficiencies to task omission errors, leading to inaccuracies in task completion that are recognized by knowledgeable informants. Continued decline in cognitive functioning then leads to more substantial everyday errors, which compromise ability to live independently. PMID:24933485

  16. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history.

  17. Feedback-based versus observational classification learning in healthy aging and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Ferstl, Roman; Wiesner, Christian; Deuschl, Günther; Witt, Karsten

    2007-04-20

    Previous studies underline the role of dopamine in cognitive reinforcement learning. This has been demonstrated by a striatal involvement in feedback-based probabilistic classification learning. In order to determine to which extent the dopaminergic loss of Parkinson's disease and aging affects the feedback aspect in classification learning, we applied two versions of the same visual classification task. One version had to be learnt by trial-by-trial feedback, the other by observing the correct assignment of stimulus and category. Performance was evaluated in test blocks that were identical under the feedback and the observational conditions. There were 31 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 30 older controls and 20 younger controls tested. The results show that younger healthy participants perform better than older participants in the classification task and this difference significantly interacts with the learning condition: both groups show nearly the same level of performance under the observational condition but younger participants show a better performance than older ones under the feedback condition. In contrast, PD patients and older controls did not differ in their performance in the classification task; both groups performed better under the observational than under the feedback condition. These results demonstrate that healthy aging affects feedback-based learning but does not affect learning by observation. The fact that PD patients showed no additional deficit in feedback-based learning is an indication that the loss of dopamine does not play the key role under the feedback condition of our classification task. This finding questions the general role of the striatum in feedback-based learning and demonstrates that healthy aging particularly affects feedback-based learning.

  18. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  19. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age.

  20. Age and sex relationship with flow-mediated dilation in healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nicola D; Dengel, Donald R; Stratton, Gareth; Kelly, Aaron S; Steinberger, Julia; Zavala, Hanan; Marlatt, Kara; Perry, Daniel; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2015-10-15

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive technique used to measure conduit artery vascular function. Limited information is available on normative FMD values in healthy children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess relationships between age and sex with FMD across childhood and adolescence. Nine hundred and seventy-eight asymptomatic children (12 ± 3 yr, range 6-18 yr, 530 male) underwent ultrasonic brachial artery assessment before and after 5 min of forearm ischemia. Sex differences in FMD and baseline artery diameter were assessed using mixed linear models. Baseline artery diameter was smaller in females than males [2.96 mm (95% CI: 2.92-3.00) vs. 3.24 mm (3.19-3.28), P < 0.001] and increased with age across the cohort (P < 0.001). Diameter increased between ages 6 and 17 yr in males [from 2.81 mm (2.63, 3.00) to 3.91 mm (3.68, 4.14)] but plateaued at age 12 yr in females. Males had a lower FMD [7.62% (7.33-7.91) vs. 8.31% (7.95-8.66), P = 0.024], specifically at ages 17 and 18 yr. There was a significant effect of age on FMD (P = 0.023), with a reduction in FMD apparent postpuberty in males. In conclusion, the brachial artery increases structurally with age in both sexes; however, there are sex differences in the timing and rate of growth, in line with typical sex-specific adolescent growth patterns. Males have a lower FMD than females, and FMD appears to decline with age; however, these findings are driven by reductions in FMD as males near maturity. The use of age- and sex-specific FMD data may therefore not be pertinent in childhood and adolescence.

  1. Matching Job and Worker Characteristics: Work Supplement for the Aged. Rehabilitation Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Center, Albertson, NY.

    Project Senior Abilities (PSA) demonstrated and evaluated the concept that the needs and talents of older workers (over 55) can be matched with specific job requirements. An industrial advisory board identified occupational categories in the local economy which met the criteria of being temporary in nature with limited career opportunities and…

  2. Healthy brain aging: role of cognitive reserve, cognitive stimulation, and cognitive exercises.

    PubMed

    La Rue, Asenath

    2010-02-01

    Current knowledge about the roles of cognitively stimulating lifestyles and cognitive training interventions in preserving cognitive function in later life is reviewed. Potential mechanisms for beneficial effects of cognitive stimulation and training are discussed, and key gaps in research identified. Suggestions are provided for advising patients about brain-healthy lifestyles, acknowledging that much remains to be learned in this area of research. More randomized controlled trials, using challenging regimes of training and stimulation and long-term follow-up, are needed, measuring cognitive trajectories in normal aging and relative risk of Alzheimer disease as outcomes.

  3. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile.

  4. Motion Analysis of Match Play in New Zealand U13 to U15 Age-Group Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Atan, Siti A; Foskett, Andrew; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Atan, SA, Foskett, A, and Ali, A. Motion analysis of match play in New Zealand U13 to U15 age-group soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2416-2423, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate motion analysis in 85 players (U13-U15 years) from Auckland's Metropolitan League during 2 competitive soccer matches. Five-Hz global positioning system (with interpolated 10-Hz output) units were used to measure total distance (absolute and relative) and time spent in standing, walking, low-intensity running, medium-intensity running, high-intensity running, and sprinting. Speed thresholds for each match activity were determined through mean 10-m flying sprint peak speed for each age group. Under 15 years (U15, 6600 ± 1480 m) covered more absolute distance because of longer playing time than under 14 years (U14, 5385 ± 1296 m, p = 0.001) and under 13 years (U13, 4516 ± 702.6 m, p = 0.001). However, there were no differences in relative distances covered (U15, 94.5 ± 11.2 m·min, U14, 96.1 ± 11.9 m·min, U15, 97.3 ± 17.6 m·min, p = 0.685). Maximum speed attained during the match was faster for U15 (26.5 ± 1.68 km·h) than U14 (25.4 ± 1.93 km·h, p = 0.022) and U13 (23.5 ± 1.74 km·h, p = 0.001); there were no differences in average distance per sprint, with all age groups covering ∼16 m per sprint (p = 0.603). The current findings provide useful information for developing specific training programs for young soccer players and a framework for developing age-specific soccer simulation protocols. PMID:26808854

  5. Comparison of information on death certificates and matching 1960 census records: age, marital status, race, nativity and country of origin.

    PubMed

    Hambright, T Z

    1969-11-01

    A sample of death certificates matched with 1960 Census records permitted comparison of response data for items asked on both records. Estimates of bias in death rates which are based on information from the two records are derived from the comparison data. Most of the comparisons yielded small discrepancies of inconsequential effect on the mortality rates. Some large inconsistencies, however, of potentially serious impact on the death rates were observed. The comparisons are examined and the implications of the results for the relevant mortality rates are discussed. In addition, age-specific death rates "corrected" for the disparities found in the age information on the two records are presented.

  6. Aging Effects on Cardiac and Respiratory Dynamics in Healthy Subjects across Sleep Stages

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Aicko Y.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Penzel, Thomas; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Respiratory and heart rate variability exhibit fractal scaling behavior on certain time scales. We studied the short-term and long-term correlation properties of heartbeat and breathing-interval data from disease-free subjects focusing on the age-dependent fractal organization. We also studied differences across sleep stages and night-time wake and investigated quasi-periodic variations associated with cardiac risk. Design: Full-night polysomnograms were recorded during 2 nights, including electrocardiogram and oronasal airflow. Setting: Data were collected in 7 laboratories in 5 European countries. Participants: 180 subjects without health complaints (85 males, 95 females) aged from 20 to 89 years. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Short-term correlations in heartbeat intervals measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) exponent α1 show characteristic age dependence with a maximum around 50–60 years disregarding the dependence on sleep and wake states. Long-term correlations measured by α2 differ in NREM sleep when compared with REM sleep and wake, besides weak age dependence. Results for respiratory intervals are similar to those for α2 of heartbeat intervals. Deceleration capacity (DC) decreases with age; it is lower during REM and deep sleep (compared with light sleep and wake). Conclusion: The age dependence of α1 should be considered when using this value for diagnostic purposes in post-infarction patients. Pronounced long-term correlations (larger α2) for heartbeat and respiration during REM sleep and wake indicate an enhanced control of higher brain regions, which is absent during NREM sleep. Reduced DC possibly indicates an increased cardiovascular risk with aging and during REM and deep sleep. Citation: Schumann AY; Bartsch RP; Penzel T; Ivanov PC; Kantelhardt JW. Aging effects on cardiac and respiratory dynamics in healthy subjects across sleep stages. SLEEP 2010;33(7):943-955. PMID:20614854

  7. Regional specificity of sex effects on subcortical volumes across the lifespan in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; van Tol, Marie-José; Li, Meng; Miao, Wen; Jiao, Yonghong; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; He, Huiguang; Walter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When conceptualizing age-specific onsets and sex-specific characteristics of neuropsychiatric diseases in a neurobiological context, it may be crucially important to consider differential trajectories of aging. Here, we investigated effects of age, sex, and their interactions on absolute and relative volumes of subcortical structures with known involvement in psychiatric disorders, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Structural MRI data of 76 healthy subjects (38 males, 19-70 years) from the ICBM database were analyzed. Age-related absolute atrophy was generally found in the basal ganglia and thalamus, while in the hippocampus decline was only observed in males, and was generally absent in the amygdala. Disproportionate degeneration in the basal ganglia and thalamus, exceeding cortical decline was specific for females. When allowing higher-order models, a quadratic model could better describe the negative relation of absolute volume and age in the basal ganglia in males, and generally in the hippocampus and amygdala. We could show that negative age-relations are highly specific for certain subcortical structures in either gender. Importantly these findings also emphasize the significant impact of analytical strategies when deciding for correction of subcortical volumes to the whole-brain decline. Specifically, in the basal ganglia disproportionate shrinkage in females was suggested by the relative analysis while absolute volume analysis rather stressed an accelerating decline in older males. Given strong involvement of the basal ganglia in both cognitive aging and emotional regulation, our findings may be crucial for studies investigating the onset and prevalence of dementia and depressive symptoms in male and female aging.

  8. Aging-Related Geniohyoid Muscle Atrophy Is Related to Aspiration Status in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related muscle weakness due to atrophy and fatty infiltration in orofacial muscles may be related to swallowing deficits in older adults. An important component of safe swallowing is the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, which helps elevate and stabilize the hyoid bone, thus protecting the airway. This study aimed to explore whether aging and aspiration in older adults were related to GH muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration. Method. Eighty computed tomography scans of the head and neck from 40 healthy older (average age 78 years) and 40 younger adults (average age 32 years) were analyzed. Twenty aspirators and 20 nonaspirators from the 40 older adults had been identified previously. Two-dimensional views in the sagittal and coronal planes were used to measure the GH cross-sectional area and fatty infiltration. Results. GH cross-sectional area was larger in men than in women (p < .05). Decreased cross-sectional area was associated with aging (p < .05), and cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in aspirators compared with nonaspirators, but only among the older men (p < .01). Increasing fatty infiltration was associated with aging in the middle (p < .05) and posterior (p < .01) portions of the GH muscle. There was no significant difference in fatty infiltration of the GH muscle among aspirators and nonaspirators. Conclusion. GH muscle atrophy was associated with aging and aspiration. Fatty infiltration in the GH muscle was increased with aging but not related to aspiration status. These findings suggest that GH muscle atrophy may be a component of decreased swallowing safety and aspiration in older adults and warrants further investigation. PMID:23112114

  9. Effects of healthy ageing on precision and binding of object location in visual short term memory.

    PubMed

    Pertzov, Yoni; Heider, Maike; Liang, Yuying; Husain, Masud

    2015-03-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19-83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer's disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25528066

  10. Effects of Healthy Ageing on Precision and Binding of Object Location in Visual Short Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19–83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25528066

  11. Prevalence of Candida spp. among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to hygiene and age.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bharathi; Shekar, Malathi; Maiti, Biswajit; Karunasagar, Indrani; Padiyath, Sreeshma

    2015-01-01

    Dentures are inert and nonshading surfaces and therefore get easily colonized by Candida species. Subsequent biofilm produced by them lead to denture stomatitis and candidiasis. This study was aimed to understand the prevalence of Candida species among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to their age and hygiene status. Swabs were collected from 50 complete dentures and 50 non-denture wearers and processed on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Identification of Candida species was done by staining and a battery of biochemical tests. Data obtained was correlated with age & oral hygiene and statistical analysis was performed. Candida was isolated from both denture and nondenture wearers. Prevalence of different Candida species was significantly higher in denture wearers and found predominated by C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliensis and C. glabrata. Among nondenture wearers, C. albicans and C. tropicalis were isolated. Prevalence of Candida increased with increasing age among denture wearers. Men presented declining denture hygiene compared to women with increasing age. In comparison to nondenture wearers, multispecies of Candida colonized the dentures thus presenting higher risk of candidiasis especially with increasing age.

  12. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues. PMID:21234684

  13. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  14. Preliminary results in the redox balance in healthy cats: influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Victor; Abuelo, Angel; Guimarey, Rebeca; García-Vaquero, Marco; Benedito, José L; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) impairs organic function and is considered causally related to cellular senescence and death. This study aims to evaluate if the redox balance varies in relation to age and gender in healthy cats. To quantify the oxidative status of this species we determined the oxidative damage as serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and the total serum antioxidant capacity (SAC). In addition, we used the ratio of ROM to SAC as a measure of the oxidative balance, with higher values meaning higher oxidative stress (oxidative stress index). Our results suggest that the male population is at oxidative risk when compared with females, especially between the age of 2 and 7 years. Nutritional strategies in this population looking for additional antioxidant support would probably avoid the oxidative stress status that predisposes to chronic processes in senior male cats. Further clinical trials in this field are recommended.

  15. Circadian rhythms in healthy aging--effects downstream from the pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Kupfer, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using both previously published findings and entirely new data, we present evidence in support of the argument that the circadian dysfunction of advancing age in the healthy human is primarily one of failing to transduce the circadian signal from the circadian timing system (CTS) to rhythms "downstream" from the pacemaker rather than one of failing to generate the circadian signal itself. Two downstream rhythms are considered: subjective alertness and objective performance. For subjective alertness, we show that in both normal nychthemeral (24 h routine, sleeping at night) and unmasking (36 h of constant wakeful bed rest) conditions, advancing age, especially in men, leads to flattening of subjective alertness rhythms, even when circadian temperature rhythms are relatively robust. For objective performance, an unmasking experiment involving manual dexterity, visual search, and visual vigilance tasks was used to demonstrate that the relationship between temperature and performance is strong in the young, but not in older subjects (and especially not in older men).

  16. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level. PMID:26282079

  17. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  18. Intensively-Managed Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Consume High-Fat, Low-Fiber Diets Similar to Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n=67), ages 2–12 years, attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared to a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n=1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared to children participating in NHANES (42% vs. 30%, p=0.04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs. 13%, p=0.03), whole grains (12% vs. 5%, p=0.005), and dairy (55% vs. 36%, p=0.001) compared to NHANES children while similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs. 33%, p=0.2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than NHANES children (14% vs. 12% total energy intake, p=0.0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared to NHANES children, children with T1D had higher HEI-2005 scores (59.6 vs. 49.7, p=0.0006) primarily due to lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable to youth in the general population. PMID:24916556

  19. Healthy Aging and Concerns Among Elderly Japanese: A Text Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yoko; Shida, Naoki; Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Machida, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Japan is facing an unprecedented aging society. In 2013, 25.1% of the total population in Japan was 65 years old and over. One third of the population in Japan will be at least 65 years old in 2035; healthy aging is crucial for public health and society in Japan. Under the budget limitations of social security, policies and frequent policy changes have created great uncertainty and concern for the elderly population. Given these circumstances, we conducted questionnaire surveys in 2010 to examine concerns in this age-group. In 2010, we sent questionnaires to university graduates 65 years old and older, randomly selected from a list of an alumni association of 11 universities. The questionnaires were open-ended and asked them to write any concerns that they had about health care, health policy, health systems, and their future. We received 344 responses. Among those who responded, 271 (78.8%) respondents said that they had concerns. We conducted a text analysis (Trend Search-Keyword Associator 2008) and extracted the keywords from their responses. The keywords that were extracted frequently included hospitals, doctors, health-care system, health care, Japanese government policies, government, medical insurance system for the elderly, support, increase, copayment, health (their own), scarcities, and burdens. In this study, many elderly people in Japan are concerned about health-care expenditures, health-care systems, and health policies. This may be caused by frequent health policy changes and uncertainty due to frequent administration changes such as the lack of clarity concerning raising the out of pocket payment rate from 10% to 20% for elderly people under budget constraints in Japan. Correct policy making and determination to eliminate the concerns from this vulnerable population in Japan are necessary for healthy aging. PMID:25856638

  20. Active and Healthy Ageing as a Wicked Problem: The Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research University.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Graffigna, Guendalina; Baitieri, Maddalena; Amato, Alessandra; Bonanomi, Maria Grazia; Valentini, Paolo; Castelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The quest for an active and healthy ageing can be considered a "wicked problem." It is a social and cultural problem, which is difficult to solve because of incomplete, changing, and contradictory requirements. These problems are tough to manage because of their social complexity. They are a group of linked problems embedded in the structure of the communities in which they occur. First, they require the knowledge of the social and cultural context in which they occur. They can be solved only by understanding of what people do and why they do it. Second, they require a multidisciplinary approach. Wicked problems can have different solutions, so it is critical to capture the full range of possibilities and interpretations. Thus, we suggest that Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) is well suited for accepting and managing this challenge because of its applied research orientation, multidisciplinary approach, and integrated vision. After presenting the research activity of UCSC, we describe a possible "systems thinking" strategy to consider the complexity and interdependence of active ageing and healthy living.

  1. Improving memory in Parkinson's disease: a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program.

    PubMed

    Naismith, Sharon L; Mowszowski, Loren; Diamond, Keri; Lewis, Simon J G

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a multifactorial 'healthy brain ageing cognitive training program' for Parkinson's disease. Using a single-blinded waitlist control design, 50 participants with Parkinson's disease were recruited from the Brain & Mind Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. The intervention encompassed both psychoeducation and cognitive training; each component lasted 1-hour. The 2-hour sessions were delivered in a group format, twice-weekly over a 7-week period. Multifactorial psychoeducation was delivered by a range of health professionals. In addition to delivering cognitive strategies, it targeted depression, anxiety, sleep, vascular risk factors, diet, and exercise. Cognitive training was computer-based and was conducted by clinical neuropsychologists. The primary outcome was memory. Secondary outcomes included other aspects of cognition and knowledge pertaining to the psychoeducation material. Results demonstrated that cognitive training was associated with significant improvements in learning and memory corresponding to medium to large effect sizes. Treatment was also associated with medium effect size improvements in knowledge. Although the study was limited by the lack of randomized allocation to treatment and control groups, these findings suggest that a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program may be a viable tool to improve memory and/or slow cognitive decline in people with Parkinson's disease. It also appeared successful for increasing awareness of adaptive and/or compensatory cognitive strategies, as well as modifiable risk factors to optimize brain functioning.

  2. Self-oscillating Vocal Fold Model Mechanics: Healthy, Diseased, and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiubler, Elizabeth P.; Pollok, Lucas F. E.; Apostoli, Adam G.; Hancock, Adrienne B.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-11-01

    Voice disorders have been estimated to have a substantial economic impact of 2.5 billion annually. Approximately 30% of people will suffer from a voice disorder at some point in their lives. Life-sized, self-oscillating, synthetic vocal fold (VF) models are fabricated to exhibit material properties representative of human VFs. These models are created both with and without a polyp-like structure, a pathology that has been shown to produce rich viscous flow structures not normally observed for healthy VFs during normal phonation. Pressure measurements are acquired upstream of the VFs and high-speed images are captured at varying flow rates during VF oscillation to facilitate an understanding of the characteristics of healthy and diseased VFs. The images are analyzed using a videokymography line-scan technique. Clinically-relevant parameters calculated from the volume-velocity output of a circumferentially-vented mask (Rothenberg mask) are compared to human data collected from two groups of males aged 18-30 and 60-80. This study extends the use of synthetic VF models by assessing their ability to replicate behaviors observed in human subject data to advance a means of investigating changes associated with normal, pathological, and the aging voice. Supported by the GWU Institute for Biomedical Engineering (GWIBE) and GWU Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  3. Genetics and pharmacology of longevity: the road to therapeutics for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Kinghorn, Kerri J; Bjedov, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Aging can be defined as the progressive decline in tissue and organismal function and the ability to respond to stress that occurs in association with homeostatic failure and the accumulation of molecular damage. Aging is the biggest risk factor for human disease and results in a wide range of aging pathologies. Although we do not completely understand the underlying molecular basis that drives the aging process, we have gained exceptional insights into the plasticity of life span and healthspan from the use of model organisms such as the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Single-gene mutations in key cellular pathways that regulate environmental sensing, and the response to stress, have been identified that prolong life span across evolution from yeast to mammals. These genetic manipulations also correlate with a delay in the onset of tissue and organismal dysfunction. While the molecular genetics of aging will remain a prosperous and attractive area of research in biogerontology, we are moving towards an era defined by the search for therapeutic drugs that promote healthy aging. Translational biogerontology will require incorporation of both therapeutic and pharmacological concepts. The use of model organisms will remain central to the quest for drug discovery, but as we uncover molecular processes regulated by repurposed drugs and polypharmacy, studies of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions, drug toxicity, and therapeutic index will slowly become more prevalent in aging research. As we move from genetics to pharmacology and therapeutics, studies will not only require demonstration of life span extension and an underlying molecular mechanism, but also the translational relevance for human health and disease prevention. PMID:26296933

  4. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Investigate One-Carbon Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Matched Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Coppedè, Fabio; Grossi, Enzo; Buscema, Massimo; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Folate metabolism, also known as one-carbon metabolism, is required for several cellular processes including DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Impairments of this pathway have been often linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, increasing evidence from large scale case-control studies, genome-wide association studies, and meta-analyses of the literature suggest that polymorphisms of genes involved in one-carbon metabolism influence the levels of folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12, and might be among AD risk factors. We analyzed a dataset of 30 genetic and biochemical variables (folate, homocysteine, vitamin B12, and 27 genotypes generated by nine common biallelic polymorphisms of genes involved in folate metabolism) obtained from 40 late-onset AD patients and 40 matched controls to assess the predictive capacity of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in distinguish consistently these two different conditions and to identify the variables expressing the maximal amount of relevant information to the condition of being affected by dementia of Alzheimer’s type. Moreover, we constructed a semantic connectivity map to offer some insight regarding the complex biological connections among the studied variables and the two conditions (being AD or control). TWIST system, an evolutionary algorithm able to remove redundant and noisy information from complex data sets, selected 16 variables that allowed specialized ANNs to discriminate between AD and control subjects with over 90% accuracy. The semantic connectivity map provided important information on the complex biological connections among one-carbon metabolic variables highlighting those most closely linked to the AD condition. PMID:23951366

  5. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, David A S; Keith, Cierra M; Perlstein, William M

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging. PMID:27199744

  6. Macro- and micro-structural white matter differences correlate with cognitive performance in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo César Gonçalves; Soares, José Miguel Montenegro; Magalhães, Ricardo José da Silva; Santos, Nadine Correia; Sousa, Nuno Jorge Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that white matter (WM) volumetric reductions and overall degradation occur with aging. Nonetheless little is known about the WM alterations that may underlie different cognitive status in older individuals. The main goal of the present work was to identify and characterize possible macro and microstructural WM alterations that could distinguish between older healthy individuals with contrasting cognitive profiles (i.e., "poor" vs "good" cognitive performers). Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed in order to quantify local WM volumes, white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) volume (a measure of lesion burden) and diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps known to probe WM microstructure. A battery of neurocognitive/psychological tests was administered to assess the cognitive performance. Poor performers showed a higher slope for the positive association between WMSA volume and age compared to good performers. Even when controlling for WMSA volume, poor performers also evidenced lower fractional anisotropy, as well as positive associations with age with higher slopes of regression parameters in radial and axial diffusivity. Altogether results suggest that cognitive performance is related to differences in WM, with poor cognitive performers displaying signs of faster aging in WM.

