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Sample records for age medical history

  1. Conducting the Medical History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  2. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging.

  3. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging

  4. The value of age and medical history for predicting colorectal cancer and adenomas in people referred for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colonoscopy is an invasive and costly procedure with a risk of serious complications. It would therefore be useful to prioritise colonoscopies by identifying people at higher risk of either cancer or premalignant adenomas. The aim of this study is to assess a model that identifies people with colorectal cancer, advanced, large and small adenomas. Methods Patients seen by gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons between April 2004 and December 2006 completed a validated, structured self-administered questionnaire prior to colonoscopy. Information was collected on symptoms, demographics and medical history. Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously assess factors associated with findings on colonoscopy of cancer, advanced adenomas and adenomas sized 6 -9 mm, and ≤ 5 mm. The area under the curve of ROC curve was used to assess the incremental gain of adding demographic variables, medical history and symptoms (in that order) to a base model that included only age. Results Sociodemographic variables, medical history and symptoms (from 8,204 patients) jointly provide good discrimination between colorectal cancer and no abnormality (AUC 0.83), but discriminate less well between adenomas and no abnormality (AUC advanced adenoma 0.70; other adenomas 0.67). Age is the dominant risk factor for cancer and adenomas of all sizes. Having a colonoscopy within the last 10 years confers protection for cancers and advanced adenomas. Conclusions Our models provide guidance about which factors can assist in identifying people at higher risk of disease using easily elicited information. This would allow colonoscopy to be prioritised for those for whom it would be of most benefit. PMID:21899773

  5. Ascertaining Problems with Medication Histories

    PubMed Central

    Halapy, Henry; Kertland, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate and complete medication histories are not always obtained in clinical practice. Objective: This qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the barriers to and facilitators of obtaining accurate medication histories. Methods: Individual interviews, based on a structured interview guide, were conducted with 25 patients from both inpatient and ambulatory care clinic settings. Focus groups, based on a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with pharmacists, medical residents, and nurses. Transcribed data were analyzed by forming coded units and assessing these units for emerging themes. Results: Major themes that emerged from the patient interviews included patient ownership of health and medication knowledge (with knowledge of medications and their side effects and how to take medications being seen as important), patient-specific strategies to improve medication histories (e.g., use of regularly updated medication lists), and suggestions for system-level facilitators to improve medication histories (e.g., centralized databases of medication histories, increased patient education regarding the use and purpose of medications). Major themes also emerged from focus groups with health care professionals, including shared responsibility for medication history-taking among all 3 health care professions, perceptions about the barriers to medication history-taking (including patients not knowing their medications and not bringing their medication lists), and suggestions to improve medication histories (e.g., educating patients to bring medication vials to hospital admissions and appointments, using a centralized computer database for medication histories). Conclusions: Key recommendations resulting from this study include using standardized documentation techniques for medication histories, recording of medication history information in centralized electronic databases, educating patients to bring medications to every health care visit

  6. History of Medical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of basic radiation physics that underlies much of today's medical physics and looks separately at the historical development of two major subfields of medical physics: radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Indicates that radiation physics has made important contributions to solving biomedical problems in medical…

  7. [Grmek, medical history, and paleopathology].

    PubMed

    Thillaud, P L

    2001-01-01

    Mirko Drazen Grmek died on 6 March 2000, defeated by an implacable enemy (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which had been diagnosed just 18 months earlier). He has now found peace in his final resting place, the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris. His immense body of work reveals an omniscient man of great wisdom, a cosmopolitan polyglot who devoted his life to the history of science, with particular emphasis on medicine and disease. He looked at paleopathology for what that discipline could bring to the study of populations in antiquity, and succeeded in anchoring it in history with his definitive concept of "pathocenose", created in 1969. Several years later, his most important work, "Les Maladies à l'aube de la civilisation occidentale", (1983) set forth with definitive and convincing illustrations the importance of paleopathology, which will therefore be forever associated with one of the most outstanding medical history books of the XXth. century. PMID:11908523

  8. History repeats itself: the family medication history and pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas R; Kearney, Elizabeth; Hulick, Peter J; Kisor, David F

    2016-05-01

    Related to many drug gene-product interactions, application of pharmacogenomics can lead to improved medication efficacy while decreasing or avoiding adverse drug reactions. However, utilizing pharmacogenomics without other information does not allow for optimal medication therapy. Currently, there is a lack of documentation of family medication history, in other words, inefficacy and adverse reactions across family members throughout generations. The family medication history can serve as an impetus for pharmacogenomic testing to explain lack of medication efficacy or an adverse drug reaction and pre-emptive testing can drive recognition and documentation of medication response in family members. We propose combining the family medication history via pedigree construction with pharmacogenomics to further optimize medication therapy. We encourage clinicians to combine family medication history with pharmacogenomics. PMID:27143300

  9. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    MedlinePlus

    ... history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A family medical history is a ... a healthcare professional regularly. For more information about family medical history: NIHSeniorHealth, a service of the National ...

  10. Perspective: Should we amputate medical history?

    PubMed

    Sokol, Daniel K

    2008-12-01

    This Perspective article, a cri de coeur, argues that a modicum of medical history should be incorporated into the compulsory medical curriculum. Many medical schools have no formal teaching in the subject, and students can thus graduate without the slightest knowledge of their profession's history. The author argues that, aside from holding intrinsic interest, a knowledge of the history of medicine can provide students with a sense of perspective and connectedness with the past, better judgment and reasoning, a healthy dose of humility, a deeper understanding of professionalism, greater emotional maturity, and a more critical approach to contemporary medicine. The author provides several concrete illustrations of the value of medical history to clinical practice. In answer to the rejoinder, "to replace what?" the author proposes "a little part of medical ethics," and points out that both disciplines share much in common and can be usefully combined. Finally, the author address the challenges of the proposal to incorporate medical history in the curriculum, in particular the difficulty of finding suitable teachers. PMID:19202487

  11. Microhistory and Chinese Medical History: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinzhong; Wang, Yumeng

    2015-08-01

    With a reflection on the grand quantitative analysis in previous historical investigations, microhistory came into being in Italy in the 1960s and the 70s. Microhistory is, in principle, the intensive historical investigation of a relatively well defined smaller object. Notwithstanding, it still has the ambition to draw a larger picture of the history. Microhistory is also characterized by its preference to the exceptional individuals or phenomena, its "narrative" style and the delicate way it deals with historical sources. Essentially, microhistory endeavors to bring the individual's role, the concrete life as well as the diversity and complexity of history to the historical writing. At first, microhistory did not have intersection with the medical history. Nevertheless, the history of medicine echoes microhistory in bringing the concrete and vivid life beings to history. Mainly due to this similarity, historical surveys on medicine from the perspective of microhistory are increasing and gradually develop into a remarkable trend in the international historical academy from the 1980s onwards. As the microhistory is rising and its influence is expanding, the microhistorical approach has been practiced to a certain extent in the historical writings on medicine in China. Concentrating on an individual person, a single event, a particular drug or a specific concept, there already have some studies conduct intensive historical investigation on a small scale. A small part of these researches, for example, those of Chang Che-Chia, Li Shang-jen and etc. could be regarded as perfect examples of microhistory. However, no relevant research is carried out explicitly under the heading of microhistory, instead, they are the offspring of the "new history". Besides, most of these researches could not be regarded as real microhistories, strictly speaking. They do not practice microhistory consciously and they have a long way to go to improve the delicacy of the analysis, to

  12. [Covariance structure analysis of pharmacists' attitudes toward medication history].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotaka; Shimamori, Yoshimitu

    2011-01-01

    Keeping track of patients' medication histories is an important component of pharmacy practice. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey on medication histories among pharmacists and performed covariance structure analysis to investigate pharmacists' attitudes toward medication histories. The survey was conducted among pharmacists who work at pharmacies. With regard to the questions on medication histories, factor analysis and covariance structure analysis were performed to create a path diagram. The response rate to the questionnaire was 97.0%. The factor analysis revealed six factors, including: "patient assessment", "learning attitude", "practicing the recording of medication histories", "conscious effort to improve medication histories", "uniformity in medication histories" and "issues regarding medication histories". Meanwhile, covariance structure analysis revealed that the five-factor model excluding "issues regarding medication histories" was the best-fitted model. According to this model, it was clear that the pharmacists were extremely conscious about introducing improvements to the content of medication histories. In this study, covariance structure analysis enabled the effective analysis of the attitudes of pharmacists toward medication histories. We believe that creating and conducting a training program to clarify and resolve issues related to medication histories and then reviewing the outcome of such a training program will lead to quality improvement and standardization of the future management of medication histories. PMID:21532278

  13. Career History Archival Medical and Personnel System.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, E K Eric; Garland, Cedric F; Miller, Milan R; Gorham, Edward D

    2005-02-01

    The Career History Archival Medical and Personnel System is a database that provides information on cancer, chronic diseases, occupational and preventive medicine, epidemiological research, and the use of health care in the Navy and Marine Corps. It was created at the Naval Health Research Center for enlisted Navy personnel, and it is being expanded to encompass all military personnel. Its objective is to provide a comprehensive, chronologically ordered database of career and medical events in all active duty military service members and to track career and disease events in order from the date of entry to service to the date service ended. Events include the dates of beginning and ending of each specific military occupation, all assignments to a military units or ships, all hospitalized diseases, and other events. The database contains detailed epidemiological data on more than six million members of the military services. It is the largest known epidemiological database in the United States. PMID:15782842

  14. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  15. The historiography of medical history: from great men to archaeology.

    PubMed Central

    King, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The history of medicine is always written from the basis of the historian. Contemporary historiography provides an understanding of the major methods of historical analysis and their influences on the writing of medical history. Medical history in the 20th century has emphasized the historiographic methods of the history of great men, historicism, social history, and intellectual history. Each methodology has inherent biases that influence the historian's analysis of the past. Understanding the historian's biases provides the reader important tools for the interpretation of medical history. PMID:1933068

  16. [The medical history of Edgar Allan Poe].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2007-09-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the best American storytellers and poets, suffered an episodic behaviour disorder partially triggered by alcohol and opiate use. Much confusion still exists about the last days of his turbulent life and the cause of his death at an early age. Different etiologies have been proposed to explain his main medical problem, however, complex partial seizures triggered by alcohol, poorly recognized at the time when Poe lived, seems to be one of the most acceptable hypothesis, among others discussed. PMID:18064380

  17. Canadian Medical Schools: Two Centuries of Medical History--1822 to 1992. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhedran, N. Tait

    This survey of the history of medical education and medical schools in Canada contains chapters on each of Canada's medical schools in chronological order of establishment based on visits to each school and interviews with faculty and administration there. An opening chapter sums up the salient facts of the entire history of medical education by…

  18. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  19. Yin Duanmo, the person in medical history.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    1998-07-01

    Yin Duanmo (Weijie) was graduated from Beiyang Medical College and worked in Canton Hospital as a doctor during the Late Qing Dynasty period. He was the first Chinese doctor to edit medical journals and to translate English medical works into Chinese independently. He and Dr. Sun Yatsen served in the same private clinic. He supported democratic revolution led by Sun Yatsen consistently. He was the first one graduated in China medical school and became a practitioner in Hong Kong. PMID:11620487

  20. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking. PMID:24925380

  1. 77 FR 74168 - Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History AGENCY... information collection, OMB 0596- 0084, Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History. The... Corps Application and Medical History. OMB Number: 0596-0084. Expiration Date of Approval:...

  2. The History, Biology and Medical Aspects of Leprosy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Presents information about the history, biology, and medical aspects of leprosy, including its description in historical documents, its cause and effects, statistics on its prevalence, and various attempts at treatment. Notes that leprosy is one of the few infectious diseases that, although treatable with medication, remains incurable. Contains 30…

  3. Brief histories of medical physics in Asia-Oceania.

    PubMed

    Round, W H; Jafari, S; Kron, T; Azhari, H A; Chhom, S; Hu, Y; Mauldon, G F; Cheung, K Y; Kuppusamy, T; Pawiro, S A; Lubis, L E; Soejoko, D S; Haryanto, F; Endo, M; Han, Y; Suh, T S; Ng, K H; Luvsan-Ish, A; Maung, S O; Chaurasia, P P; Jafri, S M A; Farrukh, S; Peralta, A; Toh, H J; Sarasanandarajah, S; Shiau, A C; Krisanachinda, A; Suriyapee, S; Vinijsorn, S; Nguyen, T C

    2015-09-01

    The history of medical physics in Asia-Oceania goes back to the late nineteenth century when X-ray imaging was introduced, although medical physicists were not appointed until much later. Medical physics developed very quickly in some countries, but in others the socio-economic situation as such prevented it being established for many years. In others, the political situation and war has impeded its development. In many countries their medical physics history has not been well recorded and there is a danger that it will be lost to future generations. In this paper, brief histories of the development of medical physics in most countries in Asia-Oceania are presented by a large number of authors to serve as a record. The histories are necessarily brief; otherwise the paper would quickly turn into a book of hundreds of pages. The emphasis in each history as recorded here varies as the focus and culture of the countries as well as the length of their histories varies considerably. PMID:25894289

  4. [Fifty year's career of Chinese Journal of Medical History].

    PubMed

    Lu, Z

    1996-01-01

    The Journal of Medical History, the antecedent of the now Chinese Journal of Medical History, was inaugurated in March 1947. This paper divides the whole course of publication and compilation of this Journal into 3 stages, namely, Stage of Initiation and Growth (1947-1948), Stage of Tortuous Progressing (1951-1959), Stage of Flourishing and developing (1980-). Altogether 25 volumes, 95 issues have been published in 953 millon Chinese characters and 1684 original articles. Being a highly effective major journal of medical history, this Journal satisfies nearly 40% of the information in this subject and has been indexed by major medical cataloging tool books, both domestic and foreign. Experience and prospects are also mentioned here. PMID:11618794

  5. [Medical history impressions of Karl Marx 1983].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1983-12-15

    Excerpts of his London era first published on the occasion of the Karl Marx testimonials of 1983 gave rise to extend the memory of the fundamental achievements of Karl Marx to medico-historical aspects. In this case Karl Marx paid special attention to the working and living conditions of the working class and an analysis of his adequate statements and records shows multifarious details which give a research basis also for the history of medicine. Marx and Engels had friendly contacts with several physicians who shared the opinions of the two classics: their way of life is shown in the most important points. PMID:6367243

  6. Brief Sexual Histories and Routine HIV/STD Testing by Medical Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Caine, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  7. Brief sexual histories and routine HIV/STD testing by medical providers.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y; Jordan, Wilbert C; Caine, Virginia; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2014-03-01

    Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  8. Medical liability and orthopaedic trauma: history and current state of affairs.

    PubMed

    Lundy, Douglas W

    2014-10-01

    Orthopaedic trauma has been associated with the history of medical liability all the way back to the dark ages and the bubonic plague. Caps on noneconomic damages and other reforms have been challenged in many states, and an innovative approach to medical liability reform must be developed within the medical profession and the various legislatures. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons have a unique perspective in that they perform a critical service to the community, however they are often deprived of the benefit of preoperative risk reduction best practices because of the critical needs of the patients. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons must advocate for effective medical liability reforms. PMID:25229679

  9. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  10. [Nose in the light of medical history].

    PubMed

    Holck, P

    2001-06-30

    Vanity, it seems, is one of the qualities that separate us from other species; indeed, we may said to possess it in excess. Decorating body and apparel with all kinds of objects in order to look attractive goes a long way back in time; even Stone Age man knew how to make himself look smart. This very human trait has not abated over the millennia, but the perception of what looks good has changed a great deal, just like fashion, and no part of the human body has probably been of such significance in this respect as the nose. This article presents a brief review of nasal fashion. PMID:11875898

  11. Completeness of Information Sources Used to Prepare Best Possible Medication Histories for Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dersch-Mills, Deonne; Hugel, Kimberly; Nystrom, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medication reconciliation can reduce medication errors and mortality. With limited availability of clinical pharmacists, it is important to determine the resources that will yield the most complete information about a patient’s medication history. Objective: To identify the most time-efficient sources of information about medication history for use by clinicians in a pediatric care setting. Methods: In July and August 2009, newly admitted pediatric patients (under 18 years of age) were identified, and a best possible medication history (BPMH) was compiled from the admission history in each patient’s chart, a provincial prescription database, a community pharmacy record, and an “informed interview”. Each individual source of information was compared with the BPMH and given a completeness score based on 3 pieces of information about each medication (name, dose, and frequency). Results: Data were collected for 99 pediatric patients. Of these, 76 (77%) were taking at least one medication, and 49 (50%) were taking at least one prescription medication. Among patients who were taking at least one medication, the informed interview, based on background information from other sources, resulted in the most comprehensive medication history, with a median completeness score of 100% (interquartile range [IQR] 90% to 100%). The admission history had a median completeness score of 33% (IQR 4% to 56%), with documentation of dose and frequency lacking most frequently. Information from community pharmacies had a median completeness score of 67% (IQR 42% to 87%), but this source was available for only 24 of the 99 patients. The prescription database was the least complete source, with a median completeness score of 0% (IQR 0% to 37%). Conclusion: An informed interview by a trained professional resulted in the most complete medication history. Admission histories represented the next most complete source. The data from this study indicated a need for education on

  12. A Quantitative Evaluation of Medication Histories and Reconciliation by Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Michael R.; Fogg, Sarah M.; Schminke, Brandon C.; Zackula, Rosalee E.; Nester, Tina M.; Eidem, Leslie A.; Rosendale, James C.; Ragan, Robert H.; Bond, Jack A.; Goertzen, Kreg W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objective: Medication reconciliation at transitions of care decreases medication errors, hospitalizations, and adverse drug events. We compared inpatient medication histories and reconciliation across disciplines and evaluated the nature of discrepancies. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients admitted from the emergency department at our 760-bed hospital. Eligible patients had their medication histories conducted and reconciled in order by the admitting nurse (RN), certified pharmacy technician (CPhT), and pharmacist (RPh). Discharge medication reconciliation was not altered. Admission and discharge discrepancies were categorized by discipline, error type, and drug class and were assigned a criticality index score. A discrepancy rating system systematically measured discrepancies. Results: Of 175 consented patients, 153 were evaluated. Total admission and discharge discrepancies were 1,461 and 369, respectively. The average number of medications per participant at admission was 8.59 (1,314) with 9.41 (1,374) at discharge. Most discrepancies were committed by RNs: 53.2% (777) at admission and 56.1% (207) at discharge. The majority were omitted or incorrect. RNs had significantly higher admission discrepancy rates per medication (0.59) compared with CPhTs (0.36) and RPhs (0.16) (P < .001). RPhs corrected significantly more discrepancies per participant than RNs (6.39 vs 0.48; P < .001); average criticality index reduction was 79.0%. Estimated prevented adverse drug events (pADEs) cost savings were $589,744. Conclusions: RPhs committed the fewest discrepancies compared with RNs and CPhTs, resulting in more accurate medication histories and reconciliation. RPh involvement also prevented the greatest number of medication errors, contributing to considerable pADE-related cost savings. PMID:25477614

  13. [The 'feminine' in the history of medical didactics].

    PubMed

    Melillo, Luigia

    2005-01-01

    Women are present in the 'long' history of medicine both as patients and as healers specialising in curing and caring. The nowadays existing attempt to define a female specific medical knowledge (discussing, for instance, the quality of a supposed 'female' cultural and professional training; the role of women in medical research as well as in discussing bioethical subjects; the relationship between women-physicians and other medical professionals; the female approach to important bioethical issues such as euthanasy, 'therapeutical fury' for the incurable sick, female genital mutilations) is here analyzed in a broader historical context. PMID:16285079

  14. [Medical history as an academic subject at the Bamberg University].

    PubMed

    Locher, W

    2000-01-01

    A full program of medicine was taught at the Catholic University of Bamberg (founded 1648 as the Academia Ottonia) from 1773 through 1803. Within this period of time, the History of Medicine was taught from 1790 through 1795 by Johann Baptist Dominicus Fin(c)k. This paper elucidates how in this instance protestant universities served as models for catholic universities. Interestingly, it was not the medical faculty itself which developed an interest in teaching medical history. Rather, it was Adalbert Friedrich Marcus (1753-1816), physician-in-waiting of the Prince-Bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal and medical officer in the principality of Bamberg since June 22, 1790, who was charged by the Prince-Bishop with developing guidelines for medical education. The start of the History of Medicine lectures brought with it a heated dispute about an appropriate textbook. The discussion is evidence of a transition from historiography understood as an account of learned doctors of the past to a study of history in a modern sense. PMID:11068514

  15. History of the Calendar : In Different Countries Through the Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, M. N.; Lahiri, N. C.

    This volume contains Part of the Report of the Calendar Reform Committee appointed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) on history of the Calendar in different countries through the Ages.

  16. Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques M; Schloendorn, John; Rittmann, Bruce E; Alvarez, Pedro JJ

    2009-01-01

    Catabolic insufficiency in humans leads to the gradual accumulation of a number of pathogenic compounds associated with age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and macular degeneration. Removal of these compounds is a widely researched therapeutic option, but the use of antibodies and endogenous human enzymes has failed to produce effective treatments, and may pose risks to cellular homeostasis. Another alternative is "medical bioremediation," the use of microbial enzymes to augment missing catabolic functions. The microbial genetic diversity in most natural environments provides a resource that can be mined for enzymes capable of degrading just about any energy-rich organic compound. This review discusses targets for biodegradation, the identification of candidate microbial enzymes, and enzyme-delivery methods. PMID:19358742

  17. History of the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME), with the leadership of seven editors and two interim editors, grew from 33 pages of mostly news and commentary to become the premier source for information exchange in veterinary medical education. The first national publication of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) was a 21-page newsletter published in December 1973. This one-time newsletter was followed by volume 1, issue 1 of JVME, published in spring 1974 and edited by William W. Armistead. Richard Talbot was the second and longest serving editor, and under his leadership, JVME grew in the number and quality of papers. Lester Crawford and John Hubbell served as interim editors, maintaining quality and keeping JVME on track until a new editor was in place. Robert Wilson, Billy Hooper, Donal Walsh, Henry Baker, and the current editor, Daryl Buss, are major contributors to the success of JVME. The early history of the journal is described by Billy Hooper and followed by a brief history of the periods of each of the editors. This history concludes with objective and subjective evaluations of the impacts of JVME. PMID:26673215

  18. Emerging programmed aging mechanisms and their medical implications.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Theodore C

    2016-01-01

    For many generations programmed aging in humans was considered theoretically impossible and medical attempts to treat or delay age-related diseases were based on non-programmed aging theories. However, there is now an extensive theoretical basis for programmed mammal aging and substantially funded medical research efforts based on programmed aging theories are underway. This article describes the very different disease mechanism concepts that logically result from the theories and the impacts emerging programmed aging mechanisms will have on funding and performing medical research on age-related conditions. PMID:26547271

  19. A Short History of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal “Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med”, indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24648621

  20. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  1. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-06-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory. PMID:27135931

  2. 78 FR 50136 - Notice of Information Collection Under Emergency Review: Medical History and Examination for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Information Collection Under Emergency Review: Medical History and Examination for Foreign Service... of Information Collection: Medical History and Examination for Foreign Service. OMB Control...

  3. 5 CFR 339.206 - Disqualification on the basis of medical history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... history. 339.206 Section 339.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Disqualification on the basis of medical history. A candidate may not be disqualified for any position solely on the basis of medical history. For positions with medical standards or physical requirements,...

  4. 5 CFR 339.206 - Disqualification on the basis of medical history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... history. 339.206 Section 339.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Disqualification on the basis of medical history. A candidate may not be disqualified for any position solely on the basis of medical history. For positions with medical standards or physical requirements,...

  5. 5 CFR 339.206 - Disqualification on the basis of medical history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... history. 339.206 Section 339.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Disqualification on the basis of medical history. A candidate may not be disqualified for any position solely on the basis of medical history. For positions with medical standards or physical requirements,...

  6. 5 CFR 339.206 - Disqualification on the basis of medical history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... history. 339.206 Section 339.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Disqualification on the basis of medical history. A candidate may not be disqualified for any position solely on the basis of medical history. For positions with medical standards or physical requirements,...

  7. 5 CFR 339.206 - Disqualification on the basis of medical history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... history. 339.206 Section 339.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Disqualification on the basis of medical history. A candidate may not be disqualified for any position solely on the basis of medical history. For positions with medical standards or physical requirements,...

  8. The history of parkinsonism: descriptions in ancient Indian medical literature.

    PubMed

    Ovallath, Sujith; Deepa, P

    2013-05-01

    The clinical syndrome of parkinsonism was identified in ancient India even before the period of Christ and was treated methodically. The earliest reference to bradykinesia dates to 600 bc. Evidences prove that as early as 300 bc, Charaka proposed a coherent picture of parkinsonism by describing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait disturbances as its components. The scenario was further developed by Madhava, Vagbhata, and Dalhana all through history. The 15th-century classic "Bhasava rajyam" introduced the term kampavata, which may be regarded as an ayurvedic analogue of parkinsonism. The pathogenesis of kampavata centered on the concept of imbalance in the vata factor, which controls psychomotor activities. The essential element in therapy was the administration of powdered seed of Mucuna pruriens, or atmagupta, which as per reports, contains 4%-6% of levodopa. In addition to proving the existence and identification of parkinsonism in ancient India, the study points to the significance of ancient Indian Sanskrit works in medical history. PMID:23483637

  9. [Beyond the asylum -An other view on the history of psychiatry in the modern age].

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Aude

    2015-07-01

    If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones. PMID:26111838

  10. Teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, D

    1999-03-01

    The current interest in philosophical questions and ethical aspects of medicine turns attention towards the past and obtains suggestions and perspectives from previous descriptions and interpretations of sickness, therapy, and the relation between the patient and physician. Culture as therapy and therapy as culture are fundamental challenges for the present; physician, patient, and society, i.e., humans and humane medicine, need this dialogue, which should also be constitutive for teaching history of medicine. Through the separation of the natural sciences and the humanities, modern progress of medicine has produced many benefits but has, at the same time, raised many problems. Negative consequences of this development exist not only for the patient, but also for his personal environment and for the physician. In the course of modern history, there have been several reactions aimed at overcoming these one-sided tendencies: in the Renaissance, in the epoch of Romanticism and Idealism, and at the beginning and the end of the 19th century. This article outlines, with historical examples and contemporary reflections, the concept of teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities". PMID:9933888

  11. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  12. A short history of the William H. Welch Medical Library.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Barbara M; Roderer, Nancy K; Ruggere, Christine

    2004-02-01

    The William H. Welch Medical Library was founded in 1929 with the merger of three libraries, namely, the library of the School of Medicine, the library of the School of Hygiene and Public Health, and the library of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Engendered by the dreams of Johns Hopkins University bibliophiles, such as founding Hopkins physicians William Osler, William Stewart Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Henry Welch, the library flourished and expanded. At the same time as the founding of the central medical library, the Institute of the History of Medicine collection was established in the Welch Library building, with William H. Welch as its first director. Innovative leadership led to many exciting projects, such as the Welch Indexing Project, which was a prototype for the National Library of Medicine's medical subject headings, and the establishment of a laboratory for research into the application of information technologies to knowledge management. The Welch Library enters the 21st century as a dynamic library committed to the continuing delivery of information services, as well as ongoing research into the development of library services for the coming 100 years. PMID:14744293

  13. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups. PMID:27200184

  14. Age and Cohort Patterns of Medical and Nonmedical Use of Controlled Medication Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Austic, Elizabeth; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Stoddard, Sarah; Ngo, Quyen Epstein; Boyd, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We identified peak annual incidence rates for medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioid analgesics, stimulants, sedatives and anxiolytics (controlled medication), and explored cohort effects on age of initiation. Methods Data were gathered retrospectively between 2009–2012 from Detroit area students (n=5185). Modal age at last assessment was 17 years. A meta-analytic approach produced age-, year-, and cohort-specific risk estimates of first-time use of controlled medication. Cox regression models examined cohort patterns in age of initiation for medical and nonmedical use with any of four classes of controlled medication (opioid analgesics, stimulants, sedatives or anxiolytics). Results Peak annual incidence rates were observed at age 16, when 11.3% started medical use, and 3.4% started using another person’s prescription for a controlled medication (i.e., engaged in nonmedical use). In the more recent birth cohort group (1996–2000), 82% of medical users and 76% of nonmedical users reported initiating such use by age 12. In contrast, in the less recent birth cohort group (1991–1995), 42% of medical users and 35% of nonmedical users initiated such use by age 12. Time to initiation was 2.6 times less in the more recent birth cohort group (medical use: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=2.57 [95% confidence interval (CI)= 2.32, 2.85]; nonmedical use: aHR=2.57 [95% CI=2.17, 3.03]). Conclusions Peak annual incidence rates were observed at age 16 for medical and nonmedical use. More recent cohorts reported initiating both types of use at younger ages. Earlier interventions may be needed to prevent adolescent nonmedical use of controlled medication. PMID:26291544

  15. [Eighteenth century calendars as a source of Polish medical history].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, W

    1996-01-01

    The general decline of science which took place in the first half of the 18th century was a cause of a huge quantity of calendars editing. Calendars substituted for the former scientific literature. Up to 1763 over 800 calendars appeared. A half of them was published in Cracov. Those calendars differed from the contemporary ones. Apart from dates, they included not only basic information in history, geography agriculture economy but, not seldom, medicine as well. Most often they were written by university professors with a few physicians among them. Obviously, the level of the presented medical knowledge was very low. There wenadductions to astrology, wizardry and Provinience. But some diagnoses and therapeutic advice being a kind of doctor's manual, useful to so-called domestic medicine are still worth of the attention. First of all, phytotherapy chapter based on the folk empiricism, was the most rational. Thought 18th century calendars did not have much in common with real medicine, they make an interesting source to search for history of the Polish medicine of the Saxon times. PMID:9245110

  16. Learning from the Legal History of Billing for Medical Fees

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carl E.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION When patients pay for care out-of-pocket, physicians must balance their professional obligations to serve with the commercial demands of medical practice. Consumer-directed health care makes this problem newly pressing, but law and ethics have thought for millennia about how doctors should bill patients. Historical Background At various points in European history, the law restricted doctors’ ability to bill for their services, but this legal aversion to commercializing medicine did not take root in the American colonies. Rather, US law has always treated selling medical services the way it treats other sales. Yet doctors acted differently in a crucial way. Driven by the economics of medical practice before the spread of health insurance, doctors charged patients according to what they thought each patient could afford. The use of sliding fee scales persisted until widespread health insurance drove a standardization of fees. Current Practice Today, encouraged by Medicare rules and managed care discounts, providers use a perverse form of a sliding scale that charges the most to patients who can afford the least. Primary care physicians typically charge uninsured patients one third to one half more than they receive from insurers for basic office or hospital visits, and markups are substantially higher (2 to 2.5 times) for high-tech tests and specialists’ invasive procedures. CONCLUSION Ethical and professional principles might require providers to return to discounting fees for patients in straitened circumstances, but imposing such a duty formally (by law or by ethical code) on doctors would be harder both in principle and in practice than to impose such a duty on hospitals. Still, professional ethics should encourage physicians to give patients in economic trouble at least the benefit of the lowest rate they accept from an established payer. PMID:18414955

  17. The history of bronchial asthma from the ancient times till the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the knowledge on asthma through the history of mankind. The text begins with ancient China and it is finished with the medicine of Middle Age. During this time, a lot of theories came and this appeared about the etiology and therapy of the disease. The paper is giving a short description of the changing medical views during this very long period including China, Egypt Greco-roman period, Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, the physicians of India, the pre-Columbian medicine in the America and the Arabic world, and partly the European medicine of the Middle Ages. PMID:16438118

  18. Geographic Medical History: Advances in Geospatial Technology Present New Potentials in Medical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, F. S.; Finley, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes) and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour), but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, "Airs, Waters, Places", yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient's medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient's "Geographic Medical History". In order to accomplish this we need information on: a) relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b) location of the individual in that person's dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual's location can be tracked in real time if

  19. Clinical Prediction Models for Sleep Apnea: The Importance of Medical History over Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Berk; Westover, M. Brandon; Rudin, Cynthia; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a treatable contributor to morbidity and mortality. However, most patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. We used a new machine learning method known as SLIM (Supersparse Linear Integer Models) to test the hypothesis that a diagnostic screening tool based on routinely available medical information would be superior to one based solely on patient-reported sleep-related symptoms. Methods: We analyzed polysomnography (PSG) and self-reported clinical information from 1,922 patients tested in our clinical sleep laboratory. We used SLIM and 7 state-of-the-art classification methods to produce predictive models for OSA screening using features from: (i) self-reported symptoms; (ii) self-reported medical information that could, in principle, be extracted from electronic health records (demographics, comorbidities), or (iii) both. Results: For diagnosing OSA, we found that model performance using only medical history features was superior to model performance using symptoms alone, and similar to model performance using all features. Performance was similar to that reported for other widely used tools: sensitivity 64.2% and specificity 77%. SLIM accuracy was similar to state-of-the-art classification models applied to this dataset, but with the benefit of full transparency, allowing for hands-on prediction using yes/no answers to a small number of clinical queries. Conclusion: To predict OSA, variables such as age, sex, BMI, and medical history are superior to the symptom variables we examined for predicting OSA. SLIM produces an actionable clinical tool that can be applied to data that is routinely available in modern electronic health records, which may facilitate automated, rather than manual, OSA screening. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 159. Citation: Ustun B, Westover MB, Rudin C, Bianchi MT. Clinical prediction models for sleep apnea: the importance of medical history over symptoms

  20. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  1. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: data representation by AVT hierarchical data tree.

    PubMed

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user's medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents' medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data). Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data) for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper. PMID:22547926

  2. The History of Medical Libraries from 2000 B.C. to 1900 A.D

    PubMed Central

    Birchette, Kathleen P.

    1973-01-01

    Tablets said to date back to 2000 b.c. represent the earliest medical writings so far discovered. The history of the medical library (defined as a place where a collection of medical writings is kept) is traced through ancient and medieval civilizations, and the dependence of advancement or decline on the attitude toward learning and knowledge is demonstrated. The change in structure of medical libraries that took place around the 1500s with the development of scientific societies is discussed. Medical libraries of Colonial America are described and the history is brought forward to the era of public library collections of medical material in the early 1900s. PMID:4579768

  3. Ar-Ar ages and thermal histories of enstatite meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Dixon, Eleanor T.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2010-05-01

    Compared with ordinary chondrites, there is a relative paucity of chronological and other data to define the early thermal histories of enstatite parent bodies. In this study, we report 39Ar-40Ar dating results for five EL chondrites: Khairpur, Pillistfer, Hvittis, Blithfield, and Forrest; five EH chondrites: Parsa, Saint Marks, Indarch, Bethune, and Reckling Peak 80259; three igneous-textured enstatite meteorites that represent impact melts on enstatite chondrite parent bodies: Zaklodzie, Queen Alexandra Range 97348, and Queen Alexandra Range 97289; and three aubrites, Norton County, Bishopville, and Cumberland Falls Several Ar-Ar age spectra show unusual 39Ar recoil effects, possibly the result of some of the K residing in unusual sulfide minerals, such as djerfisherite and rodderite, and other age spectra show 40Ar diffusion loss. Few additional Ar-Ar ages for enstatite meteorites are available in the literature. When all available Ar-Ar data on enstatite meteorites are considered, preferred ages of nine chondrites and one aubrite show a range of 4.50-4.54Ga, whereas five other meteorites show only lower age limits over 4.35-4.46Ga. Ar-Ar ages of several enstatite chondrites are as old or older as the oldest Ar-Ar ages of ordinary chondrites, which suggests that enstatite chondrites may have derived from somewhat smaller parent bodies, or were metamorphosed to lower temperatures compared to other chondrite types. Many enstatite meteorites are brecciated and/or shocked, and some of the younger Ar-Ar ages may record these impact events. Although impact heating of ordinary chondrites within the last 1Ga is relatively common for ordinary chondrites, only Bethune gives any significant evidence for such a young event.

  4. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the...

  5. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the...

  6. 28 CFR 115.81 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.81 Section 115.81 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... Care § 115.81 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the...

  7. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening...

  8. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening...

  9. 28 CFR 115.381 - Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. 115.381 Section 115.381 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... § 115.381 Medical and mental health screenings; history of sexual abuse. (a) If the screening...

  10. 77 FR 45717 - Proposed Information Collection (Former Prisoner of War Medical History); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Former Prisoner of War Medical History); Comment Request AGENCY... Prisoner of War (FPOW) Medical History, VA Form 10- 0048. OMB Control Number: 2900-0427. Type of...

  11. Acting Out History from the Ice Age to the Modern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)

  12. Natural history of aging in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kline, Antonie D; Grados, Marco; Sponseller, Paul; Levy, Howard P; Blagowidow, Natalie; Schoedel, Christianne; Rampolla, Joni; Clemens, Douglas K; Krantz, Ian; Kimball, Amy; Pichard, Carmen; Tuchman, David

    2007-08-15

    Observations about the natural history of aging in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) are made, based on 49 patients from a multidisciplinary clinic for adolescents and adults. The mean age was 17 years. Although most patients remain small, obesity may develop. Gastroesophageal reflux persists or worsens, and there are early long-term sequelae, including Barrett esophagus in 10%; other gastrointestinal findings include risk for volvulus, rumination, and chronic constipation. Submucous cleft palate was found in 14%, most undetected before our evaluation. Chronic sinusitis was noted in 39%, often with nasal polyps. Blepharitis improves with age; cataracts and detached retina may occur. Decreased bone density is observed, with occasional fractures. One quarter have leg length discrepancy and 39% scoliosis. Most females have delayed or irregular menses but normal gynecologic exams and pap smears. Benign prostatic hypertrophy occurred in one male prior to 40 years. The phenotype is variable, but there is a distinct pattern of facial changes with aging. Premature gray hair is frequent; two patients had cutis verticis gyrata. Behavioral issues and specific psychiatric diagnoses, including self-injury, anxiety, attention-deficit disorder, autistic features, depression, and obsessive-compulsive behavior, often worsen with age. This work presents some evidence for accelerated aging in CdLS. Of 53% with mutation analysis, 55% demonstrate a detectable mutation in NIPBL or SMC1A. Although no specific genotype-phenotype correlations have been firmly established, individuals with missense mutations in NIPBL and SMC1A appear milder than those with other mutations. Based on these observations, recommendations for clinical management of adults with CdLS are made. PMID:17640042

  13. A past medical history of gestational diabetes: its medical significance and its dental implications.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Arthur H; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Altman, Lisa

    2007-02-01

    Approximately 7% of pregnant women develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a usually transient form of diabetes mellitus, because of the production of some placental and maternal adipose tissue elaborated hormones that alter glucose metabolism. In most women the disorder resolves at delivery, but within 10 years 50% to 70% of these women go on to develop type 2 diabetes. The identification of women with past medical histories of GDM is a clinically useful marker for alerting the dentist to patients at heightened risk of occult type 2 diabetes, with a possible greater risk of developing periodontal disease and dental caries. Screening these patients for diabetes and establishing a preventative dental regimen may result in reducing the number of women with undiagnosed diabetes and diabetes-associated dental and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17234528

  14. LIFE HISTORY. Age-related mortality explains life history strategies of tropical and temperate songbirds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2015-08-28

    Life history theory attempts to explain why species differ in offspring number and quality, growth rate, and parental effort. I show that unappreciated interactions of these traits in response to age-related mortality risk challenge traditional perspectives and explain life history evolution in songbirds. Counter to a long-standing paradigm, tropical songbirds grow at similar overall rates to temperate species but grow wings relatively faster. These growth tactics are favored by predation risk, both in and after leaving the nest, and are facilitated by greater provisioning of individual offspring by parents. Increased provisioning of individual offspring depends on partitioning effort among fewer young because of constraints on effort from adult and nest mortality. These growth and provisioning responses to mortality risk finally explain the conundrum of small clutch sizes of tropical birds. PMID:26315435

  15. Optimal medication use in elders. Key to successful aging.

    PubMed

    Monane, M; Monane, S; Semla, T

    1997-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy represents one of the most important ways in which the practice of geriatric medicine differs from conventional medical care. The older patients is a major consumer of prescription and nonprescription medications, and proper use of these agents can lead to more cost-effective strategies in reaching optimal health. A key difference in distinguishing appropriate from inappropriate drug use is evident in the themes of polymedicine and polypharmacy. Polymedicine describes the use of medications for an older population for the treatment of multiple co-morbid conditions, while polypharmacy represents a less-than-desirable state with duplicative medications, drug-to-drug interactions, and inadequate attention to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles. The purpose of this paper is to outline strategies toward optimal medication use as a key to successful aging. Specifically, we discuss themes of cost-effective prescribing, the role of medication compliance, overuse and underuse of medication, over-the-counter products, alcohol abuse, and preventive medicine. In addition, we discuss policy implications and responsibility for ensuring the high quality of pharmaceutical care. The reader should have a practical understanding of the pertinent issues in geriatric clinical pharmacology and its relationship to successful aging. PMID:9348752

  16. Systems ethics and the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Clements, C D

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the current conclusions in medical ethics which have followed the 1969-1970 Medical Ethics Discontinuity, a break that challenged the Hippocratic way of thinking about ethics. The resulting dislocations in quality of care and the medical value system are discussed, and an alternative medical ethics is offered: Systems Ethics. A methodology for a Systems Ethics analysis of cases is presented and illustrated by the case of a physician-assisted suicide. The advantages, both theoretical and clinical, of a Systems Ethics approach to medicine, which is an expansion of the Hippocratic tradition in medical ethics, are developed. Using Systems Ethics, it is possible to avoid the dangers of legalism, bureaucratic ethics, utilitarian cost cutting, and "political correctness" in medical ethics. PMID:1475330

  17. The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9803287

  18. The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9578936

  19. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

  20. Seroprevalence and immunization history of selected vaccine preventable diseases in medical students.

    PubMed

    Baer, Gurli; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Schaad, Urs B; Heininger, Ulrich

    2005-03-14

    To evaluate protection against vaccine-preventable diseases in medical students, we obtained data on immunization status and history of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and hepatitis B from students with elective periods in our institution. Further, serum antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen were determined on a voluntary basis. For students with incomplete immunization status or lack of protective antibodies, vaccination was offered for free. Success of catch-up immunizations was serologically confirmed 4 weeks later. From May 1999 to April 2003, 170 students were enrolled; their mean age was 26 years with a median of 25 years (range 22-48 years). Immunization records were complete in 148 (87%), incomplete in 11 (6.5%) and missing in 11 (6.5%) students. Only 26% of the cohort had a complete and up-to-date immunization status. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, VZV and HBs (> or = 10 IU/l) in 149 students were 85, 85, 92, 97 and 90%, respectively. Indications for > or = 1 catch-up immunization were found in 125 (74%) students and were accepted by 97 of them (78%). Sixty two (99%) of 63 immunized students available for follow-up demonstrated an adequate serological response. In conclusion, the great majority of medical students had immunization gaps. Systematic immunization programmes for medical students should be implemented. PMID:15734076

  1. Class Struggles: Teaching History in the Postmodern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilton, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Describes Generation X students. Believes that teaching history to Generation X requires rebuilding the connections between community college teachers and four year schools that invent the "new history." Discusses how teachers can use the new history, "reflexive methodology," pictures from art history, and storytelling in the postmodern classroom.…

  2. Application of the structured history taking of medication use tool to optimise prescribing for older patients and reduce adverse events.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Shane; O'Mahony, Denis; Byrne, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Background Older patients, due to polypharmacy, co-morbidities and often multiple prescribing doctors are particularly susceptible to medication history errors, leading to adverse drug events, patient harm and increased costs. Medication reconciliation at the point of admission to hospital can reduce medication discrepancies and adverse events. The Structured HIstory taking of Medication use (SHiM) tool was developed to provide a structure to the medication reconciliation process. There has been very little research with regards to SHiM, it's application to older patients and it's potential to reduce adverse events. Objective To determine whether application of SHiM could optimise older patients' prescriptions on admission to hospital, and in-turn reduce adverse events, compared to standard care. Setting A sub-study of a large clinical trial involving hospital inpatients over the age of 65 in five hospitals across Europe. Method A modified version of SHiM was used to obtain accurate drug histories for patients after the attending physician had obtained a medication list via standard methods. Discrepancies between the two lists were recorded and classified, and the clinical relevance of the discrepancies was determined. Whether discrepancies in patients' medication histories, as revealed by SHiM, resulted in actual clinical consequences was then investigated. As this study was carried out during the observation phase of the clinical trial, results were not communicated to the medical teams. Main outcome measure Discrepancies between medication lists and whether these resulted in clinical consequences. Results SHiM was applied to 123 patients. The mean age of the participants was 78 (±6). 200 discrepancies were identified. 90 patients (73 %) had at least one discrepancy with a median of 1.0 discrepancies per patient (IQR 0.00-2.25). 53 (26.5 %) were classified as 'unlikely to cause patient discomfort or clinical deterioration', 145 (72.5 %) as 'having potential

  3. Developing an Algorithm to Identify History of Cancer Using Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Christina L.; Feigelson, Heather S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction/Objective: The objective of this study was to develop an algorithm to identify Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) members with a history of cancer. Background: Tumor registries are used with high precision to identify incident cancer, but are not designed to capture prevalent cancer within a population. We sought to identify a cohort of adults with no history of cancer, and thus, we could not rely solely on the tumor registry. Methods: We included all KPCO members between the ages of 40–75 years who were continuously enrolled during 2013 (N=201,787). Data from the tumor registry, chemotherapy files, inpatient and outpatient claims were used to create an algorithm to identify members with a high likelihood of cancer. We validated the algorithm using chart review and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for occurrence of cancer. Findings: The final version of the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 100 percent and specificity of 84.6 percent for identifying cancer. If we relied on the tumor registry alone, 47 percent of those with a history of cancer would have been missed. Discussion: Using the tumor registry alone to identify a cohort of patients with prior cancer is not sufficient. In the final version of the algorithm, the sensitivity and PPV were improved when a diagnosis code for cancer was required to accompany oncology visits or chemotherapy administration. Conclusion: Electronic medical record (EMR) data can be used effectively in combination with data from the tumor registry to identify health plan members with a history of cancer. PMID:27195308

  4. The medical profession and nuclear war. A social history.

    PubMed

    Day, B; Waitzkin, H

    1985-08-01

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the United States have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues. PMID:3892071

  5. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.

    1985-08-02

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues.

  6. Modern Japanese medical history and the European influence.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Y; Isozumi, K

    2001-06-01

    Before the first European visited Japan in 1549, traditional Chinese medicine was mainly employed in Japan. Francisco de Xavier, a missionary of the Society of Jesus, tried to promote the introduction of Christianity by providing a medical service for Japanese citizens. However, Japan implemented a national isolation policy in 1639 and cut off diplomatic relations with the rest of the world, except Holland and China. For over 200 years, until the American admiral Matthew Perry forced Japan to open its doors in 1853, Japan learned about western medicine only from doctors of the Dutch merchants' office or from Dutch medical books. After 1853, Western medicine was rapidly introduced into Japan, and great achievements by Japanese medical doctors soon followed, such as the serum therapy for tetanus, the discovery of the plague and dysentery bacilli, the invention of Salvarsan for the treatment of syphilis, and the demonstration of the neurosyphilis spirochete. PMID:11450598

  7. Medical library services in Kuwait: history and future prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, M G; Brennen, P W

    1984-01-01

    Despite immense resources and a growing interest in education and libraries, library development in Kuwait has been restricted by the problems common to all developing countries. These include an overdose of bureaucracy, lack of trained librarians, and little perception of the library's importance in the educational system. Medical librarianship is virtually a new field. The only medical library of any significance in the country is the Faculty of Medicine Library established in 1974 to serve the newly organized Faculty of Medicine of Kuwait University. In recent years, the Faculty of Medicine Library has gone through several reassessments and many changes. It has expanded its collection, begun computerized searching, and recruited several professional librarians. Now semiautonomous from the university's Libraries Department and housed in a new, modern building, the library has the potential to become the main medical library in the Persian Gulf area. PMID:6365225

  8. First-Year Medical Students' Knowledge of, Attitudes Toward, and Personal Histories of Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinane, Paula M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed 370 first-year medical students concerning family violence of which 38% reported a history of personal abuse; only one-third of these were well-informed about family violence. Women felt more strongly than men about need for violence education. Students reporting a history of violence more strongly favored violence education and advocacy…

  9. History of Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Infections in Iran.

    PubMed

    Edrissian, Gholamhossein; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Bahadori, Moslem

    2016-08-01

    Parasites and parasitic diseases have been prevalent in Iran according to Iranian ancient scholars and physicians' inscriptions dating back to 865-1496. Some protozoan diseases such as malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis have been introduced by clinical manifestations and helminthic infections by size and morphology of the worms. Scientific studies of Parasitology started in Iran from 1833, first by foreign physicians and continued from 1909 by Iranian researchers. The pioneer medical parasitologists of Iran were Dr N. Ansari and Dr. Sh. Mofidi who established the Department of Medical Parasitology in the School of Medicine, University of Tehran, 1939. Afterward, a considerable number of researchers and professors of parasitology have been active in training and research works in the fields of medical parasitology throughout the entire nation. At present, some significant parasitic diseases such as bilharsiasis and dracunculiasis are more or less eradicated and malaria is in the elimination phase. The prevalence of most helminthic infections has considerably decreased. Most of the departments of medical Parasitology in Iran are active in training MD, MSPH and PhD students. The Iranian Society of Parasitology established in 1994 is active with many eligible members and its creditable publication, the Iranian Journal of Parasitology, published seasonally since 2006. From 1833, when the scientific studies of Parasitology have started in Iran up to 2013, many researchers have been done on various fields of medical Parasitology and parasitic diseases in Iran and 2517 papers in English and 1890 papers in Persian have been published in national and international scientific journals. In addition, more than 420 books related in the field of medical parasitology field have been published in Persian language. PMID:27544371

  10. Canada basin: age and history of its continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Presently available age controls suggest that the Canada basin formed during the Cretaceous Period between about 131 and 79 Ma. The opening process began with continental breakup that may have involved all parts of the North American polar margin at about the same time. The opening was completed by the formation of oceanic crust during the extended Cretaceous interval of normal geomagnetic polarity. Features characteristics of continental breakup, insofar as they are known, show systematic regional differences. From Brock to Axel Heiberg Island, continental breakup was associated with an extended (100 + Ma) stratigraphic hiatus and, northeastward from Ellef Ringnes Island, with extensive tholeiitic igneous activity. From Banks Island to northeastern Alaska, the breakup interval was abbreviated (20-30 Ma), and sparse igneous activity occurred. These differences can be produced by changes in the rate and/or amount of crustal stretching during margin formation and would imply relatively faster or more stretching northeast of Brock island. A continental margin of fixed age, exhibiting the indicated pattern of crustal stretching, could be produced along the trailing edge of a rotating block (Arctic Alaska terrane AA) with its pivot near the Mackenzie delta. When the rotation is restored, however, geological discrepancies are evident between Devonian and older rocks across the conjugate margins, suggesting an earlier history of drifting for the AA. Early Paleozoic correlations appear improved if the AA is placed, polar margin to polar margin, against northern Ellesmere Island and Greenland, where in the middle Paleozoic, it was sheared sinistrally along the Canadian margin to its pre-rotated position opposite Banks Island.