  7. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David A. S.; Keith, Cierra M.; Perlstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging. PMID:27199744

  8. Age-related differences in enhancement and suppression of neural activity underlying selective attention in matched young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Haring, A E; Zhuravleva, T Y; Alperin, B R; Rentz, D M; Holcomb, P J; Daffner, K R

    2013-03-01

    Selective attention reflects the top-down control of sensory processing that is mediated by enhancement or inhibition of neural activity. ERPs were used to investigate age-related differences in neural activity in an experiment examining selective attention to color under Attend and Ignore conditions, as well as under a Neutral condition in which color was task-irrelevant. We sought to determine whether differences in neural activity between old and young adult subjects were due to differences in age rather than executive capacity. Old subjects were matched to two groups of young subjects on the basis of neuropsychological test performance: one using age-appropriate norms and the other using test scores not adjusted for age. We found that old and young subject groups did not differ in the overall modulation of selective attention between Attend and Ignore conditions, as indexed by the size of the anterior Selection Positivity. However, in contrast to either young adult group, old subjects did not exhibit reduced neural activity under the Ignore relative to Neutral condition, but showed enhanced activity under the Attend condition. The onset and peak of the Selection Positivity occurred later for old than young subjects. In summary, older adults execute selective attention less efficiently than matched younger subjects, with slowed processing and failed suppression under Ignore. Increased enhancement under Attend may serve as a compensatory mechanism.

  9. Age-related changes of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, G; Correra, M; Bianco, G; De Cata, A; Balzanelli, M; Giuliani, A; Tarquini, R

    1997-01-01

    Numerous interactions exist among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, mediated by neurotransmitters, hormones and cytokines. The function of these systems shows patterns of circadian rhythmicity and a number of age-related changes in the 24-hour hormonal and nonhormonal rhythms have been found in older human beings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of altered integration among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in older adults. Cortisol, melatonin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) serum levels were measured and lymphocyte subpopulation analyses were performed on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours from seven healthy young subjects aged 36-58 years (mean age +/- s.e. 45.28 +/- 3.31) and from seven healthy old subjects aged 65-78 years (mean age +/- s.e. 68.57 +/- 1.91). There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in the observed values of CD20 (total B cells, higher in the young subjects, t = 2.48, P = 0.028) and CD25 (activated T cells with expression of the alpha chain of IL-2 receptor, higher in elderly subjects, t = -2.23, P = 0.045); DR+ T cells were also higher in elderly subjects, T=34.0, P=0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the observed values of CD2(total T lymphocytes), CD4 (helper/inducer T cells), CD8 (suppressor/cytotoxic T cells), CD4/CD8 ratio, CD16 (natural killer cells), HLA-DR (B cells and activated T cells), TcR delta 1 (epitope of the constant domain of delta chain of T-cell receptor 1), cortisol, melatonin, TRH, TSH, FT4" GH, IGF-I, IL-2. In the group of younger subjects a clear circadian rhythm was validated for the time-qualified changes of all the factors studied, with the exception of CD16, FT4 and IL-2. In the group of elderly subjects a clear circadian rhythm was validated for the nyctohemeral changes

  10. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption

    PubMed Central

    Hardin-Fanning, F; Gokun, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. Methods The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Results Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14

  11. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition?

    PubMed

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Vidaković, Melita; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The progressively older population in developed countries is reflected in an increase in the number of people suffering from age-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart and lung diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, and dementia. The heterogeneity in biological aging, chronological age, and aging-associated disorders in humans have been ascribed to different genetic and environmental factors (i.e., diet, pollution, stress) that are closely linked to socioeconomic factors. The common denominator of these factors is the inflammatory response. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation during physiological aging and immunosenescence are intertwined in the pathogenesis of premature aging also defined as 'inflammaging.' The latter has been associated with frailty, morbidity, and mortality in elderly subjects. However, it is unknown to what extent inflammaging or longevity is controlled by epigenetic events in early life. Today, human diet is believed to have a major influence on both the development and prevention of age-related diseases. Most plant-derived dietary phytochemicals and macro- and micronutrients modulate oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and regulate metabolic pathways and bioenergetics that can be translated into stable epigenetic patterns of gene expression. Therefore, diet interventions designed for healthy aging have become a hot topic in nutritional epigenomic research. Increasing evidence has revealed that complex interactions between food components and histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, and chromatin remodeling factors influence the inflammaging phenotype and as such may protect or predispose an individual to many age-related diseases. Remarkably, humans present a broad range of responses to similar dietary challenges due to both genetic and epigenetic modulations of the expression of target proteins and key genes involved in the metabolism and distribution of the

  12. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition?

    PubMed

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Vidaković, Melita; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The progressively older population in developed countries is reflected in an increase in the number of people suffering from age-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart and lung diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, and dementia. The heterogeneity in biological aging, chronological age, and aging-associated disorders in humans have been ascribed to different genetic and environmental factors (i.e., diet, pollution, stress) that are closely linked to socioeconomic factors. The common denominator of these factors is the inflammatory response. Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation during physiological aging and immunosenescence are intertwined in the pathogenesis of premature aging also defined as 'inflammaging.' The latter has been associated with frailty, morbidity, and mortality in elderly subjects. However, it is unknown to what extent inflammaging or longevity is controlled by epigenetic events in early life. Today, human diet is believed to have a major influence on both the development and prevention of age-related diseases. Most plant-derived dietary phytochemicals and macro- and micronutrients modulate oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and regulate metabolic pathways and bioenergetics that can be translated into stable epigenetic patterns of gene expression. Therefore, diet interventions designed for healthy aging have become a hot topic in nutritional epigenomic research. Increasing evidence has revealed that complex interactions between food components and histone modifications, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, and chromatin remodeling factors influence the inflammaging phenotype and as such may protect or predispose an individual to many age-related diseases. Remarkably, humans present a broad range of responses to similar dietary challenges due to both genetic and epigenetic modulations of the expression of target proteins and key genes involved in the metabolism and distribution of the

  13. Conscientiousness and (un)healthy eating: the role of impulsive eating and age in the consumption of daily main meals.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huy; Honkanen, Pirjo; Verplanken, Bas

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between conscientiousness and the consumption of healthy versus unhealthy main meals. Impulsive eating was tested as a mediator in this relationship, as well as direct effects of age on those constructs. A nationwide representative sample of 1,006 Norwegian adults (18-70 years) within a prospective design was used to test a theoretical model. The structural equation model (SEM), in combination with bootstrapping procedures in AMOS, was the principal analytical method. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with unhealthy and impulsive eating. Impulsive eating was a partial mediator between conscientiousness and unhealthy eating and a full mediator between conscientiousness and healthy eating. Age was positively correlated with conscientiousness and this relationship had an inverted U-shape form. Finally, age was negatively associated with unhealthy and impulsive eating, and positively associated with healthy eating. This study confirmed the relevance of conscientiousness for healthy, unhealthy, and impulsive eating.

  14. Influences of age and sex on leukocytes of healthy horses and their ex vivo cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, C L; Steinig, P; Schuberth, H-J; Koy, M; Wagner, B; Wittig, B; Juhls, C; Willenbrock, S; Murua Escobar, H; Jaehnig, P; Feige, K; Cavalleri, J-M V

    2015-05-15

    Leukocytes and their functional capacities are used extensively as biomarkers in immunological research. Commonly employed indicators concerning leukocytes are as follows: number, composition in blood, response to discrete stimuli, cytokine release, and morphometric characteristics. In order to employ leukocytes as biomarkers for disease and therapeutic monitoring, physiological variations and influencing factors on the parameters measured have to be considered. The aim of this report was to describe the ranges of selected leukocyte parameters in a sample of healthy horses and to analyse whether age, sex, breed, and sampling time point (time of day) influence peripheral blood leukocyte composition, cell morphology and release of cytokines ex vivo. Flow cytometric comparative characterisation of cell size and complexity in 24 healthy horses revealed significant variance. Similarly, basal release of selected cytokines by blood mononuclear cells also showed high variability [TNFα (65-16,624pg/ml), IFNγ (4-80U/ml), IL-4 (0-5069pg/ml), IL-10 (49-1862pg/ml), and IL-17 (4-1244U/ml)]. Each animal's age influenced leukocyte composition, cell morphology and cytokine release (TNFα, IL-4, IL-10) ex vivo. Geldings showed smaller monocytes and higher spontaneous production of IL-10 when compared to the mares included. The stimulation to spontaneous release ratios of TNFα, IL-4 and IL-17 differed in Warmblood and Thoroughbred types. Sampling time influenced leukocyte composition and cell morphology. In summary, many animal factors - age being the dominant one - should be considered for studies involving the analysis of equine leukocytes. In addition, high inter-individual variances argue for individual baseline measurements.

  15. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  16. Chromosome painting and the accumulation of stable cytogenetic damage with age in healthy controls

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Ramsey, M.J.; Lee, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Chromosome painting is now routinely used to identify induced stable chromosomal rearrangements, which are difficult and expensive to analyze with classical cytogenetic methods. Theoretically the inherent stability of translocations, in contrast to unstable dicentrics, enables their use as a biodosimeter for chronic and temporally-displaced exposure. To quantify the effects of adverse exposure, it is important that the baseline frequency of stable aberrations be well understood. Recently we have used chromosome painting to show that translocations accumulate with age. We have now extended this study to nearly 100 subjects ranging in age from newborns (umbilical cord bloods, n=14) to adults aged 19-79 years. All subjects were healthy, had not received chemo- or radiotherapy, and had not been occupationally or accidentally exposed to radiation or chemicals. We scored the equivalent of 1000 metaphase cells for each subject, and observed an overall average of 1.36 stable aberrations per 100 cells. Stable aberrations increased significantly with age, and were observed at frequencies of 0.19{plus_minus}0.04, 0.77{plus_minus}0.07, and 2.39{plus_minus}0.24 per 100 cells in cord blood, adults aged 19 to 49, and adults over age 50, respectively. To understand the extent that lifestyle factors influence the frequency of stable aberrations, each subject (or one parent of each newborn) completed a comprehensive questionnaire inquiring about lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits. No smoking effect is apparent in adults, however newborns whose mothers smoked during pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increase in stable aberration frequencies (p=0.033). Repeat samples from a subset of the adults suggest that individual translocation frequencies change little over a period of -3 years.

  17. Test of Continental Drift by Comparison of Radiometric Ages: A pre-drift reconstruction shows matching geologic age provinces in West Africa and Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P M; Rand, J R; Pinson, W H; Fairbairn, H W; de Almeida, F F; Melcher, G C; Cordani, U G; Kawashita, K; Vandoros, P

    1967-08-01

    1) The distribution of age values obtained by potassium-argon determinations and whole-rock rubidium-strontium determinations appears to be almost identical for West African rocks of the pervasive Eburnean Orogenic Cycle and basement rocks at opposite locations in South America. 2) There is also a close correlation, with respect to potassium-argon age determinations on micas, rubidium-strontium determinations on total-rock samples, and the extent to which these two sets of values differ, between rocks of the Pan-African Orogenic Cycle and rocks of the Caririan Orogenic Cycle in Brazil, where these two groups of rocks lie opposite each other in the two continents. 3) When Africa and South America are "fitted together," the sharply defined boundary between the Eburnean and the Pan-African age provinces in West Africa strikes directly toward the corresponding age boundary in northeast Brazil. 4) The transition from the 550-million-year Pan-African age province to the 2000-million-year age province in the Congo Craton in Cameroun-Gabon is matched in the rocks near the corresponding part of the east coast of Brazil. However the geological and age data are insufficient to do more than suggest the possibility of another age-boundary correlation here. 5) The evidence reported here supports the hypothesis of continental drift.

  18. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  19. Exercise: the lifelong supplement for healthy ageing and slowing down the onset of frailty.

    PubMed

    Viña, Jose; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Tarazona-Santabalbina, Francisco José; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen

    2016-04-15

    The beneficial effects of exercise have been well recognized for over half a century. Dr Jeremy Morris's pioneering studies in the fifties showed a striking difference in cardiovascular disease between the drivers and conductors on the double-decker buses in London. These studies sparked off a vast amount of research on the effects of exercise in health, and the general consensus is that exercise contributes to improved outcomes and treatment for several diseases including osteoporosis, diabetes, depression and atherosclerosis. Evidence of the beneficial effects of exercise is reviewed here. One way of highlighting the impact of exercise on disease is to consider it from the perspective of good practice. However, the intensity, duration, frequency (dosage) and counter indications of the exercise should be taken into consideration to individually tailor the exercise programme. An important case of the beneficial effect of exercise is that of ageing. Ageing is characterized by a loss of homeostatic mechanisms, on many occasions leading to the development of frailty, and hence frailty is one of the major geriatric syndromes and exercise is very useful to mitigate, or at least delay, it. Since exercise is so effective in reducing frailty, we would like to propose that exercise be considered as a supplement to other treatments. People all over the world have been taking nutritional supplements in the hopes of improving their health. We would like to think of exercise as a physiological supplement not only for treating diseases, but also for improving healthy ageing. PMID:26872560

  20. Upper Limb Strength and Muscle Volume in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Saul, Katherine R; Vidt, Meghan E; Gold, Garry E; Murray, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Our purpose was to characterize shoulder muscle volume and isometric moment, as well as their relationship, for healthy middle- aged adults. Muscle volume and maximum isometric joint moment were assessed for 6 functional muscle groups of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 middle-aged adults (46–60 y, 5M, 5F). Compared with young adults, shoulder abductors composed a smaller percentage of total muscle volume (P = .0009) and there was a reduction in shoulder adductor strength relative to elbow flexors (P = .012). We observed a consistent ordering of moment-generating capacity among functional groups across subjects. Although total muscle volume spanned a 2.3-fold range, muscle volume was distributed among functional groups in a consistent manner across subjects. On average, 72% of the variation in joint moment could be explained by the corresponding functional group muscle volume. These data are useful for improved modeling of upper limb musculoskeletal performance in middle-aged subjects, and may improve computational predictions of function for this group. PMID:26155870

  1. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    PubMed

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli. PMID:16467858

  2. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  3. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Barlow, Matthew A.; Gonzales, Joaquin U.; McGowan, Cheri L.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Proctor, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho‐inhibitory stimulus (−60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  4. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Barlow, Matthew A; Gonzales, Joaquin U; McGowan, Cheri L; Pawelczyk, James A; Proctor, David N

    2015-01-01

    While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho-inhibitory stimulus (-60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  5. Differential patterns of implicit emotional processing in Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Fusari, Anna; Rodríguez, Beatriz; Hernández, José Martín Zurdo; Ellgring, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Implicit memory for emotional facial expressions (EFEs) was investigated in young adults, healthy old adults, and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Implicit memory is revealed by the effect of experience on performance by studying previously encoded versus novel stimuli, a phenomenon referred to as perceptual priming. The aim was to assess the changes in the patterns of priming as a function of aging and dementia. Participants identified EFEs taken from the Facial Action Coding System and the stimuli used represented the emotions of happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust. In the study phase, participants rated the pleasantness of 36 faces using a Likert-type scale. Subsequently, the response to the 36 previously studied and 36 novel EFEs was tested when they were randomly presented in a cued naming task. The results showed that implicit memory for EFEs is preserved in AD and aging, and no specific age-related effects on implicit memory for EFEs were observed. However, different priming patterns were evident in AD patients that may reflect pathological brain damage and the effect of stimulus complexity. These findings provide evidence of how progressive neuropathological changes in the temporal and frontal areas may affect emotional processing in more advanced stages of the disease. PMID:19584450

  6. Search for varicella zoster virus DNA in saliva of healthy individuals aged 20-59 years.

    PubMed

    Birlea, Marius; Cohrs, Randall J; Bos, Nathan; Mehta, Satish K; Pierson, Duane L; Gilden, Don

    2014-02-01

    All neurological and ocular complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation can occur without rash. Virological verification requires detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue in patients with neurological disease without rash and found to correlate with tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. Saliva is a potential source of VZV DNA. To study the potential diagnostic value of detecting VZV DNA in saliva from patients with neurological disease, saliva of healthy adults was searched for VZV DNA. A single saliva sample obtained by passive drool was centrifuged at 16,000g for 20 min. DNA was extracted from the supernatant and cell pellet and examined in triplicate for VZV DNA by real time PCR. A single random saliva sample from 80 healthy men and women aged 20-59 years revealed no VZV DNA (Table ), but was uniformly positive for cell (GAPdH) DNA. Because VZV DNA was not found in a random saliva sample from 80 individuals 20-59-year-old, a VZV-positive sample during neurologic disease may have potential significance. Further studies will determine whether VZV DNA in saliva correlates with VZV DNA or anti-VZV antibody in CSF in patients with neurological disease.

  7. The Graphic Pattern Generation Test in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometric Properties and Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. While normative data for older adults are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed task, the Graphic Pattern Generation Task (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher level executive abilities, for example in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy older adults (OAs) and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably, and that this short form has high test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared to OAs. A cut-off score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indices, underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD. PMID:25679880

  8. Growth in the intersection of eHealth and active and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Rostislava

    2013-01-01

    Growth and growth enhancing policies are among the top priorities of the EU policy agenda to overcome mounting budgetary, economic and societal challenges, e.g. demographic change. The Europe 2020 strategy aims to coordinate and support actions at European, national and regional level to enhance smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. By developing the European Innovation Partnership for active and healthy ageing, the Commission aimed at fostering innovation as a way of reaching the goal of increasing Healthy Life Years (HLY) by 2 years on average across the EU Member States. The goal is a triple win for Europe: better health and independent living for elderly citizens, sustainable health systems and a competitive market of innovative products responding to elderly needs. eHealth plays an important role in reaching this objectives. The EIP policy aims to bring together stakeholders to remove barriers for the uptake of eHealth innovation and growth of eHealth markets, developing or rolling out sustainable business models of eHealth and telemedicine, exploring innovative funding mechanisms, e.g. PPPs, improving interoperability and ending market fragmentation. To improve interoperability between electronic health systems and maximise social and economic benefits of eHealth is also the main objective of the new eHealth Network (Directive 2001/24/EU) - a voluntary network of national authorities responsible for eHealth, which all EU Member states have joined. PMID:23510978

  9. A dynamic model of the marriage market-part 1: matching algorithm based on age preference and availability.

    PubMed

    Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L

    2013-09-01

    The matching algorithm in a dynamic marriage market model is described in this first of two companion papers. Iterative Proportional Fitting is used to find a marriage function (an age distribution of new marriages for both sexes), in a stable reference population, that is consistent with the one-sex age distributions of new marriages, and includes age preference. The one-sex age distributions (which are the marginals of the two-sex distribution) are based on the Picrate model, and age preference on a normal distribution, both of which may be adjusted by choice of parameter values. For a population that is perturbed from the reference state, the total number of new marriages is found as the harmonic mean of target totals for men and women obtained by applying reference population marriage rates to the perturbed population. The marriage function uses the age preference function, assumed to be the same for the reference and the perturbed populations, to distribute the total number of new marriages. The marriage function also has an availability factor that varies as the population changes with time, where availability depends on the supply of unmarried men and women. To simplify exposition, only first marriage is treated, and the algorithm is illustrated by application to Zambia. In the second paper, remarriage and dissolution are included.

  10. A dynamic model of the marriage market-part 1: matching algorithm based on age preference and availability.

    PubMed

    Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L

    2013-09-01

    The matching algorithm in a dynamic marriage market model is described in this first of two companion papers. Iterative Proportional Fitting is used to find a marriage function (an age distribution of new marriages for both sexes), in a stable reference population, that is consistent with the one-sex age distributions of new marriages, and includes age preference. The one-sex age distributions (which are the marginals of the two-sex distribution) are based on the Picrate model, and age preference on a normal distribution, both of which may be adjusted by choice of parameter values. For a population that is perturbed from the reference state, the total number of new marriages is found as the harmonic mean of target totals for men and women obtained by applying reference population marriage rates to the perturbed population. The marriage function uses the age preference function, assumed to be the same for the reference and the perturbed populations, to distribute the total number of new marriages. The marriage function also has an availability factor that varies as the population changes with time, where availability depends on the supply of unmarried men and women. To simplify exposition, only first marriage is treated, and the algorithm is illustrated by application to Zambia. In the second paper, remarriage and dissolution are included. PMID:23357512

  11. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  12. The Memory Fitness Program: Cognitive Effects of a Healthy Aging Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karen J.; Siddarth, Prabha; Gaines, Jean M.; Parrish, John M.; Ercoli, Linda M.; Marx, Katherine; Ronch, Judah; Pilgram, Barbara; Burke, Kasey; Barczak, Nancy; Babcock, Bridget; Small, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Context Age-related memory decline affects a large proportion of older adults. Cognitive training, physical exercise, and other lifestyle habits may help to minimize self-perception of memory loss and a decline in objective memory performance. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 6-week educational program on memory training, physical activity, stress reduction, and healthy diet led to improved memory performance in older adults. Design A convenience sample of 115 participants (mean age: 80.9 [SD: 6.0 years]) was recruited from two continuing care retirement communities. The intervention consisted of 60-minute classes held twice weekly with 15–20 participants per class. Testing of both objective and subjective cognitive performance occurred at baseline, preintervention, and postintervention. Objective cognitive measures evaluated changes in five domains: immediate verbal memory, delayed verbal memory, retention of verbal information, memory recognition, and verbal fluency. A standardized metamemory instrument assessed four domains of memory self-awareness: frequency and severity of forgetting, retrospective functioning, and mnemonics use. Results The intervention program resulted in significant improvements on objective measures of memory, including recognition of word pairs (t[114] = 3.62, p < 0.001) and retention of verbal information from list learning (t[114] = 2.98, p < 0.01). No improvement was found for verbal fluency. Regarding subjective memory measures, the retrospective functioning score increased significantly following the intervention (t[114] = 4.54, p < 0.0001), indicating perception of a better memory. Conclusions These findings indicate that a 6-week healthy lifestyle program can improve both encoding and recalling of new verbal information, as well as self-perception of memory ability in older adults residing in continuing care retirement communities. PMID:21765343

  13. Adult Age Differences in Speed and Accuracy of Matching Verbal and Pictorial Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergler, Nancy L.; Zandi, Taher

    1983-01-01

    Assessed age differences in speed of processing verbal and pictorial stimuli in young (N=20) and old (N=20) adults responding to traffic signs. Results showed young adults responded more quickly and all subjects responded more quickly to a verbal standard sign than to a pictorial standard. (Author/JAC)

  14. Age related differences in reaction time components and diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiqin; Bender, Andrew R; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of the white matter (WM) is viewed as the neural substrate of age differences in speed of information processing (reaction time, RT). However, the relationship between WM and RT components is rarely examined in healthy aging. We assessed the relationship between RT components derived from the Ratcliff diffusion model and micro-structural properties of normal-appearing WM (NAWM) in 90 healthy adults (age 18-82 years). We replicated all major extant findings pertaining to age differences in RT components and WM: lower drift rate, greater response conservativeness, longer non-decision time, lower fractional anisotropy (FA), greater mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were associated with advanced age. Age differences in anterior regions of the cerebral WM exceeded those in posterior regions. However, the only relationship between RT components and WM was the positive association between DR in the body of the corpus callosum and non-decision time. Thus, in healthy adults, age differences in NAWM diffusion properties are not a major contributor to age differences in RT components. Longitudinal studies with more precise and specific estimates of regional myelin content and evaluation of the contribution of age-related vascular risk factors are necessary to understand cerebral substrates of age-related cognitive slowing.

  15. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  16. Effect of ageing on CMV-specific CD8 T cells from CMV seropositive healthy donors

    PubMed Central

    Pita-Lopez, María Luisa; Gayoso, Inmaculada; DelaRosa, Olga; Casado, Javier G; Alonso, Corona; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Tarazona, Raquel; Solana, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes in the immune system with substantial alterations in T-lymphocyte subsets. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the factors that affect functionality of T cells and the differentiation and large expansions of CMV pp65-specific T cells have been associated with impaired responses to other immune challenges. Moreover, the presence of clonal expansions of CMV-specific T cells may shrink the available repertoire for other antigens and contribute to the increased incidence of infectious diseases in the elderly. In this study, we analyse the effect of ageing on the phenotype and frequency of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cell subsets according to the expression of CCR7, CD45RA, CD27, CD28, CD244 and CD85j. Results Peripheral blood from HLA-A2 healthy young, middle-aged and elderly donors was analysed by multiparametric flow cytometry using the HLA-A*0201/CMV pp65495–504 (NLVPMVATV) pentamer and mAbs specific for the molecules analysed. The frequency of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells was increased in the elderly compared with young and middle-aged donors. The proportion of naïve cells was reduced in the elderly, whereas an age-associated increase of the CCR7null effector-memory subset, in particular those with a CD45RAdim phenotype, was observed, both in the pentamer-positive and pentamer-negative CD8 T cells. The results also showed that most CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells in elderly individuals were CD27/CD28 negative and expressed CD85j and CD244. Conclusion The finding that the phenotype of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells in elderly individuals is similar to the predominant phenotype of CD8 T cells as a whole, suggests that CMV persistent infections contributes to the age-related changes observed in the CD8 T cell compartment, and that chronic stimulation by other persistent antigens also play a role in T cell immunosenescence. Differences in subset distribution in elderly individuals showing a decrease in naive and an increase in

  17. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  18. Cortisol and GH secretory dynamics, and their interrelationships, in healthy aged women and men.

    PubMed

    Gusenoff, J A; Harman, S M; Veldhuis, J D; Jayme, J J; St Clair, C; Münzer, T; Christmas, C; O'Connor, K G; Stevens, T E; Bellantoni, M F; Pabst, K; Blackman, M R

    2001-04-01

    We studied 130 healthy aged women (n = 57) and men (n = 73), age 65-88 yr, with age-related reductions in insulin-like growth factor I and gonadal steroid levels to assess the interrelationships between cortisol and growth hormone (GH) secretion and whether these relationships differ by sex. Blood was sampled every 20 min from 8:00 PM to 8:00 AM; cortisol was measured by RIA and GH by immunoradiometric assay, followed by deconvolution analyses of hormone secretory parameters and assessment of approximate entropy (ApEn) and cross-ApEn. Cortisol mass/burst, cortisol production rate, and mean and integrated serum cortisol concentrations (P < 0.0005), and overnight basal GH secretion (P < 0.05), were elevated in women vs. men. Integrated cortisol concentrations were directly related to most measures of GH secretion in women (P < 0.01) and with mean and integrated GH concentrations in men (P < 0.05). Integrated GH concentrations were directly related to mean and integrated cortisol levels in women (P < 0.005) and men (P < 0.05), with no sex differences. There were no sex differences in cortisol or GH ApEn values; however, the cross-ApEn score was greater in women (P < 0.05), indicating reduced GH-cortisol pattern synchrony in aged women vs. men. There were no significant relationships of integrated cortisol secretion with GH ApEn, or vice versa, in either sex. Thus postmenopausal women appear to maintain elevated cortisol production in patterns that are relatively uncoupled from those of GH, whereas mean hormone outputs remain correlated.

  19. The influence of age and weight status on cardiac autonomic control in healthy children: a review.

    PubMed

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Fisher, J P

    2014-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses can provide a non-invasive evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity. How autonomic control normally develops in childhood and how this is affected by obesity remain incompletely understood. In this review we examine the evidence that childhood age and weight status influence autonomic control of the heart as assessed using HRV. Electronic databases (Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies examining HRV in healthy children from birth to 18 years who adhered to the Task Force (1996) guidelines. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven examined childhood age and HRV. A reduction in 24-hour LF:HF was reported from birth to infancy (1 year), while overall HRV (SDNN) showed a marked and progressive increase. From infancy to early-to-late childhood (from 12 months to 15 years) LF:HF ratio was reported to decline further albeit at a slower rate, while RMSSD and SDNN increased. Twenty studies examined the effects of weight status and body composition on HRV. In a majority of studies, obese children exhibited reductions in RMSSD (n = 8/13), pNN50% (n = 7/9) and HF power (n = 14/18), no difference was reported for LF (n = 10/18), while LF:HF ratio was elevated (n = 10/15). HRV changes during childhood are consistent with a marked and progressive increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity relative to sympathetic activity. Obesity disrupts the normal maturation of cardiac autonomic control.

  20. Neutrophil function in healthy aged horses and horses with pituitary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Dianne; Hill, Kim; Anton, Jason

    2015-06-15

    Immunosuppression leading to opportunist bacterial infection is a well-recognized sequela of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). The mechanisms responsible for immune dysfunction in PPID however, are as of yet poorly characterized. Horses with PPID have high concentrations of hormones known to impact immune function including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and insulin. α-MSH and related melanocortins have been shown in rodents and people to impair neutrophil function by decreasing superoxide production (known as oxidative burst activity), migration and adhesion. The goal of this study was to determine if neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID and, if so, to determine if plasma α-MSH or insulin concentration correlated with the severity of neutrophil dysfunction. Specifically, neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst activity, chemotaxis and adhesion were assessed. Results of this study indicate that horses with PPID have reduced neutrophil function, characterized by decreased oxidative burst activity and adhesion. In addition, chemotaxis was greater in healthy aged horses than in young horses or aged horses with PPID. Plasma insulin: α-MSH ratio, but not individual hormone concentration was correlated to neutrophil oxidative burst activity. In summary, neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID, likely due to altered hormone concentrations and may contribute to increased risk of opportunistic infections. Whether regulation of hormone concentration profiles in horses with PPID using therapeutic intervention improves neutrophil function and reduces infections needs to be explored.

  1. Energy-related parameters and their association with age, gender, and morphometric measurements in healthy donkeys.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, F J; Estepa, J C; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Toribio, R E; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-05-01

    Donkeys are commonly afflicted by endocrine and metabolic disturbances but few studies have investigated endocrine variables involved in energy regulation and their association with morphometric indices, age or gender in this species. Hemostatic and clinical differences have been demonstrated between horses and donkeys, so to consider both species as metabolically and endocrinologically similar could lead to misdiagnosis. In this study, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and endocrine factors involved in energy homeostasis (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1) were measured and their association with morphometric variables (body condition score, neck scoring and body mass index), gender and age was determined in 62 healthy donkeys. In addition, a neck scoring system specific for donkeys was developed. Insulin, glucagon, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations were found to be similar between donkeys and other species, but adiponectin and active ghrelin were lower in donkeys than horses. Donkeys with larger neck scores and body mass indices had higher triglyceride, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations. A sexual dimorphism was observed on all morphometric measurements and plasma glucose concentrations independent of adiposity. Younger animals had lower morphometric measurements and triglyceride and leptin concentrations.

  2. Cohort Profile: The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging (MoNNET-HA) study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2016-01-01

    The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging study was established: (i) to assess the added value in using formal network methods and instruments to measure social capital and its relationship to health; (ii) to determine whether older adults are more vulnerable to the effects of network and neighbourhood environments; and (iii) to examine longitudinally the relationship between social capital and health among adults in Montreal, Canada. The MoNNET-HA cohort consists of men and women aged 25 years and older, residing in the Montreal Metropolitan Area (MMA). Participants were recruited using a random stratified cluster sampling design with oversampling of adults older than 65 years. Initial MoNNET-HA study participants (n = 2707) were recruited for telephone interviews in the summer of 2008. Since 2008, participants were interviewed in the autumn of 2010 and the winter of 2013/2014. Data currently fall into five categories: (i) social network and social capital; (ii) psychosocial and psychological; (ii) socio-demographic and socioeconomic; (iv) health behaviours and conditions; and (v) neighbourhood environmental characteristics. Healthcare utilization data will be available for a subsample of participants. Upon funding, future work will measure anthropometric and metabolic health directly. Based on agreements with participants, external researchers should request access to data via collaborations with the study group. PMID:24984955

  3. Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions. PMID:25773638

  4. Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions.

  5. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  6. Effects of an aging pulmonary system on expiratory flow limitation and dyspnoea during exercise in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Sabrina S; Guenette, Jordan A; Dominelli, Paolo B; Sheel, A William

    2012-06-01

    Aging related changes in pulmonary function may make older women (OW) more susceptible to expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and lead to higher dyspnoea ratings during exercise relative to young women (YW). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare sensory responses and EFL susceptibility and magnitude in 8 YW (29 ± 7 years) and 8 healthy OW (64 ± 3 years) matched for percentage-predicted forced vital capacity (% predicted FVC) and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s. EFL was calculated as the percent overlap between tidal flow-volume loops during maximal exercise and the maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. Peak oxygen consumption (V'O(2peak)) was lower in the OW compared to the YW (29.4 ± 3.6 vs. 49.1 ± 8.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.05) as was maximal ventilation (73.7 ± 18.4 vs. 108.7 ± 14.1 l min(-1), P < 0.05). EFL at maximal exercise was present in 2 of 8 YW and in 5 of 8 OW. There were no significant differences in the magnitude of EFL between OW (23 ± 24, range: 0-69 %EFL) and YW (9 ± 18, range: 0-46 %EFL, P = 0.21). The magnitude of EFL in OW was inversely related to % predicted FVC (r = -0.69, P = 0.06), but this relationships was not observed in the YW (r = -0.23, P = 0.59). The OW consistently reported greater dyspnoea and leg discomfort for any given absolute work rate, but not when work was expressed as a percentage of maximum. Reduced ventilatory and exercise capacities may cause OW to be more susceptible to EFL during exercise and experience greater dyspnoea relative to YW for a standardized physical task.

  7. Effects of an aging pulmonary system on expiratory flow limitation and dyspnoea during exercise in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Sabrina S; Guenette, Jordan A; Dominelli, Paolo B; Sheel, A William

    2012-06-01

    Aging related changes in pulmonary function may make older women (OW) more susceptible to expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and lead to higher dyspnoea ratings during exercise relative to young women (YW). Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare sensory responses and EFL susceptibility and magnitude in 8 YW (29 ± 7 years) and 8 healthy OW (64 ± 3 years) matched for percentage-predicted forced vital capacity (% predicted FVC) and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s. EFL was calculated as the percent overlap between tidal flow-volume loops during maximal exercise and the maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. Peak oxygen consumption (V'O(2peak)) was lower in the OW compared to the YW (29.4 ± 3.6 vs. 49.1 ± 8.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.05) as was maximal ventilation (73.7 ± 18.4 vs. 108.7 ± 14.1 l min(-1), P < 0.05). EFL at maximal exercise was present in 2 of 8 YW and in 5 of 8 OW. There were no significant differences in the magnitude of EFL between OW (23 ± 24, range: 0-69 %EFL) and YW (9 ± 18, range: 0-46 %EFL, P = 0.21). The magnitude of EFL in OW was inversely related to % predicted FVC (r = -0.69, P = 0.06), but this relationships was not observed in the YW (r = -0.23, P = 0.59). The OW consistently reported greater dyspnoea and leg discomfort for any given absolute work rate, but not when work was expressed as a percentage of maximum. Reduced ventilatory and exercise capacities may cause OW to be more susceptible to EFL during exercise and experience greater dyspnoea relative to YW for a standardized physical task. PMID:21971945

  8. The role of age and comorbidities in postoperative outcome of mitral valve repair: A propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Vincent; Boisselier, Clément; Saplacan, Vladimir; Belin, Annette; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Fischer, Marc-Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The average age of patients undergoing mitral valve repair is increasing each year. This retrospective study aimed to compare postoperative complications of mitral valve repair (known to be especially high-risk) between 2 age groups: under and over the age of 80.Patients who underwent mitral valve repair were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (<80 years old) and group 2 (≥80 years old). Baseline characteristics, pre- and postoperative hemodynamic data, surgical characteristics, and postoperative follow-up data until hospital discharge were collected.A total of 308 patients were included: 264 in group 1 (age 63 ± 13 years) and 44 in group 2 (age 83 ± 2 years). Older patients had more comorbidities (atrial fibrillation, history of cardiac decompensation, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic kidney disease) and they presented more postoperative complications (50.0% vs 33.7%; P = 0.043), with a longer hospital stay (8.9 ± 6.9 vs 6.6 ± 4.6 days; P = 0.005). To assess the burden of age, a propensity score was awarded to postoperative complications. Active smoking, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, associated ischemic heart disease, obesity, and cardio pulmonary by-pass duration were described as independent risk factors. When matched on this propensity score, there was no difference in morbidity or mortality between group 1 and group 2.Older patients suffered more postoperative complications, which were related to their comorbidities and not only to their age. PMID:27336886

  9. Child Poverty and the Promise of Human Capacity: Childhood as a Foundation for Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul H

    2016-04-01

    The effect of child poverty and related early life experiences on adult health outcomes and patterns of aging has become a central focus of child health research and advocacy. In this article a critical review of this proliferating literature and its relevance to child health programs and policy are presented. This literature review focused on evidence of the influence of child poverty on the major contributors to adult morbidity and mortality in the United States, the mechanisms by which these associations operate, and the implications for reforming child health programs and policies. Strong and varied evidence base documents the effect of child poverty and related early life experiences and exposures on the major threats to adult health and healthy aging. Studies using a variety of methodologies, including longitudinal and cross-sectional strategies, have reported significant findings regarding cardiovascular disorders, obesity and diabetes, certain cancers, mental health conditions, osteoporosis and fractures, and possibly dementia. These relationships can operate through alterations in fetal and infant development, stress reactivity and inflammation, the development of adverse health behaviors, the conveyance of child chronic illness into adulthood, and inadequate access to effective interventions in childhood. Although the reviewed studies document meaningful relationships between child poverty and adult outcomes, they also reveal that poverty, experiences, and behaviors in adulthood make important contributions to adult health and aging. There is strong evidence that poverty in childhood contributes significantly to adult health. Changes in the content, financing, and advocacy of current child health programs will be required to address the childhood influences on adult health and disease. Policy reforms that reduce child poverty and mitigate its developmental effects must be integrated into broader initiatives and advocacy that also attend to the health and

  10. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Hill, Sierra D.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Snyder, Laura L.; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass<2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ∼30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ∼30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass≥2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  11. ‘Keeping your body and mind active’: an ethnographic study of aspirations for healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Guy; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and explore perceptions, practices and motivations for active living in later life. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and ‘semistructured’ participant observations of participant-selected activities, such as exercise classes, private or organised walks, shopping and gardening. Participants 27 participants (65–80 years) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk study, purposefully selected by gender, age, occupational class, living status and residential location; 19 of the participants agreed to be accompanied for observed activities. Setting Participants’ homes, neighbourhoods, places of leisure activities and workplaces in Norfolk, England. Results All participants regarded a positive attitude as important for healthy ageing; this included staying active, both physically and mentally through sedentary activities such as reading and crosswords. ‘Getting out of the house’, being busy, or following a variety of interests were regarded as both important motivators and descriptions of their ‘activeness’. Purposeful activities formed an important part of this, for example, still being engaged in paid or voluntary work, having caring responsibilities, or smaller incidental activities such as helping neighbours or walking for transport. Many also reported adapting previous, often lifelong, activity preferences and habits to their ageing body, or replacing them altogether with lower impact activities such as walking. This included adapting to the physical limitations of partners and friends which dictated the intensity and frequency of shared activities. The social context of activities could thus form a barrier to active living, but could also encourage it through companionship, social responsibilities and social pressures. Conclusions Promoting and maintaining physical activity among older people may require more attention to activeness as an attitude and way of life as well as to its

  12. Assessment of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M A

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age and risk factors on bone density and bone turnover was evaluated in 249 healthy premenopausal women. Risk factors were assessed by standardized questionnaires and included reproductive history and lifestyle factors (intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements, consumption of caffeine, smoking habits and physical activity). Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were obtained in the distal forearm, the lumbar spine and the proximal femur. Bone turnover were assessed by plasma bone Gla proteins (pBGP) and fasting urinary hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine (fUHPr/Cr). Peak bone density seems to be achieved before the age of 30 years, whereafter we found no appreciable bone loss at any skeletal site. Accordingly, the levels of pBGP and fUHPr/Cr were increased before the age of 30, whereafter the values stabilized at a lower level. A dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day significantly increased BMD in the spine and proximal femur by 3%-5%. Physical activity alone had no influence on BMD, but in combination with calcium intake an additive effect was observed. Women who had an active lifestyle (corresponding to at least 1 h of daily walking) and a dairy calcium intake above 660 mg/day had a 3%-7% increase in BMD compared with more sedentary women with a calcium intake below this limit. Vitamin D supplements, caffeine, smoking and reproductive history did not consistently influence BMD or bone turnover. Only pBGP was selectively reduced by smoking and current use of oral contraceptives, respectively. We conclude that there is no appreciable change in BMD before the menopause once skeletal maturity has been reached.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Hill, Sierra D; Bispham, Nina Z; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Nowlan, Molly J; Snyder, Laura L; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J; McQueen, Matthew B; Seals, Douglas R

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass less than 2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ~30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ~30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass ≥ 2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  14. Sleep Cyclic Alternating Pattern in Otherwise Healthy Overweight School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Ferri, Raffaele; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) characteristics in otherwise healthy overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) children Design: Polysomnographic cross-sectional study Setting: Sleep laboratory Participants: Fifty-eight (26 NW and 32 OW) 10-year-old children Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Participants were part of a longitudinal study beginning in infancy and free of sleep disorders. Groups were based on body-mass index (BMI) z-score. From polysomnographic overnight recordings, sleep-waking states were scored according to international criteria. CAP analysis was performed visually during NREM sleep. Conventional sleep parameters were similar between groups. BMI was positively related to CAP rate and CAP sequences but inversely related to CAP B phase duration. Differences between groups were confined to slow-wave sleep (SWS), with OW children showing higher CAP rate, CAP cycles, and CAP A1 number and index and shorter CAP cycles and B phase duration. They also showed more CAP class intervals shorter than 30 s, and a suggestive trend for fewer intervals longer than 30 s. Conclusions: Cyclic alternating pattern characteristics in children related to nutritional status and were altered in overweight subjects during slow-wave sleep. We suggest that the more frequent oscillatory pattern of electroencephalographic slow activity in overweight subjects might reflect less stable slow-wave sleep episodes. Citation: Chamorro R; Ferri R; Algarin C; Garrido M; Lozoff B; Peirano P. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern in otherwise healthy overweight school-age children. SLEEP 2014;37(3):557-560. PMID:24587578

  15. Educational Differences in Healthy Behavior Changes and Adherence among Middle-Aged Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Although the better-educated are more likely to practice healthy behaviors when measured at one point in time, there is no clear evidence regarding whether more educated people are more likely to initiate healthy behavior changes in the face of new chronic conditions and whether they are better able to adhere to these healthy changes, once made. I…

  16. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    PubMed

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  17. Adverse anthropometric risk profile in biochemically controlled acromegalic patients: comparison with an age- and gender-matched primary care population

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, C.; Wittchen, H. U.; Pieper, L.; Klotsche, J.; Roemmler, J.; Schopohl, J.; Schneider, H. J.; Stalla, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    GH and IGF-1 play an important role in the regulation of metabolism and body composition. In patients with uncontrolled acromegaly, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased but are supposed to be normalised after biochemical control is achieved. We aimed at comparing body composition and the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with controlled acromegaly and controls. A cross-sectional study. We evaluated anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, waist to height ratio) and, additionally, cardiovascular risk biomarkers (fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and lipoprotein (a), in 81 acromegalic patients (58% cured) compared to 320 age- and gender-matched controls (ratio 1:4), sampled from the primary care patient cohort DETECT. The whole group of 81 acromegalic patients presented with significantly higher anthropometric parameters, such as weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, but with more favourable cardiovascular risk biomarkers, such as fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL levels, in comparison to their respective controls. Biochemically controlled acromegalic patients again showed significantly higher measurements of obesity, mainly visceral adiposity, than age- and gender-matched control patients (BMI 29.5 ± 5.9 vs. 27.3 ± 5.8 kg/m2; P = 0.020; waist circumference 100.9 ± 16.8 vs. 94.8 ± 15.5 cm; P = 0.031; hip circumference 110.7 ± 9.9 vs. 105.0 ± 11.7 cm; P = 0.001). No differences in the classical cardiovascular biomarkers were detected except for fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides. This effect could not be attributed to a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the acromegalic patient group, since stratified analyses between the subgroup of patients with acromegaly and controls, both with type 2 diabetes mellitus, revealed that there were no significant differences in the

  18. Age-Related 1H NMR Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Newborn and Young Healthy Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Francesca; Elmi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Noemi; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to neuroscience, pigs represent an important animal model due to their resemblance with humans’ brains for several patterns including anatomy and developmental stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively easy-to-collect specimen that can provide important information about neurological health and function, proving its importance as both a diagnostic and biomedical monitoring tool. Consequently, it would be of high scientific interest and value to obtain more standard physiological information regarding its composition and dynamics for both swine pathology and the refinement of experimental protocols. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in order to analyze the metabolomic profile of this biological fluid, and results showed the technique to be highly reproducible and reliable. The aim of the present study was to investigate in both qualitative and quantitative manner the composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid harvested form healthy newborn (5 days old-P5) and young (30-P30 and 50-P50 days old) piglets using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, and to analyze any possible difference in metabolites concentration between age groups, related to age and Blood-Brain-Barrier maturation. On each of the analyzed samples, 30 molecules could be observed above their limit of quantification, accounting for 95–98% of the total area of the spectra. The concentrations of adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate were found to decrease between P05 and P50, while the concentrations of glutamine, creatinine, methanol, trimethylamine and myo-inositol were found to increase. The P05-P30 comparison was also significant for glutamine, creatinine, adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, while for the P30-P50 comparison we found significant differences for glutamine, myo-inositol, leucine and trimethylamine. None of these molecules showed at P30 concentrations

  19. Conscientiousness and public health: synthesizing current research to promote healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Reiss, David; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2014-05-01

    In this special section, 9 studies and 6 commentaries make a unique contribution to the study of personality. They focus on the five-factor model and, in particular, one of those 5: conscientiousness. This trait has had astonishing success in the actuarial prediction of adaptive outcomes in adulthood and aging, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms that account for this actuarial success. The current studies and comments marshal current knowledge of conscientiousness to advance a mechanistic understanding of these predictions and to exploit that understanding toward interventions to enhance robust adult development and healthy aging. In this introductory article, we underscore the strategy we used to invite presentations and commentary. First, we sought a clearer definition of conscientiousness and a review of its assessment. Second, we sought a review of how the components of this complex trait develop in childhood and are assembled across development. Third, we sought an understanding of how mechanisms linking conscientiousness and health might be transformed across the life span. Fourth, we scrutinized naturally occurring factors that moderate the links between conscientiousness and health for clues to successful interventions. Finally, we sought ways to pull these analyses together to outline the framework for a program of interventions that, collectively, might be applicable at specific points across the life span. Six commentaries place this project in sharp relief. They remind us that the causal status of the associations between conscientiousness and health, reported throughout our 9 studies, are uncertain at best. Second, they remind us that the concept of conscientiousness is still too spare: It fails to embody the social skills required for conscientious behavior, the moral judgment of self or other implicit in its assessment, or the neurobiological mechanisms that might account for differences among individuals. Third, they raise a potent

  20. Age-Related 1H NMR Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Newborn and Young Healthy Piglets.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Domenico; Laghi, Luca; Barone, Francesca; Elmi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Noemi; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to neuroscience, pigs represent an important animal model due to their resemblance with humans' brains for several patterns including anatomy and developmental stages. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively easy-to-collect specimen that can provide important information about neurological health and function, proving its importance as both a diagnostic and biomedical monitoring tool. Consequently, it would be of high scientific interest and value to obtain more standard physiological information regarding its composition and dynamics for both swine pathology and the refinement of experimental protocols. Recently, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in order to analyze the metabolomic profile of this biological fluid, and results showed the technique to be highly reproducible and reliable. The aim of the present study was to investigate in both qualitative and quantitative manner the composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid harvested form healthy newborn (5 days old-P5) and young (30-P30 and 50-P50 days old) piglets using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, and to analyze any possible difference in metabolites concentration between age groups, related to age and Blood-Brain-Barrier maturation. On each of the analyzed samples, 30 molecules could be observed above their limit of quantification, accounting for 95-98% of the total area of the spectra. The concentrations of adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate were found to decrease between P05 and P50, while the concentrations of glutamine, creatinine, methanol, trimethylamine and myo-inositol were found to increase. The P05-P30 comparison was also significant for glutamine, creatinine, adenine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, while for the P30-P50 comparison we found significant differences for glutamine, myo-inositol, leucine and trimethylamine. None of these molecules showed at P30 concentrations outside

  1. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  2. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process.