  11. The Aging Brain Care Medical Home: Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Michael A; Alder, Catherine A; Callahan, Christopher M; Gao, Sujuan; French, Dustin D; Austrom, Mary G; Boustany, Karim; Livin, Lee; Bynagari, Bharath; Boustani, Malaz A

    2015-06-01

    The Aging Brain Care (ABC) Medical Home aims to improve the care, health outcomes, and medical costs of Medicare beneficiaries with dementia or depression across central Indiana. This population health management program, funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovation Center, expanded an existing collaborative dementia and depression care program to serve 1,650 older adults in a local safety-net hospital system. During the first year, 20 full-time clinical staff were hired, trained, and deployed to deliver a collaborative care intervention. In the first 18 months, an average of 13 visits was provided per person. Thirty percent of the sample had a diagnosis of dementia, and 77% had a diagnosis of depression. Sixty-six percent of participants with high depression scores (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥14) had at least a 50% reduction in their depressive symptoms. Fifty-one percent of caregivers of individuals with dementia had at least a 50% reduction in caregiver stress symptoms (measured by the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor-Caregiver Version). After 18 months, the ABC Medical Home has demonstrated progress toward improving the health of older adults with dementia and depression. Scalable and practical models like this show initial promise for answering the challenges posed by the nation's rapidly aging population. PMID:26096394

  12. Utility of an Algorithm to Increase the Accuracy of Medication History in an Obstetrical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, Aline; Baud, David; Chaouch, Aziz; Beney, Johnny; Csajka, Chantal; Panchaud, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Background In an obstetrical setting, inaccurate medication histories at hospital admission may result in failure to identify potentially harmful treatments for patients and/or their fetus(es). Methods This prospective study was conducted to assess average concordance rates between (1) a medication list obtained with a one-page structured medication history algorithm developed for the obstetrical setting and (2) the medication list reported in medical records and obtained by open-ended questions based on standard procedures. Both lists were converted into concordance rate using a best possible medication history approach as the reference (information obtained by patients, prescribers and community pharmacists’ interviews). Results The algorithm-based method obtained a higher average concordance rate than the standard method, with respectively 90.2% [CI95% 85.8–94.3] versus 24.6% [CI95%15.3–34.4] concordance rates (p<0.01). Conclusion Our algorithm-based method strongly enhanced the accuracy of the medication history in our obstetric population, without using substantial resources. Its implementation is an effective first step to the medication reconciliation process, which has been recognized as a very important component of patients’ drug safety. PMID:26999743

  13. An Abridged History of Medical Informatics Education in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hasman, Arie; Mantas, John; Zarubina, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    This contribution presents the development of medical informatics education in Europe. It does not discuss all developments that took place. Rather it discerns several themes that indicate the progress in the field, starting from the initiation phase to the final quality control phase. PMID:24648617

  14. Medication overuse headache: history, features, prevention and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Saper, Joel R; Da Silva, Arnaldo Neves

    2013-11-01

    Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a daily, or almost daily, headache form that arises from overuse of one or more classes of migraine-abortive or analgesic medication. The main classes of drugs that cause MOH are opioids, butalbital-containing mixed analgesics, triptans, ergotamine tartrate derivatives, simple analgesics (except for plain aspirin), and perhaps non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. MOH can be debilitating and results from biochemical and functional brain changes induced by certain medications taken too frequently. At this time, migraine and other primary headache disorders in which migraine or migraine-like elements occur seem exclusively vulnerable to the development of MOH. Other primary headache disorders are not currently believed to be vulnerable. The treatment of MOH consists of discontinuation of the offending drug(s), acute treatment of the withdrawal symptoms and escalating pain, establishing a preventive treatment when necessary, and the implementation of educational and behavioral programs to prevent recidivism. In most patients, MOH can be treated in the outpatient setting but, for the most difficult cases, including those with opioid or butalbital overuse, or in patients with serious medical or behavioral disturbances, effective treatment requires a multidisciplinary, comprehensive headache program, either day-hospital with infusion or an inpatient hospital setting. PMID:23925669

  15. History of Medical Informatics in Europe - a Short Review by Different Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mihalas, George; Zvarova, Jana; Kulikowski, Casimir; Ball, Marion; van Bemmel, Jan; Hasman, Arie; Masic, Izet; Whitehouse, Diane; Barber, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The panel intended to collect data, opinions and views for a systematic and multiaxial approach for a comprehensive presentation of “History of Medical Informatics”, treating both general (global) characteristics, but emphasizing the particular features for Europe. The topic was not only a subject of large interest but also of great importance in preparing a detailed material for celebration of forty years of medical informatics in Europe. The panel comprised a list of topics, trying to cover all major aspects to be discussed. Proposals of staging the major periods of medical informatics history were also discussed. PMID:24648613

  16. 42 CFR 435.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of individuals under age....308 Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to individuals under age 21 (or, at State option, under age 20,...

  17. 42 CFR 435.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of individuals under age....308 Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to individuals under age 21 (or, at State option, under age 20,...

  18. 42 CFR 435.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of individuals under age....308 Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to individuals under age 21 (or, at State option, under age 20,...

  19. 42 CFR 435.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of individuals under age....308 Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to individuals under age 21 (or, at State option, under age 20,...

  20. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma/Leukemia: The Interlymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chang, Ellen T.; Costas, Laura; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kelly, Jennifer; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Cozen, Wendy; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Slager, Susan L.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiologic role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown, but epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by age. Methods We investigated risk factors for sporadic BL in 295 cases compared with 21818 controls in a pooled analysis of 18 case–control studies in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Cases were defined to include typical BL or Burkitt-like lymphoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations were calculated separately for younger (<50 years) and older (≥50 years) BL using multivariate logistic regression. Results Cases included 133 younger BL and 159 older BL (age was missing for three cases) and they were evenly split between typical BL (n = 147) and Burkitt-like lymphoma (n = 148). BL in younger participants was inversely associated with a history of allergy (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.05), and positively associated with a history of eczema among individuals without other atopic conditions (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.20 to 5.40), taller height (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.36), and employment as a cleaner (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.13 to 10.7). BL in older participants was associated with a history of hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 4.19; 95% CI = 1.05 to 16.6) based on three exposed cases. Regardless of age, BL was inversely associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with height. Conclusions Our data suggest that BL in younger and older adults may be etiologically distinct. PMID:25174031

  1. Periungual Pyogenic Granuloma: The Importance of the Medical History

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrini, Aurora; Bruni, Francesca; Starace, Michela; Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a common, benign vascular proliferation that can arise on the skin or subcutaneous tissue. It is more frequent in the early decades of life, and the most common locations are the digits of both hands and feet. The most common cause of periungual PG is drug intake, but many other trigger factors have been described in the literature. Treatment should be chosen according to the cause. We describe 2 particular cases of periungual PG in which the clinical history has been fundamental. In the first case, there was an underlying hand eczema, and in the second case, a foreign body was present. PMID:27386461

  2. [History as politics. Medical historians in Berlin and Graz serving the NS-State].

    PubMed

    Bruns, Florian; Frewer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    History of medicine played an important part in the ideology and policy of the Third Reich. The Nazi Party and the "Schutzstaffel" (SS) tried to instrumentalize historical knowledge to justify their ideology and medical ethics. The academic discipline of the history of medicine saw a revival during the Nazi period and, especially, during the Second World War. Important medical historians were eager to contribute to a symbiosis between the State and their field. The close relationship between the history of medicine and the Nazi regime was particularly apparent at Paul Diepgen's Department for the History of Medicine and Natural Sciences at the University of Berlin. Diepgen, apart from his own collaboration with the Nazi regime, was the teacher of Bernward J. Gottlieb who became the leading medical historian of the SS and Director of the new "SS-Institute for the History of Medicine" in Berlin in 1941. Gottlieb's institute moved in 1943 to the "SS-Academy" in Graz to train future SS-physicians in the history of medicine. The history of medicine was of great relevance also for certain members of the Nazi elite. They included Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS, who ensured that Gottlieb would become Diepgen's successor in 1945 for the chair of medical history at the University of Berlin. Hitler was asked to intervene in the appointment process given the political importance of the field and, in particular, the professorship being located in Berlin. The SS was able to exercise, by this time, a decisive influence on the field of the history of medicine. Only the collapse of the Third Reich prevented the traditional discipline from becoming a "science" to legitimize the Nazi System and the SS. The aim of this paper is to examine the role of the field of the history of medicine and of its key institutions and personalities during the Third Reich. PMID:17144620

  3. Teaching History in a Post-Industrial Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchetti, Ann

    2004-01-01

    As a social studies teacher, the author emphasizes the story of history (sticking to the facts as much as they are known) and the human qualities of the players. Middle school kids are in the throes of exploring self-identity and attempting to define their worlds. They love drama, and history provides plenty of it. The author finds that teaching…

  4. Dental Treatment Considerations for Children with Complex Medical Histories: A Case of Townes-Brock Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elkaiali, Lujayn; Ratliff, Katelin; Oueis, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    It is common for oral health and dental care to be considered a lesser priority for children with complex medical histories than other aspects of their health care. Often, these patients are at a high risk for caries and infection due to poor oral health practices at home, special or restricted diets, and no early establishment of a dental home for routine dental care. Unfortunately, many of these patients present to their first dental visits with caries and require aggressive treatment, such as extractions instead of pulp therapy, or crowns instead of fillings, due to their high caries risk and the difficulty in safely managing them medically during treatment. A unique example of this occurred at the Children's Hospital of Michigan, where a patient with Townes-Brock syndrome (TBS) presented to the dental clinic with advanced caries. TBS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by major findings such as anomalies of the external ear, imperforate anus, renal malformations, and malformations of the hand. Like many medically complex cases, dental anomalies are not a direct consequence of TBS; however, due to the necessity of high calorie and high sugar feeding supplementation, many of these patients are at high risk for advanced dental caries. Due to this high caries risk, a more aggressive treatment plan is necessary to minimize the risk of recurrent decay and infection. It is critical to stress that even if the disease, syndrome, etc., of a patient does not have inherent dental consequences, it is imperative for regular dental care to be part of the comprehensive treatment plan for these patients. This includes the establishment of a dental home at a young age and proper oral health education of the patient's caregivers and their physicians. In the case of the patient with TBS, recommendations for daily brushing, especially after high sugar feedings was stressed, as well as the reduction of any other sweets within the diet. PMID:26882646

  5. Conventional Medical Education and the History of Simulation in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison L; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Probyn, Linda; Auffermann, William F; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Marko, Jamie; Pua, Bradley B; Sato, Takashi Shawn; Little, Brent P; Dell, Carol M; Sarkany, David; Gettle, Lori Mankowski

    2015-10-01

    Simulation is a promising method for improving clinician performance, enhancing team training, increasing patient safety, and preventing errors. Training scenarios to enrich medical student and resident education, and apply toward competency assessment, recertification, and credentialing are important applications of simulation in radiology. This review will describe simulation training for procedural skills, interpretive and noninterpretive skills, team-based training and crisis management, professionalism and communication skills, as well as hybrid and in situ applications of simulation training. A brief overview of current simulation equipment and software and the barriers and strategies for implementation are described. Finally, methods of measuring competency and assessment are described, so that the interested reader can successfully implement simulation training into their practice. PMID:26276167

  6. Motor-Vehicle Crash History and Licensing Outcomes for Older Drivers Reported as Medically Impaired in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    Meuser, Thomas M.; Carr, David B.; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F.

    2009-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of medically impaired drivers is an important safety issue. Medical fitness to drive is applicable to all ages but is particularly salient for older adults. Voluntary procedures, whereby various professionals and family members may report medical fitness concerns to State driver license bureaus, are common in the United States. This paper examines traffic crashes of drivers reported during 2001–2005 under the State of Missouri’s voluntary reporting law (House Bill HB-1536) and the resulting licensing outcomes. Missouri’s law is non-specific as to age, but the mean age of reported drivers was 80. Reports were submitted by police officers (30%), license office staff (27%), physicians (20%), family members (16%), and others (7%). The most common medical condition was dementia/cognitive (45%). Crash history for reported drivers was higher than that of controls, dating back to 1993, reaching a peak in 2001 when the crash involvement of reported drivers was 9.3% vs. 2.2% for controls—a fourfold difference. The crash involvement of reported drivers decreased rapidly after, indicating the impact of HB-1536 reporting with subsequent license revocation and to a lesser degree, mortality. Of the 4,100 reported individuals, 144 (3.5%) retained a driver’s license after the process. PMID:19245882

  7. [Aspects of the mind-body relationship in the perspective of medical history].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the article three kinds of history writing about the mind-body relationship are presented: History as a puzzle, history as a connection of important pieces into meaningful narrative traditions and history as an investigation into the changing importance and meaning of concepts and discussions in medical history. In particular, ideas behind "Begriffsgeschichte" are presented in detail. The history of imagination is given as an example of the usefulness of tracing concepts and discussions back in time and looking for modern representations. Discussions on the power of imagination initiated the first clinical trials in the 18th century. Emphasis on the power of the mind, self-efficacy and self-care has today substituted earlier discussions on the power of imagination. PMID:20509455

  8. Martian Meteorite Ages and Implications for Martian Cratering History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2006-01-01

    New radiometrically determined ages of Martian meteorites add to the growing number with crystallization ages < 1.4 Ga. The observation of mainly geologically young ages for the Martian meteorites, the only exception being the 4.5 Ga ALH84001 [1], is paradoxical when viewed in context of a Martian surface thought to be mostly much older as inferred from the surface density of meteorite craters [2]. There appears to be at least a twofold difference between the observed ages of Martian meteorites and their expected ages as inferred from the ages of Martian surfaces obtained from crater densities.

  9. [Consolation as medical intervention and its history of ideas].

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Werner; Bühler, Karl-Ernst

    2006-01-01

    A review of interpretations of "suffering" was presented after an etymological clarification of the term "consolation". The review begins with an examination of concepts of consolation in the early Greek and Roman antiquity continues with late Greek and Roman antiquity, the early and late Middle Ages, the epochs of Humanism and Reformation and the time after Reformation until to the present. Concerning concepts of consolation in the present the conception of the movement "Biblical Therapeutic Pastoral Care", Viktor Frankl's "Logotherapy" and Viktor Emil von Gebsattel's "Anthropologic Psychotherapy" are discussed. Finally, some essential features of general conceptions of consolation are presented. PMID:17333867

  10. The end of medical confidentiality? Patients, physicians and the state in history

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Philip; Louis-Courvoisier, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Medical confidentiality has come under attack in the public sphere. In recent disasters both journalists and politicians have questioned medical confidentiality and claimed that in specific contexts physicians should be compelled to communicate data on their patients’ health. The murders of innocent individuals by a suicidal pilot and a Swiss convicted criminal have generated polemical debates on the topic. In this article, historical data on medical confidentiality is used to show that medical practices of secrecy were regularly attacked in the past, and that the nature of medical confidentiality evolved through time depending on physicians’ values and judgements. Our demonstration is based on three moments in history. First, at the end of the 16th century, lay authorities put pressure on physicians to disclose the names of patients suffering from syphilis. Second, in the 18th century, physicians faced constant demands for information about patients’ health from relatives and friends. Third, employers and insurance companies in the 20th century requested medical data on sick employees. In these three different situations, history reveals that the concept of medical confidentiality was plastic, modelled in the first instance to defend well-to-do patients, in the second instance it was adapted to accommodate the physician's social role and, finally, to defend universal values and public health. Medical secrecy was, and is today, a medical and societal norm that is shaped collectively. Any change in its definition and enforcement was and should be the result of negotiations with all social actors concerned. PMID:27334875

  11. The end of medical confidentiality? Patients, physicians and the state in history.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Philip; Louis-Courvoisier, Micheline; Huber, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Medical confidentiality has come under attack in the public sphere. In recent disasters both journalists and politicians have questioned medical confidentiality and claimed that in specific contexts physicians should be compelled to communicate data on their patients' health. The murders of innocent individuals by a suicidal pilot and a Swiss convicted criminal have generated polemical debates on the topic. In this article, historical data on medical confidentiality is used to show that medical practices of secrecy were regularly attacked in the past, and that the nature of medical confidentiality evolved through time depending on physicians' values and judgements. Our demonstration is based on three moments in history. First, at the end of the 16th century, lay authorities put pressure on physicians to disclose the names of patients suffering from syphilis. Second, in the 18th century, physicians faced constant demands for information about patients' health from relatives and friends. Third, employers and insurance companies in the 20th century requested medical data on sick employees. In these three different situations, history reveals that the concept of medical confidentiality was plastic, modelled in the first instance to defend well-to-do patients, in the second instance it was adapted to accommodate the physician's social role and, finally, to defend universal values and public health. Medical secrecy was, and is today, a medical and societal norm that is shaped collectively. Any change in its definition and enforcement was and should be the result of negotiations with all social actors concerned. PMID:27334875

  12. [Medicine, physicians and medical ethics in Jewish tradition through the ages].

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-08-01

    Medicine has always had a place of honor in the Jewish heritage. Since Biblical times, the sources of Judaism have valued the physician's activities and seen them as a partnership with God's deeds. Later, in the times of the Mishna and the Talmud, a model of scholars evolved who were not only learned sages but also had extensive medical and scientific knowledge. Their dealings with various issues in medical ethics were the basis for deliberation on questions that appeared throughout history on the advancement of medical science. The various sources from this period show the sages' sensitivity regarding the subject of human life, saving lives and the importance of the availability of medicine for all segments of the population. During the years following the completion of the Talmud, the medical profession was common among the Jews and they excelled in this field. Jewish doctors left behind a Legacy of values in medicine. Hebrew was considered a significant Language in the medical field and was cited in various medical texts such as in the book written by Vesalius, the "father" of modern anatomy. The rapid progress of medicine poses new challenges in bioethics. There is a need for physicians with extensive medical knowledge along with an understanding of ethical issues in order to offer solutions to new situations. Knowledge of the Jewish literature throughout the ages on a variety of subjects and the essential values which are their foundation can contribute to the modern discussion on biomedical questions. This is even more important in Israeli society where many of the laws are formed based on Jewish values. Engagement with Jewish medical ethics can help in educating physicians to have the ability to contribute to public debate and legislation in a way that would balance between the values and needs which an ethical issue raises. PMID:25286644

  13. Barriers to Medical Computing: History, Diagnosis, and Therapy for the Medical Computing ‘Lag’

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    1985-01-01

    Widespread concern that computer use in medicine lags behind its potential, and its use in other fields, often is coupled with discussion of physician resistance to computers. A historical study of these phenomena indicates that concern with the medical computing lag dates to the early days of the field. This paper analyzes the lag and questions whether physicians are, or have been, resistant to computers in medicine. The analysis indicates that a fear of physician resistance may be counter-productive, and itself contribute to the lag in medical computing. Then, a discussion of the differential adoption of medical computer applications suggests some ways of overcoming the lag due to physician resistance.

  14. [President J. H. Brand and his medical history].

    PubMed

    Retief, F P

    1981-03-14

    During his term of office of 25 years (1863-1888) Johannes Hendrikus Brand, fourth President of the Orange Free State, proved himself a remarkable statesman of international stature. Born in the Cape Town of Lord Charles Somerset he was educated in the British tradition, and later received knighthoods from both Portugal and Britain. However, in converting his young embryonic state into South Africa's 'Model Republic' he showed himself to be a staunch republican. Total loyalty towards his country of adoption was aptly demonstrated by his uncompromising stand over the British annexation of the diamond fields in 1871. While preparing to put his case before the Colonial Secretary in London, he developed Bright's disease at the age of 49 years in August 1872. After an extreme illness lasting 5 months he appeared to recover fully. His subsequent health was excellent up to the end of the next decade when he developed symptoms of heart failure, epistaxis and possibly a cerebrovascular incident. In March 1888 his two Bloemfontein doctors, C. J. G. Krause and B. O. Kellner, in consultation with Dr Leander Starr Jameson (of Jameson Raid fame) diagnosed a recurrence of his kidney ailment and progressive heart disease. His death on 14 July 1888 was probably due to acute left ventricular failure as a late hypertensive complication of glomerulonephritis. PMID:7008210

  15. Is consensus in anti-aging medical intervention an elusive expectation or a realistic goal?

    PubMed

    Zs-Nagy, Imre

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest scandals of the recent history of medicine is the conflict of views between the gerontological establishment and the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M). The style used in that discussion was really rough and unusual. On the one hand, according to some representatives of the American Medical Associations (AMA), the use of human growth hormone (hGH) for anti-aging medical interventions is illegal, criminal, and requires persecution. On the other hand, A4M is of the opinion that all this is "...filled with incorrect, misplaced references and studies, and multiple basic scientific errors, in an apparent attempt to damage the anti-aging medical profession...". It is evident that in the frame of a short article is impossible to treat all the relevant aspects of this complicated story. Nevertheless, this Editorial attempts to point out the main results obtained so far, together with the most important issues of theoretical feasibility of the hGH replacement therapy (hGHRT). The comprehensive explanation of the aging process called "membrane hypothesis of aging" (MHA) offers a solid basis for the interpretation of the observed beneficial effects of the hGH through its practically ubiquitous membrane receptors, and the species specificity of this peptide hormone. The specific activation of these receptors stimulates the membrane transport functions, rehydrates the intracellular colloids, allowing to speed up the protein synthesis and turnover, and activates a great number of cellular functions, all observed so far. The facts known about the adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) syndrome, and the beneficial effects of hGHRT in all aspects of this pathology suggest that aging may generally be considered as an AGHD syndrome. If this concept is accepted by most of the gerontologists, we can resolve practically all problems involved in the above outlined controversies. All this requires an independent, open-minded approach to the problem, and

  16. The History Walk: Integrated Multi-Age Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity, the Texas History Walk, in which third- and seventh-grade gifted students learn about life in the 1870s on the Texas frontier. The younger students interact with the actors, seventh graders role-playing characters of the 1870s. Benefits of the activity include its interdisciplinary nature, the cross-age…

  17. 42 CFR 436.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of individuals under age... individuals under age 21. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to individuals under age 21 (or at State option, under age 20, 19, or 18) as specified in...

  18. 42 CFR 436.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of individuals under age... individuals under age 21. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to individuals under age 21 (or at State option, under age 20, 19, or 18) as specified in...

  19. 42 CFR 436.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of individuals under age... individuals under age 21. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to individuals under age 21 (or at State option, under age 20, 19, or 18) as specified in...

  20. 42 CFR 436.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of individuals under age... individuals under age 21. (a) If the agency provides Medicaid to the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid to individuals under age 21 (or at State option, under age 20, 19, or 18) as specified in...

  1. The History of SHSAAMc: Student Health Services at Academic Medical Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeser, Peggy Ingram; Hembree, Wylie; Bonner, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an historical review of the organization known as Student Health Services at Academic Medical Centers (SHSAAMc). The authors discuss characteristics of health service directors as well as the history of meetings, discussion, and leadership. The focus of the group is the healthcare needs of health professions students at…

  2. Evaluating Risk Taking Propensity as a Predictor of the Outcome Dimensions of Medication History Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Buford T.

    1983-01-01

    Senior pharmacy students' level of risk-taking as a personality trait was compared with their performance in medication history interviews in an ambulatory medicine clinic. Effective and efficient interviewers were significantly higher in risk-taking propensity than others. (MSE)

  3. The Library of the Royal Society of Physicians in Budapest becomes today's Semmelweis Medical History Library

    PubMed Central

    Kaproncszay, Katalin; Magyar, László András; Putnam, Constance E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The 170-year history of the library of the Royal Society of Medicine in Budapest illustrates both that political and cultural context matter and that “medical” libraries, if they survive, in due course become primarily “medical history” libraries. Methods: Two of the authors are on the staff of the Semmelweis Medical History Library; the third is a US scholar who makes frequent use of the library. Together, they avail themselves of archival and published materials—and personal experience with the collection—to establish the context that produced the original library, trace its evolution, and describe its present-day incarnation. Results: A tale of transformation emerges that reflects how collections are likely to change. The authors present events and individuals in the life of the Royal Society's library and paint a picture of the value of today's Semmelweis Medical History Library. Unique treasures in the collection are described. Conclusion: The story told here is of how a particular nineteenth-century library became a twenty-first–century institution. The authors establish its peculiarly Hungarian context and potential value to librarians and historians from outside Hungary. The overall message is that general medical libraries everywhere are perforce likely to become medical historical libraries over time. PMID:21243053

  4. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  5. A history and overview of the certification exam for medical dosimetrists

    SciTech Connect

    Pusey, Damien; Smith, Lisette; Zeman, Elaine M.; Adams, Robert . E-mail: Robert_Adams@med.unc.edu

    2005-06-30

    During the last century, the creation and implementation of board certification has had a powerful impact on the medical community. Board certification has helped to shape the scope and practice of medical professionals and the care they provide, as well as to influence the way the health insurance industry sets standards for reimbursement. One profession that offers board certification to its members is medical dosimetry. The Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board exam has been administered since 1988 and its content covers a broad spectrum of information from the radiation therapy sciences. The exam has strict application requirements and is rather difficult to pass. Those who pass the exam can then call themselves Certified Medical Dosimetrists. For data purposes of this study, several members of the dosimetry community were solicited to participate in a survey regarding the exam's content and history, and to provide relevant statistical data. Currently 2,177 medical dosimetrists are board certified, with an additional 1,500 estimated to be working without certification. Although board certification is not currently required to practice medical dosimetry, new legislation known as the CARE Bill could change this. The CARE Bill, if passed, would mandate nationwide compulsory licensure and/or certification for medical dosimetrists and other medical professionals who want to work in radiation-related health care. Health maintenance organizations and other insurance carriers may likewise require certification for reimbursement purposes.

  6. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Susan L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. Methods We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case–control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). Conclusions The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. PMID:25174033

  7. [The origin, diffusion and development of healing doctrines in medical history--exemplified by homeopathy].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2007-01-01

    As a paradigmatic case study of the origin, spread, and development of medical systems, this paper investigates the 200-years history of homeopathy from different perspectives of medical history. On the basis of new research on Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), first, a concise and critical overview on the principles, explanations, and implications of his doctrine is presented. The historical, conceptual, and social background of the founder of homeopathy is then elaborated in terms of history of medicine, science, philosophy, sociology, culture, and ideas, as well as theory of science, theory of communication, and sociology of science. The process of the world wide spread of homeopathy is examined from different points of view, ranging from history of heroes, institutions, professionalisation, politics, economics, religion, and organisations to history of patients, perception, and semiotics. Finally, a comparative approach to the different development and status of homeopathy in different countries results in the extraction of a set of crucial variables, such as charismatic personage, influential patronage, economic sponsorship, political protection, media support, and patients' demand, which might explane a major part of these differences. Eventually, the notorious splits of homeopathy's doctrine suggest the idea that--in analogy to theory of evolution--a variety of concurrent strains (rather than one monolithic block) of a doctrine may prove to be a kind of advantage for survival. In conclusion, acceptance and relevance of medical systems are determined by many factors. Since external ones are usually outweighing internal ones, medical history may offer a broader and more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of their spread and development than clinical trials and scientific objection alone. PMID:17564158

  8. The role of male age, sperm age and mating history on fecundity and fertilization success in the hide beetle.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Therésa M.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Models of age-related mate choice predict female preference for older males as they have proven survival ability. However, these models rarely address differences in sperm age and male mating history when evaluating the potential benefits to females from older partners. We used a novel experimental design to assess simultaneously the relative importance of these three parameters in the hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus. In a two-part experiment we first explored age-related male mating success and subsequently examined the consequences of male age, sperm age and male mating history on female fecundity and fertilization success. In a competitive mating environment, intermediate-age males gained significantly higher mating success than younger or older males. To test the consequences for females of aged-related male mating success, a second set of females were mated to males varying in age (young, intermediate-age and old), in numbers of matings and in timing of the most recent mating. We found that male age had a significant impact on female fecundity and fertilization success. Females mated to intermediate-age males laid more eggs and attained consistently higher levels of fertilization success than females with young and old mates. A male's previous mating history determined his current reproductive effort; virgin males spent longer in copula than males with prior mating opportunities. However, differences in copulation duration did not translate into increased fecundity or fertilization success. There was also little evidence to suggest that fertilization success was dependent on the age of a male's sperm. The experiment highlights the potential direct benefits accrued by females through mating with particular aged males. Such benefits are largely ignored by traditional viability models of age-related male mating success. PMID:15306356

  9. Politics as Social History: Political Cartoons in the Gilded Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Provides analyses of four political cartoons in order to suggest approaches to Gilded Age politics that reveal key issues, such as gender, religion, and ethnicity, as well as the struggles over material resources in a stratified economy. Maintains that political cartoons assist students in understanding the ideology of a past era. (CMK)

  10. Sex in the Curriculum: The Effect of a Multi-Modal Sexual History-Taking Module on Medical Student Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Goodrich, Katie G.; Leitsch, Sara A.; Cook, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a multi-modal curricular intervention designed to teach sexual history-taking skills to medical students. The Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the National Board of Medical Examiners, and others, have identified sexual history-taking as a learning objective…

  11. 77 FR 64388 - Agency Information Collection (Former POW Medical History), VA Form 10-0048 Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Former POW Medical History), VA Form 10-0048 Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Former POW Medical History, VA Form 10-0048. OMB Control Number:...

  12. In their own words: oral histories of Medical Library Association past presidents*

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this lecture was to review the development of the Medical Library Association (MLA) oral history program and to highlight the oral histories of thirty-seven past MLA presidents to identify themes of common interest and relevance to current MLA members. Methods The lecture focused on three main topics discussed in many of the interviews: the presidents' backgrounds and how they came to be medical librarians, how MLA developed as an organization as a reflection of the growth of medical libraries, and the presidents' predictions and advice about the future. Results MLA presidents came from varied backgrounds and locales. As MLA grew from a small, intimate group into a multifaceted organization with a professional management staff, the workload of the presidents changed in scope. One recurring theme in the presidential oral histories was the power differential between men and women in the organization and the profession. MLA presidents reminisced about notable annual meetings and praised the positive impact of the organization on members' professional and personal lives. Conclusions The lecture concludes with recommendations to the organization to increase the availability of the oral histories by providing online access for future interviews and to pay careful attention to their long-term preservation. PMID:26807047

  13. Erosion of Conserved Binding Sites in Personal Genomes Points to Medical Histories.

    PubMed

    Guturu, Harendra; Chinchali, Sandeep; Clarke, Shoa L; Bejerano, Gill

    2016-02-01

    Although many human diseases have a genetic component involving many loci, the majority of studies are statistically underpowered to isolate the many contributing variants, raising the question of the existence of alternate processes to identify disease mutations. To address this question, we collect ancestral transcription factor binding sites disrupted by an individual's variants and then look for their most significant congregation next to a group of functionally related genes. Strikingly, when the method is applied to five different full human genomes, the top enriched function for each is invariably reflective of their very different medical histories. For example, our method implicates "abnormal cardiac output" for a patient with a longstanding family history of heart disease, "decreased circulating sodium level" for an individual with hypertension, and other biologically appealing links for medical histories spanning narcolepsy to axonal neuropathy. Our results suggest that erosion of gene regulation by mutation load significantly contributes to observed heritable phenotypes that manifest in the medical history. The test we developed exposes a hitherto hidden layer of personal variants that promise to shed new light on human disease penetrance, expressivity and the sensitivity with which we can detect them. PMID:26845687

  14. Erosion of Conserved Binding Sites in Personal Genomes Points to Medical Histories

    PubMed Central

    Guturu, Harendra; Chinchali, Sandeep; Clarke, Shoa L.; Bejerano, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Although many human diseases have a genetic component involving many loci, the majority of studies are statistically underpowered to isolate the many contributing variants, raising the question of the existence of alternate processes to identify disease mutations. To address this question, we collect ancestral transcription factor binding sites disrupted by an individual’s variants and then look for their most significant congregation next to a group of functionally related genes. Strikingly, when the method is applied to five different full human genomes, the top enriched function for each is invariably reflective of their very different medical histories. For example, our method implicates “abnormal cardiac output” for a patient with a longstanding family history of heart disease, “decreased circulating sodium level” for an individual with hypertension, and other biologically appealing links for medical histories spanning narcolepsy to axonal neuropathy. Our results suggest that erosion of gene regulation by mutation load significantly contributes to observed heritable phenotypes that manifest in the medical history. The test we developed exposes a hitherto hidden layer of personal variants that promise to shed new light on human disease penetrance, expressivity and the sensitivity with which we can detect them. PMID:26845687

  15. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma/Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; McMaster, Mary L.; Slager, Susan L.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Smith, Alex; Staines, Anthony; Dogan, Ahmet; Ansell, Stephen M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Linet, Martha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM), a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, shows strong familial aggregation and a positive association with chronic immune stimulation, but evidence regarding other risk factors is very limited. Methods The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) pooled data from 11 predominantly population-based case–control studies from North America, Europe, and Australia to examine medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for LPL/WM. Age-, sex-, race/ethnicity-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for a total of 374 LPL/WM cases and 23 096 controls. Results In multivariate analysis including all putative risk factors, LPL/WM risk was associated with history of Sjögren’s syndrome (OR = 14.0, 95% CI = 3.60 to 54.6), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.69 to 25.2), hay fever (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.99), positive hepatitis C serology (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.03 to 6.17), hematologic malignancy in a first-degree relative (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.64), adult weight (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.85 for highest vs. lowest quartile), duration of cigarette smoking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.05 for ≥ 40 years vs. nonsmokers), and occupation as a medical doctor (OR = 5.54, 95% CI = 2.19 to 14.0). There was no association with other medical conditions, lifestyle factors, or occupations. Conclusions This pooled analysis confirmed associations with immune conditions and family history of hematologic malignancy, and identified new associations with hay fever, weight, smoking, and occupation, and no association with other lifestyle factors. These findings offer clues to LPL/WM biology and prevention. PMID:25174029

  16. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Privacy Preserving Authentication Model by Features Matching

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration. PMID:22550398

  17. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: privacy preserving authentication model by features matching.

    PubMed

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration. PMID:22550398

  18. Prostate cancer and consistency of reporting sexual histories in men over age 50.

    PubMed

    Dennis, L K; Ritchie, J M; Resnick, M I

    2005-01-01

    We conducted an in-person interview to examine the reliability of reported sexual histories among men over age 50 y with and without prostate cancer. Marriage and cohabitation were used as memory cues to recall sexual activity. High correlations on test-retest for questions evaluating sexual histories suggest reliable answers for most factors, and specifically for age at first sexual activity, and lifetime number of sexual partners. Low correlations were seen for ill-defined and socially undesirable items. These data suggest that men consistently report most measures of sexual activity when using marriage and cohabitation as memory cues to recall sexual histories. PMID:15983628

  19. History of a Bronze Age tell and its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Gabriella; Füleky, György; Vicze, Magdolna

    2016-04-01

    Százhalombatta-Földvár is the most excessively researched Bronze Age tell site in Hungary. Parallel to the investigation of the settlement structure and activity patterns the changes of the landscape and the effect of human alteration is also studied. Significant changes of the landscape can be detected from the Bronze Age until the recent natural and cultural heritage protection of the area. Archaeological, soil analytical and thin section soil micromorphological methods are used to reconstruct the past 4000 years of the tell and its immediate surroundings. Prior to the Bronze Age the area was covered by forest vegetation, so the initial settling could only be realised after deforestation (2000 BC). The result of the soil corings and the prepared soil thin sections are solid proves of this action. It also became evident that at some areas - so far it seems that at locales where house floors were laid for the very first time - even the topsoil was removed so intensively that only the B horizon of the relict forest soil can be found. This observation needs to be further tested outside the habitation area to define the horizontal extension of the forest clearance and the topsoil removal. The northern side of the settlement is bordered by a natural erosion gully. At 2000 BC it was just a natural depression, but by 1500 BC it was deepened to serve as a fortification ditch. Around 1200 BC the ditch started to be filled in and by 1000 BC it was refilled to such an extent that its surface was utilised again. At about 600 BC (Late Iron Age) a smaller inner rampart was erected on the southern side of the ditch for inner separation. Not much is known about the Roman period of this area (200 AD) but the remnants of a watchtower indicate their presence. During the 18th century AD the area was used for grape cultivation and later for hobby gardens up until the protection of the area in the late 20th century. Since then species of the original vegetation started to grow back

  20. Aging Aircraft Transparencies: AN Italian Air Force Fleet Case History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caucci, D.; Aiello, L.; Bagnoli, F.; Bernabei, M.

    2008-08-01

    Aircraft acrylic transparencies are structural components that must withstand flight and ground loads. Crazing occurrence, known as Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC), causes their substitution during aircraft maintenance operations. This form of aging is mainly a physical phenomenon due to the interaction of transparencies base material with an active liquid and leads craze formation at lower stress that would be required in air. In this paper, an extensive phenomenon of network ESC occurred on transparencies of many aircrafts operating in the same fleet was investigated. Cover application while parking was found to be the critical aspect in crazing appearance, thus acting as physical shield for condensed water and heat transferring.

  1. From the Axial Age to the New Age: Religion as a Dynamic of World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carlton H.

    In order to broaden student understanding of past and contemporary situations, the world history survey course needs to consider religion as a vehicle through which history moves. The course proposal includes prehistory and paleolithic times to contemporary Islamic culture. The course is thematic and comparative in orientation, but moves through…

  2. A tale of Congress, continuing medical education, and the history of medicine.

    PubMed

    Partin, Clyde; Kushner, Howard I; Horton, Mary E Kollmer

    2014-04-01

    Well-intentioned attempts by the Senate Finance Committee to improve the content and quality of continuing medical education (CME) offerings had the unanticipated consequence of decimating academically oriented history of medicine conferences. New guidelines intended to keep CME courses free of commercial bias from the pharmaceutical industry were worded in a fashion that caused CME officials at academic institutions to be reluctant to offer CME credit for history of medicine gatherings. At the 2013 annual conference of the American Association for the History of Medicine, we offered a novel solution for determining CME credit in line with current guidelines. We asked attendees to provide narrative critiques for each presentation for which they desired CME credit. In this essay, we evaluate the efficacy of this approach. PMID:24688209

  3. A tale of Congress, continuing medical education, and the history of medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Howard I.; Horton, Mary E. Kollmer

    2014-01-01

    Well-intentioned attempts by the Senate Finance Committee to improve the content and quality of continuing medical education (CME) offerings had the unanticipated consequence of decimating academically oriented history of medicine conferences. New guidelines intended to keep CME courses free of commercial bias from the pharmaceutical industry were worded in a fashion that caused CME officials at academic institutions to be reluctant to offer CME credit for history of medicine gatherings. At the 2013 annual conference of the American Association for the History of Medicine, we offered a novel solution for determining CME credit in line with current guidelines. We asked attendees to provide narrative critiques for each presentation for which they desired CME credit. In this essay, we evaluate the efficacy of this approach. PMID:24688209

  4. Rhazes, a genius physician in diagnosis and treatment of kidney calculi in medical history.

    PubMed

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Cyrus, Ali

    2010-04-01

    Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya Razi, known in the west as Rhazes (865 to 925 AD), was born in the ancient city of Rayy, near Tehran, Iran. He was a renowned physician in medical history and not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of his predecessors. Based on the existing documents, he was known as the most distinguished character in the world of medicine up to the 17th century. A great number of innovations and pioneering works in the medical science have been recorded in the name of Rhazes. His fundamental works in urology as part of his research in the realm of medicine have remained unknown. Pathophysiology of the urinary tract, venereal diseases, and kidney and bladder calculi are among his main interests in this field. He also purposed and developed methods for diagnosis and treatment of kidney calculi for the first time in medical history. He also presented a very exact and precise description of neuropathic bladder followed by vertebral fracture. He advanced urine analysis and studied function and diseases of the kidneys. Rhazes recommendations for the prevention of calculi are quite scientific and practical and in accordance with current recommendations to avoid hypercalciuria and increased saturation of urine. Rhazes was not only one of the most important Persian physician-philosophers of his era, but for centuries, his writings became fundamental teaching texts in European medical schools. Some important aspects of his contributions to medicine are reviewed. PMID:20404418

  5. Laying medicine open: understanding major turning points in the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B

    1999-03-01

    At different times during its history medicine has been laid open to accountability for its scientific and moral quality. This phenonmenon of laying medicine open has sometimes resulted in major turning points in the history of medical ethics. In this paper, I examine two examples of when the laying open of medicine has generated such turning points: eighteenth-century British medicine and late twentieth-century American medicine. In the eighteenth century, the Scottish physician-philosopher, John Gregory (1724-1773), concerned with the unscientific, entrepreneurial, self-interested nature of then current medical practice, laid medicine open to accountability using the tools of ethics and philosophy of medicine. In the process, Gregory wrote the first professional ethics of medicine in the English-language literature, based on the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. In the late twentieth century, the managed practice of medicine has laid medicine open to accountability for its scientific quality and economic cost. This current laying open of medicine creates the challenge of developing medical ethics and bioethics for population-based medical science and practice. PMID:11657315

  6. A Brief Historical Review of Specific Religious Denominations: How History Influences Current Medical-Religious Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Lehmijoki-Gardner, Maiju; Daniel Hale, W

    2016-04-01

    Improving health care in the twenty-first century will require new and creative approaches, with special attention given to health literacy and patient engagement since these two variables play a significant role in chronic health issues and their management. In order to better improve these key variables, strong partnerships between patients, their communities, and medical institutions must be developed. One way of facilitating these relationships is through medical-religious partnerships. Religious leaders are in regular contact with people who need education about and support with health issues. However, identifying the most effective way to approach specific congregations can pose a challenge to healthcare providers and institutions. In this paper, we provide a brief historical review of certain religious traditions and how their history plays a role in current medical-religious partnerships. PMID:26345681

  7. From history to myth: productive engagement with the Flexnerian metanarrative in medical education.

    PubMed

    Schrewe, Brett

    2013-12-01

    More than 100 years following its publication, the Flexner Report endures as a principal text in contemporary medical education. While recent scholarship has questioned popular conceptions of the report and attends to marginalized passages, explanations as to why the Flexner story endures as myth in medical education remain absent in the literature. From a Bourdieusian perspective applied to an archive of both primary and secondary texts related to the history, production, and reception of the Flexner Report, this work examines the events that led to the production of a mythological "Flexner" and what significance this has for repeated yet insufficient efforts towards improving medical education. Specifically, this work links the values, beliefs, and assumptions embedded in the Flexner mythology to the unintentional obstruction of wholesale curricular reform and suggests it is in productively struggling with the legacy of this myth that we may be better positioned to reconcile ourselves to the Flexner legacy and its implication for future training. PMID:23288471

  8. Rembrandt’s Jewish Physician—Dr Ephraim Bueno (1599–1665): A Brief Medical History

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, George M.; Albury, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Medicine in the Middle Ages was, and ever since remained, one of the main preoccupations of the professionally restricted Jews. One of the medical dynasties on the Iberian Peninsula was the Bueno (Bonus) family. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and their spread in Europe, these Iberian physicians became successful everywhere—just as the Buenos were in the Netherlands. PMID:23908860

  9. Effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression

    PubMed Central

    Pantzar, Alexandra; Atti, Anna Rita; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in old-age depression vary as a function of multiple factors; one rarely examined factor is long-term psychiatric history. We investigated effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression and in remitted persons. In the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen study, older persons (≥60 years) without dementia were tested with a cognitive battery and matched to the Swedish National Inpatient Register (starting 1969). Participants were grouped according to current depression status and psychiatric history and compared to healthy controls (n = 96). Group differences were observed for processing speed, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. Persons with depression and psychiatric inpatient history (n = 20) and late-onset depression (n = 49) performed at the lowest levels, whereas cognitive performance in persons with self-reported recurrent unipolar depression (n = 52) was intermediate. Remitted persons with inpatient history of unipolar depression (n = 38) exhibited no cognitive deficits. Heart disease burden, physical inactivity, and cumulative inpatient days modulated the observed group differences in cognitive performance. Among currently depressed persons, those with inpatient history, and late onset performed at the lowest levels. Importantly, remitted persons showed no cognitive deficits, possibly reflecting the extended time since the last admission (m = 15.6 years). Thus, the present data suggest that cognitive deficits in unipolar depression may be more state- than trait-related. Information on profiles of cognitive performance, psychiatric history, and health behaviors may be useful in tailoring individualized treatment. PMID:26175699

  10. The Natural History of Insomnia in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola Damilola; Abiona, Taiwo; Makanjuola, Victor; Esan, Oluyomi

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the incidence and risk factors for insomnia among an under-studied population of elderly persons in Sub-Saharan Africa. Setting: Eight contiguous predominantly Yoruba-speaking states in south-west and north-central Nigeria representing about 22% of the national population. Participants: 1307 elderly community-dwelling persons, aged 65 years and older. Measurements: Face-to-face assessment with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3 (CIDI.3) in 2007 and 12 months later in 2008 to determine the occurrence and risk factors of incident and persistent insomnia, defined as syndrome or symptom. Results: The incidence of insomnia syndrome in 2008 at 12 months was 7.97% (95% CI, 6.60–9.60), while that of insomnia symptom was 25.68% (22.68–28.66). Females were at elevated risk for both syndrome and symptom. Among persons with insomnia symptom or syndrome at the baseline, 47.36% (95% CI 43.07–51.68) continued to have it one year later. Decreasing economic status was associated with increasing incidence of insomnia. Persons with chronic medical conditions at baseline were at increased risk for new onset of insomnia. Compared to persons with the lowest body mass index (BMI) (< 18.5), those with higher BMI were at elevated risk for persistence of their insomnia, with those in the obese range (≥ 30) having a 4-fold risk. Conclusions: There is a high incidence and chronicity of insomnia in this elderly population. Persons with chronic health conditions are particularly at risk of new onset as well as persistence of insomnia. Citation: Gureje O; Oladeji BD; Abiona T; Makanjuola V; Esan O. The natural history of insomnia in the Ibadan Study of Ageing. SLEEP 2011;34(7):965-973. PMID:21731147

  11. Library Journal Use and Citation Age in Medical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsay, Ming-Yueh

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in a Taiwan hospital library that explored the in-house use age distribution of journals, their citation age distribution, and the difference between them. Discusses use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, which showed that the use age distribution does not fit the citation age distribution. (Author/LRW)

  12. Medical history for the masses: how American comic books celebrated heroes of medicine in the 1940s.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bert

    2004-01-01

    When comic books rose to mass popularity in the early 1940s, one segment of the industry specialized in "true adventures," with stories about real people from the past and the present--in contrast to competing books that offered fantasy, science fiction, superheroes, detectives and crime, funny people, or funny animals. This study examines the figures from both medical history and twentieth-century medicine who were portrayed as heroes and role models in these comic books: first, to call attention to this very popular, if unknown, genre of medical history, and second, to illustrate how medical history was used at that time to popularize scientific and medical ideas, to celebrate the achievements of medical research, to encourage medical science as a career choice, and to show medicine as a humane and noble enterprise. The study explains how these medical history stories were situated in American popular culture more generally, and how the graphic power of comic books successfully conveyed both values and information while also telling a good story. Attention to this colorful genre of popular medical history enriches our picture of the mid-twentieth-century public's enthusiasm for medical progress. PMID:15161089

  13. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  14. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mantle Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Slager, Susan L.; Maynadié, Marc; Roman, Eve; Habermann, Thomas M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bracci, Paige M.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a distinctive subtype accounting for 2%–10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is not known. Methods We investigated associations with self-reported medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in a pooled analysis of 557 patients with MCL and 13766 controls from 13 case–control studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each exposure were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Results The median age of the MCL patients was 62 years and 76% were men. Risk of MCL was inversely associated with history of hay fever (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.82), and the association was independent of other atopic diseases and allergies. A hematological malignancy among first-degree relatives was associated with a twofold increased risk of MCL (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.84), which was stronger in men (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.38) than women (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 0.82 to 3.19). A modestly increased risk of MCL was also observed in association with ever having lived on a farm (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.90). Unlike some other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, MCL risk was not statistically significantly associated with autoimmune disorders, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, or ultraviolet radiation. Conclusions The novel observations of a possible role for atopy and allergy and farm life in risk of MCL, together with confirmatory evidence of a familial link, suggest a multifactorial etiology of immune-related environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility. These findings provide guidance for future research in MCL etiology. PMID:25174028

  15. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  16. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... should not be used for people who: Are under age 18. Are pregnant. Have a history of medical ... with nicotine patches, gums, sprays or lozenges. Children under age 18 should not take this drug. Most people ...

  17. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  18. Parochialism or Self-Consciousness? Internationality in Medical History Journals 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Hubert; Lang, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Research councils, universities and funding agencies are increasingly asking for tools to measure the quality of research in the humanities. One of their preferred methods is a ranking of journals according to their supposed level of internationality. Our quantitative survey of seventeen major journals of medical history reveals the futility of such an approach. Most journals have a strong national character with a dominance of native language, authors and topics. The most common case is a paper written by a local author in his own language on a national subject regarding the nineteenth or twentieth century. American and British journals are taken notice of internationally but they only rarely mention articles from other history of medicine journals. Continental European journals show a more international review of literature, but are in their turn not noticed globally. Increasing specialisation and fragmentation has changed the role of general medical history journals. They run the risk of losing their function as international platforms of discourse on general and theoretical issues and major trends in historiography, to international collections of papers. Journal editors should therefore force their authors to write a more international report, and authors should be encouraged to submit papers of international interest and from a more general, transnational and methodological point of view. PMID:22028500

  19. Parochialism or self-consciousness? Internationality in medical history journals 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hubert; Lang, Yves

    2011-10-01

    Research councils, universities and funding agencies are increasingly asking for tools to measure the quality of research in the humanities. One of their preferred methods is a ranking of journals according to their supposed level of internationality. Our quantitative survey of seventeen major journals of medical history reveals the futility of such an approach. Most journals have a strong national character with a dominance of native language, authors and topics. The most common case is a paper written by a local author in his own language on a national subject regarding the nineteenth or twentieth century. American and British journals are taken notice of internationally but they only rarely mention articles from other history of medicine journals. Continental European journals show a more international review of literature, but are in their turn not noticed globally. Increasing specialisation and fragmentation has changed the role of general medical history journals. They run the risk of losing their function as international platforms of discourse on general and theoretical issues and major trends in historiography, to international collections of papers. Journal editors should therefore force their authors to write a more international report, and authors should be encouraged to submit papers of international interest and from a more general, transnational and methodological point of view. PMID:22028500

  20. Impulsive Aggression, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Effects of Current Psychotropic Medication Use and Family History of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V.; Brent, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Methods: Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results: Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=−0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are

  1. [FROM ULYSSES TO PARIS: JOURNEY TO THE MEDICALIZATION OF AGEING].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Belén; Pedace, Mariana; Matusevich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the following study we will be introducing the Paris Syndrome, taking as a departure stand the Ulises Syndrome described by Mercer Rang back in 1972. This syndrome is analyzed within the current context of medicalization that old people within Western societies are currently undergoing. We decided to present this topic by looking at the medical trajectories of four paradigmatic patients with the intention of capturing how they themselves experience this process. Through these cases, we would also like to further understand current medical practices toward the elderly. PMID:26966756

  2. Natural histroy of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13: I. Growth, physical assessment, medical histories, survival, and recurrence risk

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, B.J.; Blackburn, B.L.; Carey, J.C.

    1994-01-15

    The natural history of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 was investigated using data derived from parent questionnaires and medical records from 98 families with an index case of trisomy 18 and 32 families with an index case of trisomy 13. Data are presented on pregnancy, delivery, survival, medical complications, immunizations, growth, cause of death, cytogenetics, and recurrence risk. Half of the trisomy 18 babies were delivered by C-section. Fetal distress was a factor in half, and the only reason in a third of C-section deliveries. One minute Apgar scores were significantly lower in C-section and breech deliveries. There were more small-for-gestational-age babies than in the general population, but most of the low-birth-weight newborns were small for gestational age, unlike the general population. Survival in this group of children was better than in other studies due to ascertainment bias. There were more girls than boys at all ages for both conditions, and the sex ratio decreased with time. Growth curves for length, weight, head circumference, and weight vs height are provided. Long-term survival did not appear to be due to mosaicism. There were no adverse reactions attributable to immunizations. At age 1 year there was an average of approximately 2 operations per living child. The authors report the second case of successful major cardiac surgery in a trisomy 18 child. Almost 70% of deaths were attributed to cardiopulmonary arrest. The sibling recurrence risk for trisomy 18 or trisomy 13 was 0.55%. 86 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. [History of mandatory (set by decree) preliminary and periodic medical examinations of workers in hazardous work conditions].

    PubMed

    Retnev, V M

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with over a hunderd years history of foundation and pregress in organization and process of mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations of workers exposed to hazardous work conditions. PMID:27164754

  4. [The cultural and medical significance of Xin an mingzuzhi(History of Famous Family in Xin'an)].

    PubMed

    Hu, A H; Wan, S M

    2016-01-28

    History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes abundant information and important value of the medical cultural history, including the medical family, medical ethics and the number of the famous doctors and its distribution, the medical books and its outline the medical ethics, the diseases. As for the 115 famous doctors recorded in this book, Shexian county owns the most while Jixi county owns the least, and of the average number of famous doctors among the 10, 000 local people, Yixian county owns the most while Xiuning county owns the least. History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes 26 medical books, ranging from medical literature study, gynecological treatment, external medical treatment, diagnosis and treatment of pediatric diseases, ancient medical case records, medical education, acu-moxibustion and summary of other medical experiences. The book also demonstrates the noble morality of doctors, development of doctor' family, and records of paralytic stroke, epistaxis, tuberculous consumptive diseases, furunculosis, dystocia and some infectious diseases. PMID:27049748

  5. The Osler Library of the History of Medicine: McGill's Medical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Christopher; Crawford, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Sir William Osler bequeathed his library to McGill University in 1919; a decade later, the 8000 volumes arrived in Montreal. Then, as now, the collection consisted of primary works ("rare books"), secondary commentaries, and current works on the history of the health sciences. In the last 80 years the collection has grown considerably and the library now adds about 1,000 books to its collection yearly (mainly current publications) and receives 200 current serial titles. The Osler Library is one of the largest "history of medicine" libraries in the world and the largest of its kind in Canada. The library tries to collect current material on the history of the health sciences from all over the world and attempts to collect all medical history published in Canada. The Osler offers its resources to researchers and students through its website, publications and Research Travel Grant programme. The librarian of today, and it will be true still more of the librarians of tomorrow, are not fiery dragons interposed between the people and the books. They are useful public servants, who manage libraries in the interest of the public... Many think still that a great reader, or a writer of books, will make an excellent librarian. This is pure fallacy. - William Osler, (1)

  6. Evolvability of an avian life history trait declines with father's age.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-Y; Drummond, H; Torres, R; Velando, A

    2011-02-01

    Studies of laboratory organisms have suggested that parental age affects the genetic variance of offspring traits. This effect can engender age-specific variance in genetic contributions to evolutionary change in heritable traits under directional selection, particularly in age-structured populations. Using long-term population data of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii), we tested whether genetic variance of recruiting age varies with parental age. Using robust quantitative genetic models fitted to pedigree, we found a significant genotype-by-paternal age interaction for recruiting age. Genetic potential for adaptive change in recruiting age was greater in progeny of young (age 1-6 years) fathers (males: CV(A)=6.68; females: CV(A)=7.59) than those of middle age (7-9 years) fathers (males: CV(A) = 4.64; females: CV(A)=5.08) and old (10-14 years) fathers (CV(A)=0 for both sexes). Therefore, parental age dependence of heritable variance, in addition to age-related variation in survival and fecundity, should affect the strength of natural selection for evolutionary changes. Our results provide rare evidence for the influence of parental age on the evolutionary potential of a life history trait in a wild population. PMID:21044208

  7. Early diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome based on a medical history and physical findings.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yutaka; Wada, Mikio; Kawashima, Atsushi; Kagawa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with fever and rigor after experiencing respiratory symptoms the previous week that had resolved within a few days. On presentation, her neck was swollen along the right sternocleidomastoid muscle, and chest CT showed pulmonary septic embolisms. Lemierre's syndrome was strongly suspected based on the patient's medical history and physical findings. Further examination revealed venous thrombus, and Fusobacterium necrophorum was later isolated from blood cultures. Antibiotics for anaerobes were administered before a final diagnosis was made, and the patient's symptoms thereafter improved. A rapid diagnosis is essential, since Lemierre's syndrome can be fatal with a diagnostic delay. PMID:23318865

  8. [[History of Community Health in Africa. The Swiss Medical Missionaries' Endeavour in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Mabika, Hines

    2015-01-01

    It was not Dutch settlers nor British colonizers who introduced public and community health practice in north-eastern South Africa but medical doctors of the Swiss mission in southern Africa. While the history of medical knowledge transfer into 19th-20th century Africa emphasises colonial powers, this paper shows how countries without colonies contributed to expand western medical cultures, including public health. The Swiss took advantage of the local authorities' negligence, and implemented their own model of medicalization of African societies, understood as the way of improving health standards. They moved from a tolerated hospital-centred medicine to the practice of community health, which was uncommon at the time. Elim hospital's physicians moved back boundaries of segregationist policies, and sometime gave the impression of being involved in the political struggle against Apartheid. Thus, Swiss public health activities could later be seen as sorts of seeds that were planted and would partly reappear in 1994 with the ANC-projected national health policy. PMID:26403059

  9. The natural history of coronary artery disease: an update on surgical and medical management.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, R. E.; Wallace, A. G.; McNeer, J. F.; Rosati, R. A.; Lee, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The current series represents the total experience of one institution that has treated concurrently a large number of patients with medical or surgical therapy. As previously reported, surgery offers a greater chance for pain relief but no obvious protection from future myocardial infarction. Patients with single artery disease show no difference in survival or future myocardial infarction rate whether treated medically or surgically. Improvement in survival following surgery, determined by univariate analysis of clinical descriptors, in several subsets of patients in the present series has not been confirmed when multivariate analysis techniques are used. If surgical mortality can be further lowered there may well be subsets of patients with coronary artery disease who will outsurvive similar medically treated patients. The current and future natural history of coronary artery disease, whether treated medically or surgically, is not settled by this or any other series because both forms of therapy are rapidly changing and no current series meets valid statistical criticisms. We are in a state of evaluation concerning not only therapeutic approaches, but also the development of suitable statistical methods for determining the efficacy of various forms of therapy. Only by continual modification of therapeutic approaches and the statistical tools to measure their effectiveness can we approach confident conclusions. PMID:617018

  10. Evaluation of a hybrid paper-electronic medication management system at a residential aged care facility.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Rohan A; Lee, Cik Yin; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the study were to investigate discrepancies between general practitioners' paper medication orders and pharmacy-prepared electronic medication administration charts, back-up paper charts and dose-administration aids, as well as delays between prescribing, charting and administration, at a 90-bed residential aged care facility that used a hybrid paper-electronic medication management system. Methods A cross-sectional audit of medication orders, medication charts and dose-administration aids was performed to identify discrepancies. In addition, a retrospective audit was performed of delays between prescribing and availability of an updated electronic medication administration chart. Medication administration records were reviewed retrospectively to determine whether discrepancies and delays led to medication administration errors. Results Medication records for 88 residents (mean age 86 years) were audited. Residents were prescribed a median of eight regular medicines (interquartile range 5-12). One hundred and twenty-five discrepancies were identified. Forty-seven discrepancies, affecting 21 (24%) residents, led to a medication administration error. The most common discrepancies were medicine omission (44.0%) and extra medicine (19.2%). Delays from when medicines were prescribed to when they appeared on the electronic medication administration chart ranged from 18min to 98h. On nine occasions (for 10% of residents) the delay contributed to missed doses, usually antibiotics. Conclusion Medication discrepancies and delays were common. Improved systems for managing medication orders and charts are needed. What is known about the topic? Hybrid paper-electronic medication management systems, in which prescribers' orders are transcribed into an electronic system by pharmacy technicians and pharmacists to create medication administration charts, are increasingly replacing paper-based medication management systems in Australian residential aged care

  11. Meeting Report: International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History II.

    PubMed

    Artan, Murat; Hwang, Ara B; Lee, Seung V; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-06-01

    The second International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History was held at the campus of Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, from May 14 to 16, 2014. Many leading scientists in the field of aging research from all over the world contributed to the symposium by attending and presenting their recent work and thoughts. The aim of the symposium was to stimulate international collaborations and interactions among scientists who work on the biology of aging. In the symposium, the most recent and exciting work on aging research was presented, covering a wide range of topics, including the genetics of aging, age-associated diseases, and cellular senescence. The work was conducted in various organisms, includingC. elegans, mice, plants, and humans. Topics covered in the symposium stimulated discussion of novel directions for future research on aging. The meeting ended with a commitment for the third International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History, which will be held in 2016. PMID:26115541

  12. EDUCATIONAL AND MEDICAL SERVICES TO SCHOOL-AGE EXPECTANT MOTHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    AN INTERAGENCY PROGRAM FOR UNWED PREGNANT TEENAGERS IN THE LOS ANGELES PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT IS EVALUATED IN THIS REPORT. FUNDED UNDER TITLE I OF THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT, THE PROGRAM IS CONDUCTED IN OR ADJACENT TO SIX LOS ANGELES DISTRICT HEALTH CENTERS. IN ADDITION TO REGULAR MEDICAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL, THE PROGRAM'S…

  13. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40 years. PMID:25516923

  14. Medication Compliance and the Aged: An Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnick, Bruce D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses physiological changes and multiple prescription regimens, which, coupled with an increased incidence of chronic disease, increase the likelihood of adverse drug reactions in the elderly. Outlines some of the research related to noncompliance of prescription medication and identifies some educational interventions guidelines for health…

  15. Risk of pancreatic cancer in relation to medical history and the use of tobacco, alcohol and coffee.

    PubMed

    Farrow, D C; Davis, S

    1990-05-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted to examine the relationship between certain medical conditions, the use of tobacco, alcohol and coffee, and the incidence of pancreatic cancer. Cases (N = 148) were married men ages 20 through 74 years diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from July 1982 through June 1986. Controls (N = 188) were identified by random digit dialing. Wives, responding as surrogates for both cases and controls, were interviewed by telephone and completed, alone, a food frequency questionnaire. The risk of pancreatic cancer was increased in individuals with a history of diabetes or pancreatitis, and decreased in those with a history of tonsillectomy. Individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes were at elevated risk of disease. This excess risk was confined to current smokers, in whom the odds ratio was 3.2 (95% CI 1.8-5.7); the risk among former smokers resembled that in those who had never smoked. There was no excess risk of pancreatic cancer among those who had ever used other forms of tobacco, including pipe tobacco, cigars and chewing tobacco. After adjustment for demographic and dietary characteristics, there was no association between pancreatic cancer risk and the intake of coffee, beer, red wine, hard liquor or all alcohol combined; a slight reduction in risk was seen among those consuming white wine daily. PMID:2335385

  16. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  17. Meeting Report: International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History II

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung‐Jae V.; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-01-01

    The second International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History was held at the campus of Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, from May 14 to 16, 2014. Many leading scientists in the field of aging research from all over the world contributed to the symposium by attending and presenting their recent work and thoughts. The aim of the symposium was to stimulate international collaborations and interactions among scientists who work on the biology of aging. In the symposium, the most recent and exciting work on aging research was presented, covering a wide range of topics, including the genetics of aging, age‐associated diseases, and cellular senescence. The work was conducted in various organisms, including C. elegans, mice, plants, and humans. Topics covered in the symposium stimulated discussion of novel directions for future research on aging. The meeting ended with a commitment for the third International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History, which will be held in 2016. PMID:26115541

  18. History vs. snapshot: how slab morphology relates to slab age evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, Fanny; Goes, Saskia; Davies, Rhodri; Davies, Huw; Lallemand, Serge; Kramer, Stephan; Wilson, Cian

    2016-04-01

    The age of the subducting plate at the trench ("slab age") spans a wide range, from less than 10 Myr in Central and South America to 150 Myr in the Marianas. The morphology of subducting slab in the upper mantle is also very variable, from slabs stagnating at the top of the lower mantle to slabs penetrating well beyond 1000 km depth. People have looked rather unsucessfully for correlations between slab morphology and subduction parameters, including age at the trench, on the basic assumption that old (thick) plates are likely to generate a large slab pull force that would influence slab dip. Thermo-mechanical models reveal complex feedbacks between temperature, strain rate and rheology, and are able to reproduce the evolution of plate ages as a function of time, subducting plate velocity and trench velocity. In particular, we show how initially young subducting plates can rapidly age at the surface because of a slow sinking velocity. As a consequence, different slab morphologies can exhibit similar ages at the trench provided that subduction history is different. We illustrate how models provide insights into Earth subduction zones for which we have to consider their history (evolution of trench velocity, relative plate ages at time of initiation) in order to unravel their present-day geometry.

  19. Writing women into medical history in the 1930s: Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead and "medical women" of the past and present.

    PubMed

    Appel, Toby A

    2014-01-01

    Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead (1867–1941), a leader among second-generation women physicians in America, became a pioneer historian of women in medicine in the 1930s. The coalescence of events in her personal life, the declining status of women in medicine, and the growing significance of the new and relatively open field of history of medicine all contributed to this transformation in her career. While she endeavored to become part of the community of male physicians who wrote medical history, her primary identity remained that of a “medical woman.” For Hurd-Mead, the history of women in the past not only filled a vital gap in scholarship but served practical ends that she had earlier pursued by other means—those of inspiring and advancing the careers of women physicians of the present day, promoting organizations of women physicians, and advocating for equality of opportunity in the medical profession. PMID:25345770

  20. The Impact of Medical and Dental Education on Student's Attitudes Toward the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Joseph M.; Beck, James D.

    The need for the incorporation of training in geriatrics and gerontology into basic medical and dental education has recently been recognized. Existing studies which attempt to measure the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the aged are extremely limited. As part of a larger study of attitudes and knowledge among 500 health workers,…

  1. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C.; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C.; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. PMID:25186429

  2. Medical Waste Co-Firing Comes of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Berntson, K.; Stuart, J.M.

    1996-12-18

    In early 1992 DONLEE Technologies, Inc., in cooperation with the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Program, completed pilot testing of simulated non-infectious waste combustion, co-fired with coal, at its test facility in York, Pennsylvania. The goal of this testing was to demonstrate the ability of fluidized bed combustion to completely destruct medical waste with minimized dioxin emissions. The test facility is a full scale circulating fluidized bed unit with a maximum heat input capability of ten million BTU per hour. The tests showed that the circulating fluidized bed system is ideally suited to meet the medical/infectious waste destruction needs of the health care industry. The dioxin emission levels proved to be significantly lower than those from presently operating MWIS. Based on the successful test results, a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Power Systems, DONLEE Technologies, and the Veterans Administration was reached to design, construct, and test a demonstration unit at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. Plant design and construction was started in 1993, with DONLEE Technologies functioning as both the technology supplier and the plant EPC contractor. After some delay the construction of the demonstration unit finally reached completion in the spring of 1996. The unit is currently undergoing initial shakedown and testing to verify the base operating parameters. The unit will first be fired with coal only, followed by the introduction of non-infectious waste and finally total waste, including the ``red bag`` material. The program calls for an extended testing period of up to one year. While the unit is being operated as part of the stream supply system at the VA Hospital, the hospital`s waste is destroyed via combustion in the Fluidized Bed Unit.

  3. Medical and Psychological Determinants on the Development in Aged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz-Scherzer, R.

    The relationships between somatic and sociological-psychological variables are complex. Each mental change which occurs in aging is more or less closely accompanied by somatic changes. The reverse is also true. The objective state of health and the subjective feeling of well-being are linked. Both can exert an influence over behavior and…

  4. Patients Aged 80 Years or Older are Encountered More Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Li; Ding, Ding; Pu, Shi-Yun; Liu, Qin-Hui; Li, Hong; Dong, Bi-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Yan; He, Jin-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are prominent prescribing issues in elderly patients. This study was to investigate the different prevalence of PIM use in elderly inpatients between 65–79 years of age and 80 years or older, who were discharged from Geriatric Department in West China Hospital. Methods: A large-scale cohort of 1796 inpatients aged 65 years or over was recruited. Respectively, 618 patients were 65–79 years and 1178 patients were 80 years or older. Updated 2012 Beers Criteria by the American Geriatric Society was applied to assess the use of PIM among the investigated samples. Results: A review of the prescribed medications identified 686 patients aged 80 years or older consumed at least one PIM giving a rate of 58.2%. Conversely, 268 (43.4%) patients aged 65–79 years consumed at least one PIM (χ2 = 40.18, P < 0.001). Patients aged 80 years or older had higher hospitalization expenses, length of stay, co-morbidities, medical prescription, and mortality than patients aged 65–79 years (all with P < 0.001). Patients aged 80 years or older were prescribed with more benzodiazepines, drugs with strong anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin. In multiple regression analysis, PIM use was significantly associated with female gender, age, number of diagnostic disease, and number of prescribed medication. Conclusions: The finding from this study revealed that inpatients aged 80 years or older encountered more PIM use than those aged 65–79 years. Anticholinergic properties, megestrol, antipsychotics, theophylline, and aspirin are medications that often prescribed to inpatients aged 80 years or older. Doctors should carefully choose drugs for the elderly, especially the elderly aged 80 years or older. PMID:26712428

  5. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari’s Works on Rabies and History of Frari Medical Family of Šibenik, Dalmatia

    PubMed Central

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982

  6. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  7. The impact of technology upon medical history research: the past, the problems, the potential.

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, J J

    1987-01-01

    The stereotypical view of the historian is that of a stodgy, bespectacled individual poring over tomes of printed text, dusty manuscripts, and thousands of index cards. In the twentieth century, however, many historians have relied increasingly on technological aids to assist in research. This paper focuses on technological developments of this century that have had some impact on medical history research, beginning with the photostat early in this century. It is argued that online bibliographic databases, although relatively recent and not yet fully developed, are only the beginning of technological aids to historical research. Other computer-assisted historiographical applications are examined and the potentials of developing technologies are explored. The specific and inherent problems of using technology in historical research are also presented, as is the need for an evolving role of libraries in dealing with these problems. PMID:3329922

  8. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  9. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  10. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  11. Genomic basis of aging and life-history evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Remolina, Silvia C; Chang, Peter L; Leips, Jeff; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Hughes, Kimberly A

    2012-11-01

    Natural diversity in aging and other life-history patterns is a hallmark of organismal variation. Related species, populations, and individuals within populations show genetically based variation in life span and other aspects of age-related performance. Population differences are especially informative because these differences can be large relative to within-population variation and because they occur in organisms with otherwise similar genomes. We used experimental evolution to produce populations divergent for life span and late-age fertility and then used deep genome sequencing to detect sequence variants with nucleotide-level resolution. Several genes and genome regions showed strong signatures of selection, and the same regions were implicated in independent comparisons, suggesting that the same alleles were selected in replicate lines. Genes related to oogenesis, immunity, and protein degradation were implicated as important modifiers of late-life performance. Expression profiling and functional annotation narrowed the list of strong candidate genes to 38, most of which are novel candidates for regulating aging. Life span and early age fecundity were negatively correlated among populations; therefore, the alleles we identified also are candidate regulators of a major life-history trade-off. More generally, we argue that hitchhiking mapping can be a powerful tool for uncovering the molecular bases of quantitative genetic variation. PMID:23106705

  12. Concordance Between Parent and Physician Medication Histories for Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: It is necessary for both clinicians and researchers who study attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to obtain a medication history for patients/participants for a variety of purposes. Because of the complexity of constructing medication histories using official records, parental report of medication for children with ADHD is the most commonly used source of information. However, the reliability and validity of parent reports of medication history have not been thoroughly studied. Previous studies have only examined the psychometrics of interview assessments of medication use for a maximum of a 12 month recall period. The current study compares parent report provided by a questionnaire and physician records for children and adolescents with ADHD. This is the first study to examine validity of retrospective recall for an extended medication history (prekindergarten-12th grade) using a questionnaire, and the first to examine validity of parental report of dosage. Methods: Participants with ADHD were part of the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study. The current study utilized data from those in the ADHD group who had at least 1 year of data from the physician's records and corresponding records from the parent (n=178). Results: Percent agreement for medication use was >80%. Intraclass correlation coefficients for parent–provider agreement on total daily dosage of ADHD medications were in the good to excellent range. There were no significant predictors of agreement. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that it is acceptable for clinics and research studies to obtain information about medication use for children with ADHD retrospectively solely based on parental report. PMID:24945086

  13. Predicting Risk of Suicide Attempt Using History of Physical Illnesses From Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Tran, Truyen; Berk, Michael; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-01-01

    Background Although physical illnesses, routinely documented in electronic medical records (EMR), have been found to be a contributing factor to suicides, no automated systems use this information to predict suicide risk. Objective The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of physical illnesses on suicide risk, and develop a predictive model that captures this relationship using EMR data. Methods We used history of physical illnesses (except chapter V: Mental and behavioral disorders) from EMR data over different time-periods to build a lookup table that contains the probability of suicide risk for each chapter of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes. The lookup table was then used to predict the probability of suicide risk for any new assessment. Based on the different lengths of history of physical illnesses, we developed six different models to predict suicide risk. We tested the performance of developed models to predict 90-day risk using historical data over differing time-periods ranging from 3 to 48 months. A total of 16,858 assessments from 7399 mental health patients with at least one risk assessment was used for the validation of the developed model. The performance was measured using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results The best predictive results were derived (AUC=0.71) using combined data across all time-periods, which significantly outperformed the clinical baseline derived from routine risk assessment (AUC=0.56). The proposed approach thus shows potential to be incorporated in the broader risk assessment processes used by clinicians. Conclusions This study provides a novel approach to exploit the history of physical illnesses extracted from EMR (ICD-10 codes without chapter V-mental and behavioral disorders) to predict suicide risk, and this model outperforms existing clinical assessments of suicide risk. PMID:27400764

  14. Pilot Trial of an Electronic Family Medical History in US Faith-Based Communities.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Patricia; Canclini, Sharon; Cauble, Denise; Raudonis, Barbara; Golden, Paulette

    2014-02-25

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of collecting family health information, methods of collecting, organizing, and storage of pedigree data are not uniformly utilized in practice, though several electronic tools have been developed for the purpose. Using electronic tools to gather health information may empower individuals to take responsibility in managing their family health history. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility and outcomes of introducing small groups to the My Family Health Portrait tool in faith-based communities using faith community nurses (FCNs). This pilot project adopted a mixed methods approach to assess the potential of an educational intervention delivered by FCNs for increasing the use of electronic technologies for organizing and storing family health histories among the general public. Treatment and control groups were recruited from four faith-based communities in north Texas using a parallel-groups quasi-experimental design. Qualitative data were gleaned from field notes made by investigators interacting with FCNs and observing their teaching. A majority of respondents believed that knowing one's health history and passing it on to family and medical personnel is important. Those receiving face-to-face instruction on the electronic tool were significantly more likely to have written down family health information than the control group who received only an informational handout (χ(2) = 5.96, P = .015). Barriers to teaching about and using the electronic tool included FCNs' lack of facility with computers in the educational context and FCN and respondent mistrust of electronic storage for family health information. PMID:24569130

  15. [A history and philosophy of bio-medical ethics seen from a dentist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Kang, Shinik

    2002-01-01

    When we think about ethics or morals, we tend to look at them from the viewpoint of here and now. Actual implications of then and there, however, could be different. That is why we should study history of bio-ethics along with philosophy involved in it. Bio-medical ethics is situated in spatial and cultural dimension as well as temporal and historical. Dentistry has been in a peculiar situation in that although it has evolved from the same root as medicine, it has become a separate discipline. Ethical implications of dentistry, however, share the historical and philosophical background with its mother discipline, i.e., medicine, surgery, barber-surgery and even smithery. This paper tries to grasp the main ideas of bio-medical ethics from the ancient Greek and China, and picks up three of them as guiding principles, i.e., deontology and teleology from the west and self-cultivation from the east. It also tracks down the contents of modern biomedical ethics; from etiquette to ethics, from morals to contract (ethics of autonomy), and ethics of professional responsibility. Finally it reviews and analyzes two different traditions of dental professional regulation from the legal and ethical point of view (U.S. and Europe), and proposes a new direction for the construction of dental ethics in Korea. PMID:12825602

  16. [The history of medical physics and biophysics at the Humboldt University in Berlin].

    PubMed

    Schneck, P

    2001-01-01

    The present Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics (former Institute of Radiation Research) was established on September 1st in 1923 by Walter Friedrich (1883-1968). It was after the Institute in Frankfurt A.M. (founded by Friedrich Dessauer in 1921) - the second Institute of its kind in Germany. As a physicist who wrote his dissertation under Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, he did research together with a Gynecologist in Friedburg on problems of radiation therapy and the prevention of radiation injuries. Thus Friedrich became one of the first German Biomedical Physicists and was appointed to a professorship at the university of Berlin and its faculty of medicine. The paper gives a survey of the history of the Institute of Radiation Research in the twenties, in the time of Nazi-rule, the period after the World War II and in the era of GDR until 1990 and up to the present time. The succession of directorship of the Institute and the main research subjects in medical physics and biophysics have been sketched. PMID:11710396

  17. Medical case reports in the age of genomic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    The case report has been a pillar of medical literature but has been displaced recently because of inherent risks of bias. As we move towards precision medicine, however, the case report format could provide an important method for describing disease mechanisms based on rare genetic variants. Empirical evidence reveals that many previously unexplained Mendelian diseases are accounted for by rare heterozygous alleles, de novo mutations or compound heterozygous mutations, and that disease-associated variants are often confined to the kindred of the affected individual. Elucidation of the phenotypes of these rare genetic variants will necessarily offer unique insights into disease mechanisms. Even when the association between variants in a specific gene and a disease has already been identified, individual cases are valuable. Allelic series extend both the clinical and laboratory phenotypes. Finally, the prevalence of a disease is not a reliable indicator of the therapeutic importance of the underlying mechanism, so resolving extreme phenotypes even in single cases has the potential to identify new treatment strategies relevant to more common disease. PMID:26682053

  18. Systems of medicine and nationalist discourse in India: towards "new horizons" in medical anthropology and history.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad

    2006-06-01

    While accepting medical "pluralism" as a historical reality, as an intrinsic value inherent in any medical system, and as an ideal or desired goal that any multicultural society ought to achieve, this paper argues the need to go beyond the liberal pluralist tendencies that have dominated the debate so far. It holds that while documenting or dealing with the "co-existence" of varied medical traditions and practices, we must not ignore or underplay issues of power, domination and hegemony and must locate our work in a larger historical, social and political context. With this perspective, and based essentially on Assembly proceedings, private papers, official documents and archival materials from the first half of the 20th-century, this paper identifies three major streams in the nationalist discourse in India: conformity, defiance and the quest for an alternative. It shows that while the elements of conformity to biomedicine and its dominance remained more pronounced and emphatic, those of defiance were conversely weak and at times even apologetic. The quest for alternatives, on the other hand, although powerful and able to build trenchant civilizational and institutional critique of modern science and medicine, could never find adequate space in the national agenda for social change. The paper further holds that although the "cultural authority" and hegemony of biomedicine over indigenous science and knowledge were initiated by the colonial state, they were extended by the mainstream national leaderships and national governments with far more extensive and profound implications and less resistance. In light of the growing global networking of "traditional", "complementary" and "alternative" health systems on the one hand and the hegemonic and homogenizing role and presence of multilateral organizations (such as the World Bank and IMF) in shaping national health policies on the other, such insights from history become extraordinarily important. PMID:16314016

  19. "Unexplainable" medical histories and childhood sexual abuse. New doctoral thesis tells you how to investigate the links.

    PubMed

    Getz, L

    1999-06-01

    This is a brief summary and a personal reflection on Anne Luise Kirkengen's PhD thesis "Embodiment of sexual boundary violations in childhood". It is written to encourage other clinicians to familiarise themselves with this original and important study. It has high relevance for every clinician who is ever confronted with patients that present medical histories that are "diffuse" or unexplainable according to traditional medical knowledge. PMID:10439487

  20. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  1. Deprescribing psychotropic medications in aged care facilities: the potential role of family members.

    PubMed

    Plakiotis, Christos; Bell, J Simon; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Pond, Dimity; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread concern in Australia and internationally at the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use in residential aged care facilities. It is difficult for nurses and general practitioners in aged care facilities to cease new residents' psychotropic medications when they often have no information about why residents were started on the treatment, when and by whom and with what result. Most existing interventions have had a limited and temporary effect and there is a need to test different strategies to overcome the structural and practical barriers to psychotropic medication cessation or deprescribing. In this chapter, we review the literature regarding psychotropic medication deprescribing in aged care facilities and present the protocol of a novel study that will examine the potential role of family members in facilitating deprescribing. This project will help determine if family members can contribute information that will prove useful to clinicians and thereby overcome one of the barriers to deprescribing medications whose harmful effects often outweigh their benefits. We wish to understand the knowledge and attitudes of family members regarding the prescribing and deprescribing of psychotropic medications to newly admitted residents of aged care facilities with a view to developing and testing a range of clinical interventions that will result in better, safer prescribing practices. PMID:25416108

  2. Medical care of children during the golden age of Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Modanlou, Houchang D

    2015-04-01

    During the Sassanid Empire in Persia (226-652 AD), there was a renaissance of humanistic sciences, including medicine, in the city of Gondi-Shapur. When the Islamic center of power moved to Baghdad in about 750 AD, physicians of Gondi-Shapur, including the dean of the medical school (a Nestorian Christian), gradually moved to Baghdad constructing hospitals and medical schools. Aided by the Persian and Nestorian Christians, the Islamic civilization ushered in what is considered to be the Golden Age of Islam from the 8th to 13th century AD. During this period, there were remarkable achievements in humanistic sciences including medicine by many physicians/authors whose medical textbooks were used for centuries in burgeoning medical schools in Europe. The medical texts written during the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine contain sections and chapters about the clinical conditions, diseases and medical care of children. It was during this era that the first treatise was written on the diseases of children and their care. This essay will describe, in brief, the writings about the conditions and diseases of children and their medical care, by three prominent Persian physicians of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine: 1) Abubakr Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Razi, Rhazes (865-925 AD); 2) Ali ibn-al-Abbas al-Majusi or Haly Abbas (949-994 AD); and 3)  Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina or Avicenna (980-1037 AD). PMID:25841951

  3. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Sarah E; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Lee, Phil H; Fanous, Ayman H; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p=.048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p=.51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p=.005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p=.002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p=1.96×10(-8)), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p=1.52×10(-7)). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p=8.24×10(-7)). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  4. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: Investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Sarah E.; O’Dushlaine, Colm T.; Lee, Phil H.; Fanous, Ayman H.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Corvin, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p = .048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p = .51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p = .005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p = .002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p = 1.96 × 10−8), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p = 1.52 × 10−7). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p = 8.24 × 10−7). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  5. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history. PMID:25602489

  6. Motor system alterations in retired former athletes: the role of aging and concussion history

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Retired athletes with a history of sports concussions experience cognitive and motor declines with aging, and the risk of severe neurodegenerative conditions is magnified in this population. The present study investigated the effects of aging on motor system metabolism and function in former university-level athletes who sustained their last concussion several decades prior to testing. Methods To test the hypothesis that age and remote concussions induce functional as well as metabolic alterations of the motor system, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect metabolic abnormalities in the primary motor cortex and the serial reaction time task (SRTT) to evaluate motor learning. Results Our results indicate that motor learning is significantly reduced in former concussed athletes relative to controls. In addition, glutamate/H2O ratio in M1 was disproportionately reduced in concussed athletes with advancing age and was found to strongly correlate with motor learning impairments. Conclusion Findings from this study provide evidence that the acquisition of a repeated motor sequence is compromised in the aging concussed brain and that its physiological underpinnings could implicate disproportionate reductions of M1 glutamate concentrations with advancing age. PMID:23972282

  7. Psychological Distress, Service Utilization, and Prescribed Medications among Youth with and without Histories of Involvement with Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Hayley A.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Wekerle, Christine; Danielson, Anna Marie; Mann, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, service utilization, and prescriptions for medications between adolescents with histories of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) and adolescents without such involvement. Data on 3,497 students were obtained from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario…

  8. Comparison of the injury severity and medical history of disease-related versus trauma-related bicyclist fatalities.

    PubMed

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Koseki, Takeshi; Miyama, Genta; Furukawa, Satoshi; Morita, Satomu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity and mechanism of death in bicycle fatalities resulting from trauma compared with those resulting from disease, to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicyclist accidents. Autopsy and accident records were reviewed for bicyclist fatalities who had undergone forensic autopsy at the Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine between September 1999 and March 2014. Victims' health histories, blood alcohol levels, causes of death, mechanisms of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were determined. Fifty-five bicyclists (43 male and 12 female) with a mean age of 62.5±17.3 years were included in this study. Sixteen victims had driven under the influence of alcohol (mean blood concentration of 1.8±0.7 mg/ml). Mean ISS was 32.4 and the chest had the highest mean AIS score (2.6), followed by the head (2.1) and the neck (1.8). Thirty-nine victims (70.9%) had died of trauma and 16 had died of disease. The disease-death victims had significantly higher prevalence of having diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases (50.0% vs. 22.2%, p=0.03) and a lower rate of drunk driving (6.3% vs. 41.0%, p=0.01) than the trauma-death group. All victims who were affected by disease, and 33.3% of trauma-death victims, had fallen on the road without a vehicle collision (p<0.001). The mean ISS of the trauma-death group was significantly higher than that of the disease-death group (44.0 vs. 4.2, p<0.001). Except for facial injuries, the AIS scores were significantly higher in trauma-death victims than in the disease-death group (p<0.005). To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities, the authors strongly advocate efforts that will increase compliance with drunk driving prohibitions. For victims of fatal bicycle accidents with a medical history of diseases, a forensic autopsy should be performed to establish a

  9. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations. PMID:21404978

  10. Legal Aspects of Oral History Collections. A Report to the Oral History Committee of the Medical Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, A. J.

    Legal implications of oral history research and collection can be divided into four broad areas of concern, including copyright, restriction of access, libel, and contracts. This document presents highlights from various authorities in each of these areas. Peterson notes that interviewers and interviewees hold the copyright to their own words; a…

  11. Medical management of erectile dysfunction in aging males: Is it too late to treat?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Xu, Ben; Liu, De-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Ji-Chuan; Jin, Jie; Jiang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common disorder among aging males. However, most aging males refuse to seek medical help and believe that ED is an irreversible event in the aging process. The purpose of this study was to describe the current medical management of ED in aging males and to examine whether it is too late to treat this disorder in these elderly men. From 2007 to 2008, 4507 patients diagnosed with ED were gathered from 46 centers in China; 4241 completed the study, 3837 of whom were treated with sildenafil. The 3837 patients were divided into five groups based on age (group A: 20–30 years; group B: 31–40 years; group C: 41–50 years; group D: 51–60 years; and group E: >60 years). After comparing pre- and posttreatment International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain (IIEF-EF) questionnaires, Erection Hardness Scale (EHS), and IIEF Q13 (“How satisfied have you been with your overall sex life?”), we discovered that the aging males had worse erectile function, erection hardness, and sexual satisfaction than the younger males (P < 0.001). After treatment, the improvement rates in the IIEF-EF, EHS, and IIEF Q13 scores were 107.0%, 83.1%, and 116.5%, respectively. The magnitude of these changes demonstrated significant differences among groups (P < 0.001). Accordingly, aging males are likely to benefit more from medical treatment. We propose that aging males should be informed that age is not a limiting factor for medical ED management, and it is never too late to treat. PMID:24369150

  12. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  13. Mental health and rape history in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs in a national sample of women.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2009-08-01

    The current study examined prevalence and correlates of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), with particular emphasis on lifetime history of rape and PTSD as risk associates. Interviews conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology, resulting in a nationally representative sample of 3001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone. Demographic characteristics, rape history, general health/mental health, and substance abuse variables were assessed. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, in the past year, participants had misused a prescription drug. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted for each theoretically derived predictor set. Significant predictors from each set then entered into final multivariable logistic regression to determine significant predictors of past-year NMUPD. NMUPD was endorsed by 5.5% of the sample (n=164). Final multivariable model showed that Lifetime Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, other forms of substance use/abuse, and a history of drug or alcohol facilitated rape were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD. Risk reduction efforts targeting non-medical prescription drug use among women who have experienced traumatic events and/or abuse substances are warranted. Trauma-focused interventions for drug or alcohol facilitated rape victims should include treatment or prevention modules that specifically address NMUPD. PMID:19375238

  14. Ar-39-Ar-40 Ages of Euerites and the Thermal History of Asteroid 4-Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Eucrite meteorites are igneous rocks that derive from a large asteroid, probably 4 Vesta. Prior studies have shown that after eucrites formed, most were subsequently metamorphosed to temperatures up to equal to or greater than 800 C, and much later many were brecciated and heated by large impacts into the parent body surface. The uncommon basaltic, unbrecciated eucrites also formed near the surface but presumably escaped later brecciation, whereas the cumulate eucrites formed at depth where metamorphism may have persisted for a considerable period. To further understand the complex HED parent body thermal history, we determined new Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for nine eucrites classified as basaltic but unbrecciated, six eucrites classified as cumulate, and several basaltic-brecciated eucrites. Relatively precise Ar-Ar ages of two cumulate eucrites (Moama and EET87520) and four unbrecciated eucrites give a tight cluster at 4.48 +/1 0.01 Gyr. Ar-Ar ages of six additional unbrecciated eucrites are consistent with this age, within their larger age uncertainties. In contrast, available literature data on Pb-Pb isochron ages of four cumulate eucrites and one unbrecciated eucrite vary over 4.4-4.515 Gyr, and Sm-147 - Nd-143 isochron ages of four cumulate and three unbrecciated eucrites vary over 4.41-4.55 Gyr. Similar Ar-Ar ages for cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites imply that cumulate eucrites do not have a younger formation age than basaltic eucrites, as previously proposed. Rather, we suggest that these cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites resided at depth where parent body temperatures were sufficiently high to cause the K-Ar and some other chronometers to remain open diffusion systems. From the strong clustering of Ar-Ar ages at approximately 4.48 Gyr, we propose that these meteorites were excavated from depth in a single large impact event approximately 4.48 Gyr ago, which quickly cooled the samples and started the K-Ar chronometer. A large (approximately 460 km) crater

  15. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and....330 Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive... categorically needy only to those aged, blind, or disabled individuals who meet more restrictive...

  16. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and....330 Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive... categorically needy only to those aged, blind, or disabled individuals who meet more restrictive...

  17. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and....330 Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive... categorically needy only to those aged, blind, or disabled individuals who meet more restrictive...

  18. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and....330 Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive... categorically needy only to those aged, blind, or disabled individuals who meet more restrictive...

  19. Exposure age and erosional history of an upland planation surface in the US Atlantic Piedmont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The upland planation surface in the Piedmont of central New Jersey consists of summit flats, as much as 130 km2 in area, that truncate bedding and structure in diabase, basalt, sandstone, mudstone and gneiss. These flats define a low-relief regional surface that corresponds in elevation to residual hills in the adjacent Coastal Plain capped by a fluvial gravel of late Miocene age. A Pliocene fluvial sand is inset 50 m below the upland features. These associations suggest a late Miocene or early Pliocene age for the surface. To assess exposure age and erosional history, a 4??4 m core of clayey diabase saprolite on a 3 km2 remnant of the surface was sampled at six depths for atmospherically produced cosmogenic 10Be. The measured inventory, assuming a deposition rate of 1??3 x 106 atoms cm-2 a-1, yields a minimum exposure age of 227 000 years, or, assuming continuous surface erosion, a constant erosion rate of 10 m Ma-1. Because the sample site lies about 60 m above the aggradation surface of the Pliocene fluvial deposit, and itself supports a pre-Pliocene fluvial gravel lag, this erosion rate is too high. Rather, episodic surface erosion and runoff bypassing probably have produced an inventory deficit. Reasonable estimates of surface erosion (up to 10 m) and bypassing (up to 50 per cent of total precipitation) yield exposure ages of as much as 6??4 Ma. These results indicate that (1) the surface is probably of pre-Pleistocene age and has been modified by Pleistocene erosion, and (2) exposure ages based on 10Be inventories are highly sensitive to surface erosion and runoff bypassing. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience. PMID:19774476

  1. Effects of menstrual history and use of medications on bone mineral density: the EVOS Study.

    PubMed

    Masaryk, P; Lunt, M; Benevolenskaya, L; Cannata, J; Dequeker, J; Dohenhof, C; Falch, J A; Felsenberg, D; Pols, H A; Poor, G; Reid, D M; Scheidt-Nave, C; Weber, K; O'Neill, T; Silman, A J; Reeve, J

    1998-10-01

    We have previously shown considerable between-center variation in bone mineral density (BMD) in the 13 EVOS centers that performed bone densitometry on their sex- and age-stratified population samples, after adjusting for weight and age. We have now investigated whether part of the between-center variability may be attributed to between-center variations in the use of medications. Information was collected from 2088 women and 1908 men at baseline on whether the subjects had ever been prescribed calcium, calcitonin, anabolic steroids, fluoride, vitamin D, or glucocorticoids and, for the women, whether they had ever used the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Each of these variables was fitted into a regression model adjusted for age, height, weight, and center. Only OCP and HRT significantly affected BMD. Those who had ever used OCPs had spinal BMD 0.029 g/cm2 greater than those who had never used them. Users of HRT had higher BMD than nonusers: 0. 037 g/cm2 at the spine, 0.018 g/cm2 at the trochanter, and 0.018 g/cm2 at the femoral neck. As expected, there was a great variation between centers in the use of OCP and HRT, but there were no significant correlations between mean BMD at any site in a given center and the prevalence of OCP or HRT use in that center. The between-center variance in BMD at all three sites remained highly significant after adjusting for treatment (P < 0.001). We conclude that HRT and OCP use are associated with moderate increases in BMD. The geographical variability of BMD in Europe was not explained by treatment with pharmaceuticals. PMID:9744982

  2. Large impact crater histories of Mars: The effect of different model crater age techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Stuart J.; Hynek, Brian M.; Lillis, Robert J.; Bottke, William F.

    2013-07-01

    Impact events that produce large craters primarily occurred early in the Solar System's history because the largest bolides were remnants from planetary formation. Determining when large impacts occurred on a planetary surface such as Mars can yield clues to the flux of material in the early inner Solar System which, in turn, can constrain other planetary processes such as the timing and magnitude of resurfacing and the history of the martian core dynamo. We have used a large, global planetary database in conjunction with geomorphologic mapping to identify craters superposed on the rims of 78 larger craters with diameters D ⩾ 150 km on Mars, ≈78% of which have not been previously dated in this manner. The densities of superposed craters with diameters larger than 10, 16, 25, and 50 km, as well as isochron fits were used to derive model crater ages of these larger craters and basins from which we derived an impact flux. In discussing these ages, we point out several internal inconsistencies of crater-age modeling techniques and chronology systems and, all told, we explain why we think isochron-fitting is the most reliable indicator of an age. Our results point to a mostly obliterated crater record prior to ˜4.0 Ga with the oldest preserved mappable craters on Mars dating to ˜4.3-4.35 Ga. We have used our results to constrain the cessation time of the martian core dynamo which we found to have occurred between the formation of Ladon and Prometheus basins, approximately 4.06-4.09 Ga. We also show that, overall, surfaces on Mars older than ˜4.0-4.1 Ga have experienced >1 km of resurfacing, while those younger than ˜3.8-3.9 Ga have experienced significantly less.

  3. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  4. [Nosebleed in the history of rhinology. Images of the history of otorhinolaryngology presented by instruments from the collection of the Ingolstadt Medical History Museum].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1996-02-01

    ETIOLOGY AND ANATOMY: Up to the Middle Ages, nosebleeds were considered a natural means of purification in internal diseases. In addition injuries, extreme physical exertion, and influences from the sexual sphere were recognized causes. In the 19th century, low atmospheric pressure on mountains and in balloons was also assumed to be an etiological factor. It was only at the end of the 19th century that the importance of high blood pressure and defective coagulation were diagnosed in context with nosebleeds. In ancient times, it was known that compressing the nasal alae can often stop the bleeding, but that blood may as well run down the throat and mimick a hemorrhage coming from the trachea. Between 1874 and 1884, several authors, among them J. L. Little in USA and W. Kiesselbach in Germany, recognized the anterior part of the nasal septum as a frequent location of bleeding. GENERAL THERAPY AND ANTERIOR NASAL PLUGGING: General measures of hemostasis recommended already in ancient times were the application of cold and diverting the blood to other regions of the body by applying tourniquets to legs and arms, or by cupping. Anterior nasal plugging was already known to the ancient Assyrians and Hippocrates. Scribonus Largus (1st century) was the first to describe a nasal plugging around a tube, thus preserving a patient respiratory passage. During the Middle Ages local application of assumedly hemostatic substances of the apothecary of that time played an important part, among them "cranial moss", the lichen that grew on the skulls of hanged corpses exposed to the weather for a long time, and "mumia", a black unctuous substance made of Egyptian mummies. Plugging the nares with an inflated balloon, fabricated from animal intestines, was described first by J. P. Frank in 1807. During the second half of the 19th century, numerous varieties of rubber balloons, rubber caps, and condoms came in use for this technique. The first nasal balloon combined with a respiratory tube

  5. Review of performance, medical, and operational data on pilot aging issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoklosa, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and studies relating to performance, medical, operational, and legal data regarding pilot aging issues was performed in order to determine what evidence there is, if any, to support mandatory pilot retirement. Popular misconceptions about aging, including the failure to distinguish between the normal aging process and disease processes that occur more frequently in older individuals, continue to contribute to much of the misunderstanding and controversy that surround this issue. Results: Review of medical data related to the pilot aging issue indicate that recent improvement in medical diagnostics and treatment technology have made it possible to identify to a high degree individuals who are at risk for developing sudden incapacitating illness and for treating those with disqualifying medical conditions. Performance studies revealed that after controlling for the presence of disease states, older pilots are able to perform as well as younger pilots on many performance tasks. Review of accident data showed that older, healthy pilots do not have higher accident rates than younger pilots, and indeeed, evidence suggests that older pilots have an advantage in the cockpit due to higher experience levels. The Man-Machine-Mission-Environment interface of factors can be managed through structured, supervised, and enhanced operations, maintenance, flight reviews, and safety procedures in order to ensure safe and productive operations by reducing the margin of error and by increasing the margin of safety. Conclusions: There is no evidence indicating any specific age as an arbitrary cut-off point for pilots to perform their fight duties. A combination of regular medical screening, performance evaluation, enhanced operational maintenance, and safety procedures can most effectively ensure a safe pilot population than can a mandatory retirement policy based on arbitrary age restrictions.

  6. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of medicine use and self-medication collected by self-report. The independent variables studied were gender, continuous medicine use, socioeconomic status, schooling, self-rated health, body mass index, and physical activity levels. Medicines were classified into therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. Results A total of 4,106 adolescents were interviewed. The point prevalence of medicine use was 41.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.6–42.6), and the proportion of self-medication among medicine users was 65.1% (95% CI 62.8–67.4). The point prevalence of self-medication was 26.7% (95% CI 25.4–28.1), and it was higher among female adolescents, those more educated, and those who rated their health as poor. Out of the drugs used for self-medication (58% of all drugs used), 1,003 (78.7%) were nonprescription drugs and 271 (21.3%) were prescription drugs. The most frequently used drugs for self-medication were analgesics (56.1%), systemic antihistamines (7.4%), and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products (7.1%). Conclusions A high point prevalence of self-medication was found among adolescents, which is particularly concerning due to high use of prescription drugs for self-medication. Interventions are needed to promote rational use of medicines in this population. PMID:24713443

  7. Science convention "Rijeka and its Citizens in Medical History" 2000-2009 - history of medicine as a component of scientific visibility.