  3. An unusual case of spontaneous Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer in a healthy middle-aged adult

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Vipul; Sriganesh, R; Relekar, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    Background To report a rare presentation of culture-positive Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer and its management. Findings We report a rare case of a patient with a history of chronic pain and blurriness of vision. Examination revealed a chronic nonhealing paracentral corneal ulcer inferiorly at the 5–7 o’clock meridian with anterior chamber reaction unresponsive to routine antibiotic and antifungal medications with Mantoux test positivity in a middle-aged nondiabetic patient with no prior history of trauma, ocular surgery, and contact lens usage. Ziehl–Neelsen staining of the nonhealing ulcer revealed acid-fast bacilli typical of M. chelonae, with subsequent culture positivity in Löwenstein–Jensen medium. Subsequent treatment with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin resulted in rapid healing of the corneal ulcer. Conclusion M. chelonae presenting as a chronic nonhealing corneal ulcer spontaneously occurring in a healthy adult with no predisposing factor draws attention towards the need to have a good index of suspicion by performing a Ziehl–Neelsen stain and culture, and subsequent successful management with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin. PMID:27274315

  4. Pilot Enhancement of the Arthritis Foundation Exercise Program with a Healthy Aging Program.

    PubMed

    Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Bilt, Joni Vander; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Jacob, Mini E; Woody, Sarah E; Conroy, Molly B; Kwoh, C Kent; Albert, Steven M; Boudreau, Robert; Newman, Anne B; Zgibor, Janice C

    2016-05-01

    Older adults with arthritis or joint pain were targeted for a pilot program enhancing the Arthritis Foundation Exercise Program with the 10 Keys™ to Healthy Aging Program. Using a one-group, pre-post design, feasibility was examined and improvements in preventive behaviors, arthritis outcomes, and cardiometabolic outcomes were explored. A 10-week program was developed, instructors were recruited and trained, and four sites and 51 participants were recruited. Measures included attendance, adherence, satisfaction, preventive behaviors, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (pain and stiffness), glucose, and cholesterol. Three fourths of participants attended >50% of the sessions. At 6 and 12 months, more than one half performed the exercises 1 to 2 days per week, whereas 28% and 14% exercised 3 to 7 days per week, respectively. Participants (92%) rated the program as excellent/very good. Nonsignificant changes were observed in expected directions. Effect sizes were small for arthritis and cardiometabolic outcomes. This program engaged community partners, demonstrated feasibility, and showed improvements in some preventive behaviors and health risk profiles. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(3):123-132.].

  5. Influence of memory strategies on memory test performance: a study in healthy and pathological aging.

    PubMed

    Yubero, R; Gil, P; Paul, N; Maestú, F

    2011-09-01

    The ability to generate memory strategies is a key factor in the performance of episodic memory tasks. Whether the ability to generate memory strategies exerts an influence in the performance of memory tests in the elderly population is still a matter of debate. Here we present results from an experimental memory task (Test of Memory Strategies, TMS), comprised of five lists of words starting from an incidental learning task, and four more lists which progressively gain in their external organization of the material, reducing the necessity of mobilizing complex memory strategies. TMS has been applied to four groups of elderly patients (amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment - aMCI, multidomain (mMCI), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment - VCI and Depression) and a healthy aging group. In conditions with low organization of the material, the mMCI and VCI groups (both showing a greater executive function impairment) have shown lower performance. However, as the material was progressively organized, they improved their performance. The aMCI group showed similar performance to the control group at the lower level of external organization but did not improve performance in conditions with a high level of external organization. The mMCI and VCI groups showed lower performance on all TMS conditions compared with controls. Discriminant analysis revealed 90% sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between groups based on TMS conditions. These results indicate how executive functions influence performance on memory tasks in elderly subjects with different neuropsychological profiles.

  6. Age-related increases in motivation among children with mental retardation and MA- and CA-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Blair, C; Greenberg, M; Crnic, K

    2001-11-01

    Child positive affect and task orientation in response to a series of cognitively demanding puzzle tasks were assessed at two time points separated by a 12-month interval in children with mild mental retardation and MA- and CA-matched controls (age range 1 to 5 years). At the first assessment, children with mild mental retardation exhibited mastery behavior appropriate for MA but not CA. At the second assessment, the goal-directed behavior of children with mild mental retardation was no different from that of both the MA and CA controls. Correlates of motivation were similar for children with mild mental retardation and typically developing children. Implications for the developmental study of children with mild mental retardation are discussed. PMID:11708937

  7. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  8. Trace element status and fatty acids metabolism during healthy ageing: an example of a population from the Tunisian eastern coast.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; El Heni, Jihen; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2012-03-01

    Micronutrients as well as essential fatty acids are indispensable for the correct functioning of the organism. The risk of disturbance in the associated nutrition and metabolism is expected to increase during ageing. In addition, it seems that trace elements are involved in the fatty acids metabolism. The aim of the present study was then to assess age-related changes in trace elements status and in plasma essential fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the desaturase activity estimation. Two hundred healthy Tunisian subjects (30-85 years old) were recruited and separated into two subgroups: elderly (65-85 years old) and middle-aged (30-60 years old). The findings revealed that plasma zinc and calcium concentrations significantly decreased according to age. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was therefore shown to increase in old age (over 60% of elderly subjects were deficient or at risk of deficiency). No age-related changes were obtained for copper or magnesium status. The Δ6 desaturase, involved in the EFAs conversion, was shown to decrease according to age and to be associated with the plasma zinc level. Since elderly subjects were at risk of nutritional imbalance, it would be interesting to set optimal dietary proportion. This will help to prevent age-associated alterations and diseases for a better and healthy ageing. PMID:22222317

  9. Age-group differences in speech identification despite matched audiometrically normal hearing: contributions from auditory temporal processing and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C. J.; Stone, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss with increasing age adversely affects the ability to understand speech, an effect that results partly from reduced audibility. The aims of this study were to establish whether aging reduces speech intelligibility for listeners with normal audiograms, and, if so, to assess the relative contributions of auditory temporal and cognitive processing. Twenty-one older normal-hearing (ONH; 60–79 years) participants with bilateral audiometric thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL at 0.125–6 kHz were matched to nine young (YNH; 18–27 years) participants in terms of mean audiograms, years of education, and performance IQ. Measures included: (1) identification of consonants in quiet and in noise that was unmodulated or modulated at 5 or 80 Hz; (2) identification of sentences in quiet and in co-located or spatially separated two-talker babble; (3) detection of modulation of the temporal envelope (TE) at frequencies 5–180 Hz; (4) monaural and binaural sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS); (5) various cognitive tests. Speech identification was worse for ONH than YNH participants in all types of background. This deficit was not reflected in self-ratings of hearing ability. Modulation masking release (the improvement in speech identification obtained by amplitude modulating a noise background) and spatial masking release (the benefit obtained from spatially separating masker and target speech) were not affected by age. Sensitivity to TE and TFS was lower for ONH than YNH participants, and was correlated positively with speech-in-noise (SiN) identification. Many cognitive abilities were lower for ONH than YNH participants, and generally were correlated positively with SiN identification scores. The best predictors of the intelligibility of SiN were composite measures of cognition and TFS sensitivity. These results suggest that declines in speech perception in older persons are partly caused by cognitive and perceptual changes separate from age-related changes in

  10. Comparison of serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with senile cataract and age-matched individuals without cataract

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Gaurav; Pai, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was to analyze mean serum sodium and potassium levels in cataract patients and age-matched individuals without cataract. Methods and Materials: It was a prospective case-control study. Individuals more than 50 years of age who attended our ophthalmic center in the year 2007-2010 were grouped into those having cataract and those without cataract. Mean serum sodium and potassium levels in the cataract groups were calculated and compared with the control group. Statistical software SPSS14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean serum sodium levels in cataract group was 135.1 meqv/l and 133 meqv/l in the control group. Mean potassium was 3.96 meqv/l in the case study group and 3.97 meqv/l in controls. Mean sodium levels among cases were significantly higher than control group. No difference was seen in the PSC group and control. The difference in mean potassium among the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Diets with high sodium contents are a risk factor for senile cataract formation and dietary modifications can possibly reduce the rate of progression cataract. PMID:23552357

  11. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Sina; Vanstone, Catherine A.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2012-01-01

    For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD) and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation), weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada). Whole body (WB) as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4) and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc.) providing bone mineral content (BMC) for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0 ± 14.2 versus 227.0 ± 29.7 g), spine BMC by 130% (2.35 ± 0.42 versus 5.37 ± 1.02 g), and femur BMC by 190% (2.94 ± 0.54 versus 8.50 ± 1.84 g). Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266 ± 0.044 versus 0.304 ± 0.044 g/cm2) during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals. PMID:23091773

  12. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  13. Assessment of anti-slip devices from healthy individuals in different ages walking on slippery surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gard, Gunvor; Berggård, Glenn

    2006-03-01

    The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Using an appropriate anti-slip device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best anti-slip devices of different designs in the Swedish market on a larger group of healthy individuals in different ages on five different slippery surfaces as a way to develop a standard method to test anti-slip devices. Three different designs of anti-slip devices: heel device, foot-blade device and whole-foot device were evaluated on ice surfaces uncovered or covered with gravel, sand, salt or snow. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-slip device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-slip device and a list of priorities for own use according to three criteria: safety, balance and appearance. The heel device was perceived to be the most safe on all five surfaces, followed by the toe device and the whole-foot device. The heel device was also perceived to be the one with the best walking balance on uncovered ice and on snow covered ice. There were some significant differences due to gender and age. Most subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee when walking with or without an anti-slip device on all surfaces. The heel device was perceived as the most rapid one to take on and the toe device as the most rapid one to take off. All three devices were perceived as having a good foothold. The heel device was perceived to fit the shoe and to be stable at heel-strike. The toe device was easily portable and stable on uncovered ice. The whole-foot device was comfortable to walk with and safe on snow covered ice. The heel device had the highest priority according to walking safety

  14. Kinematic Movement Strategies in Primary School Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls during Visuo-Manual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the mechanism subserving the production of kinematic patterns in 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 age- and IQ-matched control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) when performing a visuo-manual…

  15. Degenerative Changes in the Cervical Spine Are More Common in Middle-Aged Individuals with Thalidomide Embryopathy than in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi Jahani, Shadi A.; Danielsson, Aina; Ab-Fawaz, Rana; Hebelka, Hanna; Danielson, Barbro; Brisby, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Thalidomide was used as a sedative drug for pregnant women in the 1950–60:s and resulted in children born with thalidomide embryopathy (TE), including upper limb malformations. These may alter the motion pattern of the cervical spine by the use of head/shoulder and mouth grip. Aims To compare degenerative changes in the cervical spine in TE individuals with healthy controls (CTR). Methods and Procedures Twenty-seven middle-aged TE individuals and 27 age- and gender-matched CTR were examined by cervical spine MRI. The presence of malformations, disc herniation(s), osteophytes, nerve and medullary compression and the degree of disc degeneration (DD) were evaluated. Outcomes and Results Significantly higher degree of DD was seen in the TE group compared with the controls (p<0.001). Similar frequencies of disc herniation and disc space narrowing were observed in the two groups, but more foraminal narrowing was seen in the TE group (p = 0.002). DD was observed relatively frequently at all cervical levels in the TE group, however, mainly at the two lower levels in the CTR. Conclusions and Implications Middle-aged individuals with TE have a higher frequency of degenerative changes in the cervical spine than controls, possibly caused by an altered load on the cervical spine. PMID:27175919

  16. Aging of the brain-testicular axis: reproductive systems of healthy old male rats with or without endocrine stimulation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G; Bardgett, M; Farr, S; Humphrey, W; Womack, S; Weiss, J

    1996-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that endocrine declines in males are incidental to disease, 24 gonadally intact old (22-24 months) rats were selected on the basis of good general health and assigned to one of three groups. One group of aged males was left untreated for comparison with an untreated control group of young adult males. Results from multiple measures of sociosexual behavior and reproductive physiology indicated that endocrine declines in males are not simply a by-product of increased disease incidence with aging. The untreated old animals showed clear decrements on all 13 measures of hypothalamic-pituitary- testicular (HPT) activity. The other two groups of old males were used to compare responsiveness of the aging HPT axis in healthy males to supplements with a typical exogenous (ExT) androgen regimen (300 micrograms testosterone/kg body wt/SC/daily/6 weeks) or to social stimulation (brief daily exposure to an inaccessible estrous female) for additional episodes of endogenous (EnT) hormone. Neither treatment restored our disease-free old male rats to levels approximating those of untreated young adults. Nonetheless, both treatments activated the aging HPT axis. EnT males showed increases in sociosexual behaviors, growth of androgen-sensitive bulbospongiosus muscle, and elevation of epididymal sperm reserves. ExT males, on the other hand, experienced a more foreboding hypertrophy of the ventral prostate gland. Our conclusion is that endocrine aging in males is ubiquitous and inevitable. Still, aged androgen-sensitive systems of healthy old rats retain notable capacity, particularly, for endogenous activation. Evidence points to functional responses by healthy aged males to the presence of sexually receptive females that, although not quantitatively the same, are qualitatively similar to the responses of young adult males.

  17. Building neuroscientific evidence and creating best practices for Active and Healthy Aging through ubiquitous exergaming and Living Labs.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-08-01

    Ageing is a major global demographic trend, which seems to be intensified. The earlier detection of risks associated with ageing, can enable earlier intervention to ameliorate their negative consequences. Many of these recent efforts are associated with the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the stemming from them innovations in the fight against this age related decline and frailty. Ubiquitous unobtrusive monitoring and training (recently much blended by means of exergames) has become reality due to the availability of new mobile sensors and devices and the emergence of new technologies and services. The current piece of work presents the different milestones we have achieved as best practices during the past seven years of piloting training and exergaming ICT components in an effort to support Active and Healthy Aging. Our impact verification and results validation methodologies are revisited here in an effort to outline best practices and build up neuroscientific evidence. Finally, this paper demonstrates how the construction of an Active and Healthy Aging Living Lab was materialised in an attempt to gauge evidence based research in the field of active and health aging. PMID:26738090

  18. Building neuroscientific evidence and creating best practices for Active and Healthy Aging through ubiquitous exergaming and Living Labs.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is a major global demographic trend, which seems to be intensified. The earlier detection of risks associated with ageing, can enable earlier intervention to ameliorate their negative consequences. Many of these recent efforts are associated with the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the stemming from them innovations in the fight against this age related decline and frailty. Ubiquitous unobtrusive monitoring and training (recently much blended by means of exergames) has become reality due to the availability of new mobile sensors and devices and the emergence of new technologies and services. The current piece of work presents the different milestones we have achieved as best practices during the past seven years of piloting training and exergaming ICT components in an effort to support Active and Healthy Aging. Our impact verification and results validation methodologies are revisited here in an effort to outline best practices and build up neuroscientific evidence. Finally, this paper demonstrates how the construction of an Active and Healthy Aging Living Lab was materialised in an attempt to gauge evidence based research in the field of active and health aging.

  19. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  20. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  1. Inhibition impairments in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy aging: effect of congruency proportion in a Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Sara; Belleville, Sylvie; Gauthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess inhibition and goal maintenance in persons with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, healthy older adults and younger adults. This was done by using a task that compared the Stroop effect in pure blocks, that comprised only incongruent trials, with the Stroop effect in mixed blocks, in which 25% of trials were incongruent and 75% were congruent (Kane & Engle, 2003). Those conditions were administered to 20 healthy younger and 20 older control participants, and to 20 participants meeting criteria for MCI and 11 for AD. Results show reduced resistance to interference as a consequence of healthy aging and only partially impaired goal-maintenance capacities. Interference and goal maintenance are also impaired when comparing MCI and AD to healthy older adults, with AD suffering from a more severe impairment than MCI. In addition, there is a partial preservation of goal-maintenance capacities in MCI because reducing response speed allows them to maintain a level of error rate similar to that of healthy older adults. In contrast, AD persons suffer from a complete breakdown of goal-maintenance capacities, as is suggested by deficits on both response time and error rates.

  2. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  3. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  4. Prognosis of Pregnancy-Associated Gastric Cancer: An Age-, Sex-, and Stage-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min Jeong; Park, Young Soo; Song, Ho June; Park, Se Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Byung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer is a rare condition. This case-control study was performed to identify the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer. Methods All consecutive patients who presented to our tertiary referral hospital with pregnancy-associated gastric cancer from 1991 to 2012 were identified. Two age-, sex-, and stage-matched controls for each case were also identified from the records. Clinicopathological, gynecological, and oncological outcomes were recorded. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor, and E-cadherin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Results The median overall survival rates of the pregnancy-associated gastric cancer and control groups were 7.0 months and 15.0 months, respectively (p=0.189). Poor prognostic factors included advanced stage and tumor location in the corpus or the entire stomach but not pregnancy status or loss of E-cadherin. Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer was associated with a longer time from diagnosis to treatment (21 days vs 7 days, p=0.021). The two groups did not differ in the expression of the receptors or E-cadherin. Conclusions The dismal prognosis of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer may related to the tumor stage and location rather than to pregnancy itself. PMID:27114414

  5. Age-associated changes in long-chain fatty acid profile during healthy aging promote pro-inflammatory monocyte polarization via PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Ikwuobe, John; Shigdar, Shahjahan; Boukouvalas, Alexis; Nabney, Ian T; Brown, James E; Devitt, Andrew; Bailey, Clifford J; Bennett, Stuart J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2016-02-01

    Differences in lipid metabolism associate with age-related disease development and lifespan. Inflammation is a common link between metabolic dysregulation and aging. Saturated fatty acids (FAs) initiate pro-inflammatory signalling from many cells including monocytes; however, no existing studies have quantified age-associated changes in individual FAs in relation to inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, we have determined the plasma concentrations of distinct FAs by gas chromatography in 26 healthy younger individuals (age < 30 years) and 21 healthy FA individuals (age > 50 years). Linear mixed models were used to explore the association between circulating FAs, age and cytokines. We showed that plasma saturated, poly- and mono-unsaturated FAs increase with age. Circulating TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations increased with age, whereas IL-10 and TGF-β1 concentrations decreased. Oxidation of MitoSOX Red was higher in leucocytes from FA adults, and plasma oxidized glutathione concentrations were higher. There was significant colinearity between plasma saturated FAs, indicative of their metabolic relationships. Higher levels of the saturated FAs C18:0 and C24:0 were associated with lower TGF-β1 concentrations, and higher C16:0 were associated with higher TNF-α concentrations. We further examined effects of the aging FA profile on monocyte polarization and metabolism in THP1 monocytes. Monocytes preincubated with C16:0 increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to phorbol myristate acetate-induced differentiation through ceramide-dependent inhibition of PPARγ activity. Conversely, C18:1 primed a pro-resolving macrophage which was PPARγ dependent and ceramide dependent and which required oxidative phosphorylation. These data suggest that a midlife adult FA profile impairs the switch from proinflammatory to lower energy, requiring anti-inflammatory macrophages through metabolic reprogramming.

  6. Public health approach to preventing frailty in the community and its effect on healthy aging in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Shoji; Yoshida, Hiroto; Taniguchi, Yu; Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Amano, Hidenori; Nofuji, Yu; Seino, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-03-01

    Effective methods to prevent or delay the onset of frailty are urgently required in aging societies, such as Japan. As a public health approach, we carried out a 10-year community intervention for frailty prevention, and examined its impact on healthy aging among older adults. The target population was all residents aged 65 years or older in the town of Kusatsu, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. For community empowerment, we organized a community forum, and discussed how to address the frailty issue in the community. For primary prevention, we attempted to promote physical activity, nutrition and social participation by means of a health education program to motivate older residents. For secondary prevention, we added a comprehensive geriatric assessment to routine annual health check-ups, which helped older participants improve self-care ability of functional health. High-risk persons were screened and encouraged to participate in a frailty prevention class with a multicomponent program. The attendance rate at annual health check-ups has remained constant at 30-40% of the target population; however, over 80% of the population appeared at least once during the 10 year-period. For evaluation, we carried out biennial health monitoring surveys, and reviewed the records of the local Long-Term Care Insurance system. The functional health of older residents was significantly improved as a result of the interventions; the incidence rate of Long-Term Care Insurance system certification in the old-old population (age ≥75 years) was decreased by one second, and healthy life expectancy at age 70 years was extended by 1.2 years for women and 0.5 years for men. Such trends greatly contrasted with those in the reference area, and Japan as a whole. In summary, the present public health approach to frailty prevention appears to promote healthy aging among older adults. PMID:27018287

  7. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  8. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  9. Perspectives on the Role and Synergies of Architecture and Social and Built Environment in Enabling Active Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rabnett, Richard; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that enabling societal and physical infrastructure and personal accommodations enhance healthy and active aging throughout the lifespan. Yet, there is a paucity of research on how to bring together the various disciplines involved in a multidomain synergistic collaboration to create new living environments for aging. This paper aims to explore the key domains of skills and knowledge that need to be considered for a conceptual prototype of an enabling educational process and environments where healthcare professionals, architects, planners, and entrepreneurs may establish a shared theoretical and experiential knowledge base, vocabulary, and implementation strategies, for the creation of the next generation of living communities of active healthy adults, for persons with disabilities and chronic disease conditions. We focus on synergistic, paradigmatic, simple, and practical issues that can be easily upscaled through market mechanisms. This practical and physically concrete approach may also become linked with more elaborate neuroscientific and technologically sophisticated interventions. We examine the domains of knowledge to be included in establishing a learning model that focuses on the still-understudied impact of the benefits toward active and healthy aging, where architects, urban planners, clinicians, and healthcare facility managers are educated toward a synergistic approach at the operational level.

  10. Perspectives on the Role and Synergies of Architecture and Social and Built Environment in Enabling Active Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rabnett, Richard; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that enabling societal and physical infrastructure and personal accommodations enhance healthy and active aging throughout the lifespan. Yet, there is a paucity of research on how to bring together the various disciplines involved in a multidomain synergistic collaboration to create new living environments for aging. This paper aims to explore the key domains of skills and knowledge that need to be considered for a conceptual prototype of an enabling educational process and environments where healthcare professionals, architects, planners, and entrepreneurs may establish a shared theoretical and experiential knowledge base, vocabulary, and implementation strategies, for the creation of the next generation of living communities of active healthy adults, for persons with disabilities and chronic disease conditions. We focus on synergistic, paradigmatic, simple, and practical issues that can be easily upscaled through market mechanisms. This practical and physically concrete approach may also become linked with more elaborate neuroscientific and technologically sophisticated interventions. We examine the domains of knowledge to be included in establishing a learning model that focuses on the still-understudied impact of the benefits toward active and healthy aging, where architects, urban planners, clinicians, and healthcare facility managers are educated toward a synergistic approach at the operational level. PMID:27656295

  11. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    López, María E; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently "healthy aging" is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater "effort" than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

  12. Perspectives on the Role and Synergies of Architecture and Social and Built Environment in Enabling Active Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Chrysikou, Evangelia; Rabnett, Richard; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that enabling societal and physical infrastructure and personal accommodations enhance healthy and active aging throughout the lifespan. Yet, there is a paucity of research on how to bring together the various disciplines involved in a multidomain synergistic collaboration to create new living environments for aging. This paper aims to explore the key domains of skills and knowledge that need to be considered for a conceptual prototype of an enabling educational process and environments where healthcare professionals, architects, planners, and entrepreneurs may establish a shared theoretical and experiential knowledge base, vocabulary, and implementation strategies, for the creation of the next generation of living communities of active healthy adults, for persons with disabilities and chronic disease conditions. We focus on synergistic, paradigmatic, simple, and practical issues that can be easily upscaled through market mechanisms. This practical and physically concrete approach may also become linked with more elaborate neuroscientific and technologically sophisticated interventions. We examine the domains of knowledge to be included in establishing a learning model that focuses on the still-understudied impact of the benefits toward active and healthy aging, where architects, urban planners, clinicians, and healthcare facility managers are educated toward a synergistic approach at the operational level. PMID:27656295

  13. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  14. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  15. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging.

  16. IFN production ability and healthy ageing: mixed model analysis of a 24 year longitudinal study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kazuko; Yagi, Katsumi; Yoshimori, Masayo; Tanigawa, Mari; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Fujita, Setsuya

    2013-01-01

    Objective To track changes in interferon (IFN) production in healthy individuals to shed light on the effect these changes have on the course of healthy ageing. Design Study is based on data that were collected over 24 years from a cohort of individuals whose IFN-α production was quantified as a part of their annual routine health check-up. Setting All individuals in this study underwent regular health check-ups at Louis Pasteur Center for Medical Research. Participants 295 healthy individuals (159 males and 136 females) without a history of cancer, autoimmune diseases and hepatitis C virus (HCV) whose IFN-α production was quantified more than five times within 24 years were selected. Finally, 29 males and 4 females whose IFN-α production was quantified more than 25 times were selected and their data were analysed using a mixed model. Main outcome measures HVJ stimulated IFN-α  production was quantified. Healthy individual's periodical log transformed IFN-α values (y) were plotted versus age (x) and fitted to linear (y=mx+n) and quadratic formula (y=ax2+bx+c) expressions to reveal changes in the IFN-α  production in these healthy individuals. Results The linear expression showed that log (IFN-α) had a slight tendency to decline (3% over 10 years). However, the quadratic formula analysis showed the quadratic expression to be more positive than negative (a concave U-shaped pattern) which means that individuals’ once declining IFN production recovered as they aged. Conclusions Although we observed a marginal decline in IFN-α  production, we also observed that IFN production recovered even in individuals in their mid50s to early 60s. These results combined with our previous cross-sectional studies of patients with various diseases suggest that in healthy individuals, the impairment of IFN production is triggered more by the onset of disease (notwithstanding the cause) rather than by ageing. PMID:23315513

  17. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions. PMID:26769915

  18. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions.

  19. Cognitive and Psychosocial Consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Among Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Galea, Sandro; Jazwinski, S Michal; Silva, Jennifer L; Erwin, Marla J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on cognitive and psychosocial functioning among middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-89 years) and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Analyses of pre- and post-disaster cognitive data showed storm-related decrements in working memory for the middle-aged and older adults, but not for the oldest-old adults. Regression analyses confirmed that measures of social engagement and storm-related disruption significantly predicted pre- to post-disaster differences in short-term and working memory performance for the middle-aged and older adults only. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. Implications for current views of disaster reactions are discussed.

  20. Mild Memory Impairment in Healthy Older Adults Is Distinct from Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargin, J. Weaver; Maruff, P.; Collie, A.; Masters, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mild memory impairment was detected in 28% of a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults using the delayed recall trial of a word list learning task. Statistical analysis revealed that individuals with memory impairment also demonstrated relative deficits on other measures of memory, and tests of executive function, processing speed and…

  1. Healthy Aging with Go4Life® | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy and improve your overall fitness. Building your endurance makes it easier to carry out many of your everyday activities. Brisk walking or jogging Yard work (mowing, raking, digging) Dancing Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Even small increases in strength can make ...

  2. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  3. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 Levels in Healthy Children Between 0 and 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Bilgin; Özbek, M. Nuri; Mungan, Neslihan Önenli; Darendeliler, Feyza; Budan, Bahar; Bideci, Aysun; Çetinkaya, Ergün; Berberoğlu, Merih; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Arslanoğlu, İlknur; Darcan, Şükran; Bundak, Ruveyda; Ercan, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Along with growth hormone (GH) levels, measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are used in the diagnosis of GH deficiency and in monitoring the efficacy and safety of long-term GH treatment. The purpose of the present study was to establish reference values for serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in healthy Turkish children less than 6 years of age. Methods: This study was designed as a multicenter project. Five hundred sixty-seven healthy children younger than 6 years of age from different geographical regions of Turkey, with weight and height values between the 10th and 90th percentiles according to the national standards were included in the study. In addition to anthropometric parameters, serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured in all subjects. Results: Although not statistically significant, the serum IGF-1 levels in infants at age 6 months were lower than those in infants at age 3 months. The IGF-1 levels showed a slow increase with age. Serum IGF-1 levels were lower in girls as compared to boys only at age 6 months. No correlation was found between either serum IGFBP-3 levels and body mass index (BMI) or serum IGFBP-3 and weight and height standard deviation scores (SDS). A weak correlation was observed between serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations. Conclusions: The age- and gender-specific reference values for serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 reported in this study will aid in the diagnosis of GH deficiency and in the monitoring of children receiving GH treatment. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750637

  4. Age-related changes in the morphology and protein expression of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Kun; Yangyang, Pan; He, Junfeng; Yu, Sijiu; Cui, Yan

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate age-related changes in the morphology and expression of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), S100 β, and caspase-3 of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens). ANIMALS 15 healthy male yaks of various ages from highland plateaus. PROCEDURES Yaks were allocated to 3 groups on the basis of age (newborn [1 to 7 days old; n = 5], juvenile [5 to 7 months old, 5], and adult [3 to 4 years old; 5]) and euthanized. The thymus was harvested from each yak within 10 minutes after euthanasia. Morphological characteristics were assessed by histologic examination and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of CD3, S100 β, and caspase-3 mRNA and protein was measured by quantitative real-time PCR assay, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS As age increased, functional thymic tissue was replaced with adipose and connective tissues and the thymic capsule thickened. Expression of CD3 and S100 β mRNA and protein decreased with age, whereas expression of caspase-3 mRNA and protein increased with age. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD3-positive thymocytes were located within both the thymic cortex and medulla, S100 β-positive thymic dendritic cells were located in the corticomedullary junction and medulla, and caspase-3-positive thymocytes were diffusely scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that age-related thymic changes in yaks that live on highland plateaus were similar to those observed in humans and other mammals. Thus, yaks might serve as a model to study thymic immune system adaptations to high elevations. PMID:27227493

  5. Differential age-dependent associations of gray matter volume and white matter integrity with processing speed in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhaoping; Ng, Kwun Kei; Sim, Sam K Y; Ngeow, Mei Yi; Zheng, Hui; Lo, June C; Chee, Michael W L; Zhou, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Slower processing speed (PS), a highly robust feature of cognitive aging, is associated with white matter (WM) deterioration and gray matter volume (GMV) loss. Traditional linear regression models assume a constant relationship between brain structure and cognition over time. To probe for variation in the association between WM and GMV and PS over time, we used a novel sparse varying coefficient model on data collected from 126 relatively healthy older adults (67 females, aged 58-85years) evaluated with MRI and a standardized neuropsychological test-battery. We found that WM microstructural differences indexed by fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-striatal tracts (internal and external capsule) showed a stronger association with PS before the age of 70years. Contrastingly, GMV values of the left putamen and middle occipital gyrus were more strongly correlated with PS after 70years. Additionally, within GM and WM compartments, there was heterogeneity in the temporal sequence in which different cortical and subcortical elements were most strongly associated with PS. Together, these observations provide a more nuanced account of the relationships between different structural components of the aging brain and processing speed, a key cognitive domain affected in relatively healthy older adults. PMID:26302672

  6. Influence of dietary habits, age and gender on plasma fatty acids levels in a population of healthy Tunisian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2010-09-01

    The fatty acids composition of circulating blood lipids is expected to be altered by many factors (ageing, dietary intake, lifestyle...). In addition to the ageing consequences on their lipid status, elderly subjects represent a population at risk of nutritional imbalance. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between dietary habits and the plasma fatty acids patterns in a healthy Tunisian population with an emphasis on the gender and ageing differences for the 6-desaturase activity and the EFA proportions. Nutritional habits and plasma fatty acids compositions have been therefore evaluated in 200 healthy volunteers (104 women and 96 men) aged between 40 and 82years old. The findings revealed that the 6-desaturase activity was reduced in elderly subjects (by 24% and 10% in women and men respectively). Moreover, DHA (C22:6n-3) and AA (C20:4n-6) were found to increase respectively in high fish and meat consumers. Plasma fatty acids composition could be sensitive to dietary habits according to particular food items and should then help for the establishment of optimal nutritional proportions.

  7. Internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle of middle-aged women: A qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Enjezab, Behnaz; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Taleghani, Fariba; Aflatoonian, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Background: A healthy lifestyle is one of the basic health-promotion strategies. Several factors are involved in shaping health-promotion behaviors. The internal barriers are the opinion and feelings that surround the individual and are the reasons that complicate the change of behavior. The aim of this study was to identify internal motivations and barriers effective on the healthy lifestyle in middle-aged Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 middle-aged women in the city of Yazd, who were selected using purposeful sampling approach. The interviews continued until data saturation was reached; and the interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed exactly. The transcripts were analyzed. Results: Five main themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: Women’s knowledge of health-promoting behaviors, importance of health and healthy behavior of women, affliction or fear of affliction to chronic disease and its consequences, responsibilities of women in the family and society, and skills of life management in women. Conclusion: The findings suggest that empowering individual participants in health promotion is the most important factor determining their health. Thus, designing appropriate programs for education and empowerment of people is essential to promoting health. Health policy makers, with knowledge of these factors, can design comprehensive, socialization programs to promote women’s health. PMID:23853654

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of the cervical spine kinematics: effect of age and gender in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lansade, Céline; Laporte, Sébastien; Thoreux, Patricia; Rousseau, Marc-Antoine; Skalli, Wafa; Lavaste, François

    2009-12-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: A three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the cervical spine kinematics in vivo about a large asymptomatic database in order to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the neck's performances. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate the effect of age and gender on kinematical parameters of the cervical spine, specifically quantitative parameters concerning coupled movements and proprioception, using the infra-red POLARIS measurement system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Cervical spine kinematics has been investigated in vivo by numerous authors using various devices. However, few is known about the influence of gender and age on the 3D cervical biomechanics, specifically regarding coupled movements and proprioceptive abilities. METHODS.: A total of 140 asymptomatic volunteers (70 men and 70 women) aged 20 to 93 years old were enrolled. The noninvasive infrared system Polaris was used to quantify the 3D range of motion (ROM) of cervical spine and to evaluate proprioceptive abilities. For validating the protocol in terms of reproducibility, 12 volunteers were tested 3 times by 2 independent operators. RESULTS.: The standard error of measurement for the maximal ROM in the 3 space planes was 5%. Gender had no significant influence on the 3D cervical ROM, except for the "70-79 years old" group. Age had a significant influence on all main movements showing 0.55 degrees to 0.79 degrees magnitude decrease per decade. Age and gender had no significant influence on coupled movements. "Head-to-Target" proprioception was significantly affected by the age only in the horizontal plane. CONCLUSION.: A data base for cervical ROM, pattern of motion, and proprioceptive capability was established in population of 140 healthy subjects of various age and gender. Significant age-related decrease in ROM and proprioceptive abilities were observed in this study. Coupled movements did not vary with gender or age; however, their role in the cervical performance increased with age since main

  9. The role of arousal in the spontaneous regulation of emotions in healthy aging: a fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Dolcos, Sanda; Katsumi, Yuta; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite ample support for enhanced affective well-being and emotional stability in healthy aging, the role of potentially important dimensions, such as the emotional arousal, has not been systematically investigated in neuroimaging studies. In addition, the few behavioral studies that examined effects of arousal have produced inconsistent findings. The present study manipulated the arousal of pictorial stimuli to test the hypothesis that preserved emotional functioning in aging is modulated by the level of arousal, and to identify the associated neural correlates. Young and older healthy participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures, which they rated for emotional content, while fMRI data were recorded. There were three main novel findings regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of negative pictures with different levels of arousal in young and older adults. First, the common engagement of the right amygdala in young and older adults was driven by high arousing negative stimuli. Second, complementing an age-related reduction in the subjective ratings for low arousing negative pictures, there were opposing patterns of activity in the rostral/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the amygdala, which showed increased vs. decreased responses, respectively, to low arousing negative pictures. Third, increased spontaneous activity in the ventral ACC/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in older adults was linked to reduced ratings for low arousing negative pictures. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates underlying processing of negative emotions with different levels of arousal in the context of enhanced emotional functioning in healthy aging. Notably, the results support the idea that older adults have emotion regulation networks chronically activated, in the absence of explicit induction of the goal to regulate emotions, and that this effect is specific to low arousing negative emotions

  10. Age-Related Differences in White Matter Integrity in Healthy Human Brain: Evidence from Structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Rishu; Rallabandi, V.P. Subramanyam; Roy, Prasun K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to investigate the relationship between microstructural white matter (WM) diffusivity indices and macrostructural WM volume (WMV) among healthy individuals (20–85 years). Whole-brain diffusion measures were calculated from diffusion tensor imaging using FMRIB software library while WMV was estimated through voxel-based morphometry, and voxel-based analysis was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics. Our results revealed that mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity had shown good correlation with WMV but not for fractional anisotropy (FA). Voxel-wise tract-based spatial statistics analysis for FA showed a significant decrease in four regions for middle-aged group compared to young-aged group, in 22 regions for old-aged group compared to middle-aged group, and in 26 regions for old-aged group compared to young-aged group (P < 0.05). We found significantly lower WMV, FA, and mean diffusivity values in females than males and inverted-U trend for FA in males. We conclude differential age- and gender-related changes for structural WMV and WM diffusion indices. PMID:27279747

  11. Volume of the hippocampal subfields in healthy adults: differential associations with age and a pro-inflammatory genetic variant.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Daugherty, Ana M; Bender, Andrew R; Dahle, Cheryl L; Land, Susan

    2015-09-01

    The hippocampus is one of the most age-sensitive brain regions, yet the mechanisms of hippocampal shrinkage remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable to aging and differentially sensitive to vascular risk. Promoters of inflammation are frequently proposed as major contributors to brain aging and vascular disease but their effects on hippocampal subfields are unknown. We examined the associations of hippocampal subfield volumes with age, a vascular risk factor (hypertension), and genetic polymorphisms associated with variation in pro-inflammatory cytokines levels (IL-1β C-511T and IL-6 C-174G) and risk for Alzheimer's disease (APOEε4) in healthy adult volunteers (N = 80; age = 22-82 years). Volumes of three hippocampal subfields, cornu ammonis (CA) 1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus, and the subiculum were manually measured on high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Advanced age was differentially associated with smaller volume of CA1-2, whereas carriers of the T allele of IL-1β C-511T polymorphism had smaller volume of all hippocampal subfields than CC homozygotes did. Neither of the other genetic variants, nor diagnosis of hypertension, was associated with any of the measured volumes. The results support the notion that volumes of age-sensitive brain regions may be affected by pro-inflammatory factors that may be targeted by therapeutic interventions.

  12. Serum lipid values and age in healthy women: a preliminary report on cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Williams, G Z

    1993-04-01

    In a 20-year prospective study of the influence of lifestyle and age on health parameters in men's and women's serum cholesterol, triglycerides and high density and low density lipoproteins were measured periodically to determine each person's longitudinal profile. The accumulated data for 1008 women of 20 to 70 years is averaged by five-year age brackets. Scatter plots and simple regression of these five-year group means for ages 20 to 45 years, reveals a gradual increase in serum cholesterol, increasing from 176 mg/dl to 196 with a slope of 0.61 mg/dl per year. Between ages 45 and 70, the slope increases substantially to 1.91 mg/dl per year, and the five-year group means rise from 196 at age 45 to 239 at age 70 in rather uniform increments. The data have been analyzed for the other lipids and the relationship to estrogen replacement, nutritional, and exercise habits.

  13. Evaluation of a radio based ADL interaction recognition system in a day hospital for old age psychiatry with healthy probands.

    PubMed

    Neuhaeuser, J; Diehl-Schmid, J; Lueth, T C

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution the evaluation of a system called "Eventlogger" is presented, which is installed in a day hospital for old age psychiatry. The Eventlogger is a radio based module with an adjustable communication range, able to recognize interaction of the user with objects or with other people. It is intended to function as a monitoring tool for the users' activities. Due to the demographic change monitoring systems for elderly people become more important. In this paper the "simple activities of daily living" (sADL) is introduced as well as the evaluation for the recognition of sADL in a day hospital for old age psychiatry with healthy probands is presented. Together with the first approaches of post processing for better results it is shown that the system is now ready to be used with patients of the day hospital for old age psychiatry.

  14. ERBB4 Polymorphism and Family History of Psychiatric Disorders on Age-Related Cortical Changes in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda; Lee, Kristin; Ernst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic variations in ERBB4 were associated with increased susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BPD). Structural imaging studies showed cortical abnormalities in adolescents and adults with SCZ or BPD. However, less is known about subclinical cortical changes or the influence of ERBB4 on cortical development. Methods 971 healthy children (ages 3–20 years old; 462 girls and 509 boys) were genotyped for the ERBB4-rs7598440 variants, had structural MRI, and cognitive evaluation (NIH Toolbox ®). We investigated the effects of ERBB4 variants and family history of SCZ and/or BPD (FH) on cortical measures and cognitive performances across ages 3–20 years using a general additive model. Results Variations in ERBB4 and FH impact differentially the age-related cortical changes in regions often affected by SCZ and BPD. The ERBB4-TT-risk genotype children with no FH had subtle cortical changes across the age span, primarily located in the left temporal lobe and superior parietal cortex. In contrast, the TT-risk genotype children with FH had more pronounced age-related changes, mainly in the frontal lobes compared to the non-risk genotype children. Interactive effects of age, FH and ERBB4 variations were also found on episodic memory and working memory, which are often impaired in SCZ and BPD. Conclusions Healthy children carrying the risk-genotype in ERBB4 and/or with FH had cortical measures resembling those reported in SCZ or BPD. These subclinical cortical variations may provide early indicators for increased risk of psychiatric disorders and improve our understanding of the effect of the NRG1–ERBB4 pathway on brain development. PMID:25744101

  15. Glutamatergic signaling and low prodynorphin expression are associated with intact memory and reduced anxiety in rat models of healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, Caroline; Quirion, Rémi; Bouchard, Sylvain; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette

    2014-01-01

    The LOU/C/Jall (LOU) rat strain is considered a model of healthy aging due to its increased longevity, maintenance of stable body weight (BW) throughout life and low incidence of age-related diseases. However, aging LOU rat cognitive and anxiety status has yet to be investigated. In the present study, male and female LOU rat cognitive performances (6–42 months) were assessed using novel object recognition and Morris Water Maze tasks. Recognition memory remained intact in all LOU rats up to 42 months of age. As for spatial memory, old LOU rat performed similarly as young animals for learning acquisition, reversal learning, and retention. While LOU rat BW remained stable despite aging, 20-month-old ad-libitum-fed (OAL) male Sprague Dawley rats become obese. We determined if long-term caloric restriction (LTCR) prevents age-related BW increase and cognitive deficits in this rat strain, as observed in the obesity-resistant LOU rats. Compared to young animals, recognition memory was impaired in OAL but intact in 20-month-old calorie-restricted (OCR) rats. Similarly, OAL spatial learning acquisition was impaired but LTCR prevented the deficits. Exacerbated stress responses may favor age-related cognitive decline. In the elevated plus maze and open field tasks, LOU and OCR rats exhibited high levels of exploratory activity whereas OAL rats displayed anxious behaviors. Expression of prodynorphin (Pdyn), an endogenous peptide involved in stress-related memory impairments, was increased in the hippocampus of OAL rats. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and immediate early genes Homer 1a and Arc expression, both associated with successful cognitive aging, were unaltered in aging LOU rats but lower in OAL than OCR rats. Altogether, our results, supported by principal component analysis and correlation matrix, suggest that intact memory and low anxiety are associated with glutamatergic signaling and low Pdyn expression in the hippocampus of non-obese aging rats. PMID

  16. Feasibility of integrating the "Healthy moves for aging well" program into home care aide services for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae-Hee; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of implementing simple, safe, non-equipment evidence-based movements (Healthy Moves for Aging Well program) using an affordable and sustainable homecare-aide based delivery model that reaches the maximum possible number of frail older adults living at home in Illinois. Two local agencies were asked to identify two experienced home care aides and two inexperienced home care aides (n= 8). Each home care aides delivered the Healthy Moves to four clients (n= 16). Eight home care aides visited the client in the home and were asked to deliver the Healthy Moves program on a regular basis for a four-month time period. Outcome measures included a pre-and post- survey, a functional fitness test (older adults), and interviews. Evaluation procedures focused on older adult participants, homecare aids, and sites. The results showed that both interview and survey data revealed that most participants including older adults, home care aides, and site directors had a positive perception and high satisfaction with the program. Specially, 100% of older adult participants reported that they would recommend the program to others. Additionally, seniors and home care aides reported that they enjoyed working with each other on the program and both site directors reported that dissemination of the program in the State of Illinois employing home care aides was feasible and acceptable. Our study results indicate that Healthy Moves for Aging Well could be safely and successfully be disseminated to frail older adults in the State of Illinois.

  17. Feasibility of integrating the "Healthy moves for aging well" program into home care aide services for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae-Hee; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of implementing simple, safe, non-equipment evidence-based movements (Healthy Moves for Aging Well program) using an affordable and sustainable homecare-aide based delivery model that reaches the maximum possible number of frail older adults living at home in Illinois. Two local agencies were asked to identify two experienced home care aides and two inexperienced home care aides (n= 8). Each home care aides delivered the Healthy Moves to four clients (n= 16). Eight home care aides visited the client in the home and were asked to deliver the Healthy Moves program on a regular basis for a four-month time period. Outcome measures included a pre-and post- survey, a functional fitness test (older adults), and interviews. Evaluation procedures focused on older adult participants, homecare aids, and sites. The results showed that both interview and survey data revealed that most participants including older adults, home care aides, and site directors had a positive perception and high satisfaction with the program. Specially, 100% of older adult participants reported that they would recommend the program to others. Additionally, seniors and home care aides reported that they enjoyed working with each other on the program and both site directors reported that dissemination of the program in the State of Illinois employing home care aides was feasible and acceptable. Our study results indicate that Healthy Moves for Aging Well could be safely and successfully be disseminated to frail older adults in the State of Illinois. PMID:25061600

  18. Research on the Healthy Lifestyle Model, Active Ageing, and Loneliness of Senior Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Ying; Lu, Kuo-Song

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan has the fastest ageing population in the world. Thus, the government and local policy makers need to formulate policies not just for the nursing and care needs of the aged. They also need to actively promote the need for lifelong learning among seniors in order to achieve elderly-friendly objectives, such as health promotion and delays in…

  19. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  20. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted. PMID:26988768

  1. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted.

  2. Does growth hormone prevent aging in the healthy elderly with low serum insulin-like growth factor-I ?

    PubMed

    Lee, K O; Liao, L; Mukherjee, J J

    2004-04-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual decline in the function of a number of endocrine glands. While there are phenotypic similarities seen in the changes of aging with some endocrine hormone deficiency states, the relationship between the decline in growth hormone (GH) secretion, and the decrease in serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), with these body composition changes is far from clear. The decline in serum IGF-I, unlike that of thyroxine and estradiol, is not accompanied by an increase in pituitary GH secretion. The recent enthusiastic recommendation for GH 'replacement' in the aging population with low serum IGF-I remains highly controversial. The evidence is still unclear on any significant beneficial effect of such replacement in healthy fit elderly men and women. There is some early evidence of beneficial effects of such replacement in the frail elderly. There are no studies that have investigated the effect of GH on longevity in humans, but results from animal studies on caloric restriction and longevity do not suggest that GH administration will increase life span. There is still insufficient evidence that treatment with exogenous GH in the healthy elderly that attains serum IGF-I levels similar to that of young adults is beneficial or safe. PMID:15063105

  3. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2) adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): −17 (−22 to −13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. PMID:26751475

  4. In vivo NAD assay reveals the intracellular NAD contents and redox state in healthy human brain and their age dependences.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Ming; Lee, Byeong-Yeul; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    NAD is an essential metabolite that exists in NAD(+) or NADH form in all living cells. Despite its critical roles in regulating mitochondrial energy production through the NAD(+)/NADH redox state and modulating cellular signaling processes through the activity of the NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, the method for quantifying intracellular NAD contents and redox state is limited to a few in vitro or ex vivo assays, which are not suitable for studying a living brain or organ. Here, we present a magnetic resonance (MR) -based in vivo NAD assay that uses the high-field MR scanner and is capable of noninvasively assessing NAD(+) and NADH contents and the NAD(+)/NADH redox state in intact human brain. The results of this study provide the first insight, to our knowledge, into the cellular NAD concentrations and redox state in the brains of healthy volunteers. Furthermore, an age-dependent increase of intracellular NADH and age-dependent reductions in NAD(+), total NAD contents, and NAD(+)/NADH redox potential of the healthy human brain were revealed in this study. The overall findings not only provide direct evidence of declined mitochondrial functions and altered NAD homeostasis that accompany the normal aging process but also, elucidate the merits and potentials of this new NAD assay for noninvasively studying the intracellular NAD metabolism and redox state in normal and diseased human brain or other organs in situ.

  5. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake--A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-07

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%-20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m²) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m²) adults (standardized mean difference: -0.77 (95% confidence interval -0.90 to -0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): -17 (-22 to -13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: -14 (-19 to -9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake.