    PubMed

    Eterovic, Igor

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the form and content of the first ten science conventions "Rijeka and its Citizens in Medical History" ("Rijeka i Riječani u medicinskoj povjesnici") which were held in the period between 2000 and 2009 according to the archive data of the convention organizers Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture. It presents data on the inception of the idea of a science convention, its organisational features (organising committees, presiding committees, convention topics, venue, patrons) and number of participants. A total of 174 presentations whose abstracts were published in individual Convention Collections were given at the ten conventions by 103 different authors from Croatia and neighbouring countries. After the first ten years the entire material was compiled and published with an analytical comment in the anniversary issue Znanstveni skup Rijeka i Riječani u medicinskoj povjesnici 2000-2009 (Scientific Convention Rijeka and its Citizens in Medical History 2000-2009) within Biblioteka AMHA. Most of the papers printed in extenso are published in the magazine AMHA - Acta medico historica Adriatica. The analysis of all presentations provides quantity data on the number of presented papers, number of presenters and number of co-authored papers, as well as quality determinants within the evaluation of the achievement of science convention objectives. The end gives a review of the significance of this convention within the regional, national and international aspect. PMID:22047478

  8. The medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Linda D; Gueye, Ndeye-Aicha

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, once a thorough history, physical examination, and indicated imaging studies are performed and all significant structural causes are excluded, medical management is the first-line approach. Determining the acuity of the bleeding, the patient's medical history, assessing risk factors, and establishing a diagnosis will individualize their medical regimen. In acute abnormal uterine bleeding with a normal uterus, parenteral estrogen, a multidose combined oral contraceptive regimen, a multidose progestin-only regimen, and tranexamic acid are all viable options, given the appropriate clinical scenario. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be treated with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, combined oral contraceptives, continuous oral progestins, and tranexamic acid with high efficacy. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be utilized with hormonal methods and tranexamic acid to decrease menstrual bleeding. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are indicated in patients with leiomyoma and abnormal uterine bleeding in preparation for surgical interventions. In women with inherited bleeding disorders all hormonal methods as well as tranexamic acid can be used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding. Women on anticoagulation therapy should consider using progestin-only methods as well as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to treat their heavy menstrual bleeding. Given these myriad options for medical treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, many patients may avoid surgical intervention. PMID:26254516

  9. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk. PMID:26846985

  10. Plotting Careers in Aged Care: Perspectives of Medical, Nursing, Allied Health Students and New Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Natalie; McCall, Louise

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this article explored the impact of the undergraduate placement experience on medical, nursing, and allied health students' perceptions of careers in aged care. Data were collected from undergraduate students (48) and graduates (26) via individual (46) and group (7) interviews; data were thematically analyzed.…

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  12. Urban neighbourhood unemployment history and depressive symptoms over time among late middle age and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Barrett, Christopher; Ko, Michelle; Chodosh, Joshua; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about how a neighbourhood’s unemployment history may set the stage for depressive symptomatology. This study examines the effects of urban neighbourhood unemployment history on current depressive symptoms and subsequent symptom trajectories among residentially stable late middle age and older adults. Contingent effects between neighbourhood unemployment and individual-level employment status (ie, cross-level interactions) are also assessed. Methods Individual-level survey data are from four waves (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) of the original cohort of the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. Neighbourhoods are operationalised with US Census tracts for which historical average proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 and change in proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 are used to characterise the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Hierarchical linear regressions estimate three-level (time, individual and neighbourhood) growth models. Results Symptoms in 2000 are highest among those residing in neighbourhoods characterised by high historical average unemployment beginning in 1990 and increasing unemployment between 1990 and 2000, net of a wide range of socio-demographic controls including individual-level employment status. These neighbourhood unemployment effects are not contingent upon individual-level employment status in 2000. 6-year trajectories of depressive symptoms decrease over time on average but are not significantly influenced by the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Conclusions Given the current US recession, future studies that do not consider historical employment conditions may underestimate the mental health impact of urban neighbourhood context. The findings suggest that exposure to neighbourhood unemployment earlier in life may be consequential to mental health later in life. PMID:22918896

  13. Differences in selected medical care parameters in rheumatic disease ward patients of different ages of life

    PubMed Central

    Pobrotyn, Piotr; Susło, Robert; Milczanowski, Piotr; Drobnik, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic diseases are becoming more and more common in Poland with the ageing of the population. Nearly 18% of the total hospital admissions in Poland result from rheumatic diseases, which was equivalent to 350 thousand cases in the year 2008. These diseases tend to last for many decades, decreasing both the quality of life and income of the patients as well as increasing the medical institutions’ workload and society's financial burden. The aim of the study was to determine whether the medical care parameters in a rheumatic disease hospital ward show any significant differences among different patient age groups – especially such that would support taking them into account as a basis for adjusting the financial coverage level of medical services. Material and methods Data on hospitalizations at the Rheumatic Diseases Ward of Wroclaw University Hospital in Wroclaw in the years 2009–2015 were analyzed, taking into account the age groups, number of hospital admissions, their duration and causes. Relevant statistical data analysis was performed. Discussion The study revealed that the number of old patients hospitalized at the rheumatic diseases ward increased over the last 6 years and that such statistically significant differences do exist: on average the old patients not only tend to stay much longer at the hospital, but also suffer from a different and more diverse spectrum of diseases in comparison to their younger counterparts. Conclusions The detected differences in medical care parameters support the need for more individualized medical care and increased cost of the hospital stay in the case of older patients. Consequently, those factors justify the necessity to increase the value of medical services in the case of old patients, possibly also taking into account the variation between age subgroups. PMID:27407280

  14. Health aspects of Arctic exploration – Alaska’s medical history based on the research files of Dr. Robert Fortuine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Background Robert Fortuine provided basic medical care to Alaska Native people, chronicled the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration and through a number of influential publications, was the first to thoroughly document and analyse Alaska’s Medical History. This overview of his published work will provide the reader with a detailed overview, so that they can begin to explore Dr. Fortuine’s many published works in more detail. Objective This review will explore Alaska’s Medical History and the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration through the research files and the 10 most significant publications of Dr. Robert Fortuine. Design Review of Dr. Fortuine’s major works and the master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. The master bibliography is a merger of 55 separate bibliographies, which provides a wealth of bibliographic information. This paper will describe his 10 most significant publications, 2 of which began as a journal issue. Results Dr. Fortuine was a prolific writer throughout his career, publishing 134 articles and books. He wrote papers and books on Alaska’s medical history, tuberculosis and health care delivery from Russian–America through the Public Health Service efforts in the territory and then the State of Alaska. The master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. This list has a significant number of entries for tuberculosis with almost one-third of the entries including this heading. Others dwell on the history of “pre-contact” health, the history of Alaska Native health care, the history of the Alaska Department of Health, especially the tuberculosis programme, the role of the US Public Health Service and traditional medicine. He completely reviewed every Governors’ and the US Surgeon General’s reports in regard to Alaska content. This paper describes his 10 most significant publications. Conclusions Robert Fortuine’s published works offer a wealth of information and insight into Alaska

  15. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Vajdic, Claire M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Roos, Anneclaire J.; Skibola, Christine F.; Boffetta, Paolo; Cerhan, James R.; Flowers, Christopher R.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Monnereau, Alain; Cocco, Pierluigi; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Smith, Alexandra G.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Clarke, Christina A.; Blair, Aaron; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Tongzhang; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Benavente, Yolanda; Chiu, Brian C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follicular lymphoma (FL) has been linked with cigarette smoking and, inconsistently, with other risk factors. Methods We assessed associations of medical, hormonal, family history, lifestyle, and occupational factors with FL risk in 3530 cases and 22639 controls from 19 case–control studies in the InterLymph consortium. Age-, race/ethnicity-, sex- and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results Most risk factors that were evaluated showed no association, except for a few modest or sex-specific relationships. FL risk was increased in persons: with a first-degree relative with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.55 to 2.54); with greater body mass index as a young adult (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27 per 5kg/m2 increase); who worked as spray painters (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.36 to 5.24); and among women with Sjögren syndrome (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.23 to 9.19). Lower FL risks were observed in persons: with asthma, hay fever, and food allergy (ORs = 0.79–0.85); blood transfusions (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.89); high recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.86, fourth vs first quartile); who worked as bakers or millers (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.93) or university/higher education teachers (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.83). Elevated risks specific to women included current and longer duration of cigarette use, whereas reduced risks included current alcohol use, hay fever, and food allergies. Other factors, including other autoimmune diseases, eczema, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, hormonal drugs, hair dye use, sun exposure, and farming, were not associated with FL risk. Conclusions The few relationships observed provide clues suggesting a multifactorial etiology of FL but are limited in the extent to which they explain FL occurrence. PMID:25174024

  16. Cardiovascular medication after cancer at a young age in Finland: A nationwide registry linkage study.

    PubMed

    Kero, A E; Madanat-Harjuoja, L M; Järvelä, L S; Malila, N; Matomäki, J; Lähteenmäki, P M

    2016-08-01

    Despite improved survival rates, childhood and young adult (YA) cancer survivors face elevated risks for life-threatening morbidities, especially cardiovascular complications. Our nationwide Finnish registry study investigated the purchases of cardiovascular medication from 1993 to 2011 in patients diagnosed with cancer aged below 35 years (N = 8,197) between 1993 and 2004 compared to siblings (N = 29,974) via linkage to the drug purchase registry. The cumulative incidence for purchasing cardiovascular medications was higher in childhood and YA cancer patients compared to siblings with a rising trend over time. After childhood cancer, the highest hazard ratio (HR) was found for purchasing anticoagulants (HR 19.8, 95% CI 8.5-45.9). The HRs for any cardiovascular medication (HR 7.2, 95% CI 5.1-10.1) and cardiac medication (HR 4.8, 95% CI 3.3-6.9) were markedly elevated after childhood cancer as well. Regarding YA cancer patients, the respective HRs were 2.5 (95% CI 2.0-3.2) for anticoagulants, HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any cardiovascular medication and HR 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.7) for cardiac medication. Among cancer patients, highest HRs for cardiovascular medication were observed after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and bone tumors (HR 10.2, 95% CI 6.8-15.5 and HR 7.4, 95% CI 4.0-13.7) and YA ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (HR 5.1, 95% CI 3.5-7.1 and HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.8-4.0). Our study demonstrated increased HRs for purchasing cardiovascular medication after early-onset cancer compared to siblings reflecting elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, the implementation of long-term cardiovascular disease screening is imperative to prevent, detect and adequately treat cardiovascular late effects after cancer at a young age. PMID:26610262

  17. Demographic patterns of Ferocactus cylindraceus in relation to substrate age and grazing history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    1997-01-01

    Three subpopulations of Ferocactus cylindraceus, a short-columnar cactus of the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, were sampled in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, at sites representing a range of substrate ages and different grazing histories. Age-height relations were determined from annual growth, then used to estimate probable year of establishment for each cohort. Eight years between 1944 and 1992 were especially favorable for establishment. Six of these 8 years coincided with El Nino-Southern Oscillation conditions, indicating that as for many woody plants in arid regions, somewhat unusual climatic conditions are necessary if populations are to replace themselves. Comparison of age structures showed that established and developing populations have somewhat different dynamics in that the rate of population increase was slowest on the youngest terrace. On the ancient terraces, about half the plants were less than 25 years old. Plants older than 40 years were few; however the oldest plants in the study (about 49 years) grew on the ancient terraces. On the recent terrace, 76% of the subpopulation was 25 years or younger, and the oldest living plant was about 36 years of age. The age structures of subpopulations on grazed and ungrazed sites also differed markedly. On ungrazed sites, subpopulations were more or less at equilibrium, with enough young plants to replace old ones as they died. In contrast, the subpopulation on the grazed site was in a state of marked disequilibrium. Grazing before 1981 largely extirpated a palatable subshrub that was probably an important nurse plant. Until the shrub population at Indian Canyon recovers from decades of burro grazing, a rebound in E cylindraceus establishment is not to be expected.

  18. [Medical, psychological, social and gender aspects of aging in modern Russia].

    PubMed

    Miakotnykh, V S; Sidenkova, A P; Borovkova, T A; Berezina, D A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors considered controversial issues ambiguous attitude to the aging process of the population of the Russian Federation on the basis of a number of individual differences--psychological, social, sexual, and medical. The thesis is that, unfortunately, the fight against aging appears rather to be more a struggle with an already existing old age, and you need to develop preventive measures against aging much earlier than is currently done. Submissions own research confirm this position. The system of training, adjustment to a new level of life, to the new conditions associated with aging process, in the form of a special kind of multidisciplinary centers that carry out the tasks of improving health and young is proposed. PMID:25306663

  19. Controlling for Landform Age When Determining the Settlement History of the Kuril Islands

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Fitzhugh, Ben; Holman, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations of settlement patterns in dynamic landscapes can be strongly biased by the evolution of the Earth’s surface. The Kuril Island volcanic arc exemplifies such a dynamic landscape, where landscape-modifying geological forces were active during settlement, including sea-level changes, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptive processes, coastal aggradation, and dune formation. With all these ongoing processes, in this paper we seek to understand how new landscape formation in the Holocene might bias archaeological interpretations of human settlement in the Kurils. Resolving this issue is fundamental to any interpretation of human settlement history derived from the distribution and age of archaeological sites from the region. On the basis of a comparison of landform ages and earliest archaeological occupation ages on those landforms, we conclude that landform creation did not significantly bias our aggregate archaeological evidence for earliest settlement. Some sections of the archipelago have larger proportions of landform creation dates closer to archaeological evidence of settlement and undoubtedly some archaeological sites have been lost to geomorphic processes. However, comparisons between regions reveal comparable archaeological establishment patterns irrespective of geomorphic antiquity. PMID:25684855

  20. Accessing probable thermal histories through dispersed, partially-reset zircon (U-Th)/He ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jeremy; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    exhibited by the datasets. We do not recommend selecting only the youngest dates from samples or averaging (U-Th)/He dates, as these methods do not acknowledge the complexity of the (U-Th)/He system and potentially exclude non-obvious, but equally probable, geologic scenarios. To this extent, using the vertical profile approach to assess exhumation rates from cooling age data may also provide an inaccurate result if the strata have not been buried to sufficient temperatures to completely reset any prior thermal history. As an alternative, we analyzed more grains from individual samples and combine data from similar structural regions to assess regional trends in thermal history. We believe that this approach does an appropriate job of acknowledging the errors and assumptions involved in the technique while providing meaningful information on thermal history of a region. Thermal modeling of the Mackenzie Mountains data reveals that (1) a substantial sedimentary package was deposited following the Devonian and removed during Permo-Triassic cooling, and (2) the Cordilleran deformation front propagated through the study area from the Albian to the Paleocene, with a moderate increase in cooling rates between 75-67 Ma in the southwest, and 60-55 Ma at the deformation front.

  1. 5-HT obesity medication efficacy via POMC activation is maintained during aging.

    PubMed

    Burke, Luke K; Doslikova, Barbora; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Garfield, Alastair S; Farooq, Gala; Burdakov, Denis; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Evans, Mark L; Billups, Brian; Heisler, Lora K

    2014-10-01

    The phenomenon commonly described as the middle-age spread is the result of elevated adiposity accumulation throughout adulthood until late middle-age. It is a clinical imperative to gain a greater understanding of the underpinnings of age-dependent obesity and, in turn, how these mechanisms may impact the efficacy of obesity treatments. In particular, both obesity and aging are associated with rewiring of a principal brain pathway modulating energy homeostasis, promoting reduced activity of satiety pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Using a selective ARC-deficient POMC mouse line, here we report that former obesity medications augmenting endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity d-fenfluramine and sibutramine require ARC POMC neurons to elicit therapeutic appetite-suppressive effects. We next investigated whether age-related diminished ARC POMC activity therefore impacts the potency of 5-HT obesity pharmacotherapies, lorcaserin, d-fenfluramine, and sibutramine and report that all compounds reduced food intake to a comparable extent in both chow-fed young lean (3-5 months old) and middle-aged obese (12-14 months old) male and female mice. We provide a mechanism through which 5-HT anorectic potency is maintained with age, via preserved 5-HT-POMC appetitive anatomical machinery. Specifically, the abundance and signaling of the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite via POMC activation, the 5-HT2CR, is not perturbed with age. These data reveal that although 5-HT obesity medications require ARC POMC neurons to achieve appetitive effects, the anorectic efficacy is maintained with aging, findings of clinical significance to the global aging obese population. PMID:25051442

  2. 5-HT Obesity Medication Efficacy via POMC Activation is Maintained During Aging

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Luke K.; Doslikova, Barbora; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Garfield, Alastair S.; Farooq, Gala; Burdakov, Denis; Low, Malcolm J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Evans, Mark L.; Billups, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon commonly described as the middle-age spread is the result of elevated adiposity accumulation throughout adulthood until late middle-age. It is a clinical imperative to gain a greater understanding of the underpinnings of age-dependent obesity and, in turn, how these mechanisms may impact the efficacy of obesity treatments. In particular, both obesity and aging are associated with rewiring of a principal brain pathway modulating energy homeostasis, promoting reduced activity of satiety pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Using a selective ARC-deficient POMC mouse line, here we report that former obesity medications augmenting endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity d-fenfluramine and sibutramine require ARC POMC neurons to elicit therapeutic appetite-suppressive effects. We next investigated whether age-related diminished ARC POMC activity therefore impacts the potency of 5-HT obesity pharmacotherapies, lorcaserin, d-fenfluramine, and sibutramine and report that all compounds reduced food intake to a comparable extent in both chow-fed young lean (3–5 months old) and middle-aged obese (12–14 months old) male and female mice. We provide a mechanism through which 5-HT anorectic potency is maintained with age, via preserved 5-HT–POMC appetitive anatomical machinery. Specifically, the abundance and signaling of the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite via POMC activation, the 5-HT2CR, is not perturbed with age. These data reveal that although 5-HT obesity medications require ARC POMC neurons to achieve appetitive effects, the anorectic efficacy is maintained with aging, findings of clinical significance to the global aging obese population. PMID:25051442

  3. Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

  4. Medicalization and the refashioning of age-related limits on sexuality.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Barbara L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the convergence of sexual medicine and anti-aging medicine as they have refashioned standards of sexual functionality and reconstructed sexual life courses. Reversing the long-held stereotypes of asexual or post-sexual seniors, expectations of continued sexual functionality as an indicator of health in later life now underpin a growing medical and therapeutic industry. While more positive images of eldersex are certainly an improvement over past views that saw older people as both undesiring and undesirable, this article suggests that caution should be exercised regarding an overly celebratory reading of the medicalized construction of "sexy seniors." PMID:22720825

  5. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas.

    PubMed

    Beehner, Jacinta C; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2009-10-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal taxa. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the life span of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across taxa were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by 1 year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after 3 years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  6. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  7. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Blair, Aaron; Vermeulen, Roel; Cerhan, James R.; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Monnereau, Alain; Nieters, Alexandra; Clavel, Jacqueline; Call, Timothy G.; Maynadié, Marc; Lan, Qing; Clarke, Christina A.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Norman, Aaron D.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Casabonne, Delphine; Cocco, Pierluigi; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects. Conclusions We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted. PMID:25174025

  8. Disease History and Medication Use as Risk Factors for the Clinical Manifestation of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Young Adults: An Explorative Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; van der Vorst, Marja M. J.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a highly variable asymptomatic period of beta cell destruction prior to the clinical presentation of type1 diabetes. It is not well known what triggers type 1 diabetes to become a clinically overt disease. This explorative study aimed to identify the association between disease history/medication use and the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes. Methodology/Principal Findings An explorative case control study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Cases (n  = 1,107) were younger than 25 years and had at least 2 insulin prescriptions between 1999 and 2009. For each case, up to 4 controls (without any prescription for the glucose lowering medications (n  = 4,424)) were matched by age and sex. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between disease history/medication use in the year prior to the diagnosis of type1 diabetes and clinical manifestation of this disease. Type1 diabetes was significantly associated with a history of mental disorder (odds ratio (OR) 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–43.7), anemia (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1–22.9), and disease of digestive system (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.5). The following drug exposures were significantly associated with the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes: “systemic hormonal preparations” (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), medications for “blood and blood forming organs” (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), “alimentary tract and metabolism” (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6), and “anti-infectives for systemic use” (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.4). Conclusions Our explorative study demonstrated that in the year prior to the presentation of type1 diabetes in children and young adults, hospitalization for a diverse group of diseases and drug exposures were significantly more prevalent compared with age- and sex-matched diabetes-free controls. PMID:24498320

  9. Rhazes, a Genius Physician in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis in Medical History

    PubMed Central

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Shamsi, Mohsen; Cyrus, Ali; Tabatabayei, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Context Nocturnal enuresis has undoubtedly occurred since man's earliest days and the first references are found in the Ebers papyri of 1550 BC. The purpose of this study is to review of Rhazes opinion about diagnosis and treatment of nocturnal enuresis and compare his belief and clinical methods with modern medical practice. Evidence Acquisition In the review study we searched all available and reliable electronic and paper sources using appropriate keywords about the views of Rhazes, and compared them with recent medical evidence about diagnosis and treatment of nocturnal in medication. Results Our findings proved that Rhazes described the symptoms, signs, and the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in accordance with contemporary medicine. Conclusions A review of opinion Rhazes and other ancient Islamic medical textbooks on nocturnal enuresis reveals that medical practice in those days was comparable to modern medicine yet avoiding the side effects that are commonly experienced with the modern medical approach. PMID:24578827

  10. 78 FR 17917 - Medical Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With a History of Seizure Disorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose Coast Guard regulations in 46 CFR 10.215 contain the... drive a commercial motor vehicle. The MEP recommended that an individual with a history of epilepsy (a... be considered for a waiver. (1) Mariners with a history of epilepsy or seizure disorder may...

  11. Resource allocation as a driver of senescence: life history tradeoffs produce age patterns of mortality.

    PubMed

    Davison, Raziel; Boggs, Carol L; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the effects of optimal time and resource allocation on age patterns of fertility and mortality for a model organism with (1) fixed maximum lifespan, (2) distinct juvenile and adult diets, and (3) reliance on nonrenewable resources for reproduction. We ask when it is optimal to tolerate starvation vs. conserve resources and then examine the effects of these decisions on adult mortality rates. We find that (1) age-related changes in tradeoffs partition the life cycle into as many as four discrete phases with different optimal behavior and mortality patterns, and (2) given a cost of reproduction, terminal investment can produce a signal of actuarial senescence. Also, given limitations imposed by non-replenishable resources, individuals beginning adult life with more replenishable resources do not necessarily live longer, since they can engage in capital breeding and need not defer reproduction to forage; low reproductive overheads and low costs of starvation also encourage capital breeding and may lead to earlier terminal investment and earlier senescence. We conclude that, even for species with qualitatively similar life histories, differences in physiological, behavioral and environmental tradeoffs or constraints may strongly influence optimal allocation schedules and produce variation in mortality patterns and life expectancy. PMID:25051533

  12. "Modern medical science and the divine providence of god": rethinking the place of religion in postwar U.S. medical history.

    PubMed

    Golden, Janet; Abel, Emily K

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a large cache of letters to John and Frances Gunther after the death of their son as well as memoirs and fiction by bereaved parents, this essay challenges the assumptions of secularization that infuse histories of twentieth-century American medicine. Many parents who experienced the death of children during the postwar period relied heavily on religion to help make sense of the tragedies medicine could not prevent. Parental accounts included expression of belief in divine intervention and the power of prayer, gratitude for God's role in minimizing suffering, confidence in the existence of an afterlife, and acceptance of the will of God. Historians seeking to understand how parents and families understood both the delivery of medical care and the cultural authority of medical science must integrate an understanding of religious experiences and faith into their work. PMID:23946448

  13. Summary Statement: Appropriate Medical Care for the Secondary School-Aged Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Jon; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Cavanna, Angela; Jenkinson, Dave; Lincoln, Andrew E; Loud, Keith; Peterson, Bart C; Portwood, Craig; Reynolds, John; Woods, Thomas S

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present the recommendations made by the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Aged Athletes Task Force and to summarize the subsequent monograph developed around 11 consensus points. Data Sources: The MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SportDiscus databases were searched for relevant literature regarding secondary school-aged athletes; health care administration; preparticipation physical examination; facilities; athletic equipment; emergency action planning; environmental conditions; recognition, evaluation, and treatment of injuries; rehabilitation and reconditioning; psychosocial consultation; nutrition; and prevention strategies. Conclusions and Recommendations: Organizations that sponsor athletic programs for secondary school-aged athletes should establish an athletic health care team to ensure that appropriate medical care is provided to all participants. The 11 consensus points provide a framework—one that is supported by the medical literature and case law—for the development of an athletic health care team and for assigning responsibilities to the team, administrators, and staff members of institutions sponsoring secondary school and club-level athletic programs. PMID:18668175

  14. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    PubMed

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p < 0.001). Female nurses need more sleep for feeling rested than female physicians (chi2 = 18.18, p < 0.001), and sleep longer during the weeknights (chi2 = 33.78, p < 0.001) and weekends (chi2 = 28.06, p < 0.001). The respondents that consume caffeine have more trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption. PMID:18592966

  15. History of the medical licensing examination (uieop) in Korea's Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Lock

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe the training and medical licensing system (uieop) for becoming a physician officer (uigwan) during Korea's Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392). In the Goryeo Dynasty, although no license was necessary to provide medical services to the common people, there was a licensing examination to become a physician officer. No other national licensing system for healthcare professionals existed in Korea at that time. The medical licensing examination was administered beginning in 958. Physician officers who passed the medical licensing examination worked in two main healthcare institutions: the Government Hospital (Taeuigam) and Pharmacy for the King (Sangyakguk). The promotion and expansion of medical education differed depending on the historical period. Until the reign of King Munjong (1046-1083), medical education as a path to licensure was encouraged in order to increase the number of physician officers qualifying for licensure by examination; thus, the number of applicants sitting for the examination increased. However, in the late Goryeo Dynasty, after the officer class of the local authorities (hyangri) showed a tendency to monopolize the examination, the Goryeo government limited the examination applications by this group. The medical licensing examination was divided into two parts: medicine and 'feeling the pulse and acupuncture' (jugeumeop). The Goryeo Dynasty followed the Chinese Dang Dynasty's medical system while also taking a strong interest in the Chinese Song Dynasty's ideas about medicine. PMID:26008917

  16. History of the medical licensing examination (uieop) in Korea’s Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Lock

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe the training and medical licensing system (uieop) for becoming a physician officer (uigwan) during Korea’s Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392). In the Goryeo Dynasty, although no license was necessary to provide medical services to the common people, there was a licensing examination to become a physician officer. No other national licensing system for healthcare professionals existed in Korea at that time. The medical licensing examination was administered beginning in 958. Physician officers who passed the medical licensing examination worked in two main healthcare institutions: the Government Hospital (Taeuigam) and Pharmacy for the King (Sangyakguk). The promotion and expansion of medical education differed depending on the historical period. Until the reign of King Munjong (1046-1083), medical education as a path to licensure was encouraged in order to increase the number of physician officers qualifying for licensure by examination; thus, the number of applicants sitting for the examination increased. However, in the late Goryeo Dynasty, after the officer class of the local authorities (hyangri) showed a tendency to monopolize the examination, the Goryeo government limited the examination applications by this group. The medical licensing examination was divided into two parts: medicine and ‘feeling the pulse and acupuncture’ (jugeumeop). The Goryeo Dynasty followed the Chinese Dang Dynasty’s medical system while also taking a strong interest in the Chinese Song Dynasty’s ideas about medicine. PMID:26008917

  17. From History to Myth: Productive Engagement with the Flexnerian Metanarrative in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrewe, Brett

    2013-01-01

    More than 100 years following its publication, the Flexner Report endures as a principal text in contemporary medical education. While recent scholarship has questioned popular conceptions of the report and attends to marginalized passages, explanations as to why the Flexner story endures as myth in medical education remain absent in the…

  18. A Petrographic History of Martian Meteorite ALH84001: Two Shocks and an Ancient Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1995-01-01

    ALH84001 is an igneous meteorite, an orthopyroxenite of martian origin. It contains petrographic evidence of two shock metamorphic events, separated by thermal and chemical events. The evidence for two shock events suggests that ALH84001 is ancient and perhaps a sample of the martian highlands. From petrography and mineral chemistry, the history of ALH84001 must include: crystallization from magma, a first shock (impact) metamorphism, thermal metamorphism, low-temperature chemical alteration, and a second shock (impact) metamorphism. Originally, ALH84001 was igneous, an orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate. In the first shock event, the igneous rock was cut by melt-breccia or cataclastic veinlets, now bands of equigranular fine-grained pyroxene and other minerals (crush zones). Intact fragments of the cumulate were fractured and strained (now converted to polygonized zones). The subsequent thermal metamorphism (possibly related to the first shock) annealed the melt-breccia or cataclastic veinlets to their present granoblastic texture and permitted chemical homogenization of all mineral species present. The temperature of metamorphism was at least 875 C, based on mineral thermometers. Next, Mg-Fe-Ca carbonates and pyrite replaced plagioclase in both clasts and granular bands, producing ellipsoidal carbonate globules with sub-micron scale compositional stratigraphy, repeated identically in all globules, The second shock event produced microfault offsets of carbonate stratigraphy and other mineral contacts, radial fractures around chromite and maskelynite, and strain birefringence in pyroxene. Maskelynite could not have been preserved from the first shock event, because it would have crystallized back to plagioclase. The martian source area for ALH84001 must permit this complex, multiple impact history. Very few craters on young igneous surfaces are on or near earlier impact features. It is more likely that ALH84001 was ejected from an old igneous unit (Hesperian or

  19. In the Age of the Web: Strategies for Building a Collection of Primary Sources for European History from the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenger, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts by the Newberry Library (Chicago) to obtain original source materials for studying the literature and history of western Europe from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century. Discusses joint acquisitions with higher education institutions; acquisition of rare book collections from religious colleges and seminaries; and…

  20. The history of organized medical transport in Minneapolis: 1867-1930.

    PubMed

    Thielen, Scott D

    2010-03-01

    When Minneapolis officially became a city in 1867, there were no hospitals or ambulance services within its limits. Four years later, in 1871, the first hospital in the city, Cottage Hospital, opened its doors to the public, shifting medical care from the family home to the hospital. The need then developed for organized medical transport. The period between 1880 and 1890 marked the beginning of limited ambulance service in Minneapolis. Over the next 40 years, many public and private institutions developed their own transport services. During that same time, skilled medical transport in which physicians and/or nurses went along on calls began, and the transport of patients transitioned from horse and wagon to motorized ambulances. These developments would set the stage for future innovations in Minneapolis' emergency medical system and ultimately improve patient care and survival. PMID:20429176

  1. The history of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin: Mare deposit ages, compositions and morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadel, S. D.; Greeley, R.; Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    The eruptive history of mare basalts in the Orientale Basin has been studied, using Lunar Orbiter 4 high-resolution photographs, Zond 8 photographs, and recently acquired Galileo EM-1 multispectral images. This work represents a refined set of compositional data incorporating the use of a linear mixing model for mare compositions, crater count data, and a comprehensive morphologic analysis of Orientale Basin mare deposits. Evidence for multiple eruptive episodes has been found, with compositions ranging from medium- to high-Ti basalt (less than 4 to greater than 6 wt. percent TiO2). Eruptive styles included flood, rille-forming, and shield-forming eruptions. Impact crater densities of mare units in the Orientale Basin enable determination of the ages of these deposits, using the method of Neukum et al. Earliest eruptions of mare basalt in the basin occurred at greater than or equal to 3.80 Ga and the latest eruptions occurred at about 2.3-2.5 Ga. Hence, mare volcanism occurred over a period of nearly 1.5 Ga.

  2. State of Digital Education Options in the areas of Medical Terminology and the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schochow, Maximilian; Steger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics at German institutions of higher learning have created various e-learning options that are based on different learning platforms and tailored to the specific curricular needs of individual teaching. Up to now no valid data has been available about the types of such e-learning options as well as possibilities of future developments thanks to coordinated cooperation among the different institutes. Methods: Of 31 German institutes of the history and theory of medicine and medical ethics that were asked to fill out a questionnaire, 30 answered, which equals a return rate of 97 per cent. The questionnaire was completed between July and August 2012 using a telephone survey. Results: Available to students online, digitally interactive teaching tools have boomed in the course of the last few years at German institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics. This trend is also reflected in a willingness of more than half of the respective departments (67 per cent) to expand their e-learning options on the basis of previous experience. The offered e-learning systems are accepted very well by the students. 57 per cent of the institutes stated, that 90-100 per cent of the students use the offered systems regularly. E-learning courses for terminology are offered particularly often, this is also reflected in the intended extension of these courses by the majority of institutes which plan to expand their e-learning systems. Conclusions: This article discusses the results of a comprehensive empirical survey about e-learning. It illustrates ways in which individual German institutes plan to expand their e-learning options in the future. Finally, specific proposals for cooperation among institutions (not just online) are introduced, the purpose of which is to produce synergy in e-learning. PMID:26038682

  3. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Cocco, Pierluigi; La Vecchia, Carlo; Chang, Ellen T.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Spinelli, John J.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Kasten, Carol; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wang, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are rare cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Their etiology is poorly understood. Methods A pooled analysis of 324 MF/SS cases and 17217 controls from 14 case–control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia, as part of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Subtypes Project, was carried out to investigate associations with lifestyle, medical history, family history, and occupational risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found an increased risk of MF/SS associated with body mass index equal to or larger than 30kg/m2 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.40), cigarette smoking for 40 years or more (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.31), eczema (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.73 to 3.29), family history of multiple myeloma (OR = 8.49, 95% CI = 3.31 to 21.80), and occupation as crop and vegetable farmers (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.14 to 4.92), painters (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.94 to 7.07), woodworkers (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.18 to 4.08), and general carpenters (OR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.54 to 10.75). We also found a reduced risk of MF/SS associated with moderate leisure time physical activity (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.97). Conclusions Our study provided the first detailed analysis of risk factors for MF/SS and further investigation is needed to confirm these findings in prospective data and in other populations. PMID:25174030

  4. Geographical variation in reproductive ageing patterns and life-history strategy of a short-lived passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Balbontín, Javier; Møller, A P; Hermosell, I G; Marzal, A; Reviriego, M; de Lope, F

    2012-11-01

    We investigated differences in ageing patterns in three measures of breeding performance in populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica L. from Spain and Denmark differing in breeding latitude and hence migration distance and duration of the breeding season. We found differences in ageing patterns between populations. Generally, young (i.e. yearling) and old females (i.e. ≥ 5 years of age) laid their first eggs later and produced smaller clutches than middle-aged females (i.e. 2-4 years of age) in both populations. The southernmost population (i.e. Spanish) showing the shorter migratory distance experienced a greater within-individual increase in timing of breeding and clutch size in early life and a greater within-individual decrease in laying date but not in clutch size during senescence compared with the northernmost population (i.e. Danish). We also found that the number of fledglings produced annually was related to the age of the two members of the breeding pairs with pairs composed of young and old females performing less well than breeding pairs composed of middle-aged females. We did not find reproductive senescence for the age of the male while controlling for the age of the female on the number of fledglings produced annually by the breeding pair. Differential survival between individuals did not explain age effects on laying date or annual clutch size in neither population. However, the increase in the number of fledglings produced annually with age was partly explained by the disappearance of poor-quality members of the pairs, mainly poor-quality males. Age-related breeding success (i.e. number of fledglings) was similar for barn swallows from Spain and Denmark. Therefore, the study of ageing patterns and life-history strategies in free-ranging animals from more than a single population can throw new light on life-history theory, population dynamics and evolutionary studies of senescence. PMID:22994532

  5. Periods of History of the Lviv Medical University and Criminal Repressions During the Nazi Occupation and Stalinist Era.

    PubMed

    Hanitkevych, Yaroslav

    2012-12-01

    This article covers the history of the Lviv Medical University from the period of Austria-Hungarian rule until the modern period of independent Ukraine. Its functioning has been conditioned by the different periods of foreign rule, whether Austrian, Hungarian, Polish, German or Soviet Union.This story covers well known scientists-professors as well as other Ukrainian teachers and students.We record the arrests and murders of physicians by Stalin's followers and Hitler's soldiers against the background of prevailing conditions in the city of Lviv. PMID:26255387

  6. [For a history of medical teaching in the 'Marche". Libraries and universities: Lancisi and the University Library of Urbino].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Stefania; Moranti, Maria; Patti, Maria

    2004-01-01

    During the Modern Age, in the Marche, in the Pontifical State, it was possible to study medicine and to obtain a degree in medicine in Macerata, Fermo, Urbino, Camerino and Fano. In these cities, from the end of the XVII century to the beginning of the XIX century, public libraries were founded also to support academic teaching. Private collections of medical books, generally formed in Rome, arrived in the Marche to increase the newborn public libraries. In 1720 Pope Clemens XI founded a public library in the monastery of Saint Francis in Urbino. In this library the medical books were bequeathed by the famous Roman physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi. The present article provides the first results of a research, which aims at identifying Lancisi's medical books. PMID:16240533

  7. [The Salernitan School of Medicine: Its History and Contribution to European Medical Education].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    The Salernitan School of Medicine was founded in the late 10th century as a loose association of medical teachers. The period before the middle 13th century was divided into three phases. In the early phase, before the end of 11th century, "practica" books were written, utilizing extant ancient literature, Arabic medical treatises were translated into Latin, and the medical text "Articella" was compiled. In the high phase before the end of the 12th century, the "Articella" was commented upon and new pharmacopeia and practica books were written. In the late phase before the middle of the 13th century, physicians who graduated from Salerno were active in various countries in Europe. After the middle of the 13th century the school developed organizations and rules, became a university at the end of 16th century, and was closed in 1811. The Salernitan school produced "Articella", which pioneered in theoretical medical education, and produced "practica", which dealt with both local diseases from head to foot and systemic fever diseases, and it continued until the end of 18th century. The two major disciplines of medical education before the end of 18th century, theoretica and practica, were derived from Salerno. PMID:27089736

  8. Meeting the challenges--the role of medical informatics in an ageing society.

    PubMed

    Koch, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify trends and new technological developments that appear due to an ageing society and to relate them to current research in the field of medical informatics. A survey of the current literature reveals that recent technological advances have been made in the fields of "telecare and home-monitoring", "smart homes and robotics" and "health information systems and knowledge management". Innovative technologies such as wearable devices, bio- and environmental sensors and mobile, humanoid robots do already exist and ambient assistant living environments are being created for an ageing society. However, those technologies have to be adapted to older people's self-care processes and coping strategies, and to support new ways of healthcare delivery. Medical informatics can support this process by providing the necessary information infrastructure, contribute to standardisation, interoperability and security issues and provide modelling and simulation techniques for educational purposes. Research fields of increasing importance with regard to an ageing society are, moreover, the fields of knowledge management, ubiquitous computing and human-computer interaction. PMID:17108500

  9. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  10. Interferon-gamma-inducible kynurenines/pteridines inflammation cascade: implications for aging and aging-associated psychiatric and medical disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This review of literature and our data suggests that up-regulated production of interferon-gamma (IFNG) in periphery and brain triggers a merger of tryptophan (TRY)–kynurenine (KYN) and guanine–tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) metabolic pathways into inflammation cascade involved in aging and aging-associated medical and psychiatric disorders (AAMPD) (metabolic syndrome, depression, vascular cognitive impairment). IFNG-inducible KYN/pteridines inflammation cascade is characterized by up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity (induced by KYN) and decreased formation of NOS cofactor, BH4, that results in uncoupling of NOS that shifting arginine from NO to superoxide anion production. Superoxide anion and free radicals among KYN derivatives trigger phospholipase A2-arachidonic acid cascade associated with AAMPD. IFNG-induced up-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), rate-limiting enzyme of TRY–KYN pathway, decreases TRY conversion into serotonin (substrate of antidepressant effect) and increases production of KYN associated with diabetes [xanthurenic acid (XA)], anxiety (KYN), psychoses and cognitive impairment (kynurenic acid). IFNG-inducible KYN/pteridines inflammation cascade is impacted by IFNG (+874) T/A genotypes, encoding cytokine production. In addition to literature data on KYN/TRY ratio (IDO activity index), we observe neopterin levels (index of activity of rate-limiting enzyme of guanine–BH4 pathway) to be higher in carriers of high (T) than of low (A) producers alleles; and to correlate with AAMPD markers (e.g., insulin resistance, body mass index, mortality risk), and with IFN-alpha-induced depression in hepatitis C patients. IFNG-inducible cascade is influenced by environmental factors (e.g., vitamin B6 deficiency increases XA formation) and by pharmacological agents; and might offer new approaches for anti-aging and anti-AAMPD interventions. PMID:20811799

  11. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Swaziland: Modeling the Impact of Age Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Okello, Velephi; Maziya, Vusi; Benzerga, Wendy; Mirira, Munamato; Gold, Elizabeth; Schnure, Melissa; Sgaier, Sema; Castor, Delivette; Reed, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention has been a priority for Swaziland since 2009. Initially focusing on men ages 15–49, the Ministry of Health reduced the minimum age for VMMC from 15 to 10 years in 2012, given the existing demand among 10- to 15-year-olds. To understand the implications of focusing VMMC service delivery on specific age groups, the MOH undertook a modeling exercise to inform policy and implementation in 2013–2014. Methods and Findings The impact and cost of circumcising specific age groups were assessed using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a simple compartmental model. We used age-specific HIV incidence from the Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS). Population, mortality, births, and HIV prevalence were imported from a national Spectrum/Goals model recently updated in consultation with country stakeholders. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the most recent Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey. The lowest numbers of VMMCs per HIV infection averted are achieved when males ages 15–19, 20–24, 25–29, and 30–34 are circumcised, although the uncertainty bounds for the estimates overlap. Circumcising males ages 25–29 and 20–24 provides the most immediate reduction in HIV incidence. Circumcising males ages 15–19, 20–24, and 25–29 provides the greatest magnitude incidence reduction within 15 years. The lowest cost per HIV infection averted is achieved by circumcising males ages 15–34: $870 U.S. dollars (USD). Conclusions The potential impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up in Swaziland are not uniform. They vary by the age group of males circumcised. Based on the results of this modeling exercise, the Ministry of Health’s Swaziland Male Circumcision Strategic and Operational Plan 2014–2018 adopted an implementation strategy that calls for circumcision to be scaled up to 50% coverage for neonates, 80

  12. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    PubMed

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has-their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. PMID:27022074

  13. Death and Doctor Hornbook by Robert Burns: a view from medical history.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, Malcolm

    2010-06-01

    Robert Burns's poem, Death and Doctor Hornbook, 1785, tells of the drunken narrator's late night encounter with Death. The Grim Reaper is annoyed that ‘Dr Hornbook’, a local schoolteacher who has taken to selling medications and giving medical advice, is successfully thwarting his efforts to gather victims. The poet fears that the local gravedigger will be unemployed but Death reassures him that this will not be the case since Hornbook kills more than he cures. Previous commentators have regarded the poem as a simple satire on amateur doctoring. However, it is here argued that, if interpreted in the light of the exoteric and inclusive character of 18th century medical knowledge and practice, the poem is revealed to have a much broader reference as well as being more subtle and morally ambiguous. It is a satire on 18th century medicine as a whole. PMID:21513087

  14. A medical history of the Spanish Habsburgs. As traced in portraits.

    PubMed

    Hodge, G P

    1977-09-12

    From the 13th century untill well into the 20th, the Habsburgs were one of the great powers in Europe--for most of this time, the leading dynasty. To preserve the purity of the line, marriages between uncles and nieces, aunts and nephews, and cousins were commonplace. As a consequence, genetic complexities developed, and the famous prognathic "Habsburg jaw," among other noticeable traits, was passed down to succeeding generations. Never has a dynasty been so well documented in paintings, and their portraits provide an unusually complete series of medical illustrations that show the facial characteristics that marked the family in general. The observations are confirmed and extended by information from modern medical sources as well as from the medical records that date to the Habsburgs' own times. PMID:330890

  15. New terrace ages better constrain the uplift history for the Mejillones Peninsula, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liermann, Ariane; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Heinze, Stefan; Dewald, Alfred; Victor, Pia; González, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula is a promontory extending spectacularly from the northern Chilean coastline. The peninsula is marked by well preserved marine terraces extending from just above sea-level to greater than 400 m. These staircased planar expressions result from a combination of glacioeustatic sea-level fluctuation and tectonic uplift. It has been shown by several studies that such terraces are formed during interglacial marine high-stands and are preserved because of abandonment in intervening sea-level low-stands. Post Mid Pleistocene transition high-stands (MIS 1 to 19) were within 10 m of the current sea-level (Siddall et al. 2006). We present cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from marine pebbles deposited on the surface of the terraces when they were at sea-level in order to constrain the uplift history of the northwestern highland part of the peninsula. Based on the mean age (n=10) of the oldest terrace measured (~140 m) we obtain an average uplift rate of ~0.3 m/ka for the last ~465 ka. This average uplift rate can be subdivided into a recent slower and an older, more rapid rate. The average uplift rate between ~465 and ~280 ka was ~0.6 m/ka, and based on the observed linear increase in age with altitude the uplift was steady throughout this period. However, for the last ~280 ka we calculate a slower uplift rate of ~0.1 m/ka. Tracing the surface expressions of the marine terraces northwards we observe an anomalous increase of >100 m elevation over length-scales of ~2 km. This suggests different amounts of tectonic uplift for adjacent regions within the northern part of the peninsula. From a single terrace surface (288m) in the more elevated region we measured an exposure age of ~405 ka, compatible with the temporal framework of uplift defined by the lower elevation ages. However, the higher altitude of this terrace, in comparison to the adjacent, lower region suggests a more rapid rate of uplift (~0.7 m/ka) and thus differential uplift within the northern

  16. Behavioral Management of Medical Compliance: Its Role in the History of Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ben; Lightner, Jean

    Most histories of psychology and psychiatry attribute the first group psychotherapy to Joseph Pratt's 1905 class for tuberculosis patients. Pratt's actual treatment procedures are examined. They are shown to have consisted primarily of operant and social-learning techniques, aimed at increasing patient compliance with a demanding therapeutic…

  17. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  18. Joint Modelling of Survival and Emergency Medical Care Usage in Spanish Insureds Aged 65+

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background We study the longevity and medical resource usage of a large sample of insureds aged 65 years or older drawn from a large health insurance dataset. Yearly counts of each subject's emergency room and ambulance service use and hospital admissions are made. Occurrence of mortality is also monitored. The study aims to capture the simultaneous dependence between their demand for healthcare and survival. Methods We demonstrate the benefits of taking a joint approach to modelling longitudinal and survival processes by using a large dataset from a Spanish medical mutual company. This contains historical insurance information for 39,137 policyholders aged 65+ (39.5% men and 60.5% women) across the eight-year window of the study. The joint model proposed incorporates information on longitudinal demand for care in a weighted cumulative effect that places greater emphasis on more recent than on past service demand. Results A strong significant and positive relationship between the exponentially weighted demand for emergency, ambulance and hospital services is found with risk of death (alpha = 1.462, p < 0.001). Alternative weighting specifications are tested, but in all cases they show that a joint approach indicates a close connection between health care demand and time-to-death. Additionally, the model allows us to predict individual survival curves dynamically as new information on demand for services becomes known. Conclusions The joint model fitted demonstrates the utility of analysing demand for medical services and survival simultaneously. Likewise, it allows the personalized prediction of survival in advanced age subjects. PMID:27073868

  19. A Prospective Examination of the Association of Stimulant Medication History and Drug Use Outcomes among Community Samples of ADHD Youths

    PubMed Central

    WINTERS, KEN C.; LEE, SUSANNE; BOTZET, ANDRIA; FAHNHORST, TAMARA; REALMUTO, GEORGE M.; AUGUST, GERALD J.

    2012-01-01

    A continuing debate in the child psychopathology literature is the extent to which pharmacotherapy for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in particular stimulant treatment, confers a risk of subsequent drug abuse. If stimulant treatment for ADHD contributes to drug abuse, then the risk versus therapeutic benefits of such treatment is greatly affected. We have prospectively followed an ADHD sample (N = 149; 81% males) for approximately 15 years, beginning at childhood (ages 8 to 10 years) and continuing until the sample has reached young adulthood (ages 22 to 24 years). The sample was originally recruited via an epidemiologically derived community procedure, and all youths were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood. We report on the association of childhood psychostimulant medication and subsequent substance use disorders and tobacco use. The substance use outcomes were based on data collected at three time points when the sample was in late adolescence and young adulthood (age range approximately 18 to 22 years old). We did not find evidence to support that childhood treatment with stimulant medication, including the course of stimulant medication, was associated with any change in risk for adolescent or young adulthood substance use disorders and tobacco use. These results from a community-based sample extend the growing body of literature based on clinically derived samples indicating that stimulant treatment does not create a significant risk for subsequent substance use disorders. PMID:22582022

  20. [An outline on the phylogenetic history of metazoa aging phenomenon (to the study of creating a common metazoa aging theory)].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, A G; Labas, Iu A; Gordeeva, A V

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of aging phenomenon in Metazoa was from the very beginning developing from potentially immortal forms to those more prone to aging. Potential immortality is an ancestral feature gradually lost in the course of evolution; at the same time aging and death resulting from aging are not obligatory but highly desirable property of existence of Metazoa with gamogenesis; this is a prerequisite of evolutionary progress as it facilitates species formation processes accelerating phylogenetic groups radiation and thus gives certain outlying evolutionary advantages, namely, accelerating the evolutionary process and the speed of substitution of one species by others. The main principle of aging phenomenon evolution is as follows: it's the substitution of internal factors of death of nonaging Metazoa with external ones programmed in genome. Aging mechanisms add up to limitation of repairing and regeneration capabilities of adult phenotype and/or by extermination of the whole pool of stem cells or its part only. Aging is a holistic process and it can't be drawn down to one of the known cellular processes which in their turn can't be the initial trigger of this process that is programmed in the genome in a vague form (there is no aging program as it is): if at some stage of ontogenesis the reparation mechanism disablement is genetically programmed then this is really the aging phenomenon programming. Mainly full or partial postmitotic design of an organism is programmed, and it is in its turn a factor securing the "harmfulness" of cellular mechanisms, decreasing the physiological potential of an organism with age. By this it increases the chances of mortality among Metazoa species. On the whole the presented material points to the fact that to develop a common aging theory of Metazoa we don't have to substantially replenish the database of biological science, but we need a new understanding of known facts, which determine the initial cognitive position. PMID:20586245

  1. [Medical aspects and driving history of drivers with higher class automobile driver's licenses].

    PubMed

    Maag, F

    1982-02-01

    In the medical part of our paper we have shown the chauffeurs are a high-risk group with respect to hypertension, lumbar pain, and overweight. The analysis of drivers' offenses, yearly kilometers driven and years of driving in the three groups of taxi, lorry and coach drivers shows that coach chauffeurs have significantly better driving records. PMID:6461985

  2. The Role of History in Debates Regarding the Boundaries of Medical Confidentiality and Privacy

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Angus H.

    2016-01-01

    Medical confidentiality and privacy are often given a long pedigree as core issues in medical ethics that can be traced back to the Hippocratic Oath. However, it is only recently that focused historical work has begun to examine and analyse in greater detail how the boundaries of medical confidentiality and privacy have evolved within a variety of cultural contexts during the modern period. Such research illustrates the ways in which this process has been shaped by a range of issues, individuals, interest groups and events; and been influenced as much by pragmatic concerns as by theoretical arguments. This paper presents a case for the merits of promoting further historical work on these topics. It suggests that greater support for, and recognition of, historical research has a number of potential benefits. These include providing meaningful context to current interdisciplinary discussions of the collection and use of patient information; improving knowledge and understanding of the foundations on which current policy and practice are built; and promoting public engagement and understanding of the evolution of medical confidentiality and privacy as complex public interest issues. PMID:26877972

  3. History of Medicine in Iran The Oldest Known Medical Treatise in the Persian Language

    PubMed Central

    Nayernouri, T; Azizi, MH

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe some features of a rediscovered medical text written in old Persian (Farsi Dari) over one thousand years ago and discuss some of its significant attributes in relation to the historical background of the Iranian scientific and literary renaissance of that era. PMID:25197537

  4. Use of Medication Prescribed for Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties among Children Aged 6-17 Years in the United ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... months for emotional or behavioral difficulties varied by poverty level. Among children aged 6–17 years, a ... in families having income below 100% of the poverty level (9.2%) used prescribed medication for emotional ...

  5. Evidence for an age-dependent influence of environmental variations on a long-lived seabird's life-history traits.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Deborah; Barbraud, Christophe; Authier, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies have highlighted the effects of age on several life-history traits in wild populations. There is also increasing evidence for environmental effects on their demographic traits. However, quantifying how individuals differentially respond to environmental variations according to their age remains a challenge in ecology. In a population of Black-browed Albatrosses monitored during 43 years, we analyzed how life-history traits varied according to age, and whether individuals of different ages responded in different ways to environmental conditions. To do so, we: (1) examined how age affected seven life-history traits, (2) investigated differences in temporal variance of demographic traits between age classes, and (3) tested for age-dependent effects of climate and fisheries covariates on demographic traits. Overall, there was a tendency for traits to improve during the first years of life (5-10 years), to peak and remain stable at middle age (10-30 years), and decline at old ages. At young ages, survival and reproductive parameters increased, except offspring body condition at fledging, suggesting that younger parents had already acquired good foraging capacities. However, they suffered from inexperience in breeding as suggested by their higher breeding failures during incubation. There was evidence for reproductive and actuarial senescence. In particular, breeding success and offspring body condition declined abruptly, suggesting altered foraging capacities of old individuals. Middle-aged individuals had the lowest temporal variance of demographic traits. Although this is predicted by the theory of environmental canalization, it could also results from a higher susceptibility of young and old birds due to their respective inexperience and senescence. The highest temporal variances were found in old individuals. Survival was significantly influenced by sea surface temperatures in the foraging zone of this albatross population during

  6. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  7. BC's "Island of death" marked a sad chapter in Canada's medical history.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, P

    1995-01-01

    Although the first case of leprosy in Canada was detected in 1815 in New Brunswick, the saddest chapter concerning the disease's history in Canada did not open until the late 1800s when leprosy was discovered among Chinese migrant workers on Canada's West Coast--a chapter that was not closed until 1957. Penelope Johnston relates the story of British Columbia's "Island of Death," where lepers used to be quarantined. PMID:7697589

  8. Using Age-Based Life History Data to Investigate the Life Cycle and Vulnerability of Octopus cyanea

    PubMed Central

    Herwig, Jade N.; Depczynski, Martial; Roberts, John D.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gagliano, Monica; Heyward, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Octopus cyanea is taken as an unregulated, recreationally fished species from the intertidal reefs of Ningaloo, Western Australia. Yet despite its exploitation and importance in many artisanal fisheries throughout the world, little is known about its life history, ecology and vulnerability. We used stylet increment analysis to age a wild O. cyanea population for the first time and gonad histology to examine their reproductive characteristics. O. cyanea conforms to many cephalopod life history generalisations having rapid, non-asymptotic growth, a short life-span and high levels of mortality. Males were found to mature at much younger ages and sizes than females with reproductive activity concentrated in the spring and summer months. The female dominated sex-ratios in association with female brooding behaviours also suggest that larger conspicuous females may be more prone to capture and suggests that this intertidal octopus population has the potential to be negatively impacted in an unregulated fishery. Size at age and maturity comparisons between our temperate bordering population and lower latitude Tanzanian and Hawaiian populations indicated stark differences in growth rates that correlate with water temperatures. The variability in life history traits between global populations suggests that management of O. cyanea populations should be tailored to each unique set of life history characteristics and that stylet increment analysis may provide the integrity needed to accurately assess this. PMID:22912898

  9. Medication supply to residential aged care facilities in Western Australia using a centralized medication chart to replace prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current model of medication supply to R (RACFs) in Australia is dependent on paper-based prescriptions. This study is aimed at assessing the use of a centralized medication chart as a prescription-less model for supplying medications to RACFs. Methods Two separate focus groups were conducted with general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists, and another three with registered nurses (RNs) and carers combined. All focus group participants were working with RACFs. Audio-recorded data were compared with field notes, transcribed and imported into NVivo® where it was thematically analyzed. Results A prescription-less medication chart model was supported and it appeared to potentially improve medication supply to RACF residents. Centralization of medication supply, clarification of medication orders and responding in real-time to therapy changes made by GPs were reasons for supporting the medication chart model. Pharmacists preferred an electronic version of this model. All health professionals cautioned against the need for GPs regularly reviewing the medication chart and proposed a time interval of four to six months for this review to occur. Therapy changes during weekends appeared a potential difficulty for RNs and carers whereas pharmacists cautioned about legible writing and claiming of medications dispensed according to a paper-based model. GPs cautioned on the need to monitor the amount of medications dispensed by the pharmacy. Conclusion The current use of paper prescriptions in nursing homes was identified as burdensome. A prescription-less medication chart model was suggested to potentially improve medication supply to RACF residents. An electronic version of this model could address main potential difficulties raised. PMID:22676640

  10. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    PubMed

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members. PMID:26673207

  11. Marine mammal training: the history of training animals for medical behaviors and keys to their success.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ken

    2012-09-01

    The training of both domestic and exotic species for participation in medical behaviors is a helpful tool in the care and management of individual animals. The practice of training individual animals to help in their own health care is difficult to trace back to its origins. The use of these techniques on large exotic mammals became commonplace only as recently as the late 1990s and early 2000s. However, the practice seems to have been perfected and made popular with marine mammal species, starting in the 1970s. The development of better training techniques for a variety of medical behaviors is a foundational key worth examining and has been proven to be applicable across species. PMID:22998959

  12. Evolving medical service in the information age: a legal analysis of applying telemedicine programs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsing-Hao

    2008-12-01

    In the face of the information age, Internet and telecommunication technologies have been widely applied in various settings. These innovational technologies have been used in the areas of e-commerce, long distance learning programs, entertainment, e-government, and so on. In recent years, the evolution of Internet technology is also pervading the health care industry. This dramatic trend may significantly alter traditional medical practice as well as the means of delivery of health care. The idea of telemedicine is to use modern information technology as a means or platform to deliver health care service in remote areas and to manage medical information in digitalized forms. The progress of developing telemedicine, however, is rather slow. The main reason for this slow progress is not technological but rather legal. Health care providers are reluctant to promote this innovation in medical service mainly due to uncertain legal consequences and ethical concerns. Although there are many legal challenges surrounding telemedicine, this note will examine major legal issues including licensure, malpractice liability, and privacy protection. Furthermore, I will discuss the potential of applying telemedicine programs in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program (hereinafter referred to as NHI). PMID:19202856

  13. [The history of the Institute of Hygiene of the Medical College of Lübeck].

    PubMed

    Preuner, R

    1986-05-01

    The "Institute of Hygiene" of the Hanseatic town of Lübeck was founded in 1946 by Prof. Dr. Franz Schültz on account of the then prevailing epidemic situation mainly caused by the rapid spread of typhoid fever. The local responsibility of the Institute extended to the town itself and to the two hospitals "South" and "East", with the latter originating from the asylum of Strecknitz after its tragic destruction. In 1950 Franz Schütz was appointed ordinary professor and director of the Institute of Hygiene of the University of Göttingen. In Lübeck he was succeeded by Prof. Dr. Hans Schubert, last senior physician of the Institute of Hygiene of the University of Königsberg. He served a very short term in Lübeck, for he died as early as 1951 after seven months' tenure. He was succeeded in office by Prof. Dr. Rudolf Preuner in 1952. During his term of office the ties with the hospitals were severed and the Institute became independent. Endeavors to found a College started in the early sixties. In November 1964 the Medical Academy of Lübeck was created as Second Medical Faculty of the University of Kiel; in 1974 it was converted into the independent Medical College of Lübeck with a presidial constitution. In 1979 Rudolf Preuner retired as professor emeritus. His successor in office was Prof. Dr. Johannes Beckert. In 1985 the College was raised to the Medical University of Lübeck. PMID:3092506

  14. From Roentgen to magnetic resonance imaging: the history of medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Scatliff, James H; Morris, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging has advanced in remarkable ways since the discovery of x-rays 120 years ago. Today's radiologists can image the human body in intricate detail using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasound, and various other modalities. Such technology allows for improved screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease, but it also comes with risks. Many imaging modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation, which potentially increases their risk of developing cancer in the future, and imaging may also be associated with possible allergic reactions or risks related to the use of intravenous contrast agents. In addition, the financial costs of imaging are taxing our health care system, and incidental findings can trigger anxiety and further testing. This issue of the NCMJ addresses the pros and cons of medical imaging and discusses in detail the following uses of medical imaging: screening for breast cancer with mammography, screening for osteoporosis and monitoring of bone mineral density with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, screening for congenital hip dysplasia in infants with ultrasound, and evaluation of various heart conditions with cardiac imaging. Together, these articles show the challenges that must be met as we seek to harness the power of today's imaging technologies, as well as the potential benefits that can be achieved when these hurdles are overcome. PMID:24663131

  15. Patient Impression and Satisfaction of a Self-administered, Automated Medical History-taking Device in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sanjay; Goldberg, Andrew D.; Menchine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated patient impressions and satisfaction of an innovative self-administered, hand-held touch-screen tablet to gather detailed medical information from emergency department (ED) patients in the waiting room prior to physician contact. Methods: Adult, medically stable patients presenting to the ED at Los Angeles County Hospital used the PatientTouch™ system to answer a series of questions about their current history of present illness and past medical/surgical histories in English or Spanish. Patients then completed a survey rating their experience. Results: Among 173 participants, opinion of PatientTouch™ was strongly positive; 93.6% (95%CI 90.0–97.3%) felt the physical product was easy to hold and handle, and 97.1% (94.6–99.6%) felt the questions were detailed enough for them to fully describe their condition; 97.8% (95.4–100.0%) felt using PatientTouch™ would help them organize their thoughts and communicate better with their physician, 94.8% (91.4–98.1%) thought it would improve the quality of their care, and 97.1% (94.6–99.6%) expressed desire to use the product again in the future. Conclusion: The study was conducted at a largely Hispanic county ED, and only patients with 1 of 6 pre-determined chief complaints participated. We did not include a control group to assess if perceived improvements in communication translated to measurable differences. In this pilot study, patients were highly satisfied with all aspects of the PatientTouch™ self-administered, hand-held, touch-screen tablet. Importantly, subjects felt it would help them better communicate with their doctor, would improve their overall quality of care and overwhelmingly expressed a desire to use it in the future. PMID:24695871

  16. A reconstruction of a medical history from administrative data: with an application to the cost of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowell, David; Gordon, Louisa G; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    The medical record is a repository of clinical data, which can greatly enhance the quality of health and healthcare analysis. Administrative data are collected for the purpose of billing and reimbursement, and are valued by health researchers because the data are routinely audited to maintain accurate financial records. However, the quantity of incorporated clinical data can be variable. In this paper we reconstruct the medical record from health service invoices to estimate the cost of treating keratinocytic cancer (KC). The data from an epidemiological survey were linked to an administrative data set supplied by the national health insurer. A matched sampling technique with multivariable analysis was used to estimate cost. A KC treatment was identified with 42 service codes which explicitly nominated treatment of a KC. Algorithms identifying comorbities potentially correlated with KC were constructed from the service codes. The annual cost of a KC treatment was estimated to be AU$667 per individual. The average cost of explicit KC treatments was AU$231, while the cost of generic procedures used to treat KC was AU$436. Our ability to accurately control for the medical history enabled our analysis to quantify and describe the constituent costs of KC treatment. PMID:25853002

  17. Perspectives on elasmobranch life-history studies: a focus on age validation and relevance to fishery management.

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M

    2015-12-01

    Life-history (age, growth, age validation, reproduction and demography) studies of elasmobranchs date back to the middle of the last century with major early contributions made by British fishery scientists. As predicted by Holden in the early 1970s, many sharks and rays can be vulnerable to fishery mortality because they grow slowly, mature late in life, reproduce infrequently, have relatively low fecundities and can have relatively long life spans. As has now been found, however, not all species exhibit these traits. Also, ageing structures (neural arches and caudal thorns), other than vertebrae and spines, have since been evaluated. Various methods for validating age and growth estimates have been developed and tested on numerous species of elasmobranchs. These include tag-recapture analyses, oxytetracycline injections, centrum or spine edge and marginal increment analyses, and bomb radiocarbon dating of calcified structures. Application of these techniques has sometimes not only validated relatively slow growth and long life span estimates, but also has produced other results. A brief historical perspective on the applications and limitations of these techniques for elasmobranchs is provided, along with a discussion of selected species for which these techniques worked well, did not work at all or have produced variable and conflicting results. Because many fishery management techniques utilize age or stage-specific information, often through demographic analyses, accurate information on the life histories of fished populations, especially age validation, is extremely important for the fishery management of these cartilaginous fishes. PMID:26709208

  18. Does a medical history of hypertension influence disclosing genetic testing results of the risk for salt-sensitive hypertension, in primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Okayama, Masanobu; Takeshima, Taro; Harada, Masanori; Ae, Ryusuke; Kajii, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Objective Disclosing genetic testing results may contribute to the prevention and management of many common diseases. However, whether the presence of a disease influences these effects is unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference in the effects of disclosing genetic testing results of the risk for developing salt-sensitive hypertension on the behavioral modifications with respect to salt intake in hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted for outpatients aged >20 years (N=2,237) at six primary care clinics and hospitals in Japan. The main factors assessed were medical histories of hypertension, salt preferences, reduced salt intakes, and behavior modifications for reducing salt intake. Behavioral modifications of participants were assessed using their behavior stages before and after disclosure of the hypothetical genetic testing results. Results Of the 2,237 participants, 1,644 (73.5%) responded to the survey. Of these respondents, 558 (33.9%) patients were hypertensive and 1,086 (66.1%) were nonhypertensive. After being notified of the result “If with genetic risk”, the nonhypertensive participants were more likely to make positive behavioral modifications compared to the hypertensive patients among all participants and in those aged <65 years (adjusted relative ratio [ad-RR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.12−2.76 and ad-RR, 1.99; 1.11−3.57, respectively). In contrast, no difference in negative behavioral modifications between hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients was detected after being notified of the result “If without genetic risk” (ad-RR, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.70−1.57). Conclusion The behavior of modifying salt intake after disclosure of the genetic testing results differed between hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients. Disclosing a genetic risk for salt-sensitive hypertension was likely to cause nonhypertensive patients

  19. A history of hybrid pixel detectors, from high energy physics to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpierre, P.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of hybrid pixel detectors from the origin to the application on medical imaging. We are going to recall the need for fast 2D detectors in the high energy physics experiments and to follow the different pixel electronic circuits created to satisfy this demand. The adaptation of these circuits for X-rays will be presented as well as their industrialization. Today, a number of applications are open for these cameras, particularly for biomedical imaging applications. Some developments for clinical CT will also be shown.

  20. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. V. Scientific achievements and medical publications of 2 centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-05-01

    A medico-scientific journalism of Jewish origin which became increasedly recognizable on the German territory in the second half of the 17th century was at first based on the activities of Spanish-Portuguese exiles. Beginning with the 18th century at first the inaugural papers, but then also the publications of renowned Jewish physicians determined the profile of this literary group. The access to academic teaching professions becoming possible in the 19th century developed concentration points of research engagement, which in this place shall be indicated at the instance of the Medical Faculty of Halle University. PMID:2662660

  1. Deafness and liver disease in a 57-year-old man: a medical history of Beethoven.

    PubMed

    Hui, A C; Wong, S M

    2000-12-01

    Ludwig van Beethoven had a number of medical conditions, including deafness and chronic liver disease, for which there are contemporary descriptions. An autopsy was performed on the day after his death. Physicians and historians have tried to reinterpret original sources to determine the causes of his deafness and systemic illnesses. We have reviewed the differential diagnoses that have been proposed by otologists and physicians. Clinical and post-mortem findings point to renal papillary necrosis and liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology. In the absence of further histological examination, there is no definitive answer to the cause of his deafness and gastro-intestinal symptoms. PMID:11177170

  2. A brief history of the evolution of the medical research article

    PubMed Central

    MARTA, MONICA MIHAELA

    2015-01-01

    Given the current importance of publishing medical research articles in high-impact international journals, this article briefly presents key moments in the evolution of this reporting genre for a better understanding of the diachronic changes that have shaped it into a highly useful tool for creating and spreading knowledge, as well as for establishing academic hierarchies at both individual and institutional level. Therefore, focus will be placed not only on the evolution of its structure and purpose, but also on issues such as knowledge construction, knowledge claims, writer-reader interaction and the appropriate writing conventions and rhetorical strategies required for successful scientific communication. PMID:26733758

  3. A medical history of Governor John B. Connally and his gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Li, George Z; Duke, James H; Pappas, Theodore N

    2015-11-01

    : On November 22, 1963, the Governor of Texas, John Connally, was injured during the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Multiple authors have documented President Kennedy's injuries, the attempted resuscitation, and the controversies surrounding these events. However, the injuries sustained by Governor Connally have been overlooked by historians predominantly because of the extraordinary importance of the presidential assassination and its impact on the national consciousness. This review discusses the governor's political life, the mechanism of injury, his medical care, and the role the injuries had on his subsequent public life. PMID:26496116

  4. What shall I do now? State-dependent variations of life-history traits with aging in Wandering Albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Deborah; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-02-01

    Allocation decisions depend on an organism's condition which can change with age. Two opposite changes in life-history traits are predicted in the presence of senescence: either an increase in breeding performance in late age associated with terminal investment or a decrease due to either life-history trade-offs between current breeding and future survival or decreased efficiency at old age. Age variation in several life-history traits has been detected in a number of species, and demographic performances of individuals in a given year are influenced by their reproductive state the previous year. Few studies have, however, examined state-dependent variation in life-history traits with aging, and they focused mainly on a dichotomy of successful versus failed breeding and non-breeding birds. Using a 50-year dataset on the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross, we investigated variations in life-history traits with aging according to a gradient of states corresponding to potential costs of reproduction the previous year (in ascending order): non-breeding birds staying at sea or present at breeding grounds, breeding birds that failed early, late or were successful. We used multistate models to study survival and decompose reproduction into four components (probabilities of return, breeding, hatching, and fledging), while accounting for imperfect detection. Our results suggest the possible existence of two strategies in the population: strict biennial breeders that exhibited almost no reproductive senescence and quasi-biennial breeders that showed an increased breeding frequency with a strong and moderate senescence on hatching and fledging probabilities, respectively. The patterns observed on survival were contrary to our predictions, suggesting an influence of individual quality rather than trade-offs between reproduction and survival at late ages. This work represents a step further into understanding the evolutionary ecology of senescence and its

  5. What shall I do now? State-dependent variations of life-history traits with aging in Wandering Albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Deborah; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Allocation decisions depend on an organism's condition which can change with age. Two opposite changes in life-history traits are predicted in the presence of senescence: either an increase in breeding performance in late age associated with terminal investment or a decrease due to either life-history trade-offs between current breeding and future survival or decreased efficiency at old age. Age variation in several life-history traits has been detected in a number of species, and demographic performances of individuals in a given year are influenced by their reproductive state the previous year. Few studies have, however, examined state-dependent variation in life-history traits with aging, and they focused mainly on a dichotomy of successful versus failed breeding and non-breeding birds. Using a 50-year dataset on the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross, we investigated variations in life-history traits with aging according to a gradient of states corresponding to potential costs of reproduction the previous year (in ascending order): non-breeding birds staying at sea or present at breeding grounds, breeding birds that failed early, late or were successful. We used multistate models to study survival and decompose reproduction into four components (probabilities of return, breeding, hatching, and fledging), while accounting for imperfect detection. Our results suggest the possible existence of two strategies in the population: strict biennial breeders that exhibited almost no reproductive senescence and quasi-biennial breeders that showed an increased breeding frequency with a strong and moderate senescence on hatching and fledging probabilities, respectively. The patterns observed on survival were contrary to our predictions, suggesting an influence of individual quality rather than trade-offs between reproduction and survival at late ages. This work represents a step further into understanding the evolutionary ecology of senescence and its

  6. The Dark Ages of Education and a New Hope: Teaching Native American History in Maine Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loring, Donna

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, the author wrote legislation that required all public schools in Maine to teach Maine Indian history. On June 14 of that year, Gov. Angus King signed "An Act to Require Maine Native American History and Culture in Maine's Schools" into law--the first of its kind in the U.S. What makes the law unique is its requirement that specific topics…

  7. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  8. Complex Histories of Two Lunar Zircons as Evidenced by their Internal Structures and U-Pb Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Meyer, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The U-Pb dating of lunar zircon by ion-microprobe provides a robust technique for investigating the timing of lunar events [1,2]. However, we have now identified two cases where the U-Pb systems in a single zircon show more than one age. These complex zircons provide new opportunities for extending our knowledge on the timing of events in the early history of the Moon.

  9. History of the Georgia Baptist/Atlanta Medical Center surgical residency.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, George M; Humphries, Timothy

    2010-07-01

    The Georgia Baptist Hospital established itself as a premier healthcare facility during the first 50 years of the 20th century. The surgical residency started in the 1940s, became accredited in 1958, and has grown into one of the most respected independent programs in the country. The development and growth of the program was a result of the commitment and dedication of the Program Directors in Surgery over the past 50 years. These key leaders included A. Hamblin Letton, John P. Wilson, Paul Stanton, and George Lucas. The hospital's name has changed to Atlanta Medical Center with the sale of the hospital to Tenet in 1997. The same old school approach to surgical training that characterized the residency when it was known as Georgia Baptist persists and provides outstanding training for future surgeons interested in a broadly based surgical education and experience. PMID:20698368

  10. Associations among Pain, Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use, and Drug Overdose History

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Erin E.; Ilgen, Mark A.; Walton, Maureen; Bohnert, Amy S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Recently, use of prescription opioids (POs) has increased; non-medical PO (NMPO) use is linked to overdose. NMPO use is common among individuals prescribed opioids for pain, and those in Substance Use Disorder (SUD) treatment with pain could be at increased risk for unintentional overdose due to NMPO use. We examined associations between pain, NMPO use, and overdose among SUD treatment patients. Methods Among 342 patients at a residential SUD treatment center, logistic regression examined the association of overdose with pain, adjusting for substance use, suicide attempts, and demographics. Results Pain was positively related to NMPO use. Heroin use, suicide attempts, pain, and NMPO use were positively associated with overdose; but NMPO use attenuated the pain-overdose relationship. Conclusions The relationship between pain and overdose among substance users may be, in part, explained by the association between pain and heavy NMPO use. PMID:24313240

  11. [A history of Korean medical association's emblem: the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes].

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Jeon

    2007-06-01

    An emblem represents the identity of an organization. Through the emblem of an organization, they differentiate the members from others and reinforce the membership, homogeneity, and pride. It is also a tool that an organization officially publicizes its mission and values. The symbol designed by Cho, Byungduk was announced as the first emblem of Korean Medical Association (KMA) on October 31st 1947. His design work has the caduceus with the Taeguk sign on the top, the symbol of Korea, and the Red Cross in the background including the name, 'KMA'. Since then, the emblem was revised three times: in 1964, 1973, and 1995. The current symbol is based on the design of the first one. Although Asklepian, the single serpent-entwined staff of Asklepios, is the one known as the symbol of medicine, this emblem takes the caduceus of Hermes who is the patron god of merchants, thieves, and travelers. The mistake comes from the unawareness of the distinction between the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes. Moreover, it proves that U. S. Army Medical Corps (USAMC) heavily influenced the reconstruction of Korean health care system including KMA. The USAMC has used the symbol of caduceus since 1902. In 1947, the year that the first emblem of KMA was established, Southern part of Korea was governed by the United States Military Government (USMG, 1945-1948). The current emblem of KMA brings up a question whether we should continue to use the symbol that was taken from USMAC in the historical period of USMG governance. Celebrating 100th anniversary year of KMA, KMA needs to re-evaluate the appropriateness of the KMA symbol. PMID:18175460

  12. High neuroticism at age 20 predicts history of mental disorders and low self-esteem at age 35.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku; Mäkinen, Seppo; Henriksson, Markus

    2009-07-01

    The authors assessed whether neuroticism in emerging adulthood predicts mental disorders and self-esteem in early adulthood after controlling for possible confounding variables. A sample of 69 male military conscripts was initially assessed at age 20 and again as civilians at age 35. The initial assessment included a psychiatric interview, objective indicators of conscript competence, an intellectual performance test, and neuroticism questionnaires. The follow-up assessment included a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1996) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Neuroticism predicted future mental disorders and low self-esteem beyond more objective indicators of adjustment. The results support the use of neuroticism as a predictor of future mental disorders, even over periods of time when personality is subject to change. PMID:19267331

  13. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD: A consumer survey from five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico; Brunsø, Karen; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+) or without (CVD-) medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European countries. Methods A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in November-December 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4,786 respondents, aged 18–84 and who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results Individuals from households in the CVD+ group consumed fish more frequently in Belgium and in Denmark as compared to those in the CVD- group. The consumption of fatty fish, which is the main sources of omega-3 PUFA associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases, was on the same level for the two CVD groups in the majority of the countries, except in Belgium where CVD+ subjects reported to eat fatty fish significantly more frequently than CVD- subjects. All respondents perceived fish as a very healthy and nutritious food product. Only Danish consumers reported a higher subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusion Although a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits – rather than a medical history of CVD – account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic diseases, but also to the

  14. [Healing and helping in Hallstatt--on the medical history of mining town in Salzkammergut].

    PubMed

    Schaller, A

    2001-01-01

    The medical care practiced at Hallstatt was specifically influenced by its salt mine, well known since prehistoric times, and by the isolated location of this place lying on a lake as well as in the mountains. Since the 16th century the Hallstatt saltworks had a hospital, with a special isolation ward since 1772. In addition to it, a small hospital for infectious diseases was opened at the beginning of the 20th century. The barber-surgeons, whose names have been known since the 17th century, and later on the university-graduated doctors had to do their work without any outside help and moreover, they had to supply their patients with necessary medicaments. In her own house, the last local midwife used to offer delivery and lying-in rooms for women. The mine rescue service (since 1945), the mountain rescue service (since 1923), the water rescue service (since 1960) and the Red Cross (since 1978) have been playing an important part preparing the work of the local doctors. Paleoparasitological examinations of human excrements found in collapsed prehistoric tunnels proved that the miners had suffered from whip worms and eel worms. Contrary to the badly preserved skeletons found in the prehistoric burying place on the Hallstatt Salzberg, the human remains in the Hallstatt charnel house made anthropological examination possible. PMID:11582997

  15. The short history and tenuous future of medical professionalism: the erosion of medicine's social contract.

    PubMed

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2008-01-01

    The profession of medicine is based on a shared set of tacit and explicit agreements about what patients, doctors, and society at large should be able to expect from each other, a social contract that defines the profession. Historically, the development of this set of agreements depended upon the creation of social organizations that could speak for the entire profession. Over the last several decades, however, the perceived need for these organizations, and especially the umbrella organization for the profession, the American Medical Association, has waned. The reasons for this are complex, but the consequences are significant: an eroding social contract, fragmentation, lack of cohesion and integrity, and loss of the public's confidence. The present social contract is one-dimensional, overly simplistic, and failing to sustain the public's trust. To address these problems, a renewed social contract is necessary. Although this renewed contract should be based on foundations similar to the original, it must directly confront such contemporary challenges as resource allocation and conflicts of interest. Equally as important, to reinvigorate our social contract more physicians will need to come to grips with a basic truth: to sustain professionalism we need a strong, unified professional association. PMID:18997359

  16. Differential effects of age and history of hypertension on regional brain volumes and iron

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, Karen M.; Haacke, E. Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2010-01-01

    Aging affects various structural and metabolic properties of the brain. However, associations among various aspects of brain aging are unclear. Moreover, those properties and associations among them may be modified by age-associated increase in vascular risk. In this study, we measured volume of brain regions that vary in their vulnerability to aging and estimated local iron content via T2* relaxometry. In 113 healthy adults (19–83 years old), we examined prefrontal cortex (PFC), primary visual cortex (VC), hippocampus (HC), entorhinal cortex (EC), caudate nucleus (Cd), and putamen (Pt). In some regions (PFC, VC, Cd, Pt) age-related differences in iron and volume followed similar patterns. However, in the medial temporal structures, volume and iron content exhibited different age trajectories. Whereas age-related volume reduction was mild in HC and absent in EC, iron content evidenced significant age-related declines. In hypertensive participants significantly greater iron content was noted in all examined regions. Thus, iron content as measured by T2* may be a sensitive index of regional brain aging and may reveal declines that are more prominent than gross anatomical shrinkage. PMID:20923707

  17. Sex differences in cognitive ageing: testing predictions derived from life-history theory in a dioecious nematode.

    PubMed

    Zwoinska, Martyna K; Kolm, Niclas; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-12-01

    Life-history theory maintains that organisms allocate limited resources to different traits to maximize fitness. Learning ability and memory are costly and known to trade-off with longevity in invertebrates. However, since the relationship between longevity and fitness often differs between the sexes, it is likely that sexes will differentially resolve the trade-off between learning and longevity. We used an established associative learning paradigm in the dioecious nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, which is sexually dimorphic for lifespan, to study age-related learning ability in males and females. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that females (the shorter-lived sex) show higher learning ability than males early in life but senesce faster. Indeed, young females outperformed young males in learning a novel association between an odour (butanone) and food (bacteria). However, while learning ability and offspring production declined rapidly with age in females, males maintained high levels of these traits until mid-age. These results not only demonstrate sexual dimorphism in age-related learning ability but also suggest that it conforms to predictions derived from the life-history theory. PMID:24120565

  18. For Working-Age Cancer Survivors, Medical Debt And Bankruptcy Create Financial Hardships.

    PubMed

    Banegas, Matthew P; Guy, Gery P; de Moor, Janet S; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Virgo, Katherine S; Kent, Erin E; Nutt, Stephanie; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Rechis, Ruth; Yabroff, K Robin

    2016-01-01

    The rising medical costs associated with cancer have led to considerable financial hardship for patients and their families in the United States. Using data from the LIVESTRONG 2012 survey of 4,719 cancer survivors ages 18-64, we examined the proportions of survivors who reported going into debt or filing for bankruptcy as a result of cancer, as well as the amount of debt incurred. Approximately one-third of the survivors had gone into debt, and 3 percent had filed for bankruptcy. Of those who had gone into debt, 55 percent incurred obligations of $10,000 or more. Cancer survivors who were younger, had lower incomes, and had public health insurance were more likely to go into debt or file for bankruptcy, compared to those who were older, had higher incomes, and had private insurance, respectively. Future longitudinal population-based studies are needed to improve understanding of financial hardship among US working-age cancer survivors throughout the cancer care trajectory and, ultimately, to help stakeholders develop evidence-based interventions and policies to reduce the financial hardship of cancer. PMID:26733701

  19. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Nay Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50- 4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9 +/-0.1 Myr and 4560-4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later Ar-40 diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the post-assembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx.4560 to approx.4576 My. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and suggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration

  20. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50-4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9+/-0.1 Myr and 4560- 4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later Ar-40 diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the post-assembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx.4560 to approx.4576 Myr. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and s,uggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration

  1. History and current state of neurosurgery at the Medical University of South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Vibhor; Rauf, Yasmeen; Patel, Sunil; Glazier, Steve; Perot, Phanor; Ellegala, Dilantha B

    2011-07-01

    We review the development of neurosurgery at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and the emergence of MUSC as a leading academic neurosurgical center in South Carolina. Historical records from the Waring Historical Library were studied, former and current faculty members were interviewed, and the personal records of Dr Phanor J Perot were examined. Dr Frederick E Kredel was the first to perform cerebral revascularization in stroke patients using omental flaps and the first to culture glioma cells in artificial media. The MUSC Neurosurgery residency program was established in 1964 by its first formally trained neurosurgeon, Julian Youmans, MD. The first graduate of the program, Dr Russell Travis, went on to become the President of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. In 1968, the longest serving chairman, Dr Perot, joined the department and conducted significant research in spinal cord injury, receiving a continuous, 20-year award from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A major change in the neurosurgery program occurred in 2004 when Dr Sunil Patel accepted the chairmanship. He integrated neurosurgery, neurology, and basic neuroscience departments into a comprehensive Department of Neurosciences to provide integrated clinical care. This department now ranks second in the country in National Institutes of Health research funding. Recently, the Center for Global Health and Global Neurosurgery was established with a vision of caring for patients beyond national borders. Neurosurgery at MUSC has been influenced by Drs Kredel and Perot and the current leadership is moving forward with a uniquely integrated department with novel areas such as global neurosurgery. PMID:21368698

  2. Studying Local History in the Digital Age: The Story of Asaph Perry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John K.; Clarke, W. Guy

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors speak of an encounter they had in which they discovered some forgotten and unused historical resources hidden in a storage closet at the Cherokee County Georgia Historical Society. From these resources, they were able to weave an intriguing narrative encompassing people and events in history. They hope their story will…

  3. Using Simulations to Teach Middle Grades U.S. History in an Age of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCamillo, Lorrei; Gradwell, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    In this year-long qualitative study we explore the case of two eighth grade U.S. History teachers who use simulations on a regular basis to teach heterogeneously-grouped students in a high-stakes testing environment. We describe the purposes the teachers espoused for implementing simulations and provide detailed portraits of three types of…

  4. Learning US History in an Age of Globalization and Transnational Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines US Korean youth's perspectives on US history and the impact of their sociocultural backgrounds, particularly their migration status, on their historical interpretations. Based on in-depth interviews with 42 US Korean high school students, the study opens up the question of diversity within an ethnic group, while it also begins…

  5. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39- Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50-4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4557.9+/-0.1 Myr and 4557-4560 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4562.3 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar degassing ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older Ar ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later 40Ar diffusion loss. The older Ar-Ar ages for IABs are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the Ar-Ar ages and IAB cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration profiles in IAB metal (Herpfer et al., 1994) are consistent if the time of the post-assembly metamorphism was as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define much older ages of approx.4558-4566 Myr, which cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages. An explanation for the difference in radiometric ages of IABs may reside in combinations of the following: a) I-Xe ages have very

  6. Ar-Ar and I-XE Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39- Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50- 4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx. 4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx. 3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ges for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9 plus or minus 0.1 Myr and 4560-4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx. 4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later 40Ar diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the postassembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx. 4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx. 4560 to approx. 4576 Myr. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and suggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni

  7. Lifestyle Modifications Versus Antihypertensive Medications in Reducing Cardiovascular Events in an Aging Society: A Success Rate-oriented Simulation.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoichi; Shibazaki, Satomi; Araki, Ryuichiro; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sato, Makiko; Takahashi, Sachiko; Suwa, Emi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is difficult to compare directly the practical effects of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications on reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to compare the hypothetical potential of lifestyle modifications with that of antihypertensive medications in reducing CVD in an aging society using a success rate-oriented simulation. Methods We constructed a simulation model for virtual Japanese subpopulations according to sex and age at 10-year intervals from 40 years of age as an example of an aging society. The fractional incidence rate of CVD was calculated as the product of the incidence rate at each systolic blood pressure (SBP) level and the proportion of the SBP frequency distribution in the fractional subpopulations of each SBP. The total incidence rate was calculated by the definite integral of the fractional incidence rate at each SBP level in the sex- and age-specific subpopulations. Results If we consider the effects of lifestyle modifications on metabolic factors and transfer them onto SBP, the reductions in the total incidence rate of CVD were competitive between lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications in realistic scenarios. In middle-aged women, the preventive effects of both approaches were limited due to a low incidence rate. In middle-aged men and extremely elderly subjects whose adherence to antihypertensive medications is predicted to be low, lifestyle modifications could be an alternative choice. Conclusion The success rate-oriented simulation suggests that the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications or antihypertensive medications in preventing cardiovascular events largely depends on the baseline incidence rate and sex- and age-specific behavioral factors. PMID:27522993

  8. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  9. Adolescents' Age Preferences for Dating Partners: Support for an Evolutionary Model of Life-History Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explored sex differences in adolescent preference for older versus younger mates. Found that teenage males were willing to date females of a wide age range, whereas teenage females prefer dating males from their own age to several years older. Data suggested viewing development of sex differences in dating partner preference from the perspective…

  10. The Moderating Effect of Age on the 12-Month Prevalence of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Adults with a Lifetime History of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simning, Adam; Conwell, Yeates; Mohile, Supriya G.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine how age may modulate the association of a history of cancer with a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. Design Population-based, cross-sectional surveys. Setting The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) occurred in the United States and were conducted in 2001-2003. Participants CPES included 16,423 adult participants, of whom 702 reported a cancer history. Measurements The Composite International Diagnostic Interview evaluated the presence of a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. Results Among those with a cancer history, older adults (≥ 60 years old) were less likely than younger adults (18-59 years old) to have a 12-month history of an anxiety or depressive disorder. Compared to their peers without cancer, younger adults with a cancer history had more anxiety (23.8% vs. 13.9%) and depressive (16.0% vs. 9.5%) disorders, whereas older adults with a cancer history had lower levels of anxiety (3.7% vs. 6.3%) and depressive (1.9% vs. 3.9%) disorders. In multivariable modeling, there was a statistically significant interaction between age group and cancer history, with the risk for anxiety and depressive disorders elevated in the younger age group with a cancer history (OR=5.84 and OR=6.13, respectively), but decreased in the older age group with a cancer history (OR=0.55 and OR=0.45). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there is considerable age-dependent variation with regard to anxiety and depressive disorders in adults with a cancer history. Investigation of the mechanisms contributing to this apparent age differential in risk could have important mental illness treatment implications in this population. PMID:24080385

  11. Viking voyages: the origin of multiple sclerosis? An essay in medical history.

    PubMed

    Poser, C M

    1995-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is most frequently found in Scandinavia, Iceland, the British Isles and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, i.e. the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas, as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and southern Italy. They engaged in trade with the Arabs along the river routes to the Caucasus, to the Black and Caspian Seas, and penetrated Persia, India and probably China. They also migrated to the East and established the Russian state. Under the name Varangians, they became part of the Byzantine army and were active in all the military activities of the Byzantine Empire. They participated in the Crusades. Russians, many of Scandinavian origin also constituted a regiment of the Mongol army and roamed throughout that Empire as well. The custom of capturing and keeping or selling women and children, which was widespread in the early Middle Ages, as well as the flourishing slave trade in men, were important factors in this genetic dissemination. PMID:7653241

  12. Cosmic-Ray-Exposure Ages of Diogenites and the Collisional History of the HED Parent Body or Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; vanderBorg, K.; Loeken, T.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-exposure ages of meteorites provide information on the collisional history of their parent bodies and the delivery mechanism of meteorites to Earth. The exposure-age distributions of ordinary chondrites show distinct patterns for H, L, and LL types, consistent with their origin on different parent bodies. The exposure-age distributions of howardites, eucrites. and diogenites (HEDS) show a common pattern with major peaks at 22 Ma and 38 Ma This provides additional evidence for a common origin of the HED meteorites, possibly 4 Vesta, although orbital dynamics calculations showed that the delivery of meteorites from Vesta to Earth is difficult. However, the discovery of several kilometer-sized Vesta-like asteroids in the region between Vesta and the 3:1 resonance suggested that these seem more likely parent bodies of the HEDs than Vesta itself. This implies that the exposure-age clusters may represent samples of several parent bodies. Therefore, the near-absence of diogenites with ages <20 Ma might be of interest for the composition of these kilometer-sized fragments of Vesta. Here we present cosmic-ray-exposure ages of 20 diogenites, including 9 new meteorites. In addition, we calculate the probability for each peak to occur by chance, assuming a constant production rate of HED fragments.

  13. Rethinking the social history in the era of biolegitimacy: global health and medical education in the care of Palestinian and Syrian refugees in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Ashish; Raad, Kareem; Haidar, Mona H

    2016-04-01

    The critiques leveled towards medical humanitarianism by the social sciences have yet to be felt in medical education. The elevation of biological suffering, at the detriment of sociopolitical contextualization, has been shown to clearly impact both acute and long-term care of individuals and communities. With many medical students spending a portion of their educational time in global learning experiences, exposure to humanitarianism and its consequences becomes a unique component of biomedical education. How does the medical field reconcile global health education with the critiques of humanitarianism? This paper argues that the medical response to humanitarian reason should begin at the level of a social history. Using experiential data culled from fieldwork with Palestinian and Syrian refugees in Lebanon, the authors argue that an expanded social history, combined with knowledge derived from the social sciences, can have significant clinical implications. The ability to contextualize an individual's disease and life within a complex sociopolitical framework means that students must draw on disciplines as varied as anthropology, sociology, and political history to further their knowledge base. Moreover, situating these educational goals within the framework of physician advocacy can build a strong base in medical education from both a biomedical and activist perspective. PMID:26982432

  14. Offense history and recidivism in three victim-age-based groups of juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Therese Skubic; Kistner, Janet A

    2007-12-01

    This study compared subgroups of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who victimized children (child offenders), peers (peer offenders), or both children and peers (mixed offenders) on sexual and nonsexual offense history, treatment outcomes, and recidivism to determine if these are distinct and valid subgroups. Though the group of mixed offenders was small, results showed that they exhibited a more diverse and more physically intrusive sexual offense history than the other JSOs and were less likely to successfully complete treatment. Sexual and nonsexual recidivism rates of mixed offenders did not differ from the other subgroups despite subgroup differences in juvenile sexual and nonsexual criminal records. However, differences in sexual recidivism rates of child versus peer offenders were found when the mixed offenders were either excluded from the sample or combined with child offenders. The results highlight the need to include mixed offenders in future research examining the etiology of sexual offending, treatment, and recidivism of JSOs. PMID:17952596

  15. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Takala, Pirjo; Sailas, Eila; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding. PMID:15507139

  16. Atypical Femoral Fractures-Ongoing and History of Bone-Specific Therapy, Concomitant Diseases, Medications, and Survival.

    PubMed

    Muschitz, Christian; Thaler, Heinrich W; Dimai, Hans Peter; Resch, Heinrich; Kocijan, Roland; Kostic, Martina; Geiger, Corinna; Kaider, Alexandra; Muschitz, Gabriela K; Szivak, Michael; Pietschmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are generally rare events; several studies have indicated a potential link between AFF and long-term bone-specific therapies (BSTs). The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of AFF and potential associations with prior or ongoing BST. A total of 8851 Caucasian female and male patients with de novo hip fractures treated in the largest Austrian level 1 trauma center from 2000 to 2013 were selected. Of the total, 194 patients with a de novo low-traumatic subtrochanteric or shaft fractures were identified: 35 atypical and 159 typical fractures. Of these patients, concomitant diseases, medication, previous fractures, and survival data were retrieved and analyzed. Female patients in both groups were significantly older. The median survival was significantly shorter in patients with AFF (9 vs 18 months; p < 0.0001). Cardiovascular disease, sarcopenia, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, smoking (past or current history), and prevalent fragility fractures were more frequent in AFF patients, as well as the concomitant use of phenprocoumon, furosemide, and sulfonylurea. Although the number of patients with current BST was less in (14.5%) both groups, more patients in the AFF group were previously treated with BST (71% vs 49%; p = 0.016), and they received these therapies for a longer time period. A combination of severe comorbidities, long-term pharmaceutical therapies, and a history of previous or ongoing BST was associated with an increased individual risk for AFF. PMID:26116181

  17. Life-history differences in age-dependent expressions of multiple ornaments and behaviors in a lekking bird.

    PubMed

    Kervinen, Matti; Lebigre, Christophe; Alatalo, Rauno V; Siitari, Heli; Soulsbury, Carl D

    2015-01-01

    Age is a major factor explaining variation in life-history traits among individuals with typical patterns of increasing trait values early in life, maximum trait expression, and senescence. However, age-dependent variation in the expressions of sexually selected traits has received less attention, although such variation underpins differences in male competitive abilities and female preference, which are central to sexual selection. In contrast to previous studies focusing on single traits, we used repeated measures of seven sexually selected morphological and behavioral traits in male black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) to quantify the effects of age and life span on their expressions and quantified this variation in relation to male reproductive effort. Trait expression increased with age, but long-lived males had a slower increase and delayed maxima in trait values compared with short-lived males. There was evidence of terminal investment (increasing trait values during the last breeding season) in some traits and senescence in all traits. These trait dynamics were largely explained by the timing of male peak lekking effort. This study shows that fully understanding the variation in sexually selected traits and fitness benefits associated with sexual selection requires accounting for the complex interaction among individual age, life span, and the timing of individuals' investment in reproduction. PMID:25560550

  18. History of the renal section, New York University School of Medicine 1926-1986, New York University Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Chasis, H.

    1989-01-01

    This history of the Renal Section at New York University School of Medicine ascribes its birth to a policy introduced by John Henry Wyckoff in 1924 that divided the Department of Medicine into sections devoted to the various subspecialties. Physicians selected to head each section sought further training. William Goldring, asked to organize the kidney section, spent a sabbatical year working with Homer William Smith, chairman and professor of the department of physiology at New York University School of Medicine. The second event was the development of a postdoctoral fellowship program in which medical school graduates, following completion of their intern and residency program, returned to basic science departments for exposure to and training in research in preparation for their return to clinical medicine. The aim of this fellowship program was to introduce the experimental method, which had been productive in the physical sciences, to the study and treatment of disease in man. The third event was the continuous collaboration between members of the Department of Medicine and the Department of Physiology under the chairmanship of Homer Smith. Experimental protocols in cardiovascular and renal physiology developed in the laboratory were carried over to Bellevue Hospital for studies and treatment of patients with hypertensive and renal diseases under the direction of members of the Renal Section. The final step conceived by Saul J. Farber, Chairman and Professor of the Department of Medicine was unification into a single group of all faculty members working in the field of hypertensive and renal diseases in Bellevue, University, and Manhattan Veterans Administration Hospitals. The Renal Section then can attribute its origin and development to the establishment of divisions within the Department of Medicine, the postdoctoral fellowship program, and the collaboration between the Departments of Medicine and Physiology. The establishment of the Renal Section served as

  19. Ages of flow units in the far eastern maria and implications for basin-filling history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, J. M.; Jonnson, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The spatial distribution of major units of uniform relative age exposed in the far eastern maria and Mare Humorum was determined using a crater density mapping technique. Correlation of crater densities and radiometric ages of Apollo and Luna landing sites provided estimates of the absolute ages for the units. The combination of such data with relative age data from previous crater morphology studies produced a complete map of the distribution of major age units in the lunar near-side maria. The map shows that there are young (2.5 + or - 0.5 billion years old) mare basalts in the eastern maria, although most young flows occur in the western maria. The vents for the young flows generally are found along the edges of basins. Because old mare units (greater than 3.5 billion years old) are also commonly found around the edges of the basins, it is suggested that the basins were subsiding during filling, probably as a result of isostatic compensation due to the weight of the lava.

  20. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    PubMed

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology. PMID:23350338

  1. Age and Sex Variation In Prevalence Of Chronic Medical Conditions In Older Residents of U.S. Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly L.; Boscardin, W. John; Steinman, Michael A.; Schwartz, Janice B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate patterns in prevalences of chronic medical conditions over the agespan of long-term stay nursing home residents and between the sexes with data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING U.S. nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample comprising 11,788 long-term stay residents (3003 (25%) men and 8785 women) aged 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) was used to group ICD-9 codes to identify the 20 most prevalent chronic medical conditions. SAS survey procedures were used to account for design effects of stratification and clustering to generate nationally representative estimates of prevalences of medical conditions. RESULTS Average age was 84 y, with women older than men (85 vs. 81, p=0.02) with 67% of women ages 80–95. Women required more ADL assistance. The most frequent chronic medical conditions were hypertension (53, 56%: men, women), dementia (45, 52%), depression (31, 37%), arthritis (26, 35%), diabetes mellitus (26, 23%), gastrointestinal reflux -GERD (23, 23%), atherosclerosis (24, 20%), congestive heart failure -CHF (18, 21%), cerebrovascular disease (24, 19%) and anemia (17, 20%). Sex differences in prevalences existed for all but constipation, GERD, and hypertension. Diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, and lipid disorders decreased with age in men and women. Atrial fibrillation, anemia, arthritis, CHF, and dementia, and thyroid disease increased with age in both men and women. Age-related patterns differed between the sexes for diabetes, hypertension, and Parkinson’s disease. CONCLUSION The profile of chronic medical conditions varies over the agespan of nursing home residents and differs between men and women. This knowledge should guide educational and care efforts in long-term care. PMID:22463062

  2. Library and Information Science Education for the New Medical Environment and the Age of Integrated Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlefsen, Ellen Gay

    1993-01-01

    Reviews factors that are changing ways in which medical librarians and health information specialists are educated. Employment sites for medical librarians are listed; current faculty and coursework at library and information science programs in the United States and Canada are discussed; doctoral research is described; and medical informatics is…

  3. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: Health-Related and Medical Care Issues of the Elderly. Eighteen Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 18 papers on health-related and medical care issues of the elderly that were presented at the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. The materials focus on the following topics: physical mobility, death, heart disease, nutrition, injury, senile dementia, post-menopausaul women, gerontological nursing, learning and memory,…

  4. [Teen-Age Medical Center and Walk-In Counseling Center (Model Cities). End of Contract Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galt, Lester

    This paper presents the objectives and results of an experimental program, the Teen Age Medical Service, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The first objective of this program was to experiment with new ways of delivering additional, more extensive, and continuous personal services while maintaining the emergency and episodic services that have…

  5. 42 CFR 435.320 - Medically needy coverage of the aged in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged in States that cover individuals receiving SSI. 435.320 Section 435.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... individuals receiving SSI. If the agency provides Medicaid to individuals receiving SSI and elects to...