  6. Effects of Age, Sex, and Obesity on the Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Omarigliptin in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Addy, Carol; Tatosian, Daniel A; Glasgow, Xiaoli S; Iii, Isaias Noel Gendrano; Sisk, Christine McCrary; Kauh, Eunkyung A; Stoch, S Aubrey; Wagner, John A

    2016-09-01

    Omarigliptin is being developed as a potent, once-weekly, oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of age, sex, and obesity on the pharmacokinetics of omarigliptin in healthy subjects. A single oral dose of omarigliptin 10 mg (n = 6/panel) or placebo (n = 2/panel) was administered in the fasted state to elderly nonobese men and women, young obese (30 ≤ body mass index [BMI] ≤ 35 kg/m(2) ) men and women, and young nonobese women of nonchildbearing potential. Plasma was collected at selected postdose times for evaluation of omarigliptin concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with historical data from a previously-conducted single-dose study in young, healthy, nonobese men. There were no clinically significant differences in omarigliptin AUC0-∞ , the primary pharmacokinetic parameter for assessing efficacy and safety, based on age, sex, or BMI (pooled nonobese elderly versus pooled nonobese young, young nonobese female versus young nonobese male, and pooled young obese versus pooled young nonobese). There were no serious adverse events or hypoglycemic events attributable to omarigliptin administration. Demographic factors and BMI had no meaningful effect on omarigliptin pharmacokinetics, suggesting that dose adjustment based on age, sex, or obesity is not required. PMID:27627193

  7. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. Results: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic – 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic – 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect

  8. Development and Decline of Memory Functions in Normal, Pathological and Healthy Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sanfratello, L.; Adair, J. C.; Knoefel, J. E.; Caprihan, A.; Stephen, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies of age-related memory decline interpret resultant differences in brain activation patterns in the elderly as reflecting a type of compensatory response or regression to a simpler state of brain organization. Here we review a series of our own studies which lead us to an alternative interpretation, and highlights a couple of potential confounds in the aging literature that may act to increase the variability of results within age groups and across laboratories. From our perspective, level of cognitive functioning achieved by a group of elderly is largely determined by the health of individuals within this group. Individuals with a history of hypertension, for example, are likely to have multiple white matter insults which compromise cognitive functioning, independent of aging processes. The health of the elderly group has not been well-documented in most previous studies and elderly participants are rarely excluded, or placed into a separate group, due to health-related problems. In addition, recent results show that white matter tracts within the frontal and temporal lobes, regions critical for higher cognitive functions, continue to mature well into the 4th decade of life. This suggests that a young age group may not be the best control group for understanding aging effects on the brain since development is ongoing within this age range. Therefore, we have added a middle-age group to our studies in order to better understand normal development across the lifespan as well as effects of pathology on cognitive functioning in the aging brain. PMID:21452018

  9. Electrophysiological validation of total atrial conduction time measurement by tissue doppler echocardiography according to age and sex in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Fatma Hizal; Erdem, Alim; Özlü, Fatih; Ozturk, Serkan; Ayhan, Suzi Selim; Çağlar, Sabri Onur; Yazici, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to validate total atrial conduction time (TACT) measurement via tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) by comparing the electrophysiological study (EPS) measurements of healthy subjects, according to age and sex. Methods Eighty patients with normal EPS results were included. TACT was measured by EPS and TDI. For validation, the results of TDI were compared with those of EPS. TACT was assessed by measuring the time interval between the beginning of the P-wave on the surface ECG, and the peak A-wave on TDI from the left atrial lateral wall, just over the mitral annulus. Electrophysiological TACT was defined as the time from the high right atrial electrogram to the distal coronary sinus atrial electrogram around the left lateral portion of the mitral ring. Results EPS and TDI measurements of the TACT were significantly and positively correlated among men and women in 20–30 years (p=0.008, r=0.412; p>0.001, r=0.706, respectively), and those in the 30–40 years group (p=0.001, r=0.649; p=0.001, r=0.696). In contrast, EPS and TDI measurements of TACT were not significantly different among men and women in the 20–30 years and those in the 30–40 years group (p>0.05, for both). On univariate regression analyses, TACT was independently associated with age (β=0.342, =0.001). Conclusions When assessed according to the age and sex of healthy participants, TDI and EPS measurements during TACT assessments were similar and correlated with each other. The measurement of TACT via TDI may be used accurately and confidently than the measurement via EPS in healthy individuals. PMID:27092194

  10. Cytomegalovirus drives Vδ2neg γδ T cell inflation in many healthy virus carriers with increasing age.

    PubMed

    Alejenef, A; Pachnio, A; Halawi, M; Christmas, S E; Moss, P A H; Khan, N

    2014-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) usually causes lifelong asymptomatic infection, but over time can distort immune profiles. Recent reports describe selective expansion of Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells in healthy and immunocompromised CMV carriers. Having shown previously that virus-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses are increased significantly in elderly CMV carriers, probably driven by chronic stimulation, we hypothesized that Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells may also be expanded with age. Our results show that Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells are increased significantly in CMV-seropositive healthy individuals compared to CMV-seronegative controls in all age groups. The differences were most significant in older age groups (P < 0·0001). Furthermore, while Vδ2(neg) γδ T- cells comprise both naive and memory cells in CMV-seronegative donors, highly differentiated effector memory cells are the dominant phenotype in CMV carriers, with naive cells reduced significantly in numbers in CMV-seropositive elderly. Although phenotypically resembling conventional CMV-specific T cells, Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells do not correlate with changes in magnitude of CMV-specific CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell frequencies within those individuals, and do not possess ex-vivo immediate effector function as shown by CMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. However, after short-term culture, Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells demonstrate effector T cell functions, suggesting additional requirements for activation. In summary, Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells are expanded in many older CMV carriers, demonstrating a further level of lymphocyte subset skewing by CMV in healthy individuals. As others have reported shared reactivity of Vδ2(neg) γδ T cells towards tumour cells, the composition of γδ T cell subsets may also have implications for risk of developing cancer in elderly people.

  11. The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

    PubMed

    Nathan, I; Hackett, A F; Kirby, S

    1996-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.

  12. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Katelyn N; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40-70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  13. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katelyn N.; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40–70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  14. Native myocardial longitudinal (T 1) relaxation time: Regional, age, and sex associations in the healthy adult heart

    PubMed Central

    Rauhalammi, Samuli M.O.; Mangion, Kenneth; Barrientos, Pauline Hall; Carrick, David J.A.; Clerfond, Guillaume; McClure, John; McComb, Christie; Radjenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at two field strengths to assess healthy adults' regional myocardial noncontrast (native) T 1 relaxation time distribution, and global myocardial native T 1 between sexes and across age groups. Materials and Methods In all, 84 healthy volunteers underwent MRI at 1.5T and 3.0T. T 1 maps were acquired in three left ventricular short axis slices using an optimized modified Look–Locker inversion recovery investigational prototype sequence. T 1 measurements in msec were calculated from 16 regions‐of‐interest, and a global T 1 value from all evaluable segments per subject. Associations were assessed with a multivariate linear regression model. Results In total, 1297 (96.5%) segments were evaluable at 1.5T and 1263 (94.0%) segments at 3.0T. Native T 1 was higher in septal than lateral myocardium (1.5T: 956.3 ± 44.4 vs. 939.2 ± 54.2 msec; P < 0.001; 3.0T: 1158.2 ± 45.9 vs. 1148.9 ± 56.9 msec; P = 0.012). Native T 1 decreased with increasing age in females but not in males. Among lowest age tertile (<33 years) global native T 1 was higher in females than in males at 1.5T (960.0 ± 20.3 vs. 931.5 ± 22.2 msec, respectively; P = 0.003) and 3.0T (1166.5 ± 19.7 vs. 1130.2 ± 20.6 msec; P < 0.001). No sex differences were observed in upper age tertile (≥55 years) at 1.5T (937.7 ± 25.4 vs. 934.7 ± 22.3 msec; P = 0.762) or 3.0T (1153.0 ± 30.0 vs. 1132.3 ± 23.5 msec; P = 0.056). Association of global native T 1 to age (P = 0.002) and sex (P < 0.001) was independent of field strength and body size. Conclusion In healthy adults, native T 1 values are highest in the ventricular septum. Global native T 1 was inversely associated with age in women, but not in men. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:541–548. PMID:26946323

  15. Aging related changes in mixed basal saliva concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride in healthy non medicated humans.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Rui; Navas, Eunice; Duran, Carolina; Pinto, Maria; Gutierrez, Jose; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the salivary flow is reduced by aging but ionic composition changes associated to aging have been less evaluated. To measure salivary and plasmatic [Na(+)], [K(+)] and [Cl(-)] and to correlate with age in healthy, non-medicated subjects of any gender, 165 healthy participating subjects (over 15 years old) were asked to give sample of 5 mL mix basal saliva in a plastic vial without any stimulation technique, additionally, 5 mL of venous blood was collected. Samples [Na(+)] and [K(+)] were measured by flame photometry (Corning™ M-405) and [Cl(-)] by voltametric chlorometry (Corning™ M-920). Ionic concentrations were expressed as (X±DE; meq.L⁻¹). All three ionic concentrations progressively increased with age, with the lineal regression equation being: [Na(+)] mEq=17.76 + 0.26(Age); r=+0.42; F=31.5; P=0.00001; [K(+)] mEq=13.2+0.15(Age); r=+0.32; F=16.5; P=0.00001; [Cl(-)] mEq=9.05+0.18(Age); r=+0.35; F=7.8; P=0.0071. Age induced changes in salivary ionic concentrations were not associated to blood ionic changes. However, saliva and blood [Na(+)] and [K(+)] were correlated (r=+0.25; F=4.49; P=0.04 and r=+0.30; F=6.98; P=0.01, respectively). Significant association was found among salivary ions: [Na(+)] mEq=9.14+0.99[K(+)] (r=+0.79; F=95.2; P=0.000001); [Cl(-)] mEq=0.95+0.56[Na(+)] (r=0.79; F=106.6; P=0.000001) and [Cl(-)] mEq=3.45+0.69[K(+)] (r=0.73; F=72.5; P=0.000001). These results confirm and measure the impact of aging over the mixed and resting salivary secretion process and suggest that local changes are not related to blood ionic composition. PMID:25101709

  16. White and grey matter changes in the language network during healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanhui; Dai, Bohan; Howell, Peter; Wang, Xianling; Li, Kuncheng; Lu, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Neural structures change with age but there is no consensus on the exact processes involved. This study tested the hypothesis that white and grey matter in the language network changes during aging according to a "last in, first out" process. The fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter and cortical thickness of grey matter were measured in 36 participants whose ages ranged from 55 to 79 years. Within the language network, the dorsal pathway connecting the mid-to-posterior superior temporal cortex (STC) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) was affected more by aging in both FA and thickness than the other dorsal pathway connecting the STC with the premotor cortex and the ventral pathway connecting the mid-to-anterior STC with the ventral IFC. These results were independently validated in a second group of 20 participants whose ages ranged from 50 to 73 years. The pathway that is most affected during aging matures later than the other two pathways (which are present at birth). The results are interpreted as showing that the neural structures which mature later are affected more than those that mature earlier, supporting the "last in, first out" theory.

  17. Age-dependent variation in cytokines, chemokines, and biologic analytes rinsed from the surface of healthy human skin.

    PubMed

    Kinn, Patrick M; Holdren, Grant O; Westermeyer, Brittney A; Abuissa, Mousa; Fischer, Carol L; Fairley, Janet A; Brogden, Kim A; Brogden, Nicole K

    2015-06-02

    In the skin, aging is associated with overall epidermal thinning, decreased barrier function, and gradual deterioration of the epidermal immune response. However, the presence and role of cytokines, chemokines, and biologic analytes (CCBAs) in immunosenescence are not known. Here we identified age-related changes in skin properties and CCBAs from stratum corneum of healthy human subjects, providing a means to utilize CCBAs as benchmarks for aging skin health. Transepidermal water loss and a(*) (skin redness) decreased in an age-dependent manner, and were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 (56.6 ± 4.6 years) and 3 (72.9 ± 3.0 years) vs. Group 1 (24.3 ± 2.8 years). In skin wash fluid, 48 CCBAs were detected; seven were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 and 3: EGF, FGF-2, IFNα2, IL-1RA, HSA, keratin-6, and involucrin; cortisol was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in Groups 2 and 3. Our results correspond with the pro-inflammatory shift that occurs with immunosenescence and also provides basis for understanding the inflammatory changes in normal aging skin.

  18. Determinants of sleep quality in the healthy aged: the role of physical, psychological, circadian and naturalistic light variables.

    PubMed

    Hood, Bernadette; Bruck, Dorothy; Kennedy, Gerard

    2004-03-01

    Ageing is associated with a decrease in the quality of night-time sleep with 30% of aged persons experiencing chronic insomnia. Treatment of insomnia typically involves the use of hypnotic medications and these have been associated with a range of negative outcomes in this population cohort. The development of age-related insomnia has been linked, in part, to changes in the strength of the circadian regulation of sleep, these changes typically leading to increased fragmentation of the sleep-wake cycle. Management of insomnia may therefore be linked to strengthening of these regulatory control mechanisms. Previous research has indicated that both daily activity levels and ambient light exposure may act as zeitgebers to consolidate sleep-wakefulness cycles. The current study utilised a naturalistic design to explore the relationship between light, activity and night-time sleep quality amongst a sample of 33 healthy aged subjects. Findings demonstrated a significant positive relationship between activity and sleep quality. Ambient light was also shown to have a significant impact on night-time sleep though the study identified a critical exposure threshold of 3000 lux. Factor analysis demonstrated the independent contribution of these two variables to subsequent sleep quality. The findings of the current study identify the potential for the development of non-pharmacological treatment strategies for insomnia in aged people.

  19. The effect of age and sex on facial mimicry: a three-dimensional study in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Sforza, C; Mapelli, A; Galante, D; Moriconi, S; Ibba, T M; Ferraro, L; Ferrario, V F

    2010-10-01

    To assess sex- and age-related characteristics in standardized facial movements, 40 healthy adults (20 men, 20 women; aged 20-50 years) performed seven standardized facial movements (maximum smile; free smile; "surprise" with closed mouth; "surprise" with open mouth; eye closure; right- and left-side eye closures). The three-dimensional coordinates of 21 soft tissue facial landmarks were recorded by a motion analyser, their movements computed, and asymmetry indices calculated. Within each movement, total facial mobility was independent from sex and age (analysis of variance, p>0.05). Asymmetry indices of the eyes and mouth were similar in both sexes (p>0.05). Age significantly influenced eye and mouth asymmetries of the right-side eye closure, and eye asymmetry of the surprise movement. On average, the asymmetry indices of the symmetric movements were always lower than 8%, and most did not deviate from the expected value of 0 (Student's t). Larger asymmetries were found for the asymmetric eye closures (eyes, up to 50%, p<0.05; mouth, up to 30%, p<0.05 only in the 20-30-year-old subjects). In conclusion, sex and age had a limited influence on total facial motion and asymmetry in normal adult men and women.

  20. DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism connecting folate to healthy embryonic development and aging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong-chol; Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Experimental studies demonstrated that maternal exposure to certain environmental and dietary factors during early embryonic development can influence the phenotype of offspring as well as the risk of disease development at the later life. DNA methylation, an epigenetic phenomenon, has been suggested as a mechanism by which maternal nutrients affect the phenotype of their offspring in both honeybee and agouti mouse models. Phenotypic changes through DNA methylation can be linked to folate metabolism by the knowledge that folate, a coenzyme of one-carbon metabolism, is directly involved in methyl group transfer for DNA methylation. During the fetal period, organ-specific DNA methylation patterns are established through epigenetic reprogramming. However, established DNA methylation patterns are not immutable and can be modified during our life time by the environment. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation with diet may lead to the development of age-associated diseases including cancer. It is also known that the aging process by itself is accompanied by alterations in DNA methylation. Diminished activity of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) can be a potential mechanism for the decreased genomic DNA methylation during aging, along with reduced folate intake and altered folate metabolism. Progressive hypermethylation in promoter regions of certain genes is observed throughout aging and repression of tumor suppressors induced by this epigenetic mechanism appears to be associated with cancer development. In this review we address the effect of folate on early development and aging through an epigenetic mechanism, DNA methylation. PMID:19733471

  1. Effects of diet and age on oxidative damage products in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Valachovicová, M; Pauková, V; Dusinská, M

    2008-01-01

    Damage of molecules as a consequence of oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related to aging. Diet is a key environmental factor affecting the incidence of many chronic diseases. Antioxidant substances in diet enhance the DNA, lipid and protein protection by increasing the scavenging of free radicals. Products of oxidative damage of DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines or oxidized pyrimidines), lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids) and proteins (carbonyls) in relation to nutrition (vegetarian diet vs. non-vegetarian, traditional mixed diet) were measured in young women aged 20-30 years (46 vegetarians, 48 non-vegetarians) vs. older women aged 60-70 years (33 vegetarians, 34 non-vegetarians). In young subjects, no differences in values of oxidative damage as well as plasma values of antioxidative vitamins (C,beta-carotene) were observed between vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups. In older vegetarian group significantly reduced values of DNA breaks with oxidized purines, DNA breaks with oxidized pyrimidines and lipid peroxidation and on the other hand, significantly increased plasma values of vitamin C and beta-carotene were found compared to the respective non-vegetarian group. Significant age dependences of measured parameters (increase in all oxidative damage products and decrease in plasma vitamin concentrations in older women) were noted only in non-vegetarians. Vegetarian values of older women vs. young women were similar or non-significantly changed. The results suggest that increase of oxidative damage in aging may be prevented by vegetarian nutrition.

  2. Gender differences in age-related decline in glomerular filtration rates in healthy people and chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since men with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progress faster than women, an accurate assessment of CKD progression rates should be based on gender differences in age-related decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in healthy individuals. Methods A Chinese sample population from a stratified, multistage, and clustered CKD screening study was classified into healthy, at-risk, and CKD groups. The gender differences in estimated GFR (eGFR) and age-related eGFR decline were calculated for each group after controlling for blood pressure, fasting glucose levels, serum lipids levels, education level, and smoking status. After referencing to the healthy group, gender-specific multivariate-adjusted rates of decline in eGFR and differences in the rates of decline were calculated for both CKD and at-risk groups. Results The healthy, at-risk, and CKD groups consisted of 4569, 7434, and 1573 people, respectively. In all the 3 groups, the multivariate-adjusted eGFRs in men were lower than the corresponding eGFRs in women. In addition, in the healthy and at-risk groups, the rates of decline in eGFR in men were lower than the corresponding rates of decline in women (healthy group: 0.51 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1 vs. 0.74 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1 and at-risk group: 0.60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1 vs. 0.73 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1). However, in the CKD group, the rates of decline in eGFR in men were similar to those in women (0.96 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1 vs. 0.91 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1). However, after referencing to the healthy group, the rates of decline in eGFR in men in the at-risk and CKD groups were greater faster than the corresponding rates in women (at-risk group: 0.10 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1 vs. -0.03 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1 and CKD group: 0.44 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1 vs. 0.15 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2·yr-1). Conclusion To accurately assess gender differences in CKD progression rates, gender differences in age-related decline in GFR should be considered

  3. Suxamethonium-induced rhabdomyolysis in a healthy middle-aged man.

    PubMed

    Le Puura, A I; Koivisto, P; Annila, P

    2000-01-01

    A 43-year-old man developed rhabdomyolysis after uvulo- palatopharyngoplasty. After induction with thiopentone and suxamethonium the anesthesia was maintained with halothane. The patient responded to treatment and made an uneventful recovery. In earlier reports of rhabdomyolysis after general anaesthesia with halothane and suxamethonium almost all the patients had malignant hyperthermia (MH) or muscular dystrophy. About 50% of malignant hyperthermia patients carry a mutation in the RYR1 gene. Our patient did not have mutations in the four MH-associated genes tested, but the total amount of different mutations is by now about twenty. Therefore, despite these negative tests rhabdomyolysis may be a sign of subclinical malignant hyperthermia which cannot be ruled out by our investigations. This rare case of rhabdomyolysis in a healthy man suggests careful monitoring of the patient when-ever suxamethonium is used. PMID:10806523

  4. A model of care for healthy menopause and ageing: EMAS position statement.

    PubMed

    Stute, Petra; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Rees, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, the number of menopausal women is increasing. They present with complex medical issues that lie beyond the traditional scope of gynaecologists and general practitioners (GPs). The European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) therefore provides a holistic model of care for healthy menopause (HM). The HM healthcare model's core consists of a lead clinician, specialist nurse(s) and the woman herself, supported by an interdisciplinary network of medical experts and providers of alternative/complementary medicine. As HM specialist teams are scarce in Europe, they are also responsible for structuring and optimizing processes in primary care (general gynaecologists and GPs) and secondary care (HM specialists). Activities for accreditation of the subspecialty Women's Health are encouraged. PMID:27621230

  5. (Un)Healthy immigrant citizens: naturalization and activity limitations in older age.

    PubMed

    Gubernskaya, Zoya; Bean, Frank D; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This research argues that immigrants' political, social, and economic incorporation experiences, which are embedded in individual life course trajectories and heavily influenced by governmental policies, play an important role in producing diverse health outcomes among older U.S. foreign-born persons. Using data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey and 1998-2010 Integrated Health Interview Series, we demonstrate how naturalization, a key indicator of social and political inclusion, is related to functional health in midlife and older age. Consistent with the theoretical framework, we find that among those foreign-born who immigrated as children and young adults, naturalized citizens show better health at older ages compared with noncitizens, although this relationship is partly mediated by education. But among those older foreign-born who immigrated at middle and older ages, naturalized citizens report worse health compared with noncitizens. Moreover, this negative health selection into naturalization becomes stronger for those naturalizing after the 1996 Welfare Reform Act.

  6. Acacetin promotes healthy aging by altering stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Mishra, B N; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-08-01

    The progression in lifespan has been associated with elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress level which contributes to development of age related disorders. The discovery of lifespan modulating phytomolecules may promote development of natural therapies against age related afflictions. Acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyflavone), is a naturally occurring flavonoid known to possess therapeutic properties. To this end, the present study evaluates effect of acacetin (AC) on lifespan, stress and neurotoxicity for the first time by using well-established free living, multicellular Caenorhabditis elegans model system. The 25 μM dose of AC significantly prolonged the mean lifespan of worms by 27.31% in comparison to untreated control and other tested doses of AC. Additionally, AC enhanced stress resistance against oxidative and thermal stress in worms. Furthermore, AC attenuated age related intracellular ROS level, aggregation of age pigment lipofuscin and increased the mean survival in stress hypersensitive mev-1 mutant by 40.5%. AC supplementation also reduced the alpha synuclein aggregation in transgenic worm model of Parkinson's disease. The enhanced stress resistance, lifespan and alleviation of age related pathology can be attributed to increment in stress modulatory enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) level. Altogether the results suggest AC exposure maintains stress level, health span and extends mean lifespan of C. elegans. The longevity promoting and neuromodulatory effects of AC are mediated by up regulation of the stress response genes sod-3 and gst-4. The present finding gives new insights of natural remedies and their future prospects in developing therapeutic interventions for managing age related diseases. PMID:27150237

  7. Six-Minute Walk Test: Reference Values and Prediction Equation in Healthy Boys Aged 5 to12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Goemans, Nathalie; Klingels, Katrijn; van den Hauwe, Marleen; Boons, Stefanie; Verstraete, Liese; Peeters, Charlotte; Feys, Hilde; Buyse, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to (1) generate normative data in healthy boys aged 5–12 years for the six-minute walk test (6MWT), an outcome measure currently used in clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), (2) to describe the relation with anthropometric variables and myometry, and (3) to compare our data with published equations. METHODS The 6MWT was conducted in 442 boys according to a standardized protocol, as currently used in clinical trials in DMD. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions for knee flexion and extension were recorded with a hand-held myometer. RESULTS The 6MWD increased significantly with age, from 478.0±44.1 m at age 5, to 650.0±76.8 m at age 12, with the steepest increase between 5 and 8 years. Age- and height related percentile curves of the 6MWD were developed. Correlations with anthropometric variables were fair to good (age r = 0.60, height r = 0.57, weight r = 0.44). Myometric variables (knee flexors and extensors) showed correlations of 0.46 and 0.50 respectively. When dividing into two age categories (5–8 years, 9–12 years), these magnitudes of correlations only applied to the younger age group. Additionally, predicted values were calculated according to available reference equations (Geiger and Ben Saad), indicating an overestimation by those equations. Finally, the Geiger equation was refitted to our population. CONCLUSION The percentile curves according to age and height provide a useful tool in the assessment of ambulatory capacity in boys aged 5 to 12 years. Significant correlations with anthropometric variables and myometry were only found in the 5–8 years age group. The Geiger prediction equation, currently used to assess ambulatory capacity in DMD was refitted to obtain a more accurate prediction model based on a large sample with a homogenous distribution across the age categories 5 to 12 years and applying the methodology as currently used in clinical trials in DMD. PMID:24391899

  8. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. PMID:26099561

  9. Reliving lifelong episodic autobiographical memories via the hippocampus: a correlative resting PET study in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Hubert, Valérie; Bernard, Frédéric A; Matuszewski, Vanessa; Chételat, Gaël; Baron, Jean-Claude; Eustache, Francis

    2008-01-01

    We aimed at identifying the cerebral structures whose synaptic function subserves the recollection of lifetime's episodic autobiographical memory (AM) via autonoetic consciousness. Twelve healthy middle-aged subjects (mean age: 59 years +/- 2.5) underwent a specially designed cognitive test to assess the ability to relive richly detailed episodic autobiographical memories from five time periods using the Remember/Know procedure. We computed an index of episodicity (number of Remember responses justified by the recall of specific events and details) and an index of retrieval spontaneity, and additionally an index of semanticized memories (number of Know responses). The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in the resting state, with H(2)O(15) as part of an activation PET study. The indexes were correlated with blood flow using volumes of interest in frontotemporal regions, including hippocampus and voxel-wise analyses in SPM. With both analyses, significant correlations were mainly found between the index of episodicity and rCBF in the medial temporal lobe, including hippocampus, across the five time periods (unlike the index of semanticized memories) and between the spontaneity index and rCBF in the prefrontal areas. These results highlight, in healthy subjects, the distinct role of these two structures in AM retrieval and support the view that the hippocampus is needed for reexperiencing detailed episodic memories no matter how old they are. PMID:18240320

  10. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children.