  6. Social life histories: jackdaw dominance increases with age, terminally declines and shortens lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Simon; Geerdink, Moniek; Salomons, H. Martijn; Boonekamp, Jelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Behaviour may contribute to changes in fitness prospects with age, for example through effects of age-dependent social dominance on resource access. Older individuals often have higher dominance rank, which may reflect a longer lifespan of dominants and/or an increase in social dominance with age. In the latter case, increasing dominance could mitigate physiological senescence. We studied the social careers of free-living jackdaws over a 12 year period, and found that: (i) larger males attained higher ranks, (ii) social rank increased with age within individuals, and (iii) high-ranked individuals had shorter lifespan suggesting that maintaining or achieving high rank and associated benefits comes at a cost. Lastly, (iv) social rank declined substantially in the last year an individual was observed in the colony, and through its effect on resource access this may accelerate senescence. We suggest that behaviour affecting the ability to secure resources is integral to the senescence process via resource effects on somatic state, where behaviour may include not only social dominance, but also learning, memory, perception and (sexual) signalling. Studying behavioural effects on senescence via somatic state may be most effective in the wild, where there is competition for resources, which is usually avoided in laboratory conditions. PMID:25100696

  7. Integrating Teaching about the Little Ice Age with History, Art, and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William Harold

    1996-01-01

    Discusses climate change during the Little Ice Age as experienced during several historical events, including the settlement and demise of the Norse Greenland colonies, the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, and both the Battle of Trenton and Washington's encampment at Valley Forge during the American Revolution. Associated artistic and literary…

  8. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  9. School-Age Prework Experiences of Young People with a History of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin; Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Young people with specific language impairment (SLI) are at risk for poorer outcomes with respect to employment in adulthood, yet little is known of how early school-age prework experiences prepare them for the job market. This study examined whether young people with SLI engage in similar types of early work experiences as their typically…

  10. Teaching the Nuclear Age: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 14, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2009-01-01

    On March 28-29, 2009, FPRI's Wachman Center hosted 43 teachers from across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching the nuclear age. In his opening remarks, Walter A. McDougall observed that although students today are not made to crawl under their desks in air raid drills, that atomic power remains, and it is still necessary to raise a…

  11. Unroofing history of a suture zone in the Himalaya of Pakistan by means of fission-track annealing ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeitler, P.K.; Tahirkheli, R.A.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The uplift history of the Swat Valley and Hazara region of northwestern Pakistan has been established using 22 fission-track dates on apatite, zircon and sphene. A major fault, the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) strikes east-west across the Swat Valley, separates regions of markedly differing fission-track age regimesm, and may be a suture zone separating an extinct island arc terrane on the north from the Indian plate to the south. Fission-track ages ranging from about 55 to 58 m.y. for sphene, 18 to 53 m.y. for zircon, and 9 to 17 m.y. for apatite were obtained from the region north of the MMT. To the south the fission-track age ranges are 20 to 25 m.y. for sphene, 17 to 26 m.y. for zircon, and 16 to 23 m.y. for apatite. Disparate zircon and sphene ages on each side of the MMT imply different cooling histories for each side of the fault prior to 15 m.y. Similar apatite ages on both sides of the fault imply similar cooling histories during the past 15 m.y. This may indicate that faulting ceased by 15 m.y. Mean uplift rates have been derived from the fission-track data using mainly the mineral-pair method. Uplift rates in the region north of the MMT increased from 0.07 to 0.20 mm/yr during the period 55 to 15 m.y. South of the fault, uplift rates averaged in excess of 0.70 mm/yr for the period 25 to 15 m.y. During the past 15 m.y. uplift across the MMT in the Swat Valley showsno discontinuities, ranging from 0.16 mm/yr in the south to 0.39 mm/yr in the north. A plausible interpretation for the fission-track uplift data has the MMT verging to the south with overthrusting taking place at a depth between 3.5 and 6.0 km, juxtaposing two terranes that were originally separated by a substantial, but unknown distance. In this model, regional uplift followed cessation of faulting just prior to 15 m.y. ?? 1982.

  12. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R.; Wang, Sophia S.; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kane, Eleanor V.; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M.; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Skibola, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. Methods In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. Results DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for <18.5 vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs

  13. The combined effects of bacterial symbionts and aging on life history traits in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Laughton, Alice M; Fan, Maretta H; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    While many endosymbionts have beneficial effects on hosts under specific ecological conditions, there can also be associated costs. In order to maximize their own fitness, hosts must facilitate symbiont persistence while preventing symbiont exploitation of resources, which may require tight regulation of symbiont populations. As a host ages, the ability to invest in such mechanisms may lessen or be traded off with demands of other life history traits, such as survival and reproduction. Using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, we measured survival, lifetime fecundity, and immune cell counts (hemocytes, a measure of immune capacity) in the presence of facultative secondary symbionts. Additionally, we quantified the densities of the obligate primary bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and secondary symbionts across the host's lifetime. We found life history costs to harboring some secondary symbiont species. Secondary symbiont populations were found to increase with host age, while Buchnera populations exhibited a more complicated pattern. Immune cell counts peaked at the midreproductive stage before declining in the oldest aphids. The combined effects of immunosenescence and symbiont population growth may have important consequences for symbiont transmission and maintenance within a host population. PMID:24185857

  14. The frequency of aneuploidy in cultured lymphocytes is correlated with age and gender but not with reproductive history.

    PubMed Central

    Nowinski, G P; Van Dyke, D L; Tilley, B C; Jacobsen, G; Babu, V R; Worsham, M J; Wilson, G N; Weiss, L

    1990-01-01

    The clinical significance of low numbers of aneuploid cells in routine cytogenetic studies of cultured lymphocytes is not always clear. We compared the frequencies of chromosome loss and gain among five groups of subjects whose karyotypes were otherwise normal; these groups were (1) subjects studied because of multiple miscarriages, (2) parents of live borns with autosomal trisomy, (3) subjects studied because they had a relative with Down syndrome, (4) an age-matched control group of phenotypically normal adults studied for other reasons (e.g., parent of a dysmorphic child or member of a translocation family), and (5) other mostly younger and phenotypically abnormal subjects who could not be assigned to the first four groups (e.g., individuals with multiple congenital anomalies or mental retardation). No significant age, sex, or group effects were observed for autosomal loss (hypodiploidy) or gain (hyperdiploidy). Autosomal loss was inversely correlated with relative chromosome length, but autosomal gain was not. Sex-chromosome gain was significantly more frequent in females than in males, but sex-chromosome loss was not significantly different between the sexes. Significant age effects were observed for both gain and loss of sex chromosomes. When age and sex were accounted for, the frequencies of sex-chromosome loss and gain were not significantly different among the five clinical groups. In general, low numbers of aneuploid cells are not clinically important when observed in blood chromosome preparations of subjects studied because of multiple miscarriages or a family history of autosomal trisomy. PMID:2339703

  15. Zircon Messengers Reveal the Age and History of Great Basin Crust, Kern Mountains, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, E. S.; Miller, E. L.; Wooden, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Results of SHRIMP-RG analyses of complexly zoned zircons from muscovite-bearing granitic rocks exposed in the Kerns Mountains of East-Central Nevada constrain the timing, duration, and loci of zircon growth within the interior of the U.S. Cordillera during Late Cretaceous through Eocene time. The Kern Mountains are an exhumed block of greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphosed miogeoclinal rocks that were pervasively intruded by the Late Cretaceous Tungstonia granite pluton and the Eocene Skinner Canyon and Uvada plutons (Best et al., 1974). Euhedral zircons separated from a coarse-grained (2-3 cm) muscovite-bearing phase of the Tungstonia pluton exhibit complex cathodeluminescence (CL) zonation. Sub-angular to sub-rounded cores with highly variable CL are overgrown by oscillatory-zoned zircon which in turn is rimmed by dark CL zircon (U>5000 ppm). A weighted mean Pb/U age of 70.2±0.9 Ma (n=20, MSWD=2.5) obtained from the oscillatory-zoned zircon coincides with the end of Cretaceous peak metamorphism at shallow crustal levels. Pb/U ages from core zones (n=18) predominantly are 0.9-1.4 Ga (n=11; 7 of which <15% discordant) or 2.4-2.7 Ga (n=5; 1 of which <15% discordant), consistent with ages of detrital zircons within the Late Proterozoic McCoy Creek Group exposed in adjacent ranges. A previously undated muscovite-bearing dike in Skinner Canyon yielded a texturally complex population of subhedral zircon grains. CL imaging of these grains reveals fragmental, ghost-like cores surrounded by irregularly shaped overgrowth zones with diffuse boundaries which are rimmed by oscillatory-zoned zircon. Both oscillatory zoned and gradational rim areas (n=32) yielded Late Cretaceous to Eocene ages. Twelve spots define the age of intrusion at 41.7±0.3 Ma (MSWD=1.8), consistent with the local onset of Eocene magmatism. An older period of zircon growth from ~75-45 Ma, coincident with the proposed duration of the Laramide shallow slab, is defined by zircon with flat to

  16. ERBB4 Polymorphism and Family History of Psychiatric Disorders on Age-Related Cortical Changes in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda; Lee, Kristin; Ernst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic variations in ERBB4 were associated with increased susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BPD). Structural imaging studies showed cortical abnormalities in adolescents and adults with SCZ or BPD. However, less is known about subclinical cortical changes or the influence of ERBB4 on cortical development. Methods 971 healthy children (ages 3–20 years old; 462 girls and 509 boys) were genotyped for the ERBB4-rs7598440 variants, had structural MRI, and cognitive evaluation (NIH Toolbox ®). We investigated the effects of ERBB4 variants and family history of SCZ and/or BPD (FH) on cortical measures and cognitive performances across ages 3–20 years using a general additive model. Results Variations in ERBB4 and FH impact differentially the age-related cortical changes in regions often affected by SCZ and BPD. The ERBB4-TT-risk genotype children with no FH had subtle cortical changes across the age span, primarily located in the left temporal lobe and superior parietal cortex. In contrast, the TT-risk genotype children with FH had more pronounced age-related changes, mainly in the frontal lobes compared to the non-risk genotype children. Interactive effects of age, FH and ERBB4 variations were also found on episodic memory and working memory, which are often impaired in SCZ and BPD. Conclusions Healthy children carrying the risk-genotype in ERBB4 and/or with FH had cortical measures resembling those reported in SCZ or BPD. These subclinical cortical variations may provide early indicators for increased risk of psychiatric disorders and improve our understanding of the effect of the NRG1–ERBB4 pathway on brain development. PMID:25744101

  17. Implications of IODP Expedition 349 Age Results for the Spreading History of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 in the South China Sea drilled three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) into the basaltic crustal basement near the fossil spreading center in the East and Southwest Subbasins. These results provided age constraints on the termination of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS) basin. Shipboard biostratigraphic analysis of microfossils from the sediment immediately above or between flows in the basaltic basement indicates early Miocene ages: 16.7-17.6 Ma for Site U1431 in the East Subbasin, ~18-21 Ma for Site U1433 in the Southwest Subbasin. Since Expedition 349, Ar/Ar dating of basalt samples from these two sites have confirmed these ages in the east, and have provided an age of 17 Ma in the Southwest. The similarity in crustal age between sites suggests that the last stages of spreading have been coeaval in both the East and Southwest Subbasins, forming a single mid-ocean ridge system with a series of transform faults and discontinuities between the two subbasins. Expedition 349 also drilled Site U1435 on a bathymetric high along the northwestern continent-ocean boundary. Onboard core description, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy revealed that sediment at this site shows a sharp discontinuity at about 33 Ma, interpreted to represent the breakup unconformity and date the beginning of seafloor spreading in the East Subbasin. The results of IODP Exp. 349, as well as results from deep-towed magnetic surveys, thus imply that oceanic seafloor spreading in the SCS, from 33 to ~16-18 Ma, is coeval with a large part of the left-lateral motion along the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault Zone (dated 34 to 17 Ma). This episode of the extension of the South China Sea basin is therefore more likely driven by the extrusion of the Indochina tectonic block resulting from the collision of India with Eurasia than by the subduction of a proto-South China Sea to the south.

  18. 40Ar/39Ar impact ages and time-temperature argon diffusion history of the Bunburra Rockhole anomalous basaltic achondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, Fred; Benedix, Gretchen; Eroglu, Ela.; Bland, Phil. A.; Bouvier, Audrey.

    2014-09-01

    The Bunburra Rockhole meteorite is a brecciated anomalous basaltic achondrite containing coarse-, medium- and fine-grained lithologies. Petrographic observations constrain the limited shock pressure to between ca. 10 GPa and 20 GPa. In this study, we carried out nine 40Ar/39Ar step-heating experiments on distinct single-grain fragments extracted from the coarse and fine lithologies. We obtained six plateau ages and three mini-plateau ages. These ages fall into two internally concordant populations with mean ages of 3640 ± 21 Ma (n = 7; P = 0.53) and 3544 ± 26 Ma (n = 2; P = 0.54), respectively. Based on these results, additional 40Ar/39Ar data of fusion crust fragments, argon diffusion modelling, and petrographic observations, we conclude that the principal components of the Bunburra Rockhole basaltic achondrite are from a melt rock formed at ∼3.64 Ga by a medium to large impact event. The data imply that this impact generated high enough energy to completely melt the basaltic target rock and reset the Ar systematics, but only partially reset the Pb-Pb age. We also conclude that a complete 40Ar∗ resetting of pyroxene and plagioclase at this time could not have been achieved at solid-state conditions. Comparison with a terrestrial analog (Lonar crater) shows that the time-temperature conditions required to melt basaltic target rocks upon impact are relatively easy to achieve. Ar data also suggest that a second medium-size impact event occurred on a neighbouring part of the same target rock at ∼3.54 Ga. Concordant low-temperature step ages of the nine aliquots suggest that, at ∼3.42 Ga, a third smaller impact excavated parts of the ∼3.64 Ga and ∼3.54 Ga melt rocks and brought the fragments together. The lack of significant impact activity after 3.5 Ga, as recorded by the Bunburra Rockhole suggests that (1) either the meteorite was ejected in a small secondary parent body where it resided untouched by large impacts, or (2) it was covered by a porous heat

  19. Lessons from history: Surviving old age during The Great Depression in the United States.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Sarah H; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on 30 couples who received a pension and other services from two private trusts in Detroit, Michigan beginning in 1929 or 1930. Results of the qualitative analysis of case files, which contain notes recorded chronologically for 17 of the couples and then surviving spouses, provide a portrait of older couples' lives prior to a partner's death, circumstances surrounding the death, and changes in the social support systems of widows and widowers until their deaths. Close examination of the experiences of these couples is a reminder of how old age and widowhood were experienced prior to the enactment of public pensions and health insurance in the United States. PMID:24300066

  20. The progenitors of quiescent galaxies at z~2: precision ages and star-formation histories from WFC3/IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barro, Guillermo

    2013-10-01

    The important "adolescent" epoch at redshifts z 1 to 2 bridges a universe of "adult" galaxies at z<1 to an earlier "childhood" period z>2 when galaxies were dramatically different. During this transition, the early quenching of star formation and later enlargement of compact quiescent galaxies since z 2 remain key unsolved mysteries. We have identified a population of compact star-forming galaxies at 2.5 whose structural properties and number densities suggest an evolutionary connection with the first quiescent galaxies. But demonstrating full consistency between progenitor to descendant populations requires high-precision redshifts, ages, and star formation histories to make reliable links in time. We thus propose adding a 56 orbit G102 survey to GOODS-North. The G102 grism meets the required spectral resolution to resolve stellar population ages and connect progenitors to quiescent galaxies, and perfectly bridges the gap for galaxies at 1ages and star formation histories between their cores and outskirts during the transition era. Given its high value for legacy science, the new data will have no proprietary period.

  1. Hydronephrosis in Infants and Children: Natural History and Risk Factors for Persistence in Children Followed by a Medical Service

    PubMed Central

    VanDervoort, Kristy; Lasky, Stephanie; Sethna, Christine; Frank, Rachel; Vento, Suzanne; Choi-Rosen, Jeanne; Goilav, Beatrice; Trachtman, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Infants with neonatal hydronephrosis and a normal voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) are presumed to have ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). There is little current information about the natural history of children with hydronephrosis or clinical factors that predict resolution of the radiological abnormality. Objective: To determine the time course until spontaneous resolution of neonatal hydronephrosis and define risk factors for persistence of the abnormality. Methods: This retrospective single center review examined infants and children <5 years of age with hydronephrosis who were followed for at least 12 months. Results: 136 children were identified (96 male:40 female). The mean age at diagnosis of hydronephrosis was 3.3 ± 9.7 months and 76% of the patients were diagnosed at birth. The hydronephrosis was unilateral in 98 (72%) of cases, and hydronephrosis was at least moderate in severity in 22% of affected kidneys. At last follow-up at 30 ± 10 months, the abnormality had resolved in 77 out of 115 (67%) available patients, 30 (26%) had been referred to urology, and 12 (10%) had persistent hydronephrosis. Severity of hydronephrosis was the only clinical feature that predicted persistence of the abnormality (P < 0.001). There was an association between detection at birth and lack of resolution of hydronephrosis. Conclusions: Children with hydronephrosis and presumed UPJO and normal kidney parenchyma can be followed for at least 2 years to allow for spontaneous resolution before referral to urology. Serial sonography can be performed at 6 month intervals in uncomplicated cases. More severe hydronephrosis and presence of the lesion at birth may predict infants and children requiring closer observation and referral for possible surgical correction of the hydronephrosis. PMID:23818796

  2. Childhood Abuse, Nonadherence, and Medical Outcome in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemesh, Eyal; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hutson, Carolyn; Cohen, Judith A.; Briere, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Emre, Sukru

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The study assessed the relationship between a history of child abuse, nonadherence to medications, and medical outcome in children who had a liver transplant. Method: Abuse history for children and adolescents ages 8 to 21 who underwent a liver transplantation at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was obtained in interviews in 2002.…

  3. Integrated IMR for Psychiatric and General Medical Illness for Adults Aged 50 or Older With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Stephen J.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Mueser, Kim T.; Naslund, John A.; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; Santos, Meghan; Xie, Haiyi; Riera, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Self-management is promoted as a strategy for improving outcomes for serious mental illness as well as for chronic general medical conditions. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of an eight-month program combining training in self-management for both psychiatric and general medical illness, including embedded nurse care management. Methods Participants were 71 middle-aged and older adults (mean age=60.3±6.5) with serious mental illness and chronic general medical conditions who were randomly assigned to receive integrated Illness Management and Recovery (I-IMR) (N=36) or usual care (N=35). Feasibility was determined by attendance at I-IMR and nurse sessions. Effectiveness outcomes were measured two and six months after the intervention (ten- and 14-month follow-ups) and included self-management of psychiatric and general medical illness, participation in psychiatric and general medical encounters, and self-reported acute health care utilization. Results I-IMR participants attended 15.8±9.5 I-IMR and 8.2±5.9 nurse sessions, with 75% attending at least ten I-IMR and five nurse sessions. Compared with usual care, I-IMR was associated with greater improvements in participant and clinician ratings for psychiatric illness self-management, greater diabetes self-management, and an increased preference for detailed diagnosis and treatment information during primary care encounters. The proportion of I-IMR participants with at least one psychiatric or general medical hospitalization decreased significantly between baseline and ten- and 14-month follow-ups. Conclusions I-IMR is a feasible intervention for this at-risk group and demonstrated potential effectiveness by improving self-management of psychiatric illness and diabetes and by reducing the proportion of participants requiring psychi atric or general medical hospitalizations. PMID:24292559

  4. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  5. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  6. The age of the martian meteorite Northwest Africa 1195 and the differentiation history of the shergottites

    SciTech Connect

    Symes, S; Borg, L; Shearer, C; Irving, A

    2007-04-05

    Samarium-neodymium isotopic analyses of unleached and acid-leached mineral fractions from the recently identified olivine-bearing shergottite Northwest Africa 1195 yield a crystallization age of 348 {+-} 19 Ma and an {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value of +40.1 {+-} 1.3. Maskelynite fractions do not lie on the Sm-Nd isochron and appear to contain a martian surface component with low {sup 147}Sm/{sup 144}Nd and {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratios that was added during shock. The Rb-Sr system is disturbed and does not yield an isochron. Terrestrial Sr appears to have affected all of the mineral fractions, although a maximum initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of 0.701614 {+-} 16 is estimated by passing a 348 Ma reference isochron through the maskelynite fraction that is least affected by contamination. The high initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value and the low initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio, combined with the geologically young crystallization age, indicate that Northwest Africa 1195 is derived from a source region characterized by a long-term incompatible element depletion. The age and initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of Northwest Africa 1195 are very similar to those of Queen Alexandra Range 94201, indicating these samples were derived from source regions with nearly identical Sr-Nd isotopic systematics. These similarities suggest that these two meteorites share a close petrogenetic relationship and might have been erupted from a common volcano. The meteorites Yamato 980459, Dar al Gani 476, Sayh al Uhaymir 005/008, and Dhofar 019 also have relatively old ages between 474-575 Ma and trace element and/or isotopic systematics that are indicative of derivation from incompatible-element-depleted sources. This suggests that the oldest group of meteorites is more closely related to one another than they are to the younger meteorites that are derived from less incompatible-element-depleted sources. Closed-system fractional crystallization of this suite of

  7. Is the onset of the 6th century 'dark age' in Maya history related to explosive volcanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, Kees; Hoek, Wim Z.; Van der Plicht, Hans; Sigl, Michael; Galop, Didier; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria; Islebe, Gerald; Huizinga, Annika; Winkels, Tim; Middelkoop, Hans; Van Bergen, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Maya societies in Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize experienced a 'dark age' during the second half of the 6th century. This period, also known as the 'Maya Hiatus', is characterized by cultural downturn, political instability and abandonment of many sites in the Central Maya Lowlands. Many theories have been postulated to explain the occurrence of this 'dark age' in Maya history. A possible key role of a large volcanic eruption in the onset of this 'dark age' will be discussed. Volcanic deposits recovered from the sedimentary archive of lake Tuspán and the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta were studied in detail and the combination of multiple dating techniques allowed the reconstruction of the timing of a large 6th century eruption. Volcanic glass shards were fingerprinted to indicate the source volcano and high resolution pollen records were constructed to indicate the environmental impact of the eruption. Results are compared with available archaeological data and causality with the disruption of Maya civilization will be evaluated.

  8. Old age, high risk medication, polypharmacy: a ‘trilogy’ of risks in older patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: The safety of pharmacotherapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) is compounded by a trilogy of risks old age, high-risk medications (e.g., antithrombotics, antiarrhythmics), polypharmacy due to multiple patient comorbidities. However, to date, scarce study has investigated the use of polypharmacy (including potentially inappropriate medication (PIM)) in AF patients, and how this may contribute to their overall risk of medication misadventure. Objectives: To review the extent of polypharmacy and PIM use in older patients (65 years or older) with AF. Methods: Information was extracted from a database characterising a cohort of older AF patients treated in general practice in New South Wales, Australia. Patient characteristics, number and types of drugs, the degree of PIM use were recorded. The predictors for the use of polypharmacy in older AF patients were identified. Results: Overall, 367 patients (mean age 77.8 years) were reviewed, among which 94.8% used 5 medications or more and over half used 10 medications or more. Cardiovascular agents were most commonly used (98.9%), followed by antithrombotics (90.7%). Among agents deemed PIMs, digoxin (30.2%) was the most frequently used, followed by benzodiazepines (19.6%), and sotalol (9.8%). AF patients using polypharmacy were more likely to have low bleeding risk (OR=10.97), representing those patients in whom high-risk antithrombotics are mostly indicated. Patients with major-polypharmacy (5-9 medications) are more likely to have obstructive pulmonary diseases (OR=2.32), upper gastrointestinal diseases (OR=2.02) and poor physical function (OR=1.04), but less likely to have cognitive impairment (OR=0.27). Conclusion: Polypharmacy affects oldest AF patients, comprising medications that are indicated for AF, yet regarded as PIMs. Patients with lower risk of bleeding, obstructive pulmonary diseases, upper gastrointestinal diseases and poor physical function are also at higher risk of using higher number of

  9. A case history on an innovative solution for VOC and air toxics control designed for a medical prosthetic manufacturer of silicon breast implants

    SciTech Connect

    Quan-Handley, P.

    1997-12-31

    The case history presented here is based on the selection, design, installation, testing in, and continuous operation of a recuperative type thermal oxidation system with a built on heat exchanger unit (with a thermal efficiency of 85%) and ancillary ventilation/exhaust collection system designed for McGhan Medical Corporation (McGhan), a medical prosthetic manufacturer of silicon breast implants, located in Santa Barbara, California. There is now available three (3) consecutive years of emissions source test data which verify the achievement of the overall equipment VOC destruction removal efficiency (DRE) initially projected at 98.5% or 10 ppmv.

  10. Anthropometric, medical history and lifestyle risk factors for myeloproliferative neoplasms in the Iowa Women's Health Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Leal, Alexis D; Thompson, Carrie A; Wang, Alice H; Vierkant, Robert A; Habermann, Thomas M; Ross, Julie A; Mesa, Ruben A; Virnig, Beth A; Cerhan, James R

    2014-04-01

    Classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are composed of essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF), the etiology of which is largely unknown. We investigated the role of anthropometric, medical and lifestyle factors with risk of MPN in a prospective cohort of 27,370 women aged 55-69 years at enrollment. After >250,000 person-years of follow-up, 257 cases of MPN were identified (172 ET, 64 PV, 21 MF). Risk factor profiles were mostly unique for the two most common types, ET and PV. ET was associated with energy balance factors including body mass index (RR = 1.52 for >29.3 vs. <23.4 kg/m(2) ; p-trend = 0.042), physical activity (RR = 0.66 for high vs. low; p-trend = 0.04) and adult onset diabetes (RR = 1.82; p = 0.009), while PV was not. PV was associated with current smoking (RR = 2.83; p-trend = 0.016), while ET was not. Regular use of aspirin was associated with lower risk of ET (RR = 0.68; p = 0.017). These results broadly held in multivariate models. Our results suggest distinct etiologies for these MPN subtypes and raise mechanistic hypotheses related to obesity-related inflammatory pathways for ET and smoking-related carcinogenic pathways for PV. Regular aspirin use may lower risk for ET. PMID:24114627

  11. Medical Injection Use Among Adults and Adolescents Aged 15 to 64 Years in Kenya: Results From a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Daniel; Kamau, Rachel; Ssempijja, Victor; Robinson, Katherine; Oluoch, Tom; Njeru, Mercy; Mwangi, Jane; Njogu, David; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unsafe medical injections remain a potential route of HIV transmission in Kenya. We used data from a national survey in Kenya to study the magnitude of medical injection use, medication preference, and disposal of medical waste in the community. Methods The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a nationally representative population-based survey. Among participants aged 15–64 years, data were collected regarding medical injections received in the year preceding the interview; blood samples were collected from participants for HIV testing. Results Of the 13,673 participants who answered questions on medical injections, 35.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.5 to 37.3] reported receiving ≥1 injection in the past 12 months and 51.2% (95% CI: 49.7 to 52.8) preferred receiving an injection over a pill. Among those who received an injection from a health care provider, 95.9% (95% CI: 95.2 to 96.7) observed him/her open a new injection pack, and 7.4% (95% CI: 6.4 to 8.4) had seen a used syringe or needle near their home or community in the past 12 months. Men who had received ≥1 injection in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2 to 8.9) and women who had received an injection in the past 12 months, not for family planning purposes (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5), were significantly more likely to be HIV infected compared with those who had not received medical injection in the past 12 months. Conclusions Injection preference may contribute to high rates of injections in Kenya. Exposure to unsafe medical waste in the community poses risks for injury and infection. We recommend that community- and facility-based injection safety strategies be integrated in disease prevention programs. PMID:24413041

  12. Extent, age, and resurfacing history of the northern smooth plains on Mercury from MESSENGER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrach, Lillian R.; Robinson, Mark S.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Strom, Robert G.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-04-01

    MESSENGER orbital images show that the north polar region of Mercury contains smooth plains that occupy ~7% of the planetary surface area. Within the northern smooth plains (NSP) we identify two crater populations, those superposed on the NSP ("post-plains") and those partially or entirely embayed ("buried"). The existence of the second of these populations is clear evidence for volcanic resurfacing. The post-plains crater population reveals that the NSP do not exhibit statistically distinguishable subunits on the basis of crater size-frequency distributions, nor do measures of the areal density of impact craters reveal volcanically resurfaced regions within the NSP. These results suggest that the most recent outpouring of volcanic material resurfaced the majority of the region, and that this volcanic flooding emplaced the NSP over a relatively short interval of geologic time, perhaps 100 My or less. Stratigraphic embayment relationships within the buried crater population, including partial crater flooding and the presence of smaller embayed craters within the filled interiors of larger craters and basins, indicate that a minimum of two episodes of volcanic resurfacing occurred. From the inferred rim heights of embayed craters, we estimate the NSP to be regionally 0.7-1.8 km thick, with a minimum volume of volcanic material of 4 × 106 to 107 km3. Because of the uncertainty in the impact flux at Mercury, the absolute model age of the post-plains volcanism could be either ∼3.7 or ∼2.5 Ga, depending on the chronology applied.

  13. THE STAR FORMATION AND NUCLEAR ACCRETION HISTORIES OF NORMAL GALAXIES IN THE AGES SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Casey R.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine J.; Kenter, Almus T.; Murray, Steve S.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Fazio, Giovani G.; Green, Paul J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Brand, Kate; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Rieke, Marcia; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Shields, Joseph C.

    2009-05-10

    We combine IR, optical, and X-ray data from the overlapping, 9.3 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), and XBooetes Survey to measure the X-ray evolution of 6146 normal galaxies as a function of absolute optical luminosity, redshift, and spectral type over the largely unexplored redshift range 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 0.5. Because only the closest or brightest of the galaxies are individually detected in X-rays, we use a stacking analysis to determine the mean properties of the sample. Our results suggest that X-ray emission from spectroscopically late-type galaxies is dominated by star formation, while that from early-type galaxies is dominated by a combination of hot gas and active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission. We find that the mean star formation and supermassive black hole accretion rate densities evolve like {approx}(1 + z){sup 3{+-}}{sup 1}, in agreement with the trends found for samples of bright, individually detectable starburst galaxies and AGN. Our work also corroborates the results of many previous stacking analyses of faint source populations, with improved statistics.

  14. Medical therapy options for aging men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: focus on alfuzosin 10 mg once daily

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, Claus G; Rosen, Raymond C

    2008-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) are common in aging men and can significantly affect quality of life. Men with bothersome LUTS/BPH often present with various other age-related conditions, including sexual dysfunction, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, which can complicate management decisions. Therefore, healthcare providers should be familiar with first-line treatment options for LUTS/BPH and their differing safety profiles, particularly with respect to cardiovascular and sexual function side effects. This article presents a review of first-line medical therapy options for managing aging men with LUTS/BPH and patient considerations when evaluating and selecting these therapies, with a focus on the clinical efficacy and cardiovascular and sexual function safety profiles of the uroselective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist alfuzosin 10 mg once daily. Alfuzosin improves LUTS, peak urinary flow rates, and disease-specific quality of life, reduces the long-term risk of overall BPH progression, and is well tolerated in aging men, with minimal vasodilatory and sexual function side effects, even in those with comorbidities. Alfuzosin is well tolerated when used in combination with antihypertensive medications and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The long-term clinical efficacy and good cardiovascular and sexual function safety profile of alfuzosin can contribute to an improved quality of life for aging men with LUTS/BPH. PMID:18982921

  15. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-01-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life. PMID:9106542

  16. Hearing Loss Tied to Bigger Medical Bills for Late Middle-Aged

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the Medical University of South Carolina, in Charleston. The researchers said more study is needed to ... the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department ...

  17. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  18. Black Contributions to the Early History of Western Medicine: Lack of Recognition as a Cause of Black Under-Representation in US Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    During several millenia, blacks in ancient Egypt made numerous contributions to medicine and were acknowledged as the inventors of the art of medicine. They produced the earliest physicians, medical knowledge, and medical literature. They contributed to the development of medicine in ancient Greece. Ancient writers, including Herodotus, Isocrates, and Diodorus, affirm this. Modern presentations of ancient medicine, however, deprive blacks of the knowledge of their early contributions to medicine by ignoring or subtly misrepresenting the black identity of the ancient Egyptians. Blacks are currently under-represented in US medical schools. It is proposed that the recognition of the contributions of blacks to the early history of Western medicine would inspire black students to study medicine. PMID:423296

  19. Magmas, Mushes and Mobility: Thermal Histories of Magma Reservoirs from Combined U-Series and Diffusion Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, K. M.; Rubin, A. E.; Schrecengost, K.; Kent, A. J.; Huber, C.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal conditions of magma storage control many aspects of the dynamics of a magma reservoir system. For example, the temperature of magma storage directly relates to the crystallinity, and magmas stored at relatively low temperatures in a crystal mush (more than 40-50% crystalline) must be remobilized (e.g., by heating) before they can be erupted. A better understanding of the duration of magma storage at largely-liquid vs. largely-solid conditions is thus critical to understanding crustal magmatic processes such as magma mixing and for quantifying the hazard potential of a given volcano. Although mineral thermometry reflects the conditions of crystal growth or equilibration, these may not correspond to the thermal conditions of crystal storage. The duration of crystal storage at high temperatures can be quantified by comparing U-series crystal ages with the time scales over which disequilibrium trace-element profiles in the same crystals would be erased by diffusion. In the case of Mount Hood, OR, such a comparison for the two most recent eruptions shows that <12% of the total lifetime of plagioclase crystals (minimum 21 kyr) was spent at temperatures high enough that the magma would be easily mobilized. Partial data sets for other systems suggest such behavior is common, although the diffusion and U-series ages in these cases are from different samples and may not be directly comparable. We will present preliminary data combining U-series dating and diffusion timescales on the same samples for other volcanic systems (e.g., Lassen Volcanic Center, Mount St. Helens, Okataina Volcanic Center, New Zealand). Combining these data with numerical models offers additional insights into the controls on the conditions of storage. In addition, extension of this approach to combining U-Th ages with time scales of Li diffusion in zircon offers a promising new method to quantify thermal histories of silicic reservoir systems.

  20. Age Targeting of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT) 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Opuni, Marjorie; Schnure, Melissa; Sgaier, Sema; Castor, Delivette; Reed, Jason; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite considerable efforts to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in priority countries over the last five years, implementation has faced important challenges. Seeking to enhance the effect of VMMC programs for greatest and most immediate impact, the U. S. President’s Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supported the development and application of a model to inform national planning in five countries from 2013–2014. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT) 2.0 is a simple compartmental model designed to analyze the effects of client age and geography on program impact and cost. The DMPPT 2.0 model was applied in Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the impact and cost of scaling up age-targeted VMMC coverage. The lowest number of VMMCs per HIV infection averted would be produced by circumcising males ages 20–34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 15–34 in Swaziland. The most immediate impact on HIV incidence would be generated by circumcising males ages 20–34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 20–29 in Swaziland. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence over a 15-year period would be achieved by strategies focused on males ages 10–19 in Uganda, 15–24 in Malawi and South Africa, 10–24 in Tanzania, and 15–29 in Swaziland. In all countries, the lowest cost per HIV infection averted would be achieved by circumcising males ages 15–34, although in Uganda this cost is the same as that attained by circumcising 15- to 49-year-olds. Conclusions The efficiency, immediacy of impact, magnitude of impact, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up are not uniform; there is important variation by age group of the males circumcised and countries should plan accordingly. PMID:27410966

  1. The Physician's Role in Assessing and Counseling Aging Drivers: A Training Session for Undergraduate Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rull, Gary; Rosher, Richard B.; Robinson, Sherry; McCann-Stone, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The critical need for physicians to become entrenched in the issues of older drivers and public safety is the focus of a training initiative developed as a component of an innovative geriatrics curriculum, Aging (Couple) Across the Curriculum. As the number of aging drivers in the United States rises, physicians can play an important role in…

  2. Landscape history and land-use dependent soil erosion in central Bosnia from the Bronze Age to Medieval Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Steffen; Enters, Dirk; Bittmann, Felix

    2010-05-01

    The inland areas of the northwestern Balkan peninsula and in particular of Bosnia and Herzegovina are poor in natural archives suitable for the reconstruction of past environmental changes and vegetation history. Consequently, palaeoenvironmental analyses are scarce with only three palynological studies available dating back to 1973, 1956 and 1934. Central Bosnia, however, is rich in archaeological heritage, featuring numerous prehistoric settlement sites along the river Bosna starting in the early Neolithic. This generates the need for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to support and complement recent archaeological research in this area. Here we present results from a 450 cm gyttja-peat sequence from Seoce Jezero, a small mire located at 600 m NN on a plateau above a tributary of the river Bosna 30 km northwest of Sarajevo (central Bosnia). Fourteen AMS C-14 dates provide a robust time-depth-relationship which covers natural and anthropogenic environmental changes at Seoce Jezero from the Bronze Age to early Medieval Times. Pollen, macrofossil and geochemical analyses of 167 samples produce a high resolution record of land-use and vegetation change up to a half-decadal time scale. The palaeoenvironmental record starts ca. 1800 BC (3750 cal. BP) and reveals an initially relatively undisturbed landscape dominated by Fagus- and Quercus-Carpinus woodland. Anthropogenic influence is clearly visible from 1400 BC (3350 cal. BP) onwards and comprises woodland clearances, pasturing and crop cultivation. Pollen analyses confirm several consecutive phases of different land-use character and intensity. Phases of high land-use pressure culminated at the transition Bronze Age/Iron Age (1100 BC), the late Iron Age (400 BC), late Roman times (AD 300) and from AD 700 onwards. In between, stages of forest regeneration could be detected, most pronounced in the period between 70 BC and AD 150 (2020-1800 cal. BP), when anthropogenic influence virtually ceased. Whereas land use in

  3. Patients Who Attend the Emergency Department Following Medication Overdose: Self-Reported Mental Health History and Intended Outcomes of Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buykx, Penny; Ritter, Alison; Loxley, Wendy; Dietze, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Medication overdose is a common method of non-fatal self-harm. Previous studies have established which mental health disorders are commonly associated with the behaviour (affective, substance use, anxiety and personality disorders) and which medications are most frequently implicated (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics and non-opioid…

  4. Medical, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of aging in Poland: assumptions and objectives of the PolSenior project.

    PubMed

    Bledowski, Piotr; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Chudek, Jerzy; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szybalska, Aleksandra; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna; Wiecek, Andrzej; Bartoszek, Adam; Dabrowski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2011-12-01

    Both descriptive and longitudinal studies of aging are nowadays a subject of growing interest in different countries worldwide. However, in Poland and other Central-Eastern European countries, such comprehensive, nationally representative, multidimensional studies were never performed in the past in elderly population. The present paper describes the PolSenior project including its objectives, sample selection and structure, methods, fieldwork procedures and study flow. The aim of the project was to examine medical, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of aging in Poland. The research sample included 5695 respondents (2899 males and 2796 females) split into six equally sized age groups of elderly individuals (65-69 years, 70-74 years, 75-79 years, 80-84 years, 85-89 years, 90+years) and one group of subjects just about to enter old age (55-59 years). Subjects were recruited using three stage stratified, proportional draw. The response rate was 42% and ranged from 32% to 61% between provinces. The study consisted of three visits performed by trained nurses including questionnaire survey, comprehensive geriatric assessment and blood and urine sampling. The questionnaire consisted of medical and specific socioeconomic questions. The comprehensive geriatric assessment included blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, as well as selected scales and tests routinely used in the examination of elderly subjects. Blood and urine samples were collected from 4737 and 4526 individuals, respectively. More than 50 biochemical parameters were measured, and DNA was isolated and banked. In a selected group of 1018 subjects, a medical examination by a physician was performed. The self-rated health was lower in females than in males in age groups 70-84, but similar in individuals of both sexes aged 65-69 and 85 years. Besides providing data on health and functioning of elderly population, the PolSenior project aims to analyze interrelationships between different elements of

  5. Medications for School-Age Children: Effects on Learning and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald T.; Sawyer, Michael G.

    Use of medications that target specific behaviors affecting learning and social development has been the most extensively studied form of intervention available to children with behavioral and learning problems. Drawing from extensive research literature spanning the past 30 years, this guide for psychologists and other professionals who work with…

  6. [Illustrated medical books in Graeco-Roman Egypt].

    PubMed

    Marganne, M H

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the illustrated medical texts from Hellenism to Byzantine age. It refers particularly to the two herbaria of Tebnytis and Antinoopolis, reconstructing the history and production techniques of scientific illustrated books of antiquity. PMID:12361056

  7. "At times these ancient facts seem to lie before me like a patient on a hospital bed'--retrospective diagnosis and ancient medical history.

    PubMed

    Leven, K H

    2004-01-01

    Research in ancient medical history, Greek and Roman as well as Mesopotamian and Egyptian, is usually done by philologically trained scholars; the ability to read texts in their original language is fundamental (though not sufficient) for any substantial work. There is, however, in such works the notion that something may be missing in fully understanding medicine of a certain time and culture. Does a medical historian of ancient medicine need, in addition to his philological and historical skills, a medical education? And in what way is a 'medical approach' to ancient medicine useful? Is it possible to stand at the bedside of a Hippocratic patient as a clinician or reconstruct the 'pathocoenosis', as Mirko D. Grmek (+ 2000) coined it, of ancient Greece? The present paper outlines the problem of applying present medical knowledge to ancient sources and touches on the topic of primary perception of disease and illness. An important aspect is that disease entities change in their socio-cultural setting. Examples ranging from the supposed Lupus erythematodes of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon to cases in the Hippocratic Epidemiae and plague descriptions of Greek authors illustrate the problem of retrospective diagnosis. PMID:17152180

  8. Variation in Acceptable Child Discipline Practices by Child Age: Perceptions of Community Norms by Medical and Legal Professionals.

    PubMed

    Block, Stephanie D; Poplin, Ashlee Burgess; Wang, Eric S; Widaman, Keith F; Runyan, Desmond K

    2016-01-01

    Mandated child abuse reporters may judge specific disciplinary practices as unacceptable for young children, whereas child law professionals arbitrating allegations may be less inclusive. Do the views of these groups diverge, by child age, regarding discipline? Judgments of community norms across a wide range of children's ages were obtained from 380 medical and legal professionals. Because the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (PC-CTS) can be used to assess the epidemiology of child disciplinary behaviors and as a proxy to examine the incidence or prevalence of child abuse, the disciplinary practices described on the PC-CTS were presented as triggers for questions. Significant child age effects were found for disciplinary practices classified as "harsh." The consistencies between legal and medical professionals were striking. Both groups reflected changes in United States norms, as non-physical approaches were the most approved. We conclude that instruments estimating the prevalence of child maltreatment by parent-report should consider modifying how specific disciplinary practices are classified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27117603

  9. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  10. Treatment histories of borderline inpatients.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, M C; Frankenburg, F R; Khera, G S; Bleichmar, J

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we describe the types and amounts of psychiatric treatment received by a well-defined sample of borderline personality disorder (BPD) inpatients, and compare these parameters with those of a group of carefully diagnosed personality-disordered controls. Finally, we assess the risk factors associated with a history of intensive, high-cost treatment, which we defined as having had two or more prior psychiatric hospitalizations. The treatment histories of 290 borderline inpatients and 72 axis II controls were assessed using a reliable semistructured interview. All nine forms of treatment studied except electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were common among borderline patients (36% to 96%). In addition, a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients than axis II controls reported a history of individual and group therapy, day and residential treatment, psychiatric hospitalization, participating in self-help groups, and taking standing medications. They were also significantly younger when they first entered individual therapy and began to take standing medications. In addition, borderline patients spent more time than axis II controls in individual therapy and psychiatric hospitals, and were on standing medications for a significantly longer period of time. They also reported a significantly higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, lifetime number of standing medications, and number of psychotropic medications taken at the same time. In addition, we found a highly significant multivariate predictive model for multiple prior hospitalizations. The six significant predictors were age 26 or older, a history of quasi psychotic thought, lifetime number of self-mutilative efforts and suicide attempts, a childhood history of reported sexual abuse, and an adult history of being physically and/or sexually assaulted. Taken together, these results confirm clinical impressions concerning the high rates of mental health services used by borderline patients

  11. Age of the Dawson Arkose, southwestern Air Force Academy, Colorado, and implications for the uplift history of the Front Range

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, C.F.; Nelson, S.N. )

    1988-01-01

    An angular unconformity within the synorogenic Dawson Arkose (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) is preserved and exposed in areas south of Denver, Colorado, along the eastern side of the Front Range uplift. In the southwestern part of the Air Force Academy, the basal Dawson is concordant with the underlying Laramie and Fox Hills formations and dips 72-84{degree} eastward. Above an intraformational angular unconformity, younger units of the Dawson dip 24{degree}-46{degree} eastward. Smaller angular unconformities (10{degree}{plus minus}), and beds with gradually decreasing dip occur higher in the Dawson section. Rocks above the largest unconformity contain a rich palynomorph assemblage of Late Maestrichtain age. These data indicate that approximately 30{degree}-40{degree}, and possibly as much as approximately 70{degree}, of tilting of the underlying rocks occurred during the Late Maestrichtian (66-70 Ma). It is also possible that approximately 30{degree}-40{degree} of the tilting of the Late Cretaceous rocks occurred between latest Maestrichtian and Eocene (approximately 45 Ma). These results suggest that the transition from a tectonically quiet marine environment to a non-marine, tectonically active condition took place rapidly, probably within a few million years. When combined with published data, the authors study indicates that the Front Range has different tectonic histories on its eastern and its western side, and that the deformation is diachronous along the strike of the eastern side of the Front Range.

  12. Stimulant medication effects on growth and bone age in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Quoc; Melzer, Elaine; Evans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Stimulant medication is known to cause transient weight loss and slowing down of growth, but whether it delays physical maturation is unclear. We studied growth and bone age over the first 3 years of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (patients) compared with healthy siblings (controls). Bone age was estimated blindly by two independent radiologists using Tanner and Whitehouse version 3. Dexamphetamine or methylphenidate was titrated and continued when clinically indicated. Forty out of 73 patients, together with 22 controls, completed the study. There were no significant growth differences between the two groups at baseline. Despite slower growth on treatment [5.1 cm/year, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–5.5, vs. 6.3 cm/year, 95% CI: 5.7–6.8, P=0.002; and 2.7 kg/year, 95% CI: 2.1–3.3, vs. 4.4 kg/year, 95% CI: 3.5–5.3, P=0.005], the patients showed no significant maturational delay (RUS score: 49 U/year, 95% CI: 44–55, vs. 55 U/year, 95% CI: 47–63, P=0.27). A subgroup of patients underwent serial biochemistry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, recording a significant reduction in fat (5.61±3.56–4.22±3.09 kg, P<0.001) and leptin (3.88±2.87–2.57±1.94 ng/ml, P=0.017). The pattern of change in height z-score over time was modified by the dose of medication (P for interaction=0.024). We found no medication effect on the rate of maturation, which was instead predicted by baseline leptin (P=0.035 controlling for age and sex). PMID:26544899

  13. Stimulant medication effects on growth and bone age in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Alison S; Bui, Quoc; Melzer, Elaine; Evans, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Stimulant medication is known to cause transient weight loss and slowing down of growth, but whether it delays physical maturation is unclear. We studied growth and bone age over the first 3 years of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (patients) compared with healthy siblings (controls). Bone age was estimated blindly by two independent radiologists using Tanner and Whitehouse version 3. Dexamphetamine or methylphenidate was titrated and continued when clinically indicated. Forty out of 73 patients, together with 22 controls, completed the study. There were no significant growth differences between the two groups at baseline. Despite slower growth on treatment [5.1 cm/year, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7-5.5, vs. 6.3 cm/year, 95% CI: 5.7-6.8, P=0.002; and 2.7 kg/year, 95% CI: 2.1-3.3, vs. 4.4 kg/year, 95% CI: 3.5-5.3, P=0.005], the patients showed no significant maturational delay (RUS score: 49 U/year, 95% CI: 44-55, vs. 55 U/year, 95% CI: 47-63, P=0.27). A subgroup of patients underwent serial biochemistry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, recording a significant reduction in fat (5.61±3.56-4.22±3.09 kg, P<0.001) and leptin (3.88±2.87-2.57±1.94 ng/ml, P=0.017). The pattern of change in height z-score over time was modified by the dose of medication (P for interaction=0.024). We found no medication effect on the rate of maturation, which was instead predicted by baseline leptin (P=0.035 controlling for age and sex). PMID:26544899

  14. Aging is not Senescence: A Short Computer Demonstration and Implications for Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Thiago Oliveira; Silveira, Paulo Sergio Panse

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The discussion regarding the evolution of aging is almost as old as Darwinian Evolution Theory, but to date, it has remained one of biology’s unresolved problems. One issue is how to reconcile natural selection, which is understood as a process that purges deleterious characteristics, with senescence, which seems to offer no advantages to the individual. METHOD: A computer simulation that illustrates an evolutionary mechanism for the development of senescence in populations is presented. DISCUSSION: In this article, we debate that two popular explanations for the existence of senescence, namely, (1) the removal of elders for the benefit of the species and (2) the progressive deterioration of the organic machine due to continuous use, are not correct. While human populations continue to age, it is important that the physician understands that senescence, here defined as the progressive impairment of an organism, does not necessarily accompany aging, which we here define as the mere passage of time. As such, we argue that certain processes that were originally assumed to be part of aging should have their status changed because they are actually diseases. Physicians often encounter situations that depend on a better understanding of what limitations senescence imposes on most living species. The concepts of aging (the unavoidable passage of time), senescence (progressive physiologic impairment), and senility (the pathological development of diseases), are discussed. PMID:19488612

  15. The history of a continent from U-Pb ages of zircons from Orinoco River sand and Sm-Nd isotopes in Orinoco basin river sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, S.L.; Arndt, N.T.; Stallard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 49 zircons from a sand sample from the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, and Nd model ages of the fine sediment load from the main river and tributaries. The U-Pb ages reflect individual magmatic or metamorphic events, the Sm-Nd model ages reflect average crustal-residence ages of the sediment sources. Together they allow delineation of the crust-formation history of the basement precursors of the sediments. The U-Pb ages range from 2.83 to 0.15 Ga, and most are concordant or nearly so. Discrete age groupings occur at ??? 2.8, ??? 2.1, and ??? 1.1 Ga. The oldest group contains only three samples but is isolated from its closest neighbors by a ??? 600 Ma age gap. Larger age groupings at ??? 2.1 and ??? 1.1 Ga make up about a third and a quarter of the total number of analyses, respectively. The remaining analyses scatter along concordia, and most are younger than 1.6 Ga. The ??? 2.8 and ??? 2.1 Ga ages correspond to periods of crust formation of the Imataca and Trans-Amazonian provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, and record intervals of short but intensive continental growth. These ages coincide with ??? 2.9 and ??? 2.1 Ga Nd model ages of sediments from tributaries draining the Archean and Proterozoic provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, indicating that the U-Pb ages record the geological history of the crystalline basement of the Orinoco basin. Zircons with ages corresponding to the major orogenies of the North Atlantic continents (the Superior at ??? 2.7 Ga and Hudsonian at 1.7-1.9 Ga) were not found in the Orinoco sample. The age distribution may indicate that South and North America were separated throughout their history. Nd model ages of sediments from the lower Orinoco River and Andean tributaries are ??? 1.9 Ga, broadly within the range displayed by major rivers and dusts. This age does not coincide with known thermal events in the region and reflects mixing of sources with different crust-formation ages. The

  16. Medication Underuse in Aging Outpatients with Cardiovascular Disease: Prevalence, Determinants, and Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Meid, Andreas D.; Quinzler, Renate; Freigofas, Julia; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schöttker, Ben; Holleczek, Bernd; Heider, Dirk; König, Hans-Helmut; Brenner, Hermann; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in older people, and the impact of being exposed or not exposed to preventive cardiovascular medicines is accordingly high. Underutilization of beneficial drugs is common, but prevalence estimates differ across settings, knowledge on predictors is limited, and clinical consequences are rarely investigated. Methods Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study, we assessed the prevalence, determinants, and outcomes of medication underuse based on cardiovascular criteria from Screening Tool To Alert to Right Treatment (START). Results Medication underuse was present in 69.1% of 1454 included participants (mean age 71.1 ± 6.1 years) and was significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio: 2.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.24–3.63]), body mass index (1.03 [1.01–1.07] per kg/m2), and inversely with the number of prescribed drugs (0.84 [0.79–0.88] per drug). Using this information for adjustment in a follow-up evaluation (mean follow-up time 2.24 years) on cardiovascular and competing outcomes, we found no association of medication underuse with cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal) (hazard ratio: 1.00 [0.65–1.56]), but observed a significant association of medication underuse with competing deaths from non-cardiovascular causes (2.52 [1.01–6.30]). Conclusion Medication underuse was associated with frailty and adverse non-cardiovascular clinical outcomes. This may suggest that cardiovascular drugs were withheld because of serious co-morbidity or that concurrent illness can preclude benefit from cardiovascular prevention. In the latter case, adapted prescribing criteria should be developed and evaluated in those patients. PMID:26288222

  17. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Christopher R.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Chang, Ellen T.; Hughes, Ann Maree; Ansell, Stephen M.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Boffetta, Paolo; Melbye, Mads; Lan, Qing; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Zhang, Yawei; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accounting for 10%–15% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Western populations, peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are the most common T-cell lymphoma but little is known about their etiology. Our aim was to identify etiologic risk factors for PTCL overall, and for specific PTCL subtypes, by analyzing data from 15 epidemiologic studies participating in the InterLymph Consortium. Methods A pooled analysis of individual-level data for 584 histologically confirmed PTCL cases and 15912 controls from 15 case–control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Australia was undertaken. Data collected from questionnaires were harmonized to permit evaluation of a broad range of potential risk factors. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results Risk factors associated with increased overall PTCL risk with a P value less than .05 included: a family history of hematologic malignancies (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.30 to 2.84); celiac disease (OR = 17.8, 95% CI = 8.61 to 36.79); eczema (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.85); psoriasis (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.17 to 3.32); smoking 40 or more years (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.41 to 2.62); and employment as a textile worker (ever) (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.38) and electrical fitter (ever) (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.41 to 5.95). Exposures associated with reduced overall PTCL risk included a personal history of allergies (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.87), alcohol consumption (ever) (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.82), and having ever lived or worked on a farm (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.55% to 0.95%). We also observed the well-established risk elevation for enteropathy-type PTCL among those with celiac disease in our data. Conclusions Our pooled analyses identified a number of new potential risk factors for PTCL and require further validation in independent series. PMID:25174027

  18. Therapeutic Uses of Oral History Techniques in Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Raymond; Harris, Sara

    1981-01-01

    Use of the oral history technique in clinical medicine supplies significant additional data that illuminate the psychological, social, and spiritual background of healthy or ailing aging patients. Describes some practical applications of oral history techniques in clinical medical practice and discusses their usefulness for gerontological…

  19. [The Importance of Medication History Management by Hospital and Community Pharmacists for Oral Anticancer Drug S-1(Tegafur/Gimeracil/Oteracil Potassium)--A Retrospective Study].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Makoto; Saito, Yoshimasa; Makino, Yoshinori; Iwase, Haruo; Hayashi, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    S-1 (tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil potassium) is an effective oral anticancer drug for treatment of a wide spectrum of cancers. However, it may incur serious adverse effects through factors such as interactions with other drugs, renal dysfunction, or an insufficient washout period. In view of this, pharmacists should play an increasingly significant role in managing the medication history of patients treated with S-1. As there seems to be no standardized management tool for patients receiving S-1, we conducted a retrospective study to evaluate medication history management methods, which are commonly available in community pharmacies as well as hospitals. We identified 128 outpatients who were prescribed S-1 for the first time at the National Cancer Center Hospital from July to December of 2011. These patients were divided into in-hospital (n=48) and out-of-hospital (n=80) groups. The percentage of patients, who dropped out during the first course of S-1 treatment, was 16.7% for the in-hospital group, and 10% for the out-of-hospital group. Examining renal dysfunction, non-elderly patients with low creatinine clearance (Ccr) were found. These results suggest that there is the possibility of side effect occurrence in both the in-hospital and out-of-hospital prescription groups. Community pharmacists should check prescriptions with particular attention to the Ccr. It is necessary to develop mechanisms for cooperation between hospital and community pharmacists, with clear role sharing between them, allowing the community pharmacists to exercise medication history management for patients prescribed S-1 to the same degree as hospital pharmacists based on available information including laboratory test values. PMID:26809530

  20. The promise and challenge of personalized medicine: aging populations, complex diseases, and unmet medical need.

    PubMed

    Henney, Adriano M

    2012-06-01

    The concept of personalized medicine is not new. It is being discussed with increasing interest in the medical, scientific, and general media because of the availability of advanced scientific and computational technologies, and the promise of the potential to improve the targeting and delivery of novel medicines. It is also being seen as one approach that may have a beneficial impact on reducing health care budgets. But what are the challenges that need to be addressed in its implementation in the clinic? This article poses some provocative questions and suggests some things that need to be considered. PMID:22661132

  1. Geriatric Expertise among Medical School Faculty: Preparing for the Challenges of an Aging Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Jenkins, Carol L.; Eleazer, G. Paul; Kelsey, Susan G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined non-geriatrician physicians' experiences in a geriatrics-focused faculty development program, and effects of the program on their geriatrics knowledge and their teaching and practice. In-depth interviews were conducted with all physicians (n = 26) participating in the Dean's Faculty Scholars in Aging program. Most participants…

  2. 42 CFR 436.308 - Medically needy coverage of individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adoptions subsidized in full or in part by a public agency. (3) Individuals in nursing facilities when nursing facility services are provided under the plan to individuals within the age group selected under... inpatients in psychiatric facilities or programs, if inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under...

  3. [THE VALLEY IS A DREAM"--ON THE HISTORY OF THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT IN THE HA'EMEK MEDICAL CENTER].

    PubMed

    Reich, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of the Cooperative Merhavia in 1910 marked the beginning of the settlement in the Jezreel Valley. The medical services started to develop almost simultaneously, with a small number of physicians and nurses who came in the wake of the first settlers and set up infirmaries in the region's communities mainly to treat malaria and other infectious diseases. The Ha'Emek Medical Center, which celebrates 90 years since its foundation, was the first hospital of Kupat Holim. It started out in a few temporary buildings in Kibbutz Ein Harod and was then transferred to its present location in Afula. Records of treatment of preterm babies go as far back as the 1950s. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Afula was one of the first in Israel and, for many years, served as a referral center for hospitals in the North and Sharon regions, until similar departments were gradually founded. The history of the Neonatal Department of the Ha'Emek Medical Center is described, on the background of the development of the medical services, since the earliest settlement in the Jezreel Valley and the foundation of the hospital in Afula. PMID:26742232

  4. U-Th age distribution of coral fragments from multiple rubble ridges within the Frankland Islands, Great Barrier Reef: Implications for past storminess history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Entao; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Leonard, Nicole D.; Clark, Tara R.; Roff, George

    2016-07-01

    Prograded coral rubble ridges have been widely used as archives for reconstructing long-term storm or storminess history. Chronologies of ridge systems in previous studies are often based on a limited number of low-resolution radiocarbon or optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages per ridge (usually only one age per ridge), which carry intrinsic age uncertainties and make interpretation of storm histories problematic. To test the fidelity of storm ridges as palaeo-storm archives, we used high-precision U-Th dating to examine whether different samples from a single ridge are temporally constrained. We surveyed three transects of ridge systems from two continental islands (Normanby Island and High Island) within the Frankland Islands, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and obtained 96 U-Th dates from coral rubble samples collected from within and between different ridges. Our results revealed significant differences in age ranges between the two islands. The steeper and more defined rubble ridges present on Normanby Island revealed that the majority of U-Th ages (over 60%) from a single ridge clustered within a narrow age range (∼100 years). By contrast, the lower and less defined ridges on High Island, which were more likely formed during both storm and non-storm high-energy events, revealed significant scatter in age distribution (>>200 years) with no notable clustering. The narrower age ranges obtained from the steeper and more defined rubble ridges suggest that previous approaches of using either limited samples from a single ridge or low-precision dating methods to establish chronologies are generally valid at centennial to millennial timescales, although caution must be taken to use such approaches for storm history reconstruction on shorter timescales (e.g. decadal). The correlation between U-Th mortality ages of coral rubble and historical stormy periods highlights the possibility of using coral rubble age distribution from rubble ridges to reconstruct the long

  5. Understanding the information dynamics of medication administration in residential aged care facilities (RACFs): a prerequisite for design of effective ICT systems.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Medication information is a critical part of the information required to ensure residents' safety in the highly collaborative care context of RACFs. Studies report poor medication information as a barrier to improve medication management in RACFs. Research exploring medication work practices in aged care settings remains limited. This study aimed to identify contextual and work practice factors contributing to breakdowns in medication information exchange in RACFs in relation to the medication administration process. We employed non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews to explore information practices in three Australian RACFs. Findings identified inefficiencies due to lack of information timeliness, manual stock management, multiple data transcriptions, inadequate design of essential documents such as administration sheets and a reliance on manual auditing procedures. Technological solutions such as electronic medication administration records offer opportunities to overcome some of the identified problems. However these interventions need to be designed to align with the collaborative team based processes they intend to support. PMID:23941954

  6. [The development of the Japanese pharmaceutical industry (part 7). Histories of medical advertisements from Taisho Era till Showa Era].

    PubMed

    Takehara, J; Yamada, H

    1999-01-01

    Medical advertisements in newspapers have been used quite often as a means of sales promotion since the Meiji Era. Medical advertisements were quantitatively the leading advertisements in Japanese newspapers from the Taisho Era to early in the Showa Era. When World War II broke out, the quanity of advertisements in newspapers decreased markedly. After the war ended, the quantity of radio commercials for medicine increased quite rapidly. In the 1960s, however, pharmaceutical companies were criticized for over-promoting and improperly using medicines. PMID:11624347

  7. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    PubMed

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM. PMID:19709941

  8. The digital global geologic map of Mars: chronostratigraphic ages, topographic and crater morphologic characteristics, and updated resurfacing history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Robbins, S.J.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Hare, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    A new global geologic map of Mars has been completed in a digital, geographic information system (GIS) format using geospatially controlled altimetry and image data sets. The map reconstructs the geologic history of Mars, which includes many new findings collated in the quarter century since the previous, Viking-based global maps were published, as well as other discoveries that were made during the course of the mapping using new data sets. The technical approach enabled consistent and regulated mapping that is appropriate not only for the map's 1:20,000,000 scale but also for its widespread use by diverse audiences. Each geologic unit outcrop includes basic attributes regarding identity, location, area, crater densities, and chronostratigraphic age. In turn, units are grouped by geographic and lithologic types, which provide synoptic global views of material ages and resurfacing character for the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods. As a consequence of more precise and better quality topographic and morphologic data and more complete crater-density dating, our statistical comparisons identify significant refinements for how Martian geologic terrains are characterized. Unit groups show trends in mean elevation and slope that relate to geographic occurrence and geologic origin. In comparison with the previous global geologic map series based on Viking data, the new mapping consists of half the number of units due to simpler, more conservative and globally based approaches to discriminating units. In particular, Noachian highland surfaces overall have high percentages of their areas now dated as an epoch older than in the Viking mapping. Minimally eroded (i.e., pristine) impact craters ≥3 km in diameter occur in greater proportion on Hesperian surfaces. This observation contrasts with a deficit of similarly sized craters on heavily cratered and otherwise degraded Noachian terrain as well as on young Amazonian surfaces. We interpret these as reflecting the

  9. The digital global geologic map of Mars: Chronostratigraphic ages, topographic and crater morphologic characteristics, and updated resurfacing history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Robbins, S. J.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2014-05-01

    A new global geologic map of Mars has been completed in a digital, geographic information system (GIS) format using geospatially controlled altimetry and image data sets. The map reconstructs the geologic history of Mars, which includes many new findings collated in the quarter century since the previous, Viking-based global maps were published, as well as other discoveries that were made during the course of the mapping using new data sets. The technical approach enabled consistent and regulated mapping that is appropriate not only for the map's 1:20,000,000 scale but also for its widespread use by diverse audiences. Each geologic unit outcrop includes basic attributes regarding identity, location, area, crater densities, and chronostratigraphic age. In turn, units are grouped by geographic and lithologic types, which provide synoptic global views of material ages and resurfacing character for the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods. As a consequence of more precise and better quality topographic and morphologic data and more complete crater-density dating, our statistical comparisons identify significant refinements for how Martian geologic terrains are characterized. Unit groups show trends in mean elevation and slope that relate to geographic occurrence and geologic origin. In comparison with the previous global geologic map series based on Viking data, the new mapping consists of half the number of units due to simpler, more conservative and globally based approaches to discriminating units. In particular, Noachian highland surfaces overall have high percentages of their areas now dated as an epoch older than in the Viking mapping. Minimally eroded (i.e., pristine) impact craters ≥3 km in diameter occur in greater proportion on Hesperian surfaces. This observation contrasts with a deficit of similarly sized craters on heavily cratered and otherwise degraded Noachian terrain as well as on young Amazonian surfaces. We interpret these as reflecting the

  10. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Marginal Zone Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Turner, Jennifer J.; Paltiel, Ora; Slager, Susan L.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Norman, Aaron D.; Cerhan, James R.; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Becker, Nikolaus; Cocco, Pierluigi; Dogan, Ahmet; Nieters, Alexandra; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Smedby, Karin E.; Maynadié, Marc; Spinelli, John J.; Roman, Eve; Glimelius, Bengt; Wang, Sophia S.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), comprised of nodal, extranodal, and splenic subtypes, accounts for 5%–10% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. A detailed evaluation of the independent effects of risk factors for MZL and its subtypes has not been conducted. Methods Data were pooled from 1052 MZL cases (extranodal [EMZL] = 633, nodal [NMZL] = 157, splenic [SMZL] = 140) and 13766 controls from 12 case–control studies. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Novel findings for MZL subtypes include increased risk for B-cell activating autoimmune conditions (EMZL OR = 6.40, 95% CI = 4.24 to 9.68; NMZL OR = 7.80, 95% CI = 3.32 to 18.33; SMZL OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 1.49 to 12.14), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (EMZL OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.48 to 11.28), self-reported peptic ulcers (EMZL OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.49), asthma without other atopy (SMZL OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.23), family history of hematologic cancer (EMZL OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.62) and of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NMZL OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.33 to 5.98), permanent hairdye use (SMZL OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 1.54 to 28.17), and occupation as a metalworker (NMZL OR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.67 to 7.58). Reduced risks were observed with consumption of any alcohol (EMZL fourth quartile OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.82) and lower consumption of wine (NMZL first to third quartile ORs < 0.45) compared with nondrinkers, and occupation as a teacher (EMZL OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.88). Conclusion Our results provide new data suggesting etiologic heterogeneity across MZL subtypes although a common risk of MZL associated with B-cell activating autoimmune conditions was found. PMID:25174026

  11. Aging related changes in mixed basal saliva concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride in healthy non medicated humans.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Rui; Navas, Eunice; Duran, Carolina; Pinto, Maria; Gutierrez, Jose; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the salivary flow is reduced by aging but ionic composition changes associated to aging have been less evaluated. To measure salivary and plasmatic [Na(+)], [K(+)] and [Cl(-)] and to correlate with age in healthy, non-medicated subjects of any gender, 165 healthy participating subjects (over 15 years old) were asked to give sample of 5 mL mix basal saliva in a plastic vial without any stimulation technique, additionally, 5 mL of venous blood was collected. Samples [Na(+)] and [K(+)] were measured by flame photometry (Corning™ M-405) and [Cl(-)] by voltametric chlorometry (Corning™ M-920). Ionic concentrations were expressed as (X±DE; meq.L⁻¹). All three ionic concentrations progressively increased with age, with the lineal regression equation being: [Na(+)] mEq=17.76 + 0.26(Age); r=+0.42; F=31.5; P=0.00001; [K(+)] mEq=13.2+0.15(Age); r=+0.32; F=16.5; P=0.00001; [Cl(-)] mEq=9.05+0.18(Age); r=+0.35; F=7.8; P=0.0071. Age induced changes in salivary ionic concentrations were not associated to blood ionic changes. However, saliva and blood [Na(+)] and [K(+)] were correlated (r=+0.25; F=4.49; P=0.04 and r=+0.30; F=6.98; P=0.01, respectively). Significant association was found among salivary ions: [Na(+)] mEq=9.14+0.99[K(+)] (r=+0.79; F=95.2; P=0.000001); [Cl(-)] mEq=0.95+0.56[Na(+)] (r=0.79; F=106.6; P=0.000001) and [Cl(-)] mEq=3.45+0.69[K(+)] (r=0.73; F=72.5; P=0.000001). These results confirm and measure the impact of aging over the mixed and resting salivary secretion process and suggest that local changes are not related to blood ionic composition. PMID:25101709

  12. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset. PMID:25367167

  13. [The Galton whistle and discovery of presbycusis. Images from the history of otorhinolaryngology, exemplified by equipment from the collection of the Ingolstadt German Medical History Museum].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1995-05-01

    One of the many interests of Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911), a singularly versatile English research worker, was anthropometry, i.e. measuring and comparing physical attributes in men. Here he introduced the concept of eugenics. He thought that the upper hearing threshold for high-pitched tones might be an attribute specific to each species, and in order to prove this he devised a whistle which was later named after him. Using this instrument he found that the upper hearing threshold in animals actually differs very much with the species and that in humans it is regularly depressed with age. The relevant passages of his book Inquiries into Human Faculty of 1883 are quoted in translation. Burckhardt-Merian from Basel, Switzerland, introduced Galton's whistle into otology in 1885. Appropriate instruments were soon developed by König in Paris and Edelmann in Munich and became commercially available. Zwaardemaker in Utrecht, the Netherlands, was the first to systematically investigate hearing in the elderly using Galton's whistle, and he derived from these studies what he called the "prebyacusial law." Technical details of Galton's whistle are described with reference to Edelmann's final refined version of the instrument of 1900. During the first 30 years of this century, Galton's whistle was in wide use, but due to unavoidable inherent flaws it later gave way to the monochord and eventually to tone audiometry. PMID:7605577

  14. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    PubMed Central

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-01-01

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists’ goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists—as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation—focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous—from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects—collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the

  15. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    SciTech Connect

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-12-15

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists' goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists--as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation--focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous--from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects--collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the

  16. Anniversary paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: the role of Medical Physics and AAPM.

    PubMed

    Giger, Maryellen L; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-12-01

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists' goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists-as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation-focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous-from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects-collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the algorithms

  17. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries

    PubMed Central

    Ng, KH; Wong, JHD

    2008-01-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong. The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations. SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7). In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled “Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning”. PMID:21614324

  18. Using Family Health History for Chronic Disease Prevention in the Age of Genomics: Translation to Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl; Novilla, Lelinneth; Barnes, Michael; De La Cruz, Natalie; Meacham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the field of human genomics have important implications for the prevention of chronic disease. In response to these advancements, public health professionals--including health educators--must become competent in the principles underlying the interface between genomics and the use of family health history. Family health history captures…

  19. Students' perception and experience of intimate area examination and sexual history taking during undergraduate clinical skills training: A study from two Saudi medical colleges.

    PubMed

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Haque, Shafiul; Irshad, Mohammad; Al-Zahrani, Noor; Al-Bedaie, Eman; Al-Fahad, Latifah; Al-Eid, Manar; Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the experiences of Saudi undergraduate medical students about intimate-area examination (IAE) and sexual history taking (SHT) skills and assesses the barriers and their impacts on students' learning. This survey-based study was performed at 2 Saudi university medical colleges and revealed that most of the students never performed IAE, that is, female breast, male genital, female genital, female pelvic, male rectal, and female rectal. We found that 42.3% students had never taken any sexual history during their course. Both, male and female students reported barriers of patient refusal, mismatched sex, cultural background, ethical factors, lack of supervision, lack of training, and lack of skills. Among the currently used pedagogical techniques, majority of the students were satisfied with real patient-based learning, followed by video and manikin-based learning. The study indicates that Saudi students do not have sufficient experience of IAE and SHT because of above-mentioned barriers along with religious issues. This study suggests that teachers provide positive support to students and that they develop novel, competent teaching-and-learning techniques to meet the skills training of students without compromising on religious, sociocultural, and ethical values of the kingdom. PMID:27472734

  20. Predictors of Age of Diagnosis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of a Consistent Source of Medical Care, Race, and Condition Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Natacha D.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Neece, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent…

  1. [Business, politics, science, and visa versa: an institutional history of Brazilian medical journalism between 1827 and 1843].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz Otávio

    2004-01-01

    This analysis of Brazil's first medical newspapers - Propagador das Ciências Médicas (1827-28); Semanário de Saúde Pública (1831-33); Diário de Saúde (1835-36); Revista Médica Fluminense (1835-41); Revista Médica Brasileira (1841-43) - shows how Rio de Janeiro's socio-cultural context made it possible for this type of publication to emerge within the city's dynamic, troubled environment of the 1820s and 30s. I argue that the distinguishing feature of Brazil's early medical journalism was a symbiosis between business (local publishing houses' commercial interests), politics (struggles for political hegemony during the consolidation of the Imperial State), and science (the movement to institutionalize medicine and affirm it as a science). PMID:15446259

  2. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura; Exline, Matthew; Leung, Cynthia G.; Way, David P.; Clinchot, Daniel; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2016-01-01

    Background Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period) was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%). The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively). Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement), but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001). Conclusion A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied. PMID:27222103

  3. The eruptive history of the Tequila volcanic field, western Mexico: ages, volumes, and relative proportions of lava types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis-Kenedi, Catherine B.; Lange, Rebecca A.; Hall, Chris M.; Delgado-Granados, Hugo

    2005-06-01

    The eruptive history of the Tequila volcanic field (1600 km2) in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is based on 40Ar/39Ar chronology and volume estimates for eruptive units younger than 1 Ma. Ages are reported for 49 volcanic units, including Volcán Tequila (an andesitic stratovolcano) and peripheral domes, flows, and scoria cones. Volumes of volcanic units ≤1 Ma were obtained with the aid of field mapping, ortho aerial photographs, digital elevation models (DEMs), and ArcGIS software. Between 1120 and 200 kyrs ago, a bimodal distribution of rhyolite (~35 km3) and high-Ti basalt (~39 km3) dominated the volcanic field. Between 685 and 225 kyrs ago, less than 3 km3 of andesite and dacite erupted from more than 15 isolated vents; these lavas are crystal-poor and show little evidence of storage in an upper crustal chamber. Approximately 200 kyr ago, ~31 km3 of andesite erupted to form the stratocone of Volcán Tequila. The phenocryst assemblage of these lavas suggests storage within a chamber at ~2 3 km depth. After a hiatus of ~110 kyrs, ~15 km3 of andesite erupted along the W and SE flanks of Volcán Tequila at ~90 ka, most likely from a second, discrete magma chamber located at ~5 6 km depth. The youngest volcanic feature (~60 ka) is the small andesitic volcano Cerro Tomasillo (~2 km3). Over the last 1 Myr, a total of 128±22 km3 of lava erupted in the Tequila volcanic field, leading to an average eruption rate of ~0.13 km3/kyr. This volume erupted over ~1600 km2, leading to an average lava accumulation rate of ~8 cm/kyr. The relative proportions of lava types are ~22 43% basalt, ~0.4 1% basaltic andesite, ~29 54% andesite, ~2 3% dacite, and ~18 40% rhyolite. On the basis of eruptive sequence, proportions of lava types, phenocryst assemblages, textures, and chemical composition, the lavas do not reflect the differentiation of a single (or only a few) parental liquids in a long-lived magma chamber. The rhyolites are geochemically diverse and were likely

  4. Population Aging and the Determinants of Healthcare Expenditures: The Case of Hospital, Medical and Pharmaceutical Care in British Columbia, 1996 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    There is a gap between rhetoric and reality concerning healthcare expenditures and population aging: although decades-old research suggests otherwise, there is widespread belief that the sustainability of the healthcare system is under serious threat owing to population aging. To shed new empirical light on this old debate, we used population-based administrative data to quantify recent trends and determinants of expenditure on hospital, medical and pharmaceutical care in British Columbia. We modelled changes in inflation-adjusted expenditure per capita between 1996 and 2006 as a function of two demographic factors (population aging and changes in age-specific mortality rates) and three non-demographic factors (age-specific rates of use of care, quantities of care per user and inflation-adjusted costs per unit of care). We found that population aging contributed less than 1% per year to spending on medical, hospital and pharmaceutical care. Moreover, changes in age-specific mortality rates actually reduced hospital expenditure by —0.3% per year. Based on forecasts through 2036, we found that the future effects of population aging on healthcare spending will continue to be small. We therefore conclude that population aging has exerted, and will continue to exert, only modest pressures on medical, hospital and pharmaceutical costs in Canada. As indicated by the specific non-demographic cost drivers computed in our study, the critical determinants of expenditure on healthcare stem from non-demographic factors over which practitioners, policy makers and patients have discretion. PMID:22851987

  5. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  6. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  7. Thermoluminescence of Antarctic meteorites: A rapid screening technique for terrestrial age estimation, pairing studies and identification of specimens with unusual prefall histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is a promising technique for rapid screening of the large numbers of Antarctic meteorites, permitting identification of interesting specimens that can then be studied in detail by other, more definite techniques. Specifically, TL permits determination of rough terrestrial age, identification of potential paired groups and location of specimens with unusual pre-fall histories. Meteorites with long terrestrial ages are particularly valuable for studying transport and weathering mechanisms. Pairing studies are possible because TL variations among meteorites are large compared to variations within individual objects, especially for natural TL. Available TL data for several L3 fragments, three of which were paired by other techniques, are presented as an example of the use of TL parameters in pairing studies. Additional TL measurements, specifically a blind test, are recommended to satisfactorily establish the reliability of this pairing property. The TL measurements also identify fragments with unusual pre-fall histories, such an near-Sun orbits.

  8. Combining history of medicine and library instruction: an innovative approach to teaching database searching to medical students.

    PubMed

    Timm, Donna F; Jones, Dee; Woodson, Deidra; Cyrus, John W

    2012-01-01

    Library faculty members at the Health Sciences Library at the LSU Health Shreveport campus offer a database searching class for third-year medical students during their surgery rotation. For a number of years, students completed "ten-minute clinical challenges," but the instructors decided to replace the clinical challenges with innovative exercises using The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus to emphasize concepts learned. The Surgical Papyrus is an online resource that is part of the National Library of Medicine's "Turning the Pages" digital initiative. In addition, vintage surgical instruments and historic books are displayed in the classroom to enhance the learning experience. PMID:22853300

  9. Pregnancy history and current use of contraception among women of reproductive age in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda: analysis of demographic and health survey data

    PubMed Central

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Matanda, Dennis J; Ayiko, Rogers; Rujumba, Joseph; Muiruri, Charles; Amendah, Djesika; Atela, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pregnancy history and the use of contraception among women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in East Africa. Methods Demographic and Health Surveys data from Burundi (2010), Kenya (2008–2009), Rwanda (2010), Tanzania (2010) and Uganda (2011) were used in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine the effects of women's pregnancy history on their use of contraception. Setting Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Participants 3226, 2377, 4396, 3250 and 2596 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda, respectively, were included in the analysis. Results Women who had experienced a mistimed pregnancy were more likely to use a modern contraceptive method during their most recent sexual encounter in Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. Other significant correlates of women's contraceptive use were: desire for more children, parity, household wealth, maternal education and access information through radio. In-country regional differences on use of modern contraceptive methods were noted across five East African countries. Conclusions Women's birth histories were significantly associated with their decision to adopt a modern contraceptive method. This highlights the importance of considering women's birth histories, especially women with mistimed births, in the promotion of contraceptive use in East Africa. Variations as a result of place of residency, educational attainment, access to family planning information and products, and wealth ought to be addressed in efforts to increase use of modern contraceptive methods in the East African region. PMID:26966059

  10. Age-related geriatric medicine: relevance of special skills of geriatric medicine to elderly people admitted to hospital as medical emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Kafetz, K; O'Farrell, J; Parry, A; Wijesuriya, V; McElligott, G; Rossiter, B; Lugon, M

    1995-01-01

    This study was carried out to find out how many patients aged 75 and over admitted to hospital as medical emergencies had features appropriate to care by physicians in geriatric medicine and to examine the extent of use of specialist facilities by these patients. The purpose was to examine criticisms of age-related admission policies which have focused on misplacement of patients with single diagnoses and lack of access to specialist care. An analysis was made of admission, process and discharge characteristics relevant to the special skills of geriatric medicine, multiple pathology and use of specialist services by 554 patients aged 75 and over. These were collected prospectively, consecutively admitted as medical emergencies via the accident and emergency department of a large district general hospital with an age-related (75 and over) medical admissions policy. 84 patients (15%) had single pathology and no characteristics suggesting the need for specialist geriatric care. 177 (32%) had single pathology and one or more specialized characteristics. 66 (12%) had multiple pathology alone. 227 (41%) had multiple pathology and specialized characteristics. There were 142 specialist referrals in 121 patients (22% of the whole sample). We concluded that the special skills of general physicians specializing in the medical and associated community problems of elderly people are highly relevant to patients aged 75 and over presenting as medical emergencies. There was no evidence of lack of involvement of specialists in their care. PMID:8544147

  11. Offspring Provisioning Explains Clone-Specific Maternal Age Effects on Life History and Life Span in the Water Flea, Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Plaistow, Stewart J; Shirley, Christopher; Collin, Helene; Cornell, Stephen J; Harney, Ewan D

    2015-09-01

    Genetic inheritance underpins evolutionary theories of aging, but the role that nongenetic inheritance plays is unclear. Parental age reduces the life span of offspring in a diverse array of taxa but has not been explained from an evolutionary perspective. We quantified the effect that maternal age had on the growth and maturation decisions, life history, rates of senescence, and life span of offspring from three Daphnia pulex clones collected from different populations. We then used those data to test general hypotheses proposed to explain maternal age effects on offspring life span. Three generations of breeding from young or old mothers produced dramatic differences in the life histories of fourth-generation offspring, including significant reductions in life span. The magnitude of the effect differed between clones, which suggests that genetic and nongenetic factors ultimately underpin trait inheritance and shape patterns of aging. Older parents did not transmit a senescent state to their offspring. Instead, offspring from older ancestors had increased early-life reproductive effort, which resulted in an earlier onset of reproductive senescence, and an increased rate of actuarial senescence, which shortened their life span. Our results provide a clear example of the need to consider multiple inheritance mechanisms when studying trait evolution. PMID:26655355

  12. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura triggered by medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Mbonile, Lumuli

    2016-04-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are elevated. APD symptoms usually start 3 - 10 days before menstruation and resolve 1 - 2 days after menstruation ceases. A 30-year-old woman presented with urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura lesions of the legs, forearms, neck and buttocks 1 week prior to her menses starting and 2 months after a medical abortion. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and topical steroids were prescribed. Her skin conditions did not improve and were associated with her menstrual cycle. We performed an intradermal test using progesterone, which was positive. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms were resolved. This is a typical case of APD triggered by increased sensitivity to endogenous progesterone induced a few months after medical abortion. PMID:27032848

  13. Influence of age and concurrent medication on steady-state valproic acid serum level-dose ratios in Japanese paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, E; Suzuki, A; Higuchi, S; Aoyama, T

    1991-08-01

    The effects of age and co-medication on steady-state valproic acid (VPA) level/dose (L/D) ratios were evaluated retrospectively in 382 paediatric patients. The VPA L/D ratio increased significantly with age up to 15 years of age in patients on monotherapy (L/D = 0.149 x AGE + 2.708, n = 192, r = 0.549, P less than 0.001). In patients taking three or more anti-epileptic drugs, including VPA, there was no such effect. Associated anti-epileptic therapy affected the VPA L/D ratio, which was significantly reduced in patients on polytherapy as compared to patients on monotherapy. Therefore, routine monitoring of VPA serum levels would be extremely useful, especially in the paediatric age group, and in patients who require associated anti-epileptic medication. PMID:1939408

  14. Evolving European guidance on the medical management of neovascular age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, U; Soubrane, G; Bandello, F; Chong, V; Creuzot‐Garcher, C; Dimitrakos, S A; Korobelnik, J‐F; Larsen, M; Monés, J; Pauleikhoff, D; Pournaras, C J; Staurenghi, G; Virgili, G; Wolf, S

    2006-01-01

    Background Until recently, only two options were available for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) associated with age related macular degeneration (AMD)—thermal laser photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT‐V). However, new treatments for CNV are in development, and data from phase III clinical trials of some of these pharmacological interventions are now available. In light of these new data, expert guidance is required to enable retina specialists with expertise in the management of AMD to select and use the most appropriate therapies for the treatment of neovascular AMD. Methods Consensus from a round table of European retina specialists was obtained based on best available scientific data. Data rated at evidence levels 1 and 2 were evaluated for laser photocoagulation, PDT‐V, pegaptanib sodium, and ranibizumab. Other treatments discussed are anecortave acetate, triamcinolone acetonide, bevacizumab, rostaporfin (SnET2), squalamine, and transpupillary thermotherapy. Results PDT‐V is currently recommended for subfoveal lesions with predominantly classic CNV, or with occult with no classic CNV with evidence of recent disease progression and a lesion size ⩽4 Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS) disc areas (DA). The new classes of anti‐angiogenic agents—namely, pegaptanib sodium and ranibizumab (the latter when peer reviewed phase III data become available) are recommended for subfoveal lesions with any proportion of classic CNV or occult with no classic CNV. For juxtafoveal classic CNV, PDT‐V or anti‐angiogenic therapy should be considered if the new vessels are so close to the fovea that laser photocoagulation would almost certainly extend under the centre of the foveal avascular zone. For all other well demarcated juxtafoveal lesions and for extrafoveal classic lesions, laser photocoagulation remains the standard treatment. Therapy should be undertaken within 1 week of the fluorescein angiogram on which

  15. Effect of Hot-Attribute Aged Ginger Tea on Chinese Medical Pulse Condition of Healthy Young Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dan-Ping; Tyan, Chu-Chang; Chen, Jian-Jung; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Young individuals typically have a dry-heat (燥熱 zào rè) constitution and feel overly stimulated. This study observes specialties on the right-bar (右關 yòu guān) section of the radial-arterial pulse of healthy young subjects, and investigates pulse variations induced by different attribute foods. Chinese medical doctors grouped thirty subjects into heat and non-heat constitutions. Each subject took water, aged ginger tea, and coconut water, well recognized as neutral, hot, and cold drinks, on different visits. The current study observed physiological signals induced by the samples using novel noninvasive sphygmography and a blood pressure monitor. As the baseline bigger percussion wave, dicrotic wave, and area in the sphygmogram of the non-heat constitution subjects, this work suggests that blood vessels of these subjects may be more relaxed than that of the heat constitution ones. Stroke volume increased and pulse pressure decreased in the non-heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea, which may elevate arterial compliance corresponding to maintaining an estimated radial-arterial diameter in our study. However, the percussion wave widened and the valley increased in the heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea. This corresponds to the markedly reduced radial-arterial diameter, indicating tighter blood vessels than the baseline status. Accordingly, this study confirms that selecting foods with attributes opposite to personal constitutions is important for reestablishing a healthy cold-heat balance within the human body. Moreover, novel noninvasive sphygmography may be a useful instrument to classify scientifically the heat personal constitution and the responses to different attribute foods. PMID:24716108

  16. Vasodilators and Blood Pressure Lowering Medications and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of vasodilator and antihypertensive medication use to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design A longitudinal population-based study. Participants Persons 43–86 years of age living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin in 1988–1990. Methods Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period. There were 9676 total person-visits over the course of the study. Status of AMD was determined from grading retinal photographs. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of AMD. Results The 5-year incidence of early AMD over the 20-year period was 8.4%, for late AMD it was 1.4%, for pure geographic atrophy (GA) it was 0.6%, for exudative AMD it was 0.9%, and for progression of AMD it was 24.9%. While adjusting for age, sex, and other factors, using a vasodilator (hazard ratio [HR]=1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25 – 2.38), particularly oral nitroglycerin (1.81, 1.14 – 2.90) was associated with an increased risk of early AMD. Using an oral beta blocker was associated with an increased hazard of incident exudative AMD (1.71, 1.04 – 2.82) but not pure GA (0.51, 0.20 – 1.29) or progression (0.92, 0.67 – 1.28) of AMD over the 20-year period. Conclusions Use of vasodilators is associated with a 72% increase in the hazard of incidence of early AMD and use of oral beta blockers is associated with a 71% increase in the hazard of incident exudative AMD. If these findings are replicated it may have implications for care of older adults as vasodilators and oral beta blockers are commonly used drugs by older persons. PMID:24793737

  17. Effect of hot-attribute aged ginger tea on chinese medical pulse condition of healthy young humans.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dan-Ping; Tyan, Chu-Chang; Chen, Jian-Jung; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2011-10-01

    Young individuals typically have a dry-heat ( zào rè) constitution and feel overly stimulated. This study observes specialties on the right-bar ( yòu guān) section of the radial-arterial pulse of healthy young subjects, and investigates pulse variations induced by different attribute foods. Chinese medical doctors grouped thirty subjects into heat and non-heat constitutions. Each subject took water, aged ginger tea, and coconut water, well recognized as neutral, hot, and cold drinks, on different visits. The current study observed physiological signals induced by the samples using novel noninvasive sphygmography and a blood pressure monitor. As the baseline bigger percussion wave, dicrotic wave, and area in the sphygmogram of the non-heat constitution subjects, this work suggests that blood vessels of these subjects may be more relaxed than that of the heat constitution ones. Stroke volume increased and pulse pressure decreased in the non-heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea, which may elevate arterial compliance corresponding to maintaining an estimated radial-arterial diameter in our study. However, the percussion wave widened and the valley increased in the heat constitution subjects after taking aged ginger tea. This corresponds to the markedly reduced radial-arterial diameter, indicating tighter blood vessels than the baseline status. Accordingly, this study confirms that selecting foods with attributes opposite to personal constitutions is important for reestablishing a healthy cold-heat balance within the human body. Moreover, novel noninvasive sphygmography may be a useful instrument to classify scientifically the heat personal constitution and the responses to different attribute foods. PMID:24716108

  18. Age and geomorphic history of Meteor Crater, Arizona, from cosmogenic 36Cl and 14C in rock varnish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, F.M.; Zreda, M.G.; Smith, S.S.; Elmore, D.; Kubik, P.W.; Dorn, R.I.; Roddy, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Using cosmogenic 36Cl buildup and rock varnish radiocarbon, we have measured the exposure age of rock surfaces at Meteor Crater, Arizona. Our 36Cl measurements on four dolomite boulders ejected from the crater by the impact yield a mean age of 49.7 ?? 0.85 ka, which is in excellent agreement with an average age of 49 ?? 3 ka obtained from thermoluminescence studies on shock-metamorphosed dolomite and quartz. These ages are supported by undetectably low 14C in the oldest rock varnish sample. ?? 1991.

  19. Association between shift work history and performance on the trail making test in middle-aged and elderly humans: the EpiHealth study.

    PubMed

    Titova, Olga E; Lindberg, Eva; Elmståhl, Sölve; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Shift work has been proposed to promote cognitive disturbances in humans; however, conflicting evidence is also present. By using data from 7143 middle-aged and elderly humans (45-75 years) who participated in the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study, the present analysis sought to investigate whether self-reported shift work history would be associated with performance on the trail making test (TMT). The TMT has been proposed to be a useful neuropsychological tool to evaluate humans' executive cognitive function, which is known to decrease with age. After adjustment for potential confounders (e.g., age, education, and sleep duration), it was observed that current and recent former shift workers (worked shifts during the past 5 years) performed worse on the TMT than nonshift workers. In contrast, performance on the TMT did not differ between past shift workers (off from shift work for more than 5 years) and nonshift workers. Collectively, our results indicate that shift work history is linked to poorer performance on the TMT in a cohort of middle-aged and elderly humans. PMID:27459922

  20. Inservice Training for Related Service Personnel Serving Medically Fragile Children Ages 0-8. The Medically Fragile Inservice for Related Services Teams Project (M-FIRST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald M.; And Others

    The Medically Fragile Inservice for Related Services Teams (M-FIRST) project developed, evaluated, and disseminated model inservice practices centering on the provision of competency-based training to school and community personnel working with young medically fragile children in school settings. The M-FIRST goals focused on developing an…

  1. New insights into the star formation histories of candidate intermediate-age early-type galaxies from K'-band imaging of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the age and metallicity distributions of bright globular clusters (GCs) in the candidate intermediate-age early-type galaxies NGC 3610, 584 and 3377 using a combination of new Gemini's Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer K'-band imaging and existing optical VI photometry from Hubble Space Telescope data. The V-I versus I-K' colour-colour diagram is found to break the age-metallicity degeneracy present in optical colours and spectroscopy, as I-K' primarily measures a population's metallicity. In addition, it is relatively insensitive to the effect of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars that are known to be present in massive old GCs. By interpolation between simple stellar population model tracks, we derive photometric cluster ages, metallicities and masses. In general, we find that 'metal-poor' GCs with [Z/H] ≲-0.7 dex are older than more metal rich GCs. For the most massive GCs (?) in NGC 3610 with available spectroscopic data, the photometric ages are older by ˜2 Gyr, and this difference is more pronounced for the metal-poor GCs. However, the photometric and spectroscopic metallicities are in good agreement. We suggest that this indicates the presence of a hot HB in these massive clusters, which renders spectroscopic ages from Balmer line strengths to be underestimated. To support this suggestion, we show that all Galactic GCs with ? feature hot HBs, except 47 Tuc. Using a recent observational relation between the luminosity of the most massive GC and the galaxies' star formation rate (SFR) at a given age, we find that the galaxies' peak SFR was attained at the epoch of the formation of the oldest (metal-poor) GCs. The age and [Z/H] distributions of the metal-rich GCs are broad, indicating prolonged galaxy star formation histories. The peak ages of the metal-rich GCs in the sample galaxies NGC 3610, 584 and 3377 are 3.7, 5.9 and 8.9 Gyr, respectively. The peak value of the age and metallicity distributions of the GCs is correlated with the host

  2. Cocaine Use among the College Age Group: Historical Perspective--The Long and Colorful History of Erythoxylon Coca.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The use of cocaine has become a significant part of the recreational drug scene among college students. A historical overview of cocaine is presented that begins with the history of the coca plant and includes discussion of how prominent physicians experimented with the drug on themselves and their patients. (Author/DF)

  3. [On the history of the German Democratic Republic Journal Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology (1949-1990)].

    PubMed

    Teitge, M; Kumbier, E

    2015-05-01

    Scientific journals were established in the Soviet occupied zone following WWII in order to distinguish themselves from the other occupying powers. Starting in 1949 a journal with the title "Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology" was founded as no publishing house existed in the field of psychiatry and neurology and it became necessary to establish a new journal that was competitive. The journal was primarily distributed in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1990 but the interest internationally was very limited. State affairs had a great influence from the very beginning so that the political involvement was reflected in the selection of staff, such as the publishers and the head of the editorial department and by the close interconnection between the Society for Psychiatry and Neurology of the GDR and the editorship of the journal. The publishers who were primarily responsible and the authors were at the interface of politics and science. Nevertheless, in an international comparison many parallels can be found in the orientation with respect to the content. PMID:25432785

  4. The emergence of medical professions of [re]habilitation and childhood: a history intertwined with theoretical tensions.

    PubMed

    Pava-Ripoll, Nora Aneth; Granada-Echeverry, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    This article is the product of a review of historical-critical literature that analyzes the global historical events during the 20th century that made the emergence and consolidation of the medical rehabilitation professions possible and an examination of the ways in which these professions approach childhood. The analysis of and reflections upon the reviewed documents are outlined below according to three theoretical tensions: 1) the child of today and the adult of tomorrow, 2) the meaning of habilitation-rehabilitation, and 3) the positioning of the subject in society. To account for the breadth of these topics, the text is divided into two sections: the first covers the first half of the 20th century, the period between the wars and the emergence of [re]habilitation, and the second covers the second half of the 20th century through the present, a period of political organization and technological advances. In the contemporary era, these views of [re]habilitation are confronted by the overwhelming reality of historical conceptions of childhood. The realities that children face today are diverse and complex; therefore, it is necessary to rethink the normalizing view of childhood that was instituted in the 20th century. PMID:26960095

  5. Uplift and cooling history of the NW Himalaya, northern Pakistan - evidence from fission-track and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar cooling ages

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitler, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    This study reports 145 fission-track and 21 /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar cooling ages from the Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Studies of the Himalaya are important because they provide geologists with an opportunity to test models of orogenesis in an active tectonic setting. As the Himalaya become better known and models become more quantitative, information about thermal histories and rates of uplift and erosion will be needed. The cooling ages suggest, and thermal modelling confirms, that throughout the Tertiary, the cooling history of northern Pakistan was controlled by the effects of accelerating uplift and erosion. On average, from 30 Ma to the present, uplift rates increased from less than 0.1 mm/yr to 0.4 mm/yr. This uplift and erosion, however, has been variable in space as well as time. The association of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif and Hunza with very young cooling ages and with rapid uplift maintained for a period of several million years is the most striking discovery made by this study. The location of these two areas at the heart of the Pamir-Himalaya Arc suggests that their anomalous behavior is linked in some way to a locally vigorous collision of India and Eurasia, possibly due to a promontory of Indian crust. Several of the cooling ages reported help constrain the emplacement ages of intrusives located in northern Pakistan. In addition, cooling ages from the southern Swat-Hazara region can be interpreted to give the time of final southward thrusting of the Kohistan Arc along the Main Mantle Thrust, at about 30 Ma.

  6. Using transprofessional care in the emergency department to reduce patient admissions: A retrospective audit of medical histories.

    PubMed

    Morphet, Julia; Griffiths, Debra Lee; Crawford, Kimberley; Williams, Allison; Jones, Tamsin; Berry, Belinda; Innes, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    The demand for emergency department (ED) services has increased significantly, due to our increasingly ageing population and limited access to primary care. This article reports outcomes from a transprofessional model of care in an ED in Victoria, Australia. Nurses, physiotherapists, social workers, and occupational therapists undertook additional education to increase the range of services they could provide and thereby expedite patient flow through the ED. One hundred patients who received this service were matched against 50 patients who did not. The most common reasons for patient admission were limb injury/limb pain (n = 47, 23.5%) and falls (n = 46, 23.0%). Transprofessional interventions included applying supportive bandages, slings, zimmer splints and controlled ankle motion (CAM) boots, and referral to new services such as case management and mental health teams. The rate of hospital admissions was significantly lower in the transprofessional group (n = 27, 18.0%) than in the reference group (n = 19, 38%, p = 0.005). This group also had a slightly lower re-presentation rate (n = 4, 2.7%) than patients in the reference group (n = 2, 4.0%). There are many benefits that support this model of care that in turn reduces ED overcrowding and work stress. A transprofessional model may offer a creative solution to meeting the varied needs of patients presenting for emergency care. PMID:26954260

  7. Ar-40/Ar-39 age of the Shergotty achondrite and implications for its post-shock thermal history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Husain, L.

    1979-01-01

    Ar-40/Ar-39 measurements are used to determine the age of the Shergotty achondrite and the chronology of the shock event responsible for the complete conversion of its plagioclase to maskelynite is discussed. Apparent ages are found to vary between 240 and 640 million years for the whole rock sample, with a plateau age of 254 million years for a maskelynite separate. The Rb-Sr age of 165 million years determined by Nyquist at al (1978) suggests that the maskelynite as well as the whole rock was incompletely degassed. Argon diffusion characteristics indicate a post-shock cooling time greater than 1000 years and a burial depth greater than 300 m for a thermal model of a cooling ejecta blanket of variable thickness. It is concluded that the shock event which degassed the argon and reset the Rb-Sr systematics occurred between 165 and 250 million years ago when the parent body experienced a collision in the asteroid belt.

  8. Assessment of association of D3 dopamine receptor MscI polymorphism with schizophrenia: Analysis of symptom ratings, family history, age at onset, and movement disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, E.J.; Mollon, J.D.; McKenna, P.J.