  11. Individual Differences in Spatial Pattern Separation Performance Associated with Healthy Aging in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Shauna M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Rodent studies have suggested that "pattern separation," the ability to distinguish among similar experiences, is diminished in a subset of aged rats. We extended these findings to the human using a task designed to assess spatial pattern separation behavior (determining at time of test whether pairs of pictures shown during the study were in the…

  12. Mitochondrial DNA content contributes to healthy aging in Chinese: a study from nonagenarians and centenarians.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Han; Lu, Xiang; Wu, Huan; Cai, Wang-Wei; Yang, Li-Qin; Xu, Liang-You; Sun, Hong-Peng; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content plays an important role in energy production and sustaining normal physiological function. A decline in the mtDNA content and subsequent dysfunction cause various senile diseases, with decreasing mtDNA content observed in the elderly individuals with age-related diseases. In contrast, the oldest old individuals, for example, centenarians, have a delayed or reduced prevalence of these diseases, suggesting centenarians may have a different pattern of the mtDNA content, enabling them to keep normal mitochondrial functions to help delay or escape senile diseases. To test this hypothesis, a total of 961 subjects, consisting of 424 longevity subjects and 537 younger control subjects from Hainan and Sichuan provinces of China, were recruited for this study. The mtDNA content was found to be inversely associated with age among the age of group 40-70 years. Surprisingly, no reduction of mtDNA content was observed in nonagenarians and centenarians; instead, these oldest old showed a significant increase than the elderly people aged between 50 and 70 years. The results suggest the higher mtDNA content may convey a beneficial effect to the longevity of people through assuring sufficient energy supply.

  13. Keep Your Brain Fit! A Psychoeducational Training Program for Healthy Cognitive Aging: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijnders, Jennifer; van Heugten, Caroline; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A psychoeducational face-to-face training program (Keep Your Brain Fit!) was developed to support the working population in coping with age-related cognitive changes and taking proactive preventive measures to maintain cognitive health. A feasibility study was conducted to test the training program presented in a workshop format. Participants…

  14. Effects of Age, Sex, and Body Position on Orofacial Muscle Tone in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietsch, Angela M.; Clark, Heather M.; Steiner, Jessica N.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of tissue stiffness may facilitate identification of abnormalities in orofacial muscle tone and thus contribute to differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Tissue stiffness is affected by muscle tone as well as age-related changes in muscle and connective tissue. Method: The Myoton-3 measured tissue stiffness in 40 healthy…

  15. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  16. Conscientiousness and Public Health: Synthesizing Current Research to Promote Healthy Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, David; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Nielsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    In this special section, 9 studies and 6 commentaries make a unique contribution to the study of personality. They focus on the five-factor model and, in particular, one of those 5: conscientiousness. This trait has had astonishing success in the actuarial prediction of adaptive outcomes in adulthood and aging, but we have little understanding of…

  17. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  18. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  19. The essential requirement for superoxide radical and nitric oxide formation for normal physiological function and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Linnane, Anthony W; Kios, Michael; Vitetta, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Contrary to the dogma that superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation are highly deleterious to cell function and healthy aging, we suggest this premise is flawed. Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation are essential to normal cellular function; they constitute a second messenger system absolutely required for the regulation of the metabolome. Embraced within this regulation is the modulation of cellular redox poise, bioenergy output, gene expression and cell differentiation. A key component in the overall process is coenzyme Q10 whose prooxidant function through the formation of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide is a major factor in the overall processes. The free radical gas, nitric oxide (similarly to superoxide anion), functions in the regulation of a wide range of cell systems. As part of the normal physiological process, superoxide anion and NO function separately and interactively as second messengers. Superoxide anion and nitric oxide play an intrinsic role in the regulated ordered turnover of proteins, rather than randomly cause protein damage and their inactivation. The proposition that metabolic free radical formation is unequivocally deleterious to cell function is rebutted; their toxicity as primary effectors in the aging process has been overemphasized. The concept that a dietary supplement of high concentrations of small-molecule antioxidants is a prophylactic/amelioration therapy for the aging process and age-associated diseases is questioned as to its clinical validity.

  20. Interventions aimed at dietary and lifestyle changes to promote healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Saviage, G S

    2000-06-01

    Desirable dietary habits and other lifestyle practices reduce premature mortality and compress the period of morbidity experienced towards the end of life. Aging adults are at risk of nutritionally inadequate diets especially in relation to protein, vitamins D, B1, B6, B12, fluid and other food components. Interventions aimed at ensuring dietary adequacy also need to consider the social and cultural aspects of eating as food is fundamental to a person's well-being and quality of life. The nutrition-related health problems associated with aging such as frailty, depression, incontinence and chronic non-communicable diseases should be identified in both the individual and in the community before dietary and other health interventions are implemented. In older adults, these dietary and health promoting interventions should then focus on maximizing function and quality of life, be acceptable and finally, measurable in terms of effectiveness.

  1. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop.

    PubMed

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-16

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  2. An Alpha and Theta Intensive and Short Neurofeedback Protocol for Healthy Aging Working-Memory Training

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Joana; Portugal, Ana Maria; Fernandes, Luís; Afonso, Nuno; Pereira, Mariana; Sousa, Nuno; Dias, Nuno S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested the effects of an intensive and short alpha and theta neurofeedback (NF) protocol in working memory (WM) performance in a healthy elder population and explored the effects of a multimodal approach, by supplementing NF with cognitive tasks. Participants were allocated to four groups: NF (N = 9); neurofeedback supplemented with cognitive training (NFCT) (N = 8); cognitive training (CT) (N = 7) and sham neurofeedback (Sham-NF) (N = 6). The intervention consisted in 30-min sessions for 8 days. The NF group presented post intervention increases of alpha and theta relative power as well as performance in the matrix rotation task. In addition, a successful up training of frontal theta showed positive correlation with an improvement of post-training alpha and a better performance in the matrix rotation task. The results presented herein suggest that an intensive and short NF protocol enables elders to learn alpha and theta self-modulation and already presents moderate improvements in cognition and basal EEG. Also, CT group showed moderate performance gains on the cognitive tasks used during the training sessions but no clear improvements on neurophysiology and behavioral measurements were observed. This study represents a first attempt to study the effects of an intensive and short NF protocol in WM performance of elders. The evidence presented here suggests that an intensive and short NF intervention could be a valid alternative for introduction of older populations to NF methodologies. PMID:27458369

  3. Factors That May Influence the Experience of Hot Flushes by Healthy Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in menopausal symptoms in general and hot flushes (HFs) in particular has grown in recent years. This is mostly due to increased awareness and the vast impact these symptoms have on women's lives. Despite the high prevalence of women who experience HFs, a definitive etiology for HFs is yet to be found. Our objective was to review the current literature dealing with associated factors for experiencing HFs and to provide a synthesized overview on this common and often debilitating condition. Methods We systematically searched the English-language literature in the PubMed database using relevant key words and included only those articles that contained information on associated factors for HFs in generally healthy midlife women. Results Both conflicting scientific results between studies documenting factors that influence HFs and the lack of validated measuring tools make it difficult to truly pinpoint associated factors for HFs. Nonetheless, we identified the following clusters of associated factors: the menopausal stages, sex steroid hormones, other endocrine agents, genetic polymorphisms, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and obesity, mood disorders, smoking, soy isoflavones and phytoestrogens, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Conclusions No single associated factor was consistently identified as having a major role in experiencing HFs. More resources should be directed to develop a unified study system along with multivariable analyses to get a better understanding of this condition, which often imposes a tremendous social and personal toll on the women who experience it. PMID:20831431

  4. (Un)Healthy Immigrant Citizens: Naturalization and Activity Limitations in Older Age*

    PubMed Central

    Gubernskaya, Zoya; Bean, Frank D.; Van hook, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This research argues that immigrants’ political, social and economic incorporation experiences, which are embedded in individual life-course trajectories and heavily influenced by governmental policies, play an important role in producing diverse health outcomes among older U.S. foreign-born persons. Using data from the 2008–2010 American Community Surveys and 1998–2010 Integrated Health Interview Surveys, we demonstrate how naturalization, a key indicator of social and political inclusion, is related to functional health in midlife and older age. Consistent with the theoretical framework, we find that among those foreign-born who immigrated as children and young adults, naturalized citizens show better health at older ages compared to non-citizens, although this relationship is partly mediated by education. But among those older foreign-born who immigrated at middle and older ages, naturalized citizens report worse health compared to non-citizens. Moreover, this negative health selection into naturalization becomes stronger for those naturalizing after the 1996 Welfare Reform Act. PMID:24311754

  5. Periodontal Care as a Fundamental Step for an Active and Healthy Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Cafiero, Carlo; Matarasso, Marco; Marenzi, Gaetano; Iorio Siciliano, Vincenzo; Bellia, Loredana; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    In the industrialized part of the world, an increasing number of people live the old age without too many restrictions due to illness or physiological impairment. This group is known as the young elderly. On the contrary, a consistent part of seniors develops a greater number of medical conditions and become more and more dependent, these are the old elderly. The first cause of tooth lost in industrialized word is periodontitis that generally strikes people older than 40 years and determines serious detriment of the stomatognatic organ. Smoking and stress are risk factors for periodontitis that are common and shared between young, adult, and older age. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, and osteoporosis are very frequent pathological situations in older age. They have been identified as cofactors in the progression of periodontitis. Many dental associations recognize the importance of continued research on oral fluids diagnostics and welcome the development of rapid point-of-care tests providing accurate measurements of clinically validated biomarkers. At present, well-studied molecules associated with host response factors and with derived tissue destruction mediators have been proposed as diagnostic biomarkers for periodontitis detected in the oral fluids. PMID:24453788

  6. Effect of Hot-Attribute Aged Ginger Tea on Chinese Medical Pulse Condition of Healthy Young Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dan-Ping; Tyan, Chu-Chang; Chen, Jian-Jung; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Young individuals typically have a dry-heat (燥熱 zào rè) constitution and feel overly stimulated. This study observes specialties on the right-bar (右關 yòu guān) section of the radial-arterial pulse of healthy young subjects, and investigates pulse variations induced by different attribute foods. Chinese medical doctors grouped thirty subjects into heat and non-heat constitutions. Each subject took water, aged ginger tea, and coconut water, well recognized as neutral, hot, and cold drinks, on different visits. The current study observed physiological signals induced by the samples using novel noninvasive sphygmography and a blood pressure monitor. As the baseline bigger percussion wave, dicrotic wave, and area in the sphygmogram of the non-heat constitution subjects, this work suggests that blood vessels of these subjects may be more relaxed than that of the heat constitution ones. Stroke volume increased and pulse pressure decreased in the non-heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea, which may elevate arterial compliance corresponding to maintaining an estimated radial-arterial diameter in our study. However, the percussion wave widened and the valley increased in the heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea. This corresponds to the markedly reduced radial-arterial diameter, indicating tighter blood vessels than the baseline status. Accordingly, this study confirms that selecting foods with attributes opposite to personal constitutions is important for reestablishing a healthy cold-heat balance within the human body. Moreover, novel noninvasive sphygmography may be a useful instrument to classify scientifically the heat personal constitution and the responses to different attribute foods. PMID:24716108

  7. Effect of hot-attribute aged ginger tea on chinese medical pulse condition of healthy young humans.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dan-Ping; Tyan, Chu-Chang; Chen, Jian-Jung; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2011-10-01

    Young individuals typically have a dry-heat ( zào rè) constitution and feel overly stimulated. This study observes specialties on the right-bar ( yòu guān) section of the radial-arterial pulse of healthy young subjects, and investigates pulse variations induced by different attribute foods. Chinese medical doctors grouped thirty subjects into heat and non-heat constitutions. Each subject took water, aged ginger tea, and coconut water, well recognized as neutral, hot, and cold drinks, on different visits. The current study observed physiological signals induced by the samples using novel noninvasive sphygmography and a blood pressure monitor. As the baseline bigger percussion wave, dicrotic wave, and area in the sphygmogram of the non-heat constitution subjects, this work suggests that blood vessels of these subjects may be more relaxed than that of the heat constitution ones. Stroke volume increased and pulse pressure decreased in the non-heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea, which may elevate arterial compliance corresponding to maintaining an estimated radial-arterial diameter in our study. However, the percussion wave widened and the valley increased in the heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea. This corresponds to the markedly reduced radial-arterial diameter, indicating tighter blood vessels than the baseline status. Accordingly, this study confirms that selecting foods with attributes opposite to personal constitutions is important for reestablishing a healthy cold-heat balance within the human body. Moreover, novel noninvasive sphygmography may be a useful instrument to classify scientifically the heat personal constitution and the responses to different attribute foods. PMID:24716108

  8. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status.

    PubMed

    Stukes, Taylor M; Shary, Judith R; Wei, Wei; Ebeling, Myla D; Dezsi, Kaleena B; Shary, Frank S; Forestieri, Nina E; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2-7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child's current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student's t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort's median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6-3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child's current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  9. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2–7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child’s current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student’s t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort’s median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6–3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child’s current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  10. Diagnosing prosopagnosia: effects of ageing, sex, and participant-stimulus ethnic match on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Cambridge Face Perception Test.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Devin C; McKone, Elinor; Dawel, Amy; Duchaine, Bradley; Palermo, Romina; Schmalzl, Laura; Rivolta, Davide; Wilson, C Ellie; Yovel, Galit

    2009-07-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT) have provided the first theoretically strong clinical tests for prosopagnosia based on novel rather than famous faces. Here, we assess the extent to which norms for these tasks must take into account ageing, sex, and testing country. Data were from Australians aged 18 to 88 years (N = 240 for CFMT; 128 for CFPT) and young adult Israelis (N = 49 for CFMT). Participants were unselected for face recognition ability; most were university educated. The diagnosis cut-off for prosopagnosia (2 SDs poorer than mean) was affected by age, participant-stimulus ethnic match (within Caucasians), and sex for middle-aged and older adults on the CFPT. We also report internal reliability, correlation between face memory and face perception, correlations with intelligence-related measures, correlation with self-report, distribution shape for the CFMT, and prevalence of developmental prosopagnosia.

  11. [Pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium gordonae (M. gordonae) in a healthy middle-aged male].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, T; Tada, K; Ishii, M

    1992-02-01

    A 51-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in July 1989 because of an abnormality in his chest radiograph. On his yearly health check-up, an abnormality of his chest radiography was first noted in June 1988. At that time, examinations including bronchoscopy were performed but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission, his chest radiograph revealed new infiltrates at the apex of the right lung which were not present in June 1988. Three out of 5 consecutive sputum specimens after admission produced a pure growth of 100 colonies to 1+ of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). This AFB was scotochromogenic, and hydrolysis of Tween 80 at 5 days was positive. It did not reduce nitrate, and niacin test was negative. It was sensitive to ethambutol at a concentration of 5 micrograms/ml, and was not tolerant to 0.2% picric acid. We thus identified this AFB to be M. gordonae. The patient was treated with rifampicin (450 mg/day), isoniazid (400 mg/day), and ethambutol (1000 mg/day) for 9 months. After 2 months of treatment the sputum cultures became negative, and the chest radiograph showed improvement of the infiltrates. M. gordonae is considered to be one of the least pathogenic AFB to man. Most recent reports of M. gordonae infection have been in immunocompromized hosts or patients with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The present case is a very rare example of this organism affecting a healthy male, and thus yields new information on the pathogenesis of M. gordonae in man.

  12. Repetition Priming and Cortical Arousal in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Amy E.; Festa, Elena K.; Salmon, David P.; Heindel, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Repetition priming refers to a form of implicit memory in which prior exposure to a stimulus facilitates the subsequent processing of the same or a related stimulus. One frequently used repetition priming task is word-stem completion priming. In this task, participants complete a series of beginning word stems with the first word that comes to mind after having viewed, in an unrelated context, words that can complete some of the stems. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exhibit a significant deficit in word-stem completion priming, but the neural mechanisms underlying this deficit have yet to be identified. The present study examined the possibility that the word-stem completion priming deficit in AD is due to disruption of ascending neuromodulatory systems that mediate cortical arousal by comparing word-stem completion priming and behavioral measures of spatial orienting and phasic alerting. Results showed that in healthy elderly controls higher levels of phasic alerting were associated with a sharpening of the temporal dynamics of priming across two delay intervals: those with higher levels of alerting showed more immediate priming but less delayed priming than those with lesser levels of alerting. In patients with AD, priming was impaired despite intact levels of phasic alerting and spatial orienting, and group status rather than individual levels of alerting or orienting predicted the magnitude of their stem-completion priming. Furthermore, the change in priming across delays they displayed was not related to level of alerting or orienting. These findings support the role of the noradrenergic projection system in modulating the level of steady-state cortical activation (or “cortical tonus”) underlying both phasic alerting and the temporal dynamics of repetition priming. However, impaired priming in patients with AD does not appear to be due to disruption of this neuromodulatory system. PMID:25701794

  13. Nuclear hormone receptors: Roles of xenobiotic detoxification and sterol homeostasis in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia Marianne; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Health during aging can be improved by genetic, dietary and pharmacological interventions. Many of these increase resistance to various stressors, including xenobiotics. Up-regulation of xenobiotic detoxification genes is a transcriptomic signature shared by long-lived nematodes, flies and mice, suggesting that protection of cells from toxicity of xenobiotics may contribute to longevity. Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification is controlled by evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulators. Three closely related subgroups of nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) have a major role, and these include DAF-12 and NHR-8 in C. elegans, DHR96 in Drosophila and FXR, LXRs, PXR, CAR and VDR in mammals. In the invertebrates, these NHRs have been experimentally demonstrated to play a role in extension of lifespan by genetic and environmental interventions. NHRs represent critical hubs in that they regulate detoxification enzymes with broad substrate specificities, metabolizing both endo- and xeno-biotics. They also modulate homeostasis of steroid hormones and other endogenous cholesterol derivatives and lipid metabolism, and these roles, as well as xenobiotic detoxification, may contribute to the effects of NHRs on lifespan and health during aging, an issue that is being increasingly addressed in C. elegans and Drosophila. Disentangling the contribution of these processes to longevity will require more precise understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which each is effected, including identification of ligands and co-regulators of NHRs, patterns of tissue-specificity and mechanisms of interaction between tissues. The roles of vertebrate NHRs in determination of health during aging and lifespan have yet to be investigated.

  14. Is an absolute level of cortical beta suppression required for proper movement? Magnetoencephalographic evidence from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has connected a specific pattern of beta oscillatory activity to proper motor execution, but no study to date has directly examined how resting beta levels affect motor-related beta oscillatory activity in the motor cortex. Understanding this relationship is imperative to determining the basic mechanisms of motor control, as well as the impact of pathological beta oscillations on movement execution. In the current study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a complex movement paradigm to quantify resting beta activity and movement-related beta oscillations in the context of healthy aging. We chose healthy aging as a model because preliminary evidence suggests that beta activity is elevated in older adults, and thus by examining older and younger adults we were able to naturally vary resting beta levels. To this end, healthy younger and older participants were recorded during motor performance and at rest. Using beamforming, we imaged the peri-movement beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and extracted virtual sensors from the peak voxels, which enabled absolute and relative beta power to be assessed. Interestingly, absolute beta power during the pre-movement baseline was much stronger in older relative to younger adults, and older adults also exhibited proportionally large beta desynchronization (ERD) responses during motor planning and execution compared to younger adults. Crucially, we found a significant relationship between spontaneous (resting) beta power and beta ERD magnitude in both primary motor cortices, above and beyond the effects of age. A similar link was found between beta ERD magnitude and movement duration. These findings suggest a direct linkage between beta reduction during movement and spontaneous activity in the motor cortex, such that as spontaneous beta power increases, a greater reduction in beta activity is required to execute movement. We propose that, on an individual level, the primary motor cortices have an

  15. Moving toward a holistic conceptual framework for understanding healthy aging among gay men.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In the last four decades, we have witnessed vast and important transitions in the social, economic, political, and health contexts of the lived experiences of gay men in the United States. This dynamic period, as evidenced most prominently by the transition of the gay rights movement to a civil rights movement, has shifted the exploration of gay men's health from one focusing primarily on HIV/AIDS into a mainstream consideration of the overall health and wellbeing of gay men. Against this backdrop, aging gay men in the United States constitute a growing population, for whom further investigations of health states and health-related disparities are warranted. In order to advance our understanding of the health and wellbeing of aging gay men, we outline here a multilevel, ecosocial conceptual framework that integrates salient environmental, social, psychosocial, and sociodeomgraphic factors into sets of macro-, meso-, and micro-level constructs that can be applied to comprehensively study health states and health care utilization in older gay men.