    1996-09-20

    Several studies have reported an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity for the MscI restriction site in exon 1 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene, but other studies have failed to find this association. Recent reports have suggested that the association is most salient in male patients with a family history of schizophrenia. We examined this restriction site in a group of schizophrenic patients (n = 84) and in normal controls (n = 77). Patients were subdivided according to demographic and clinical features, particular attention being paid to movement disorders. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution was seen between the two groups. No association was seen between homozygosity and a positive family history, age at onset of illness, clinical subtype, negative symptom score, or movement disorder scores. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Compositions, ages, and diagenetic histories of the carbonate, sulfide, oxide, and phosphatic concretions at Gay Head, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Commeau, R.F.; O'Leary, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    The calcite/ankerite concretions were formed in a hot, seasonally arid, caliche-prone environment of early Raritan age; the pyrite, marcasite, and siderite concretions precipitated in sediments deposited in low-energy, marshy, estuarine environments of late Raritan age. The phosphate concretions formed in a middle to inner shelf environment. The goethite and lepidocrocite concretions are secondary oxidation or alteration products of the prexistent Cretaceous concretions that were excavated during the Pleistocene and incorporated into the glacial drift. -from Authors

  10. Non-Medical Use of Prescription Stimulants: A Comparison of College Students and their Same-Age Peers Who Do Not Attend College.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jason A; Pomykacz, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Data show that the prevalence of non-medical use of prescription stimulants is higher among college students than their same-age peers who do not attend college. Because of this, most of the research in this area focuses on data from samples of college students and on use motivated by academic demands. There is little research that examines whether attending college increases the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants while including important covariates in the analytical models. The current research addresses this gap in the literature using data from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health for respondents aged 18 to 25 years old. We estimate a multivariate logistic regression model to determine whether college attendance increased the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants. The analysis showed that young adults who enrolled in college full-time were more likely to report non-medical use of prescription stimulants than their same-age peers who did not attend college. There was no significant difference between part-time college students and non-college students. Future research should focus on how specific aspects of the college environment, other than academic stress, may increase the risk of non-medical use of prescription stimulants. PMID:27541987

  11. Financing Medically-Oriented Child Protection Teams in the Age of Managed Health Care: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, Angelo P.; Montoya, Louise A.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The direct and indirect costs to society from child maltreatment are estimated to be quite high. The costs related to medical care are of interest to professionals serving on medically-oriented child protection teams that conduct medical evaluations of alleged abuse. This study was designed to explore a number of financially related…

  12. Childhood Predictors of Use and Costs of Antidepressant Medication by Age 24 Years: Findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24…

  13. Lifetime History of Major Depression Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldbacher, Edie M.; Bromberger, Joyce; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine the association of major depression with incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women. Methods Data were drawn from one of seven sites of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants were 429 (34.5% African-American) women. Major depression and comorbid diagnoses were assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Axis I Disorders at baseline and seven annual follow-up evaluations. The metabolic syndrome was measured at baseline and each follow-up evaluation (except the second) based on National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Results Longitudinal generalized estimating equations (GEE) models indicated that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline was significantly associated with the onset and presence of the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (odds ratio = 1.82; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06–3.14). Survival analyses showed that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline predicted increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.99–3.75). Lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence predicted incident metabolic syndrome and attenuated the association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in both models. Conclusions This study documents that major depression is a significant predictor of the onset of the metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies targeting depression may prevent the development of the metabolic syndrome in women. PMID:19188528

  14. Formation age and geomorphologic history of the Lonar impact crater deduced from in- situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Goto, K.; Komatsu, G.; Kumar, P.; Matsuzaki, H.; Matsui, T.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is a dominant surface modification process on planetary surfaces. In the inner solar system, the large majority of impacts occur on bodies covered by primitive igneous rocks. However, most of the impacts remaining on Earth surface are on different rock types than that of the inner planet and hence geologic knowledge derived from Earth's surface cannot be translated readily. The Lonar crater is a 1.88-km-diameter crater located on the Deccan basaltic traps in India (ca. 65 Ma), and is one of a few craters on Earth bombarded directly on basaltic lava flows. Thus, the Lonar crater provides a rare opportunity to study impact structures on the basaltic surfaces of other terrestrial planets and the Moon. Since the ages of terrestrial impact structures is a key to understand geomorphological processes after the impact, various dating methods have been applied to the Lonar Crater such as fission track (Storzer and Koeberl, 2004), radiocarbon (Maloof, 2010), thermoluminescence (Sengupta et al., 1997), and 40Ar/39Ar (Jourdan et al., 2011). Yet, a large discrepancy between these methods ranging from ca. 1.79 to 570 ka has been resulted. Here we report surface exposure ages based on in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in order to obtain a precise age of the Lonar crater formation as well as to study the geomorphologic evolution. The samples are collected from the topographic highs on the rim of the crater and from the ejecta blanket. Exposure ages together with newly obtained radiocarbon age of pre-impact soil indicate much younger ages than that of obtained from 40Ar/39Ar method. This suggests the potential bias because of inherited 40Ar in impact glass. Systematically young exposure age from the rim samples compared to the samples from the ejecta blanket indicate that the rim of the Lonar crater is being actively eroded. Spatial distributions of geomorphic ages observed from the Lonar creator is not the same as the pattern reported from the well

  15. Association between childhood obesity and use of regular medications in the UK: longitudinal cohort study of children aged 5–11 years

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing rates of childhood obesity have been suggested as a possible cause for the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions among adults and children. Few studies have examined whether obese children are more likely to use medications than normal weight children. We investigate this association in the UK. Design A panel study with repeated observations at ages 5, 7 and 11. Setting A general population sample drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study, a UK-based birth cohort. Participants A sample of 9667 children. Primary and secondary outcome measures Our primary outcomes were crude and adjusted probabilities of taking any regular medications and the number of medications among overweight and obese children compared with normal weight children. Our secondary outcome was the distribution of medication use by therapeutic classification across body mass index (BMI) groups. Results Obese children were more likely to use any medication (marginal effect (ME)=0.02, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.03) and to use more medications (ME=0.08, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12) than normal weight children. Obese children used more medications for respiratory conditions than those of other BMI groups. Conclusions Obese children are more likely to use regular medications and have comorbid conditions, even at young ages. This suggests that the cost of prescriptions should be considered when evaluating the economic burden of childhood obesity and that preventative strategies to reduce childhood obesity could be cost-effective in the short as well as in the long term. While more research is needed, both clinicians and policymakers should be aware of these findings when planning prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:26033945

  16. Age and thermal history of the Geysers plutonic complex (felsite unit), Geysers geothermal field, California: A 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M.; Harrison, T.M.; Hulen, J.B.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-nine ion microprobe spot analyses of zircons from four granite samples from the plutonic complex that underlies the Geysers geothermal field yield 207Pb/206Pb vs. 238U/206Pb concordia ages ranging from 1.13 ?? 0.04 Ma to 1.25 ?? 0.04 (1??) Ma. The weighted mean of the U/Pb model ages is 1.18 ?? 0.03 Ma. The U-Pb ages coincide closely with 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum plateau and 'terminal' ages from coexisting K-feldspars and with the eruption ages of overlying volcanic rocks. The data indicate that the granite crystallized at 1.18 Ma and had cooled below 350??C by ~0.9-1.0 Ma. Interpretation of the feldspar 40Ar/39Ar age data using multi-diffusion domain theory indicates that post-emplacement rapid cooling was succeeded either by slower cooling from 350??to 300??C between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma or transitory reheating to 300-350??C at about 0.4-0.6 Ma. Subsequent rapid cooling to below 260??C between 0.4 and 0.2 Ma is in agreement with previous proposals that vapor-dominated conditions were initiated within the hydrothermal system at this time. Heat flow calculations constrained with K-feldspar thermal histories and the present elevated regional heat flow anomaly demonstrate that appreciable heat input from sources external to the known Geysers plutonic complex is required to maintain the geothermal system. This requirement is satisfied by either a large, underlying, convecting magma chamber (now solidified) emplaced at 1.2 Ma or episodic intrusion of smaller bodies from 1.2 to 0.6 Ma.

  17. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  18. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  19. Decoupled crystallization and eruption histories of the rhyolite magmatic system at Tarawera volcano revealed by zircon ages and growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Sonja; Shane, Phil; Schmitt, Axel K.; Lindsay, Jan M.

    2012-03-01

    We obtained U-Th disequilibrium age data on zircons from each of the four rhyolite eruptions that built Tarawera volcano in the last 22 ka within the Okataina Volcanic Center (OVC), caldera, New Zealand. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses on unpolished euhedral crystal faces that lack resorption features show that crystal growth variously terminated from near-eruption age to ~100 ka prior to eruption. Age-depth profiling of crystals reveals long periods of continuous (~34 ka) and discontinuous growth (~90 ka). Growth hiatuses of up to ~40 ka duration occur, but do not all relate to obvious resorption surfaces. Age differences up to similar magnitude are found on opposing faces of some crystals suggesting episodes of partial exposure to melts. These features are best explained by periodic, complete, or partial, sub-solidus storage and/or inclusion in larger crystal phases, followed by rapid liberation prior to eruption. This is supported by high abundances of U and Th (~500 - >2,000 ppm) in some zircons consistent with periods of high crystallinity (>70%) in the magmatic system, based on crystal/melt partitioning. Contemporaneous but contrasting rim-ward trends of these elements within crystals, even in the same lava hand sample, require synchronous growth in separate melt bodies and little connectivity within the system, but also significant crystal transport and mixing prior to eruption. Many crystals record continuity of growth through the preceding ~60 ka OVC caldera-collapse and subsequent eruptions from Tarawera. This demonstrates a decoupling between eruption triggers, such as shallow crustal extension and mafic intrusion, and the crystallization state of the OVC silicic magmatic system. The data highlights the need to distinguish between the time for accumulation of eruptible magma and the long-term magma residence time based on the age of crystals with high closure temperatures, when assessing the potential for catastrophic eruptions.

  20. Self-medication behaviors among Japanese consumers: sex, age, and SES differences and caregivers’ attitudes toward their children’s health management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2009, when the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act was enacted in Japan, self-medication practices have increased. Because the concept of self-medication was recently introduced in Japan, few studies exist on this topic. Therefore, it is necessary to explore how self-medication is practiced. This study examined Japanese consumers’ self-medication practices and attitudes toward over-the-counter (OTC) medicines based on their sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods The participants were 403 adults (Mage = 41.1 years, SD = 16.22). A quota sampling method was employed based on age group, and participants completed an online questionnaire. Results Participants in the 20–29 age group reported medical costs as an obstacle in seeing a doctor; in contrast, transportation was a mitigating factor for elderly people. Regarding SES, people at lower SES levels chose to rest instead of seeing a doctor or purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) medicines when sick. They also placed more value on national brand OTC medicines than private brands (likely due to advertisements). This finding suggests individuals with a low SES do not select OTC medicines based on their effects or ingredients. Regarding attitudes toward OTC medicines, Japanese participants seemed to be unaware of the potential for abuse and side effects associated with OTC medicines. Finally, in relation to caregivers’ self-medication practices for their children, the majority of participants reported taking their children to the hospital since children tend to receive free medical care. Furthermore, caregivers with a high educational background are more confident in being able to help manage their children’s health. Conclusions Our results suggest that health and medical discrepancies among Japanese consumers pose new social problems. In Japan, universal health care is available, but the cost of receiving medical care is not completely free of charge. Thus, we hope that the

  1. TNF-alpha and IL-8: serum levels and gene polymorphisms (-308G>A and -251A>T) are associated with classical biomarkers and medical history in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Cajado, C; Cerqueira, B A V; Couto, F D; Moura-Neto, J P; Vilas-Boas, W; Dorea, M J; Lyra, I M; Barbosa, C G; Reis, M G; Goncalves, M S

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a disorder characterized by a heterogeneous clinical outcome. In the present study, we investigated the associations between Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) -308G>A and Interleukin 8 (IL-8) -251A>T gene polymorphisms, medical history and classical biomarkers in children with steady-state SCA. In total, 210 SCA patients aged 2-21 years and 200 healthy controls were studied. Gene polymorphisms, betaS-globin haplotypes and a 3.7-kb deletion in alpha2-thalassemia (α2-thal3.7 kb) were investigated by PCR/RFLP analysis, and cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. Splenomegaly (p=.032) was more prevalent among children younger than 5 years of age. The A allele of the TNF-alpha -308G>A gene polymorphism and the presence of α2-thal3.7 kb were associated with an increase risk of splenic sequestration events (p=.001; p=.046), while the T allele of the IL-8 -251A>T gene polymorphism was considered to be a protective factor for splenomegaly events (p=.032). Moreover, the A allele of the TNF-alpha -308G>A gene polymorphism was associated with high TNF-alpha levels (p=.021), and the hemoglobin F and hemoglobin S haplotypes were correlated with serum levels of IL-8. The logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 gene polymorphisms, beta(S)-globin gene haplotypes and α2-thal3.7 kb on the occurrence of splenic sequestration events. Our study emphasizes that the identification of new genetic and immunological biomarkers and their associations with classical markers is an important strategy to elucidate the underlying causes of different SCA phenotypes and their effects on patient outcome. PMID:21802960

  2. Evidence for differences in the thermal histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic H chondrites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul; Batchelor, J. David

    1991-01-01

    Antarctic H chondrites show a different range of induced thermoluminescence properties compared with those of H chondrites that have fallen elsewhere in the world. Recent noble gas data of Schultz et al. (1991) show that this difference is displayed most dramatically by meteorites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma, and they confirm that the differences cannot be attributed to weathering or to the presence of a great many fragments of an unusual Antarctic meteorite. Annealing experiments on an H5 chondrite, and other measurements on a variety of ordinary chondrites, have shown that induced TL properties are sensitive to the thermal histories of the meteorities. It is concluded that the events(s) that released the less than 20 Ma samples, which are predominantly those with exposure ages of 8 + or - 2 Ma, produced two groups with different thermal histories, one that came to earth several 100,000 years ago and that are currently only found in Antarctica, and one that is currently falling on the earth.

  3. Age-at-death diagnosis and determination of life-history parameters by incremental lines in human dental cementum as an identification aid.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, P; Grupe, G

    2001-04-15

    Incremental lines in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum of 91 roots from 80 freshly extracted teeth have been investigated for a verification of the suitability of pathological teeth for a valid age-at-death diagnosis. Independent from tooth type, the accuracy of histological age-at-death diagnosis is clearly a function of a tooth's pathological state. Various periodontal diseases lead to a reduced number of incremental lines, while teeth with a sufficient nutritional support of their root showed a deviation of the histological age from the known actual age of 2-3 years only. For all patients, a detailed query concerning a variety of life-history parameters was established. We are able to show that especially previous pregnancies, skeletal traumata and renal diseases which all have a marked influence on the calcium metabolism result in hypomineralized incremental lines. The year of production of these hypomineralized lines could be dated precisely. Differential quality of incremental lines can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool in identification cases. PMID:11343858

  4. Prolonged volcanic history for the Curaçao Lava Formation inferred from new 40Ar-39Ar ages and trace phase geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewen, M. W.; Duncan, R. A.; Krawl, K.; Kent, A. J.; Sinton, C. W.; Lackey, J.

    2011-12-01

    Popular models have suggested that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) formed from the initial plume head of the Galapagos hotspot. A key exposure of CLIP lavas is the Curaçao Lava Formation (CLF), a 5 km section of lavas and sills on the island of Curaçao. The CLF contains a broad compositional range of submarine lavas from picrite pillows at the base of the identified section to plagioclase-clinopyroxene tholeiitic lavas, hyaloclastites, and poikilitic sills at the top. Despite the regional significance of the CLF to the tectonic interpretation of the CLIP, only whole rock geochemistry and a few 40Ar-39Ar ages exist for Curaçao. These ages suggest formation of the lavas around 89 Ma and the poikilitic sills around 75 Ma. However, Mid-Albian (~110 Ma) fossil ammonites from a single locality of intercalated sediments suggest a considerably older formation for the CLF. This older age of formation has been used to justify alternate formation models for the CLIP to a Galapagos plume initiation. Here we present new 40Ar-39Ar ages for the lavas and sills of the CLF that indicate a younger and more extended volcanic history than previously recognized. We have identified lava sequences from several localities on the island that erupted 62-66 Ma as well as lavas and sills that fall within previously recognized age ranges. The youngest ages are obtained on samples directly adjacent to the Mid-Albian ammonite locality. These results suggest that large portions of the CLF (1) significantly postdate initiation of the CLIP, and (2) may not be compatible with an origin related to the initiation of the Galapagos hotspot. It is important to note, however, that the previous 89 Ma ages from Curaçao lavas are closer to ages from CLIP lavas on Haiti that reach 90-94 Ma and are spatially located near the picrites on Curaçao. These diverse ages also require significant reinterpretation of the CLF as a complex association of lavas potentially spanning 30 million years

  5. Community-Based Family Health History Education: The Role of State Health Agencies in Engaging Medically Underserved Populations in Understanding Genomics and Risk of Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Shields, Michael; Lee, Rachael; Nicoll, Lauren; Falzon, Danielle; Wiecek, Elyssa

    2015-01-01

    Although family health history (FHH) collection has been recognized as an influential method for assessing a person’s risk of chronic disease, studies have shown that people who are low-income, from racial and ethnic minorities, and poorly educated are less likely to collect their FHH or share it with a medical professional. Programs to raise public awareness about the importance of FHH have conventionally targeted patients in primary care clinics or in the general community, but few efforts have been made to coordinate educational efforts across settings. This paper describes a project by the Connecticut Department of Public Health’s Genomics Office to disseminate training materials about FHH as broadly as possible, by engaging partners in multiple settings: a local health department, a community health center, and two advocacy organizations that serve minority and immigrant populations. We used a mixed methods program evaluation to examine the efficacy of the FHH program and to assess barriers in integrating it into the groups’ regular programming. Our findings highlight how a state health department can promote FHH education among underserved communities. PMID:27417809

  6. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages of Caddo County and Thermal History of IAB Iron Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Inclusions in IAB iron meteorites include non-chondritic silicate and those with more primitive chondritic silicate composition. Coarse-grained gabbroic material rich in plagioclase and diopside occurs in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite and represents a new type of chemically differentiated, extra-terrestrial, andesitic silicate. Other parts of Caddo contain mostly andesitic material. Caddo thus exhibits petrologic characteristics of parent body metamorphism of a chondrite-like parent and inhomogeneous segregation of melts. Proposed IAB formation models include parent body partial melting and fractional crystallization or incomplete differentiation due to internal heat sources, and impact/induced melting and mixing. Benedix et al. prefer a hybrid model whereby the IAB parent body largely melted, then underwent collisional breakup, partial mixing of phases, and reassembly. Most reported 129I- Xe-129 ages of IABs are greater than 4.56 Gyr and a few are greater than or = 4.567 Gyr. These oldest ages exceed the 4.567 Gyr Pb-Pb age of Ca, Al-rich inclusions in primitive meteorites,

  7. Accounting for age Structure in Ponderosa Pine Ecosystem Analyses: Integrating Management, Disturbance Histories and Observations with the BIOME-BGC Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Law, B.; Thornton, P.

    2003-12-01

    Disturbance and management regimes in forested ecosystems have been recently highlighted as important factors contributing to quantification of carbon stocks and fluxes. Disturbance events, such as stand-replacing fires and current management regimes that emphasize understory and tree thinning are primary suspects influencing ecosystem processes, including net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in forests of the Pacific Northwest. Several recent analyses have compared simulated to measured component stocks and fluxes of carbon in Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa var. Laws) at 12 sites ranging from 9 to 300 years in central Oregon (Law et al. 2001, Law et al. 2003) using the BIOME-BGC model. Major emphases on ecosystem model developments include improving allocation logic, integrating ecosystem processes with disturbance such as fire and including nitrogen in biogeochemical cycling. In Law et al. (2001, 2003), field observations prompted BIOME-BGC improvements including dynamic allocation of carbon to fine root mass through the life of a stand. A sequence of simulations was also designed to represent both management and disturbance histories for each site, however, current age structure of each sites wasn't addressed. Age structure, or cohort management has largely been ignored by ecosystem models, however, some studies have sought to incorporate stand age with disturbance and management (e.g. Hibbard et al. 2003). In this analyses, we regressed tree ages against height (R2 = 0.67) to develop a proportional distribution of age structure for each site. To preserve the integrity of the comparison between Law et al. (2003) and this study, we maintained the same timing of harvest, however, based on the distribution of age structures, we manipulated the amount of removal. Harvest by Law et al. (2003) was set at stand-replacement (99%) levels to simulate clear-cutting and reflecting the average top 10% of the age in each plot. For the young sites, we set removal at 73%, 51% and

  8. Micrometer-scale U-Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, M. D.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Bottke, W. F.; Abramov, O.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231-247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U-207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7-40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U-Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta's crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25-44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s-1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U-Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta's crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U-207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U-Pb ages of small zircons and phosphates in

  9. Micrometer-scale U–Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, M.D.; Mojzsis, S.J.; Bottke, W.F.; Abramov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231–247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U–207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7–40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U–Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta’s crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25–44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s−1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U–Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta’s crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U–207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U–Pb ages of small

  10. 42 CFR 435.330 - Medically needy coverage of the aged, blind, and disabled in States using more restrictive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disabled in States using more restrictive eligibility requirements for Medicaid than those used under SSI... eligibility requirements for Medicaid than those used under SSI. (a) If an agency provides Medicaid as... than used under SSI and elects to cover the medically needy, it may provide Medicaid as medically...

  11. Colonization history and clonal richness of asexual Daphnia in periglacial habitats of contrasting age in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Haileselasie, Tsegazeabe H; Mergeay, Joachim; Weider, Lawrence J; Jeppesen, Erik; De Meester, Luc

    2016-07-01

    Due to climate change, Arctic ice sheets are retreating. This leads to the formation of numerous new periglacial ponds and lakes, which are being colonized by planktonic organisms such as the water flea Daphnia. This system provides unique opportunities to test genotype colonization dynamics and the genetic assemblage of populations. Here, we studied clonal richness of the Daphnia pulex species complex in novel periglacial habitats created by glacial retreat in the Jakobshavn Isbrae area of western Greenland. Along a 10 km transect, we surveyed 73 periglacial habitats out of which 61 were colonized by Daphnia pulex. Hence, for our analysis, we used 21 ponds and 40 lakes in two clusters of habitats differing in age (estimated <50 years vs. >150 years). We tested the expectation that genetic diversity would be low in recently formed (i.e. young), small habitats, but would increase with increasing age and size. We identified a total of 42 genetically distinct clones belonging to two obligately asexual species of the D. pulex species complex: D. middendorffiana and the much more abundant D. pulicaria. While regional clonal richness was high, most clones were rare: 16 clones were restricted to a single habitat and the five most widespread clones accounted for 68% of all individuals sampled. On average, 3·2 clones (range: 1-12) coexisted in a given pond or lake. There was no relationship between clonal richness and habitat size when we controlled for habitat age. Whereas clonal richness was statistically higher in the cluster of older habitats when compared with the cluster of younger ponds and lakes, most young habitats were colonized by multiple genotypes. Our data suggest that newly formed (periglacial) ponds and lakes are colonized within decades by multiple genotypes via multiple colonization events, even in the smallest of our study systems (4 m(2) ). PMID:27279332

  12. Cigarette Smoking and the Natural History of Age-related Macular Degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Gangnon, Ronald; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Klein, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of current cigarette smoking and pack-years smoked to the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to examine the interactions of current smoking and pack-years smoked with Complement Factor H (CFH, rs1061170) and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (ARMS2, rs10490924) genotype. Design A longitudinal population-based study of AMD in a representative American community. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period. Participants 4439 participants in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods AMD status was determined from grading retinal photographs. Multi-state models were used to model the relationship of current smoking and pack-years smoked and interactions with CFH and ARMS2 to the incidence and progression of AMD over the entire age range. Main Outcome Measures Incidence and progression of AMD over a 20-year period and interactions between current smoking and pack-years smoked with CFH and ARMS2 genotype. Results The incidence of early AMD over the 20-year period was 24.4% and the incidence of late AMD was 4.5%. Current smoking was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from minimal to moderate early AMD. A greater number of pack-years smoked was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no AMD to minimal early AMD and from severe early AMD to late AMD. Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked were associated with an increased risk of death. There were no statistically significant multiplicative interactions between current smoking or pack-years smoked and CFH or ARMS2 genotype. Conclusions Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked increase the risk of the progression of AMD. This has important health care implications because smoking is a modifiable behavior. PMID:24953792

  13. Formation Ages of the Apollo 16 Regolith Breccias: Implications for Accessing the Bombardment History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, K. H.; Kring, D. A.; Bogard, D. D.; Zolensky, M. E.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    Regolith breccias are lithified samples of the regolith that have been fused together by impact shock and thermal metamorphism. In lunar regolith samples, the ratio of trapped 40Ar/36Ar is a useful indicator of antiquity and can be used to model the closure age/lifithication event of the regolith (i.e. the apparent time when Ar became trapped [1]), thus providing an important insight into specific times when that regolith was interacting with the the dynamic inner solar system space environment [2-4].

  14. Observations on the history of Dutch physical stature from the late-Middle Ages to the present.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Hans

    2004-03-01

    In the late-Middle Ages and at the onset of the early modern period, the Dutch population was taller than in the first half of the 19th century. This inference is partially based on skeletal evidence, mainly collected by the Dutch physical anthropologist George Maat and his co-workers. A spectacular increase in Dutch heights began in the second half of the 19th century and accelerated in the second half of the 20th century. At the end of the 20th century, the Dutch became tallest in the world. PMID:15463992

  15. WINGS-SPE II: A catalog of stellar ages and star formation histories, stellar masses and dust extinction values for local clusters galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Cava, A.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Moretti, A.; Bettoni, D.; Bressan, A.; Couch, W. J.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dressler, A.; Fasano, G.; Kjærgaard, P.; Moles, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.

    2011-02-01

    Context. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy clusters Survey (wings) is a project whose primary goal is to study the galaxy populations in clusters in the local universe (z < 0.07) and of the influence of environment on their stellar populations. This survey has provided the astronomical community with a high quality set of photometric and spectroscopic data for 77 and 48 nearby galaxy clusters, respectively. Aims: In this paper we present the catalog containing the properties of galaxies observed by the wings SPEctroscopic (wings-spe) survey, which were derived using stellar populations synthesis modelling approach. We also check the consistency of our results with other data in the literature. Methods: Using a spectrophotometric model that reproduces the main features of observed spectra by summing the theoretical spectra of simple stellar populations of different ages, we derive the stellar masses, star formation histories, average age and dust attenuation of galaxies in our sample. Results: ~ 5300 spectra were analyzed with spectrophotometric techniques, and this allowed us to derive the star formation history, stellar masses and ages, and extinction for the wings spectroscopic sample that we present in this paper. Conclusions: The comparison with the total mass values of the same galaxies derived by other authors based on sdss data, confirms the reliability of the adopted methods and data. Based on observations taken at the Anglo Australian Telescope (3.9 m- AAT), and at the William Herschel Telescope (4.2 m- WHT).Full Table 2 is available in electronic form both at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/526/A45, and by querying the wings database at http://web.oapd.inaf.it/wings/new/index.html

  16. School-Aged Functioning of Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before Age Three: Parent-Reported Diagnostic, Adaptive, Medication, and School Placement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towle, Patricia O.; Vacanti-Shova, Karyn; Shah, Shristi; Higgins-D'alessandro, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Eighty children with early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses (under 36 months) were identified using a chart abstraction protocol applied to early intervention charts. Parents filled out questionnaires by mail when the children were school-aged (ages 6-16 years). Similar to previous studies, approximately 20 % no longer had ASD diagnoses;…

  17. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlup, M.; Steck, A.; Carter, A.; Cosca, M.; Epard, J.-L.; Hunziker, J.

    2011-01-01

    New fission track and Ar/Ar geochronological data provide time constraints on the exhumation history of the Himalayan nappes in the Mandi (Beas valley) - Tso Morari transect of the NW Indian Himalaya. Results from this and previous studies suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappes were emplaced by detachment from the underthrusted upper Indian crust by 55. Ma and metamorphosed by ca. 48-40. Ma. The nappe stack was subsequently exhumed to shallow upper crustal depths (<10. km) by 40-30. Ma in the Tso Morari dome (northern section of the transect) and by 30-20. Ma close to frontal thrusts in the Baralacha La region. From the Oligocene to the present, exhumation continued slowly.Metamorphism started in the High Himalayan nappe prior to the Late Oligocene. High temperatures and anatexis of the subducting upper Indian crust engendered the buoyancy-driven ductile detachment and extrusion of the High Himalayan nappe in the zone of continental collision. Late extrusion of the High Himalayan nappe started about 26. Ma ago, accompanied by ductile extensional shearing in the Zanskar shear zone in its roof between 22 and 19. Ma concomitant with thrusting along the basal Main Central Thrust to the south. The northern part of the nappe was then rapidly exhumed to shallow depth (<10. km) between 20 and 6. Ma, while its southern front reached this depth at 10-5. Ma. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Why the history of nephrology?

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    Nephrology is a relatively new discipline that emerged at a time when the writing of the history of medicine was changing drastically. While the merits of medical history were valued since antiquity, it was only in the 18th century that the actual historiography of medicine began. It was nurtured, matured and appreciated enough that by the late 19th and early 20th centuries, medical history was incorporated into the medical curriculum and presented at national meetings. Unfortunately, the merits of medical history and its inclusion in medical education have come under increasing scrutiny over the past few decades. Ironically, the erosion began at about the same time that scholarly work on the history of medicine was flourishing whilst that of scientific discovery and innovation in medicine was accelerating. The demands of rigorous research into the history of medicine gradually led to the emergence of medical history as an independent discipline within academic departments of history. Simultaneously, the exponential growth of new information generated by medical research led to an overflow of medical knowledge in which the inclusion of medical history was contested and dismissed. That is just about the time that nephrology emerged in the 1960s. Whereas initially the quest for origins led renal journals to publish historical articles, the more recent quest to increase impact factors has led to the exclusion of historical articles from consideration for publication. This manuscript examines the reasons that brought about the separation of nephrology from its history and proposes potential solutions to their rapprochement. PMID:26913750

  19. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy. PMID:7847480

  20. Pre-Grenvillian history of the Adirondacks as an anorogenic, bimodal caldera complex of mid-Proterozoic age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLelland, James M.

    1986-03-01

    The Adirondack highlands are characterized by the coexistence of a distinctive trinity of metaigneous rocks indicative of anorogenic or mild rift-related magmatism: (1) anorthosites and anorthositic gabbros; (2) mangerites, charnockites, and hornblende granites; and (3) alaskitic gneisses. This association, which is referred to as the AMCAL suite, is characterized by high FeO/(FeO + MgO) ratios, chemical trends that range from mildly alkaline to subalkaline and peraluminous, and high concentrations of halogens and rare-earth elements (REE) together with anhydrous assemblages. Outcrop patterns show that the least silicic members of the AMCAL suite tend to occur at structurally low positions, such as anticlinal cores, whereas more silicic members occupy structurally higher positions, such as the flanks of anticlines. It is inferred that this configuration is inherited from relatively high-level, zoned, and bimodal magma chambers cored by mafic rocks successively enveloped by mangeritic, chamockitic, and granitic magmas. Alaskitic gneisses are believed to represent metamorphosed rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and their subvolcanic equivalents. Geochronologic data suggest an emplacement age of about 1300 Ma for the AMCAL suite and support the inference that prior to the Grenville orogeny, the Adirondacks evolved as part of the belt of mid-Proterozoic, anorogenic and rift-related magmatism that traverses North America and extends into northern Europe.

  1. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  2. Zircon U-Pb And Biotite 40Ar/39Ar Ages Of Kohistan Lower Crustal Tonalite And Their Implications For The History Of Continental Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Williams, I. S.; Hyodo, H.; Miyazaki, K.; Sano, S.; Kausar, A. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Kohistan block in northern Pakistan exposes a crustal cross section through an ancient oceanic island arc, comprising garnet pyroxenite, garnet granulite, banded amphibolite, norite gabbro, metasediment and metavolcanics. The Dasu Tonalite intrudes the lower crustal Kamila Amphibolite. The tonalite is foliated and folded concordantly with the host amphibolite, indicating syn-tectonic intrusion, and contains abundant magmatic epidotes, indicating high-P crystallization. The Dasu Tonalite is extremely poor in K2O (0.6-0.9 wt.% for SiO2 64-70%) and has a low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7037-0.7038, similar to the associated lower crustal amphibolite and granulite), consistent with juvenile granitic magma free of contamination by recycled upper crust. The Dasu Tonalite gave SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of 97.6+/-1.0 Ma and 98.0+/-1.1 Ma on two samples, and biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages of 69.7+/-0.7 Ma and 69.7+/-0.9 Ma. The euhedral shape and lack of overgrowth or resorption features in CL images of the zircons suggest a simple magmatic history starting at ca. 98 Ma with no evidence for a later major thermal event. The large discrepancy between the U-Pb and Ar-Ar ages might record the deep crustal residence time of the Dasu Tonalite. The tonalite magma was probably generated and crystallized at ca. 98 Ma, then remained in the lower crust at a temperature of about 700C (which is given by geothermometry of the intercalating Kamila amphibolite), cooling down to ca.300C at 69.7Ma. 69.7Ma is a cooling age during the process of exhumation of the Kohistan arc caused by the Indian collision.

  3. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  4. Core history from paleomagnetic data: Potential changes in stratification but no evidence for a Mesoproterozoic inner core age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Aleksey; Tarduno, John; Kulakov, Evgeniy; McEnroe, Suzanne; Bono, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Data on the long-term evolution of Earth's magnetic field intensity are crucial for understanding the mechanisms of the geodynamo and planetary evolution. However, the paleointensity record in rocks may be adversely affected by a plethora of physical processes which must be taken into account when analyzing the paleointensity database. Recently, a statistical analysis of the Precambrian paleointensity database was used to claim that the solid inner core formed in the Mesoproterozoic, and that this onset time constrains the thermal conductivity in the core to "moderate" values. Here, we demonstrate that the data selection criteria used in this analysis failed to filter out data that significantly overestimate the true paleofield strength due to the presence of non-ideal carriers of paleointensity signals and/or viscous re-magnetizations. Moreover, the use of site-mean data led to an additional statistical bias by giving equal weight to time-averaged and non-time-averaged data. When the paleointensity overestimates are removed, and the study-mean data are used instead of site-mean data, the Precambrian database does not indicate a robust change in geomagnetic field intensity during the Mesoproterozoic. Our analyses indicate that the presently available paleointensity data of Mesoproterozoic age are insufficient in number and quality to constrain the timing of solid inner core formation, or the outstanding problem of core thermal conductivity. More promising available data sets that reflect long-term core structure are geomagnetic reversal rate and field morphology. The latter suggests changes that may reflect differences in Archean to Proterozoic core stratification, whereas the former suggest an interval of geodynamo hyperactivity at ca 550 Ma.

  5. Processing of audiovisually congruent and incongruent speech in school-age children with a history of specific language impairment: a behavioral and event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Macias, Danielle; Gustafson, Dana

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that at least some aspects of audiovisual speech perception are impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, whether audiovisual processing difficulties are also present in older children with a history of this disorder is unknown. By combining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we examined perception of both audiovisually congruent and audiovisually incongruent speech in school-age children with a history of SLI (H-SLI), their typically developing (TD) peers, and adults. In the first experiment, all participants watched videos of a talker articulating syllables 'ba', 'da', and 'ga' under three conditions - audiovisual (AV), auditory only (A), and visual only (V). The amplitude of the N1 (but not of the P2) event-related component elicited in the AV condition was significantly reduced compared to the N1 amplitude measured from the sum of the A and V conditions in all groups of participants. Because N1 attenuation to AV speech is thought to index the degree to which facial movements predict the onset of the auditory signal, our findings suggest that this aspect of audiovisual speech perception is mature by mid-childhood and is normal in the H-SLI children. In the second experiment, participants watched videos of audivisually incongruent syllables created to elicit the so-called McGurk illusion (with an auditory 'pa' dubbed onto a visual articulation of 'ka', and the expectant perception being that of 'ta' if audiovisual integration took place). As a group, H-SLI children were significantly more likely than either TD children or adults to hear the McGurk syllable as 'pa' (in agreement with its auditory component) than as 'ka' (in agreement with its visual component), suggesting that susceptibility to the McGurk illusion is reduced in at least some children with a history of SLI. Taken together, the results of the two experiments argue against global audiovisual integration impairment in children with a

  6. [The medical history as a historical source. As an example, the story of a war comrade of the "English patient", Count László Ede Almásy (1895-1951) is presented].

    PubMed

    Sachs, M

    2008-01-17

    The medical history is an important prerequisite for making a diagnosis and for establishing a trust- based doctor-patient relationship. Sometimes they can also serve as a historical source, as this example of an 89-year old patient shows. The patient worked with the Hungarian Count László Ede Almásy (1895-1951) during a German military secret service operation in North Africa during the Second World War. Graf Almásy became internationally famous through the novel "The English Patient" by Michael Ondaatje or rather, through the film of the same name. In the film however, the historical facts were very distorted as the medical history of our patient shows. PMID:18402237

  7. The Economic and Epidemiological Impact of Focusing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention on Specific Age Groups and Regions in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10–34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20–34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10–24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15–34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. Conclusions The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania’s current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10–34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups

  8. How You Can Help Medical Research: Donating Your Blood, Tissue, and Other Samples

    MedlinePlus

    ... racial or ethnic group – Your age – Your family history – Your medical history “I donated my samples because I wanted to ... people in your life the following questions: • Is donation right for me? • Do ... No. 12-7933 Printed August 2012 NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health

  9. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Fernando; Curtius, Adilson J.; Buzalaf, Marilia R.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2006-09-15

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L, with a mean of 76 {mu}g/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L in men (mean, 98.3 {mu}g/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/L (mean, 62.8 {mu}g/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.66 {mu}g/L) and 0.02-1.5 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.42 {mu}g/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P<0.001 Spearman's correlation). The two quantities are related by the line y=0.0006x {sup 1492} (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x {sup 0.702}) and women (y=0.0534x {sup 0.5209}) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity.

  10. Age and zircon inheritance of eastern Blue Ridge plutons, southwestern North Carolina and northeastern Georgia, with implications for magma history and evolution of the southern Appalachian origin

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.F.; Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Ayers, J.C.; Coath, C.D.; Harrison, T.M.

    2000-02-01

    High-resolution ion microprobe analysis of zircon has provided ages for previously undated plutons of the high-grade eastern Blue Ridge of northeastern Georgia and southwestern North Carolina. These data, together with backscattered electron imaging, reveal the presence of nearly ubiquitous inherited cores of highly variable age and magmatic rims that have experienced variable Pb loss, thus making interpretation of conventional U-Pb analyses very difficult. Ion probe rim analyses indicate that the plutons were emplaced during both the mod-Ordovician and mid-Devonian. Zircons from all intrusions have predominantly 1.0 to 1.25 Ga cores (Grenvillian). In addition, both Devonian and Ordovician plutons have smaller populations of Late Proterozoic-early Paleozoic (0.5--0.75 Ga), Middle Proterozoic (1.4 Ga), and Late Archean (2.6--2.9 Ga) cores. The ubiquitous, round cores and thick magmatic rims suggest significant resorption and then protracted growth within the melts. Zircon saturation temperatures based on whole-rock ({approximately}melt) Zr concentrations are lower than expected for magma generation (710--760 C). Zirconium concentrations may not reflect saturation at maximum temperature, if melting was very rapid (<{approximately}10{sup 5} yrs), or if zircon cores represent grains that were shielded from melt inside host grains for much of the magmatic history. Ages of magmatic and inherited zones of zircon from the plutons demonstrate that similar crust underlay the eastern Blue Ridge during both Taconian and Acadian orogenies, that there was no single episode of voluminous magmatism, and that metamorphism and deformation began before 470 Ma and continued after 370 Ma. These plutons do not constitute a significant convergence-related arc, though it is possible that they represent a displaced part of an arc that lies primarily to the east (in the Inner Piedmont?).

  11. Teachers' Drug Reference: A Guide to Medical Conditions and Drugs Commonly Used in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agins, Alan P.

    This book provides a guide to approximately 175 drugs used with children. An introduction precedes the three major sections of the guide. Section 1 provides an overview of pharmacology and therapeutics in chapters on the basics of pharmacology, the language of pharmacology and therapeutics, compliance, side effects, and medications in school.…

  12. Parent & Educators' Drug Reference: A Guide to Common Medical Conditions & Drugs Used in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agins, Alan P.

    This book provides a guide to more than 180 drugs used for children. An introduction precedes the four major sections of the guide. Section 1 provides an overview of pharmacology and therapeutics in chapters on the basics of pharmacology, the language of pharmacology and therapeutics, compliance, side effects, medications in school, and drug…

  13. A REVISED AGE FOR UPPER SCORPIUS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AMONG THE F-TYPE MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Bubar, Eric J.

    2012-02-20

    We present an analysis of the ages and star formation history of the F-type stars in the Upper Scorpius (US), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL), and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC) subgroups of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB association. Our parent sample is the kinematically selected Hipparcos sample of de Zeeuw et al., restricted to the 138 F-type members. We have obtained classification-resolution optical spectra and have also determined the spectroscopic accretion disk fraction. With Hipparcos and 2MASS photometry, we estimate the reddening and extinction for each star and place the candidate members on a theoretical H-R diagram. For each subgroup we construct empirical isochrones and compare to published evolutionary tracks. We find that (1) our empirical isochrones are consistent with the previously published age-rank of the Sco-Cen subgroups; (2) subgroups LCC and UCL appear to reach the main-sequence turn-on at spectral types {approx}F4 and {approx}F2, respectively. An analysis of the A-type stars shows US reaching the main sequence at about spectral type {approx}A3. (3) The median ages for the pre-main-sequence members of UCL and LCC are 16 Myr and 17 Myr, respectively, in agreement with previous studies, however we find that (4) Upper Sco is much older than previously thought. The luminosities of the F-type stars in US are typically a factor of {approx}2.5 less luminous than predicted for a 5 Myr old population for four sets of evolutionary tracks. We re-examine the evolutionary state and isochronal ages for the B-, A-, and G-type Upper Sco members, as well as the evolved M supergiant Antares, and estimate a revised mean age for Upper Sco of 11 {+-} 1 {+-} 2 Myr (statistical, systematic). Using radial velocities and Hipparcos parallaxes we calculate a lower limit on the kinematic expansion age for Upper Sco of >10.5 Myr (99% confidence). However, the data are statistically consistent with no expansion. We reevaluate the inferred masses for the known

  14. Changes in chemistry and biochemistry education: creative responses to medical college admissions test revisions in the age of the genome.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two million students matriculate into American colleges and universities per year. Almost 20% of these students begin taking a series of courses specified by advisers of health preprofessionals. The single most important influence on health profession advisers and on course selection for this huge population of learners is the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), which was last revised in 1991, 10 years before publication of the first draft human genome sequence. In preparation for the 2015 MCAT, there is a broad discussion among stakeholders of how best to revise undergraduate and medical education in the molecular sciences to prepare researchers and doctors to acquire, analyze and use individual genomic and metabolomic data in the coming decades. Getting these changes right is among the most important educational problems of our era. PMID:23281187

  15. Flood history of the Bavarian Alpine Foreland since the late Middle Ages in the context of internal and external climate forcing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, O.; Jacobeit, J.; Glaser, R.; Wetzel, K.-F.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the flood history of the Bavarian part of the Alpine Foreland of Germany and addresses different questions concerning climate variability and flood frequencies from the 13th century until today. Will recent climatic change modify the flood frequencies within the Bavarian Alpine Foreland or are the flood frequencies varying due to altering climatic conditions since historical times? In the context of recent discussions whether man-made climate change will modify the present state of flood frequencies, a look back into the past is essential to understand the occurrence of floods in general and of recent floods in particular. In order to understand climatic variability and changes in a comprehensive way, it is necessary to review long time series. A perceived increase of summer floods in eastern Germany and Bavaria since 1997 requires examination of long time series to estimate changes in flood frequencies in a proper way. In view of the annual distribution of flood events within the Alpine Foreland of Germany, summer floods prove to be most important. Based on written historical sources, the flood history of the Alpine Foreland of Germany can be reconstructed back to the 14th century. One major result is the occurrence of "flood-rich" and "flood-poor" episodes in nearly cyclical sequences. Flood-rich periods were recorded in the periods 1300-1335, 1370-1450, 1470-1525, 1555-1590, 1615-1665, 1730-1780, 1820-1870, and 1910-1955 as well as in a 9th period beginning in 1980. The flood-rich periods are characterized by longer flood durations. Most of the flood-rich and flood-poor periods (in particular the beginning and the end of them) can be connected to changes in natural climate variability. These include changing sunspot numbers (as a measure of solar activity), so-called Little Ice Age Type Events (LIATEs) as well as changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Climate signals from external forcing factors, which could be used to explain the

  16. Eruptive and tectonic history of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, based on AUV mapping data and lava flow ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, David. A.; Dreyer, Brian M.; Paduan, Jennifer B.; Martin, Julie F.; Caress, David W.; Gill, James B.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Thomas, Hans; Portner, Ryan A.; Delaney, John R.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; McGann, Mary L.

    2014-08-01

    bathymetric surveys from autonomous underwater vehicles ABE and D. Allan B. were merged to create a coregistered map of 71.7 km2 of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera in cores from three dives of remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts provide minimum eruption ages for 40 lava flows that are combined with the bathymetric data to outline the eruptive and tectonic history. The ages range from Modern to 10,700 marine-calibrated years before present (yr BP). During a robust magmatic phase from >10,700 yr BP to ˜4300 yr BP, flows erupted from an axial high and many flowed >5 km down the flanks; some partly buried adjacent valleys. Axial magma chambers (AMCs) may have been wider than today to supply dike intrusions over a 2 km wide axial zone. Summit Seamount formed by ˜4770 yr BP and was subsequently dismembered during a period of extension with little volcanism starting ˜4300 yr BP. This tectonic phase with only rare volcanic eruptions lasted until ˜2300 yr BP and may have resulted in near-solidification of the AMCs. The axial graben formed by crustal extension during this period of low magmatic activity. Infrequent eruptions occurred on the flanks between 2620-1760 yr BP and within the axial graben since ˜1750 yr BP. This most recent phase of limited volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity that began ˜2300 yr BP defines a hydrothermal phase of ridge development that coincides with the present-day 1 km wide AMCs and overlying hydrothermal vent fields.

  17. The ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history) stroke risk score: a biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Ziad; Lindbäck, Johan; Alexander, John H.; Hanna, Michael; Held, Claes; Hylek, Elaine M.; Lopes, Renato D.; Oldgren, Jonas; Siegbahn, Agneta; Stewart, Ralph A.H.; White, Harvey D.; Granger, Christopher B.; Wallentin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, which is currently estimated by clinical characteristics. The cardiac biomarkers N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin high-sensitivity (cTn-hs) are independently associated with risk of stroke in AF. Our objective was to develop and validate a new biomarker-based risk score to improve prognostication of stroke in patients with AF. Methods and results A new risk score was developed and internally validated in 14 701 patients with AF and biomarkers levels determined at baseline, median follow-up of 1.9 years. Biomarkers and clinical variables significantly contributing to predicting stroke or systemic embolism were assessed by Cox-regression and each variable obtained a weight proportional to the model coefficients. External validation was performed in 1400 patients with AF, median follow-up of 3.4 years. The most important predictors were prior stroke/transient ischaemic attack, NT-proBNP, cTn-hs, and age, which were included in the ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history) stroke risk score. The ABC-stroke score was well calibrated and yielded higher c-indices than the widely used CHA2DS2-VASc score in both the derivation cohort (0.68 vs. 0.62, P < 0.001) and the external validation cohort (0.66 vs. 0.58, P < 0.001). Moreover, the ABC-stroke score consistently provided higher c-indices in several important subgroups. Conclusion A novel biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in AF was successfully developed and internally validated in a large cohort of patients with AF and further externally validated in an independent AF cohort. The ABC-stroke score performed better than the presently used clinically based risk score and may provide improved decision support in AF. ClinicalTrials. gov identifier NCT00412984, NCT00799903. PMID:26920728

  18. Eruptive and tectonic history of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, based on AUV mapping data and lava flow ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, David A.; Dreyer, Brian M; Paduan, Jennifer B; Martin, Julie F; Caress, David W; Gillespie, James B.; Kelley, Deborah S; Thomas, Hans; Portner, Ryan A; Delaney, John R; Guilderson, Thomas P.; McGann, Mary L.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution bathymetric surveys from autonomous underwater vehicles ABE and D. Allan B. were merged to create a coregistered map of 71.7 km2 of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Radiocarbon dating of foraminifera in cores from three dives of remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts provide minimum eruption ages for 40 lava flows that are combined with the bathymetric data to outline the eruptive and tectonic history. The ages range from Modern to 10,700 marine-calibrated years before present (yr BP). During a robust magmatic phase from >10,700 yr BP to ~4300 yr BP, flows erupted from an axial high and many flowed >5 km down the flanks; some partly buried adjacent valleys. Axial magma chambers (AMCs) may have been wider than today to supply dike intrusions over a 2 km wide axial zone. Summit Seamount formed by ~4770 yr BP and was subsequently dismembered during a period of extension with little volcanism starting ~4300 yr BP. This tectonic phase with only rare volcanic eruptions lasted until ~2300 yr BP and may have resulted in near-solidification of the AMCs. The axial graben formed by crustal extension during this period of low magmatic activity. Infrequent eruptions occurred on the flanks between 2620–1760 yr BP and within the axial graben since ~1750 yr BP. This most recent phase of limited volcanic and intense hydrothermal activity that began ~2300 yr BP defines a hydrothermal phase of ridge development that coincides with the present-day 1 km wide AMCs and overlying hydrothermal vent fields.

  19. Molecularly defined adult-type hypolactasia in school-aged children with a previous history of cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Rasinperä, Heli; Saarinen, Kristiina; Pelkonen, Anna; Järvelä, Irma; Savilahti, Erkki; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of lactase non-persistence/persistence in school-aged children and their milk-related symptoms. METHODS: The genotypes for the C/T-13910 variant associated with lactase non-persistence/ persistence were determined using PCR-minisequencing in a group of 172 children with a mean age of 8.6 years (SE = 0.02, 93 boys) participating in a follow-up study for cow’s milk allergy. The parents were asked to assess their children’s milk consumption and abdominal symptoms. RESULTS: The presence of allergy to cow’s milk was not associated with the C/C-13910 genotype related with a decline of lactase enzyme activity during childhood (lactase non-persistence). The frequency of the C/C-13910 genotype (16%) was similar to published figures for the prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia in Finland. The majority of the children (90%) in this series consumed milk but 26% of their families suspected that their children had milk-related symptoms. Forty-eight percent of the children with the C/C-13910 genotype did not drink milk at all or consumed a low lactose containing diet prior to the genotyping (P < 0.004 when compared to the other genotypes). CONCLUSION: Analysis of the C/T-13910 polymorphism is an easy and reliable method for excluding adult-type hypolactasia in children with milk-related symptoms. Genotyping for this variant can be used to advise diets for children with a previous history of cow’s milk allergy. PMID:16610034

  20. Predictors of Age of Diagnosis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of a Consistent Source of Medical Care, Race, and Condition Severity.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Natacha D; Morrell, Holly E R; Neece, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent source of care (CSC), and the interaction between these variables after controlling for birth cohort, birth order, poverty level, parental education, and health insurance. While African American children were diagnosed earlier than Caucasians, this effect was moderated by ASD severity and CSC. Having a CSC predicted earlier diagnosis for Caucasian but not African American children. Both physician and parent behaviors may contribute to diagnostic delays in minority children. PMID:26280401