  16. Moving toward a holistic conceptual framework for understanding healthy aging among gay men.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In the last four decades, we have witnessed vast and important transitions in the social, economic, political, and health contexts of the lived experiences of gay men in the United States. This dynamic period, as evidenced most prominently by the transition of the gay rights movement to a civil rights movement, has shifted the exploration of gay men's health from one focusing primarily on HIV/AIDS into a mainstream consideration of the overall health and wellbeing of gay men. Against this backdrop, aging gay men in the United States constitute a growing population, for whom further investigations of health states and health-related disparities are warranted. In order to advance our understanding of the health and wellbeing of aging gay men, we outline here a multilevel, ecosocial conceptual framework that integrates salient environmental, social, psychosocial, and sociodeomgraphic factors into sets of macro-, meso-, and micro-level constructs that can be applied to comprehensively study health states and health care utilization in older gay men. PMID:25492304

  17. Confabulation in healthy aging is related to poor encoding and retrieval of over-learned information.

    PubMed

    Attali, Eve; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Normal aging is characterized by deficits that cross multiple cognitive domains including episodic memory and attention. Compared to young adults (YA), older adults (OA) not only show reduction in true memories, but also an increase in false memories. In this study we aim to elucidate how the production of confabulation is influenced by encoding and retrieval processes. We hypothesized that in OA, compared to YA, over-learned information interferes with the recall of specific, unique past episodes and this interference should be more prominent when a concurrent task perturbs the encoding of the episodes to be recalled. We tested this hypothesis using an experimental paradigm in which a group of OA and a group of YA had to recall three different types of story: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy tale (Snow White), and a modified well-known fairy tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf), in three different experimental conditions: (1) free encoding and free retrieval; (2) Divided attention (DA) at encoding and free retrieval; and (3) free encoding and DA at retrieval. Results showed that OA produced significantly more confabulations than YA, particularly, in the recall of the modified fairy tale. Moreover, DA at encoding markedly increased the number of confabulations, whereas DA at retrieval had no effect on confabulation. Our findings reveal the implications of two phenomena in the production of confabulation in normal aging: the effect of poor encoding and the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  18. Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barteselli, Giulio; Chhablani, Jay; El-Emam, Sharif; Wang, Haiyan; Chuang, Janne; Kozak, Igor; Cheng, Lingyun; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Freeman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the three-dimensional choroidal volume distribution in healthy subjects using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to evaluate its association with age, sex, and axial length. Design Retrospective case series. Participants One hundred and seventy six eyes from 114 subjects with no retinal or choroidal disease. Methods EDI SD-OCT imaging studies for healthy patients who had undergone a 31-raster scanning protocol on a commercial SD-OCT device were reviewed. Manual segmentation of the choroid was performed by two retinal specialists. Macular choroidal volume map and three-dimensional topography were automatically created by the built-in software of the device. Mean choroidal volume was calculated for each Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfield. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between macular choroidal volume and age, sex, and axial length. Main Outcome Measures Three-dimensional topography and ETDRS-style volume map of the choroid. Results Three-dimensional topography of the choroid and volume map was obtained in all cases. The mean choroidal volume was 0.228 ± 0.077 mm3 for the center ring and 7.374 ± 2.181 mm3 for the total ETDRS grid. The nasal quadrant showed the lowest choroidal volume, and the superior quadrant the highest. The temporal and inferior quadrants did not show different choroidal volume values. Choroidal volume in all the EDTRS rings was significantly correlated with axial length after adjustment for age (P<0.0001), with age after adjustment for axial length (P<0.0001) and with sex after adjustment for axial length (P<0.05). Choroidal volume decreases by 0.54 mm3 (7.32%) for every decade and by 0.56 mm3 (7.59%) for every mm of axial length. Males have a 7.37% greater choroidal volume compared to that of females. Conclusions EDI SD-OCT is non-invasive and well-tolerated procedure with an excellent ability to visualize three

  19. Age-specific effects of estrogen receptors' polymorphisms on the bone traits in healthy fertile women: the BONTURNO study

    PubMed Central

    Massart, Francesco; Marini, Francesca; Bianchi, Gerolamo; Minisola, Salvatore; Luisetto, Giovanni; Pirazzoli, Antonella; Salvi, Sara; Micheli, Dino; Masi, Laura; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletal characteristics such as height (Ht), bone mineral density (BMD) or bone turnover markers are strongly inherited. Common variants in the genes encoding for estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2) are proposed as candidates for influencing bone phenotypes at the population level. Methods We studied 641 healthy premenopausal women aged 20–50 years (yrs) participating into the BONTURNO study. Exclusion criteria were irregular cyclic menses, low trauma fracture, metabolic bone or chronic diseases. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin (OC), and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) were measured in all enrolled subjects, who underwent to lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD evaluation by DXA. Five hundred seventy Caucasian women were genotyped for ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms. Results Although no genotype differences were found in body parameters, subjects with combined ESR1 CCGG plus ESR2 AA-AG genotype were taller than those with opposite genotype (P = 0.044). Moreover, ESR1 rs2234693 genotypes correlated with family history of osteoporosis (FHO) and hip fracture (FHF) (P < 0.01), while ESR2 AA-AC genotypes were strongly associated with FHF (OR 2.387, 95% CI 1.432–3.977; P < 0.001). When clustered by age, 20–30 yrs old subjects, having at least one ESR1 rs2234693 C allele presented lower LS- (P = 0.008) and TH-BMD (P = 0.047) than TT genotypes. In 41–50 yrs age, lower FN-BMD was associated with ESR2 AA (P = 0.0180) subjects than in those with the opposite genotype. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms did not correlate with age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. Conclusion These findings support the presence of age-specific effects of ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms on various skeletal traits in healthy fertile women. PMID:19386104

  20. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners. PMID:25060139

  1. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners.

  2. The utility of placing recollection in opposition to familiarity in early discrimination of healthy aging and very mild dementia of the Alzheimer’s type

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.; Moynan, Sarah C.; Duchek, Janet M.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the ability to control familiarity-based information in a memory exclusion paradigm in healthy young, older adults, and early-stage DAT individuals. We compared the predictive power of memory exclusion performance to standard psychometric performance in discriminating between healthy aging and the earliest detectable form of DAT and between APOe4-present and APOe4-absent genotype in healthy control individuals. Participants responded “yes” to words that were previously semantically encoded, and “no” to other words. The number of targets and distractors on the read “distractor” list was manipulated to investigate the degree to which aging and DAT influence the ability to recollect specific details of study episodes in the face of distractor familiarity due to repetition. Memory exclusion performance (as reflected by d′) decreased across participant groups (young > healthy old control > very mild DAT). Logistic regression analyses showed that d′ increased the discriminative power for healthy older adults vs. very mild DAT individuals above and beyond standard psychometric measures. Memory exclusion d′ was also lower for healthy control individuals with APOe4 allele, compared to those without the APOe4 allele after partialing out baseline psychometric performance. Discussion focuses on the importance of attentional control systems in memory retrieval and the utility of the opposition paradigm for early discrimination between healthy and pathological aging. PMID:20063946

  3. The effect of age, movement direction, and target size on the maximum speed of targeted COP movements in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Manuel E.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid center of pressure (COP) movements are often required to avoid falls. Little is known about the effect of age on rapid and accurate volitional COP movements. We hypothesized that COP movements to a target would be slower and exhibit more submovements in older versus younger adults, particularly in posterior versus anterior movements. Healthy older (N = 12, mean age = 76 years) and young women (N = 13, mean age = 23 years) performed anterior and posterior lean movements while standing on a force plate, and were instructed to move their COP ‘as fast and as accurately as possible’ using visual feedback. The results show that rapid posterior COP movements were slower and had an increased number of submovements and ratio of peak-to-average velocity, in comparison to anterior movements (p < .005). Moreover, older compared to younger adults were 27% slower and utilized nearly twice as many compensatory submovements (p < .005), particularly when moving posteriorly (p < .05). Older women also had higher ratios of peak-to-average COP velocity than young (p < .05). Thus, despite moving more slowly, older women needed to take more frequent submovements to maintain COP accuracy, particularly posteriorly, thereby providing evidence of a compensatory strategy that may be used for preventing backward falls. PMID:22225924

  4. Circulating t(14;18)-Positive Cells in Healthy Individuals – Association with Age and Sex but not with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Carsten; Weitmann, Kerstin; Schüler, Frank; Kiefer, Thomas; Rabkin, Charles S.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Dölken, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    t(14;18)-positive cells can not only be detected in follicular lymphoma (FL) patients but also in healthy individuals (HI). We used epidemiological data and blood samples of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) to analyze associations of FL risk factors and t(14;18)-positive cells in HI. Buffy coat samples from 4152 study participants were tested by real-time PCR for t(14;18)-positive cells. Out of 3966 evaluable subjects, 1526 were t(14;18)-PCR positive (38.5%, median 3.9 t(14;18)-positive per million nucleated cells, range 0.6 – 9299). In multivariable analyses age and sex but not parameters of smoking exposure were significantly associated with t(14;18)-prevalence (logistic regression, p < 0.001). Multivariable analyses of t(14;18)-frequency showed a positive association with age but not with sex or smoking. These age and sex associations in HI require careful control in future studies of t(14;18) as a potential biomarker of lymphoma risk. PMID:23527525

  5. The effect of age, movement direction, and target size on the maximum speed of targeted COP movements in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Manuel E; Ashton-Miller, James A; Alexander, Neil B

    2012-10-01

    Rapid center of pressure (COP) movements are often required to avoid falls. Little is known about the effect of age on rapid and accurate volitional COP movements. We hypothesized that COP movements to a target would be slower and exhibit more submovements in older versus younger adults, particularly in posterior versus anterior movements. Healthy older (N=12, mean age=76 years) and young women (N=13, mean age=23 years) performed anterior and posterior lean movements while standing on a force plate, and were instructed to move their COP 'as fast and as accurately as possible' using visual feedback. The results showed that rapid posterior COP movements were slower and had an increased number of submovements and ratio of peak-to-average velocity, in comparison to anterior movements (p<.005). Moreover, older compared to younger adults were 27% slower and utilized nearly twice as many compensatory submovements (p<.005), particularly when moving posteriorly (p<.05). Older women also had higher ratios of peak-to-average COP velocity than young (p<.05). Thus, despite moving more slowly, older women needed to take more frequent submovements to maintain COP accuracy, particularly posteriorly, thereby providing evidence of a compensatory strategy that may be used for preventing backward falls.

  6. Achieving Ecological Validity of Occupation-Based Interventions for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Bernal, Guillermo; Mountain, Gail A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To develop a culturally sensitive occupation-based health promotion intervention for older Hispanic adults who live alone. Methods We used a mixed method design for the content validation of the intervention and the Ecological Validity Model (EVM) to culturally center the intervention. In the quantitative phase, aging experts as well as community members from two activity centers for the elderly in Puerto Rico completed a content validity ratio exercise. In the qualitative phase, we conducted three focus groups with these participants. Data analysis included content validity ratio and a directed content analysis. Results This resulted in a working version of the intervention protocol addressing the eight dimensions of the EVM. Conclusions The EVM can be used to culturally center preventive interventions to other ethnic minority groups to augment the external validity and cultural competence of interventions. Future research must test the feasibility of this new intervention. PMID:25632170

  7. Social integration and healthy aging in Japan: how gender and rurality matter.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kimiko; Johnson, Nan E

    2010-06-01

    The current study analyzed the 1999 and 2001 waves of the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging. Two measures of social integration were associated with lower risks of being physically disabled or depressed at Wave 1 and with a lower risk of progressing into deeper levels of physical disability and depression by Wave 2. Ceteris paribus, compared to elderly urbanites, elderly ruralites had a much higher risk of being physically disabled but much lower odds of being depressed. And compared to elderly men, elderly women had similar risks of being physically disabled but much higher odds of being depressed. Suggestions are made on how future research on longevity in Japan, the world's most longevous nation, can explore the links among social integration, place, gender, and the postponement of mortality. PMID:20440547

  8. Differential effect of age, gender and puberty on bone formation rate assessed by measurement of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in healthy Italian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mora, Stefano; Cafarelli, Laura; Erba, Paola; Puzzovio, Maria; Zamproni, Ilaria; Giacomet, Vania; Viganò, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Bones undergo intensive modeling during growth, a process involving both formation and resorption processes. Bone formation can be accurately monitored by measurements of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in serum. The lack of appropriate reference values has hampered the use of BAP in pediatric subjects. The purposes of the present study were to verify the effect of age, gender, and puberty on BAP concentration in healthy children, and to generate reference curves. Morning blood samples were collected from 239 healthy children and adolescents (113 boys), aged 4.5-20.9 years. Anthropometric measurements and pubertal stage were recorded. Blood samples were also obtained from 37 healthy young adults (13 men), aged 21.5-30.2 years. BAP concentration varied significantly with age, showing a peak at age 10-12 years in girls and 12-14 years in boys. Prepubertal concentration of BAP was six- to sevenfold higher than in healthy adults. We observed significantly higher BAP values at the beginning of puberty (stage II) compared to prepubertal stage in both sexes. The effect of puberty was independent from age and gender. We demonstrated that BAP serum concentration varies with age in children and adolescents, and we provided equations to calculate reference values. Because BAP concentrations vary markedly according to the pubertal stage, the values of BAP obtained in single patients should be compared to reference considering not only age and sex, but also the stage of pubertal development.

  9. Older Australian's Motivation for University Enrollment and Their Perception of the Role of Tertiary Education in Promoting Healthy Aging: A National Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownie, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of older Australian university students (aged 60+ years); to identify the factors that motivate late-life, tertiary-level learning; and to capture older students' views about the role of tertiary-level learning in promoting healthy aging. In 2012, an invitation to participate in the…

  10. Capacity of the Catalan and Spanish Versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Distinguish between Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Ruiz, Isabel; Aguilar-Alonso, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the capacity of the Catalan and Spanish versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to distinguish between normal and pathological aging. Both versions of the test were administered to 45 bilingual subjects: 15 healthy aging subjects, 15 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To…

  11. Education effects on cognitive function in a healthy aged Arab population

    PubMed Central

    Inzelberg, Rivka; Schechtman, Edna; Abuful, Amin; Masarwa, Magda; Mazarib, Aziz; Strugatsky, Rosa; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Green, Robert C.; Friedland, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Minimental State Examination (MMSE) has not been validated in Arabic speaking populations. The Brookdale Cognitive Screening Test (BCST) has been developed for use in low schooling populations. We investigated the influence of gender, education and occupation in a cognitively normal community sample assessed with an Arabic translation of the MMSE and the BCST. Methods Cognitively normal subjects (n=266, 59.4 % males, mean age (SD): 72.4 (5.5) years) from an Arab community in northern Israel (Wadi Ara) were evaluated. Education was categorized into levels: 1=0–4 years, 2=5–8 years, 3=9–12 years. Effects of gender, education and occupation on MMSE and BCST were analyzed by ANOVA, taking age as a covariate. Results The mean MMSE score of males [26.3 (4.1)] was higher than that of females [23.6 (4.2) points]. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between gender and education on MMSE (p=0.0017) and BCST scores (p=0.0002). The effect of gender on MMSE and BCST was significant in education level 1 (p<0.0001, both tests) and level 2 (p<0.05, both tests). For education level 1, MMSE and BCST scores were higher for males, while both scores were higher for females in education level 2. The effect of occupation was not significant for both genders. Conclusion Education and gender influence performance on the Arabic translation of the MMSE and BCST in cognitively normal elderly. Cognitively normal females with 0–4 years of education score lower than males. These results should be taken into consideration in the daily use of these instruments in Arabic. PMID:17052375

  12. Bile acid concentrations in serum and duodenal aspirates of healthy preterm infants: effects of gestational and postnatal age.

    PubMed

    Boehm, G; Braun, W; Moro, G; Minoli, I

    1997-01-01

    In 41 healthy human-milk-fed preterm infants the preprandial total bile acid (BA) concentrations in serum and duodenal juice were simultaneous measured during the first 60 days of life. The infants were subdivided into four groups according to their gestational age: 6 infants with a gestational age of 27 and 28 weeks, 7 infants with a gestational age of 29 and 30 weeks, 21 infants with a gestational age of 31 and 32 weeks and 7 infants with a gestational age of 33 and 34 weeks. The BA levels were enzymatically determined using 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In the duodenal juice, cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were separately quantified by thin-layer chromatography. During the first month of life, the serum BA concentrations increased significantly with postnatal age (p < 0.01) but remained nearly constant during the second month of life. In the duodenal aspirates, the BA concentrations increased continuously up to the end of the observations period (p < 0.001). In the duodenal aspirates, the CA/CDCA ratio was high immediately after birth and decreased significantly with increasing postnatal age (p < 0.001). During the first weeks of life, the BA levels were preferentially conjugated with taurine, but in spite of the taurine-rich diet during the whole observation period the taurine/glycine ratio decreased with postnatal age (p < 0.001). In all samples of duodenal juice, the sum of primary BA was > 98% of total 3-alpha-hydroxy-BA. These data indicate that the establishment of an intestinal microbial flora necessary for intestinal BA transformation and the development of the enterohepatic BA circulation lasts some months of postnatal life. The serum BA concentration reflects hepatic synthesis, intestinal absorption, renal excretion and hepatocellular transport into bile in a very complex way which may limit the diagnostic value of serum BA during this time. Additionally, a duodenal BA concentration below 4

  13. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Influence of identity valence.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; de La Sayette, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the SRE across the early stages of AD. Twenty healthy older individuals and 40 patients (20 diagnosed with aMCI and 20 diagnosed with mild AD) performed a memory task. Participants had to judge positive and negative personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves or to another person, or else process these adjectives semantically. We then administered a recognition task. Participants also completed a questionnaire on identity valence. Among healthy older individuals, the SRE benefited episodic memory independently of material and identity valence. By contrast, among aMCI patients, we only observed the SRE when the material was positive. When self-referential material was negative, patients' performance depended on the valence of their self-representations: negative self-representations correlated with poor recognition of negative self-referential adjectives. Finally, performance of patients with mild AD by condition and material valence were too low and inappropriate to be subjected to relevant analyses. The persistence of an SRE for positive adjectives in aMCI suggests the existence of a positivity effect for self-related information, which contributes to wellbeing. The absence of an SRE for negative adjectives, which led aMCI patients to dismiss negative self-related information, could be due to low self-esteem. These results corroborate the mnenic neglect model and point out the importance of the psychoaffective dimension in patients with aMCI, which could constitute a

  14. Age-and education-matched comparison of aging HIV+ men who have sex with men to general population on common neuropsychological assessments

    PubMed Central

    Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries. PMID:24265296

  15. Age- and education-matched comparison of aging HIV+ men who have sex with men to general population on common neuropsychological assessments.

    PubMed

    Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries.

  16. Physiological and functional evaluation of healthy young and older men and women: design of the European MyoAge study.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Maier, Andrea B; Seppet, Enn; Seynnes, Olivier R; Sipilä, Sarianna; Bottinelli, Roberto; Barnouin, Yoann; Bijlsma, Astrid Y; Gapeyeva, Helena; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Meskers, Carel G; Pääsuke, Mati; Sillanpää, Elina; Stenroth, Lauri; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Narici, Marco V; Jones, David A

    2013-06-01

    Within the European multi-centre MyoAge project, one workpackage was designed to investigate the contribution of age-related changes to muscle mass, contractile characteristics and neural control in relation to reductions in mobility in older age. The methodology has been described here. Test centres were located in Manchester, UK; Paris, France; Leiden, The Netherlands; Tartu, Estonia and Jyväskylä, Finland. In total, 182 young (18-30 years old, 52.2 % female) and 322 older adults (69-81 years old, 50 % female) have been examined. The participants were independent living, socially active and free from disease that impaired mobility levels. The older participants were selected based on physical activity levels, such that half exceeded current recommended physical activity levels and the other half had lower physical activity levels than is recommended to maintain health. Measurements consisted of blood pressure; anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging); lung function; standing balance and cognitive function (CANTAB). Mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go, a 6 min walk, activity questionnaires and accelerometers to monitor habitual daily activities. Muscle strength, power, fatigue and neural activation were assessed using a combination of voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Fasting blood samples and skeletal muscle biopsies were collected for detailed examination of cell and molecular differences between young and older individuals. The results from this study will provide a detailed insight into "normal, healthy" ageing, linking whole-body function to the structure and function of the neuromuscular system and the molecular characteristics of skeletal muscle. PMID:23722256

  17. The relationship between psychosocial stress, age, BMI, CRP, lifestyle, and the metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Okazaki, Ai; Ohmori, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the factors which may be associated with the metabolic syndrome by exploring the relationship between psychosocial stress, age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), lifestyle factors, and the components of the metabolic syndrome, such as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS), body fat percentage, and triglyceride concentration, among apparently healthy subjects. Psychosocial stress was measured by the use of the inventory to measure psychosocial stress (IMPS). One thousand four hundred and ninety-nine people out of 1,941 public school workers admitted to a hospital for a medical check-up responded to the IMPS, yielding a response rate of 77.2%. A total of 1,201 workers excluding 298 who were taking medication for various diseases were analyzed with the use of hierarchical multiple regression models. It was found that IMPS-measured stress score, age, BMI, and smoking habit were associated with an increase in glycated hemoglobin among men, while alcohol consumption was associated with a decrease in glycated hemoglobin. Stress score, age, BMI, and alcohol consumption were found to be associated with an increase in FBS among men, while smoking and exercise habits were associated with a decrease in FBS. CRP was found to be associated with an increase in body fat percentage among men, though stress score was not associated with an increase in body fat percentage. Stress score, age, and BMI were associated with an increase in triglyceride concentration among women. The findings of the present study seem to be in line with the hypothesis that psychosocial stress plays an important role in developing the metabolic syndrome, which may be associated with inflammatory processes in the vascular wall, resulting in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Glutathione peroxidase activity in a healthy Canadian population. Effects of age, smoking and drinking habits, exercise and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    L'abbe, M R; Collins, M W; Trick, K D; Laffey, P J

    1992-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) has been suggested as an indicator of selenium status. The purpose of this study was to measure the activity of this enzyme in a large sample of healthy, free-living Canadians to determine normal distributions and the effects of age, smoking, and drinking habits, exercise, and the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) or estrogen replacement therapy. The population consisted of 386 self-selected subjects between the ages of 24 and 75. Erythrocyte SeGSHPx activity was 21.5 +or- 7 (Mean +or- SD) and 33.6 +or- 8U/g Hb and plasma activity was 226 +or- 31 and 214 +or- 38 U/L for males (n=239) and females (n=147), respectively. Erythrocyte activity was significantly higher in females and males (p0.01). The Se form of GSHPx accounted for 76% and 54% of total activity in plasma and erythrocytes, respectively. No differences due to age were seen in males, although plasma SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total GSHPx activities were elevated in females 65 years of age and older. Cigarette smoking significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects. This elevation did not vary with the amount smoked and was not seen in ex-smokers. Drinking elevated erythrocyte non-SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects with the highest activity seen in drinkers who also smoked. No significant differences were seen with level of exercise except for a slight elevation with vigorous exercise. Estrogen use significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total activities in both pre- and postmenopausal women. These data suggest that some lifestyle factors can have small but significant effects of GSHPx activity and must be controlled for when population-based surveys are being conducted.

  19. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially

  20. Comparison of maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in relation to age in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Su; Oh, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure and compare the maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in young and older adults. [Subjects and Methods] The study recruited 80 healthy young (aged 20 to 39 years) and older adults (aged ≥65 years) in public places. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was used to measure maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing. For each subject, the peak value of three measurements was recorded and analyzed. [Results] Maximal tongue strength was statistically significantly higher for the young adults group than the older adults group. Conversely, tongue strength used during swallowing was statistically significantly higher for the older adults group than the young adults group. The percentages of tongue strength used during swallowing for the young adults and older adults groups were approximately 38.8% and 53.8%, respectively. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that older adults have a lower maximal tongue strength than young adults, but a higher tongue strength used during swallowing. PMID:27064477

  1. Vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Gano, Lindsey B; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults. In 127 men and women aged 48-77 yr, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was positively related to dietary niacin intake [%change (Δ): r = 0.20, P < 0.05; mmΔ: r = 0.25, P < 0.01]. In subjects with above-average dietary niacin intake (≥ 22 mg/day, NHANES III), FMD was 25% greater than in subjects with below-average intake (P < 0.05). Stepwise linear regression revealed that dietary niacin intake (above vs. below average) was an independent predictor of FMD (%Δ: β = 1.8; mmΔ: β = 0.05, both P < 0.05). Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, was inversely related to niacin intake (r = -0.23, P < 0.05) and was lower in subjects with above- vs. below-average niacin intake (48 ± 2 vs. 57 ± 2 mg/dl, P < 0.01). Intravenous infusion of the antioxidant vitamin C improved brachial FMD in subjects with below-average niacin intake (P < 0.001, n = 33), but not above-average (P > 0.05, n = 20). In endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery of a subgroup, dietary niacin intake was inversely related to nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage (r = -0.30, P < 0.05, n = 55), and expression of the prooxidant enzyme, NADPH oxidase (r = -0.44, P < 0.01, n = 37), and these markers were lower in subjects with above- vs. below-average niacin intake [nitrotyrosine: 0.39 ± 0.05 vs. 0.56 ± 0.07; NADPH oxidase: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs. 0.53 ± 0.05 (ratio to human umbilical vein endothelial cell control), both P < 0.05]. Our findings support the hypothesis that higher dietary niacin intake is associated with greater vascular endothelial function related to lower systemic and vascular oxidative stress among healthy middle-aged and older adults.

  2. Oxygen Saturation in Healthy Children Aged 5 to 16 Years Residing in Huayllay, Peru at 4340 m

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Schult, Sandra, and Carlos Canelo-Aybar. Oxygen saturation in healthy chidren aged 5 to 6 years residing in Huayllay, Peru, at 4340 m. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:89–92, 2011.—Hypoxemia is a major life-threatening complication of childhood pneumonia. The threshold points for hypoxemia vary with altitude. However, few published data describe that normal range of variation. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values of normal mean Sao2 levels and an approximate cutoff point to define hypoxemia for clinical purposes above 4300 meters above sea level (masl). Children aged 5 to 16 yr were examined during primary care visits at the Huayllay Health Center. Huayllay is a rural community located at 4340 m in the province of Pasco in the Peruvian Andes. We collected basic sociodemographic data and evaluated three outcomes: arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) with a pulse oximeter, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Comparisons of main outcomes among age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 yr) and sex were performed using linear regression models. The correlation of Sao2 with heart rate and respiration rate was established by Pearson's correla